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Apple
Blossoms, fruits, and leaves of the apple tree (Malus domestica)
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta
Class: Magnoliopsida
Order: Rosales
Family: Rosaceae
Subfamily: Maloideae or Spiraeoideae [1]
Tribe: Maleae
Genus: Malus
Species: M. domestica
Binomial name
Malus domestica
Borkh.

The apple is the pomaceous fruit of the apple tree, species Malus domestica in the rose family Rosaceae. It is one of the most widely cultivated tree fruits.

The tree originated in Central Asia, where its wild ancestor is still found today. There are more than 7,500 known cultivars of apples resulting in a range of desired characteristics. Cultivars vary in their yield and the ultimate size of the tree, even when grown on the same rootstock.[2]

At least 55 million tons of apples were grown worldwide in 2005, with a value of about $10 billion. China produced about 35% of this total.[3] The United States is the second leading producer, with more than 7.5% of world production. Iran is third, followed by Turkey, Russia, Italy and India.

Contents

Botanical information

The apple forms a tree that is small and deciduous, reaching 3 to 12 metres (9.8 to 39 ft) tall, with a broad, often densely twiggy crown.[4] The leaves are alternately arranged simple ovals 5 to 12 cm long and 3–6 centimetres (1.2–2.4 in) broad on a 2 to 5 centimetres (0.79 to 2.0 in) petiole with an acute tip, serrated margin and a slightly downy underside. Blossoms are produced in spring simultaneously with the budding of the leaves. The flowers are white with a pink tinge that gradually fades, five petaled, and 2.5 to 3.5 centimetres (0.98 to 1.4 in) in diameter. The fruit matures in autumn, and is typically 5 to 9 centimetres (2.0 to 3.5 in) diameter. The center of the fruit contains five carpels arranged in a five-point star, each carpel containing one to three seeds.[4]

Wild ancestors

The wild ancestors of Malus domestica are Malus sieversii, which is found growing wild in the mountains of Central Asia in southern Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and Xinjiang, China,[5] and possibly also Malus sylvestris.[6]

History

The center of diversity of the genus Malus is in eastern Turkey. The apple tree was perhaps the earliest tree to be cultivated,[7] and its fruits have been improved through selection over thousands of years. Alexander the Great is credited with finding dwarfed apples in Asia Minor in 300 BCE;[4] those he brought back to Macedonia might have been the progenitors of dwarfing root stocks. Winter apples, picked in late autumn and stored just above freezing, have been an important food in Asia and Europe for millennia, as well as in Argentina and in the United States since the arrival of Europeans.[7] Apples were brought to North America with colonists in the 1600s,[4] and the first apple orchard on the North American continent was said to be near Boston in 1625. In the 1900s, irrigation projects in Washington state began and allowed the development of the multi-billion dollar fruit industry, of which the apple is the leading species.[4]

Cultural aspects

Germanic paganism

"Brita as Iduna" (1901) by Carl Larsson

In Norse mythology, the goddess Iðunn is portrayed in the Prose Edda (written in the 13th century by Snorri Sturluson) as providing apples to the gods that give them eternal youthfulness. English scholar H. R. Ellis Davidson links apples to religious practices in Germanic paganism, from which Norse paganism developed. She points out that buckets of apples were found in the Oseberg ship burial site in Norway and that fruit and nuts (Iðunn having been described as being transformed into a nut in Skáldskaparmál) have been found in the early graves of the Germanic peoples in England and elsewhere on the continent of Europe which may have had a symbolic meaning, and that nuts are still a recognized symbol of fertility in Southwest England.[8]

Davidson notes a connection between apples and the Vanir, a tribe of gods associated with fertility in Norse mythology, citing an instance of eleven "golden apples" being given to woo the beautiful Gerðr by Skírnir, who was acting as messenger for the major Vanir god Freyr in stanzas 19 and 20 of Skírnismál. Davidson also notes a further connection between fertility and apples in Norse mythology in chapter 2 of the Völsunga saga when the major goddess Frigg sends King Rerir an apple after he prays to Odin for a child, Frigg's messenger (in the guise of a crow) drops the apple in his lap as he sits atop a mound.[9] Rerir's wife's consumption of the apple results in a six-year pregnancy and the caesarean section birth of their son - the hero Völsung.[10]

