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Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

This is an Swadesh list of words in English and Irish.

Contents

Presentation

For further information, read the Wikipedia article: Swadesh list

A Swadesh word list, developed by the linguist Morris Swadesh, is used as a tool to study the evolution of languages. It contains a set of basic words which can be found in every language to varying degreees. Various versions have been created, in particular:

  • a complete 207 words version, in which some of the words are not found in every environment (it contains for instance snake and snow)
  • a reduced 100 words version.

Some versions are more reliable than others in terms of the universality of concurrence between the words' meanings.

This word list should not be considered as an elementary lexicon to communicate with speakers of a given language; for such a purpose, the numerous existing Wikitravel lexicons are more useful. Its only objective is to give a rough idea of the language, by showing its lexical and, when possible, phonetic basis.

List

No. English Irish
gaeilge
1 I
2 you (singular)
3 he
4 we sinn
5 you (plural) sibh
6 they siad
7 this seo
8 that sin, siúd
9 here anseo
10 there ansin, ansiúd
11 who (interrogative)
12 what cad, céard (interrogative)
13 where (no movement, interrogative)
14 when cathain (interrogative)
15 how conas, cén chaoi (interrogative)
16 not
17 all uile
18 many a lán
19 some roinnt
20 few beagán
21 other eile
22 one a haon
23 two a dó
24 three trí
25 four ceathair
26 five cúig
27 big mór
28 long fada
29 wide leathan
30 thick tiubh
31 heavy trom
32 small beag
33 short gearr
34 narrow cúng
35 thin tanaí
36 woman bean
37 man (adult male) fear
38 man (human being) duine
39 child leanbh, páiste
40 wife bean chéile
41 husband fear céile
42 mother máthair
43 father athair
44 animal ainmhí
45 fish iasc
46 bird éan
47 dog madra
48 louse míol cnis
49 snake nathair
50 worm péist
51 tree crann
52 forest coill
53 stick bata
54 fruit toradh
55 seed síol
56 leaf duille
57 root fréamh
58 bark (of a tree) coirt
59 flower bláth
60 grass féar
61 rope téad
62 skin craiceann
63 meat feoil
64 blood fuil
65 bone cnámh
66 fat (noun) blonag
67 egg ubh
68 horn adharc
69 tail eireaball
70 feather cleite
71 hair gruaig
72 head ceann
73 ear cluas
74 eye súil
75 nose srón
76 mouth béal
77 tooth fiacail
78 tongue (organ) teanga
79 fingernail ionga
80 foot cos
81 leg cos
82 knee glúin
83 hand lámh
84 wing sciathán
85 belly bolg
86 guts inní
87 neck muineál
88 back droim
89 breast cíoch
90 heart croí
91 liver ae
92 to drink ól
93 to eat ith
94 to bite bain greim
95 to suck súigh
96 to spit caith seile
97 to vomit aisigh
98 to blow séid
99 to breathe tarraing anáil
100 to laugh déan gáire
101 to see feic
102 to hear cluin, clois
103 to know tá a fhios ag
104 to think smaoinigh
105 to smell bolaigh
106 to fear eagla
107 to sleep codail
108 to live mair
109 to die faigh bás
110 to kill maraigh
111 to fight troid
112 to hunt seilg
113 to hit buail
114 to cut gearr
115 to split scoilt
116 to stab rop
117 to scratch tochais
118 to dig tochail
119 to swim snámh
120 to fly eitil
121 to walk siúil
122 to come tar
123 to lie (as in a bed) luigh (state)
124 to sit suigh (state)
125 to stand seas (state)
126 to turn (intransitive) cas
127 to fall tit
128 to give tabhair
129 to hold coinnigh
130 to squeeze fáisc
131 to rub cuimil
132 to wash nigh
133 to wipe cuimil
134 to pull tarraing
135 to push brúigh
136 to throw caith
137 to tie ceangail
138 to sew fuaigh
139 to count áirigh
140 to say abair
141 to sing can
142 to play imir
143 to float snámh
144 to flow sruthaigh
145 to freeze reoigh
146 to swell at
147 sun grian
148 moon gealach
149 star réalt
150 water uisce
151 rain báisteach
152 river abhainn
153 lake loch
154 sea muir, farraige
155 salt salann
156 stone cloch
157 sand gaineamh
158 dust deannach
159 earth cré
160 cloud scamall, néal
161 fog ceo
162 sky spéir
163 wind gaoth
164 snow sneachta
165 ice oighear
166 smoke deatach
167 fire tine
168 ash luaith
169 to burn dóigh
170 road bóthar
171 mountain sliabh
172 red rua, dearg
173 green glas, uaine
174 yellow buí
175 white bán
176 black dubh
177 night oíche
178 day
179 year bliain
180 warm te
181 cold fuar
182 full lán
183 new nua
184 old sean
185 good maith
186 bad olc, droch
187 rotten lofa
188 dirty salach
189 straight díreach
190 round cruinn
191 sharp (as a knife) géar
192 dull (as a knife) maol
193 smooth mín
194 wet fliuch
195 dry tirim
196 correct ceart
197 near gar, dlúth
198 far i bhfad
199 right deis
200 left clé
201 at ag
202 in i
203 with le
204 and agus
205 if
206 because mar
207 name ainm

Bibliography

  • Les langages de l'humanité (Michel Malherbe), Robert Laffont, Paris 1995 - ISBN 2-221-05947-6

External links

Swadesh lists
Afrikaans – Antillean Creole – Arabic (p) – Armenian (t,p) – Aromanian – Bangala – Bashkir – Basque – Belarusian – Breton – Bulgarian (t) – Catalan – Croatian – Czech – Danish – Dutch – Egyptian Arabic (p) – Estonian – Finnish – French (p) – Friulian – Gan (p) – Georgian (t,p) – German (p) – Greek (p) – Guaraní – Haïtian Creole – Hausa – Hittite – Hungarian – Icelandic – Indonesian – Irish Gaelic – Istro-Romanian  – Italian (p) – Japanese (t) – Kashubian – Latvian – Lingala – Lithuanian – Luwian – Macedonian  (t) – Malagasy – Malay – Maltese – Mandarin Chinese  (t) – Megleno-Romanian  – Old Chinese (p) – Ossetian (p) – Polish (p) – Portuguese  (p) – Proto-Indo-European –Quechua –Romani – Romanian – Russian – Sanskrit (t) – Scottish Gaelic – Serbian – Slovenian – Spanish (p) – Sranan – Swahili – Swedish – Tagalog – Tajik (t) – Tahitian – Tocharian B – Turkish – Vietnamese – Waloon – West Frisian – Zulu
The list may also include : (t) the transcription in latin characters, (p) the phonetic transcription
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