Further, Davidson points out the "strange" phrase "Apples of Hel" used in an 11th-century poem by the skald Thorbiorn Brúnarson. She states this may imply that the apple was thought of by the skald as the food of the dead. Further, Davidson notes that the potentially Germanic goddess Nehalennia is sometimes depicted with apples and that parallels exist in early Irish stories. Davidson asserts that while cultivation of the apple in Northern Europe extends back to at least the time of the Roman Empire and came to Europe from the Near East, the native varieties of apple trees growing in Northern Europe are small and bitter. Davidson concludes that in the figure of Iðunn "we must have a dim reflection of an old symbol: that of the guardian goddess of the life-giving fruit of the other world."[8]

Greek mythology

Heracles with the apple of Hesperides

Apples appear in many religious traditions, often as a mystical or forbidden fruit. One of the problems identifying apples in religion, mythology and folktales is that the word "apple" was used as a generic term for all (foreign) fruit, other than berries but including nuts, as late as the 17th century.[11] For instance, in Greek mythology, the Greek hero Heracles, as a part of his Twelve Labours, was required to travel to the Garden of the Hesperides and pick the golden apples off the Tree of Life growing at its center.[12][13][14]

The Greek goddess of discord, Eris, became disgruntled after she was excluded from the wedding of Peleus and Thetis.[15] In retaliation, she tossed a golden apple inscribed Καλλίστη (Kalliste, sometimes transliterated Kallisti, 'For the most beautiful one'), into the wedding party. Three goddesses claimed the apple: Hera, Athena, and Aphrodite. Paris of Troy was appointed to select the recipient. After being bribed by both Hera and Athena, Aphrodite tempted him with the most beautiful woman in the world, Helen of Sparta. He awarded the apple to Aphrodite, thus indirectly causing the Trojan War.

Adam and Eve
Showcasing the apple as a symbol of sin.
Albrecht Dürer, 1507

Atalanta, also of Greek mythology, raced all her suitors in an attempt to avoid marriage. She outran all but Hippomenes (a.k.a. Melanion, a name possibly derived from melon the Greek word for both "apple" and fruit in general),[13] who defeated her by cunning, not speed. Hippomenes knew that he could not win in a fair race, so he used three golden apples (gifts of Aphrodite, the goddess of love) to distract Atalanta. It took all three apples and all of his speed, but Hippomenes was finally successful, winning the race and Atalanta's hand.[12]

Bibliography

Though the forbidden fruit in the Book of Genesis is not identified, popular Christian tradition has held that it was an apple that Eve coaxed Adam to share with her.[16] This may have been the result of Renaissance painters adding elements of Greek mythology into biblical scenes (alternative interpretations also based on Greek mythology occasionally replace the apple with a pomegranate). In this case the unnamed fruit of Eden became an apple under the influence of story of the golden apples in the Garden of Hesperides. As a result, in the story of Adam and Eve, the apple became a symbol for knowledge, immortality, temptation, the fall of man into sin, and sin itself. In Latin, the words for "apple" and for "evil" are similar in the singular (malus—apple, malum—evil) and identical in the plural (mala). This may also have influenced the apple becoming interpreted as the biblical "forbidden fruit". The larynx in the human throat has been called Adam's apple because of a notion that it was caused by the forbidden fruit sticking in the throat of Adam.[16] The apple as symbol of sexual seduction has been used to imply sexuality between men, possibly in an ironic vein.[16] The idea of an apple being the fruit of the Tree of the Knowledge of Good and Evil with English speakers may have been helped by the fact that apple could also be a generic word for fruit in Old English, the word being used in various commentaries on Genesis.[citation needed]

Apple cultivars

Different kinds of apple cultivars in a supermarket
'Sundown' apple cultivar and its cross section

There are more than 7,500 known cultivars of apples.[17] Different cultivars are available for temperate and subtropical climates. One large collection of over 2,100 [18] apple cultivars is housed at the National Fruit Collection in England. Most of these cultivars are bred for eating fresh (dessert apples), though some are cultivated specifically for cooking (cooking apples) or producing cider. Cider apples are typically too tart and astringent to eat fresh, but they give the beverage a rich flavour that dessert apples cannot.[19]

Commercially popular apple cultivars are soft but crisp. Other desired qualities in modern commercial apple breeding are a colourful skin, absence of russeting, ease of shipping, lengthy storage ability, high yields, disease resistance, typical 'Red Delicious' apple shape, long stem (to allow pesticides to penetrate the top of the fruit)[citation needed], and popular flavour.[2] Modern apples are generally sweeter than older cultivars, as popular tastes in apples have varied over time. Most North Americans and Europeans favour sweet, subacid apples, but tart apples have a strong minority following.[20] Extremely sweet apples with barely any acid flavour are popular in Asia[20] and especially India.[19]

Old cultivars are often oddly shaped, russeted, and have a variety of textures and colours. Some find them to have a better flavour than modern cultivators,[21] but may have other problems which make them commercially unviable, such as low yield, liability to disease, or poor tolerance for storage or transport. A few old cultivars are still produced on a large scale, but many have been kept alive by home gardeners and farmers that sell directly to local markets. Many unusual and locally important cultivars with their own unique taste and appearance exist; apple conservation campaigns have sprung up around the world to preserve such local cultivars from extinction. In the United Kingdom old cultivars such as 'Cox's Orange Pippin' and 'Egremont Russet' are still commercially important even though by modern standards they are low yielding and disease prone.[4]

Apple production

Apple breeding

Apple blossom from an old Ayrshire variety

In the wild, apples grow quite readily from seeds. However, like most perennial fruits, apples are ordinarily propagated asexually by grafting. This is because seedling apples are an example of "Extreme heterozygotes", in that rather than inheriting DNA from their parents to create a new apple with those characteristics, they are instead different from their parents, sometimes radically.[22] Triploids have an additional reproductive barrier in that the 3 sets of chromosomes cannot be divided evenly during meiosis yielding unequal segregation of the chromosomes (aneuploids). Even in the very unusual case when a triploid plant can produce a seed (apples are an example), it happens infrequently, and seedlings rarely survive.[23] Most new apple cultivars originate as seedlings, which either arise by chance or are bred by deliberately crossing cultivars with promising characteristics.[24] The words 'seedling', 'pippin', and 'kernel' in the name of an apple cultivar suggest that it originated as a seedling. Apples can also form bud sports (mutations on a single branch). Some bud sports turn out to be improved strains of the parent cultivar. Some differ sufficiently from the parent tree to be considered new cultivars.[25]

Breeders can produce more rigid apples through crossing.[26] For example, the Excelsior Experiment Station of the University of Minnesota has, since the 1930s, introduced a steady progression of important hardy apples that are widely grown, both commercially and by backyard orchardists, throughout Minnesota and Wisconsin. Its most important introductions have included 'Haralson' (which is the most widely cultivated apple in Minnesota), 'Wealthy', 'Honeygold', and 'Honeycrisp'.

Apples have been acclimatized in Ecuador at very high altitudes, where they provide crops twice per year because of constant temperate conditions in a whole year.[27]

Apple Rootstocks

Rootstocks used to control tree size have been used in apple cultivation for over 2,000 years. Dwarfing rootstocks were probably discovered by chance in Asia. Alexander the Great sent samples of dwarf apple trees back to his teacher, Aristotle in Greece. They were maintained at the Lyceum, a center of learning in Greece.

Most modern apple rootstocks were bred in the 20th century. Much research into the existing rootstocks was begun at the East Malling Research Station in Kent, England. Following that research, Malling worked with the John Innes Institute and Long Ashton to produce a series of different rootstocks with disease resistance and a range of different sizes, which have been used all over the world.

Pollination

Apple tree in flower

Apples are self-incompatible; they must cross-pollinate to develop fruit. During the flowering each season, apple growers usually provide pollinators to carry the pollen. Honeybee hives are most commonly used. Orchard mason bees are also used as supplemental pollinators in commercial orchards. Bumble bee queens are sometimes present in orchards, but not usually in enough quantity to be significant pollinators.[25]

There are four to seven pollination groups in apples depending on climate:

  • Group A – Early flowering, May 1 to 3 in England (Gravenstein, Red Astrachan)
  • Group B – May 4 to 7 (Idared, McIntosh)
  • Group C – Mid-season flowering, May 8 to 11 (Granny Smith, Cox's Orange Pippin)
  • Group D – Mid/Late season flowering, May 12 to 15 (Golden Delicious, Calville blanc d'hiver)
  • Group E – Late flowering, May 16 to 18 (Braeburn, Reinette d'Orléans)
  • Group F – May 19 to 23 (Suntan)
  • Group H – May 24 to 28 (Court-Pendu Gris) (also called Court-Pendu plat)

One cultivar can be pollinated by a compatible cultivar from the same group or close (A with A, or A with B, but not A with C or D).[28]

Varieties are sometimes classed as to the day of peak bloom in the average 30 day blossom period, with pollinizers selected from varieties within a 6 day overlap period.

Maturation and harvest

Cultivars vary in their yield and the ultimate size of the tree, even when grown on the same rootstock. Some cultivars, if left unpruned, will grow very large, which allows them to bear much more fruit, but makes harvesting very difficult. Mature trees typically bear 40–200 kilograms (88–440 lb) of apples each year, though productivity can be close to zero in poor years. Apples are harvested using three-point ladders that are designed to fit amongst the branches. Dwarf trees will bear about 10–80 kilograms (22–180 lb) of fruit per year.[25]

Storage

Commercially, apples can be stored for some months in controlled-atmosphere chambers to delay ethylene-induced onset of ripening. The apples are commonly stored in chambers with higher concentrations of carbon dioxide with high air filtration. This prevents ethylene concentrations from rising to higher amounts and preventing ripening from moving too quickly. Ripening continues when the fruit is removed.[29] For home storage, most varieties of apple can be held for approximately two weeks kept at the coolest part of the refrigerator (i.e. below 5°C). Some types, including the Granny Smith and Fuji, have a longer shelf life.[30]

Pests and diseases

Leaves with significant insect damage

The trees are susceptible to a number of fungal and bacterial diseases and insect pests. Many commercial orchards pursue an aggressive program of chemical sprays to maintain high fruit quality, tree health, and high yields. A trend in orchard management is the use of organic methods. These use a less aggressive and direct methods of conventional farming. Instead of spraying potent chemicals, often shown to be potentially dangerous and maleficent to the tree in the long run, organic methods include encouraging or discouraging certain cycles and pests. To control a specific pest, organic growers might encourage the prosperity of its natural predator instead of outright killing it, and with it the natural biochemistry around the tree. Organic apples generally have the same or greater taste than conventionally grown apples, with reduced cosmetic appearances.[31]

A wide range of pests and diseases can affect the plant; three of the more common diseases/pests are mildew, aphids and apple scab.

  • Mildew: which is characterized by light grey powdery patches appearing on the leaves, shoots and flowers, normally in spring. The flowers will turn a creamy yellow colour and will not develop correctly. This can be treated in a manner not dissimilar from treating Botrytis; eliminating the conditions which caused the disease in the first place and burning the infected plants are among the recommended actions to take.[32][32]
Feeding aphids
  • Aphids: There are five species of aphids commonly found on apples: apple grain aphid, rosy apple aphid, apple aphid, spirea aphid and the woolly apple aphid. The aphid species can be identified by their colour, the time of year when they are present and by differences in the cornicles, which are small paired projections from the rear of aphids.[32] Aphids feed on foliage using needle like mouth parts to suck out plant juices. When present in high numbers, certain species may reduce tree growth and vigor.[33]
  • Apple scab: Symptoms of Scab are olive-green or brown blotches on the leaves.[34] The blotches turn more brown as time progresses. Then brown scabs on the fruit.[32] The diseased leaves will fall early and the fruit will become increasingly covered in scabs - eventually the fruit skin will crack. Although there are chemicals to treat Scab, their use might not be encouraged as they are quite often systematic, which means they are absorbed by the tree, and spread throughout the fruit.[34]

Among the most serious disease problems are fireblight, a bacterial disease; and Gymnosporangium rust, and black spot, two fungal diseases.[33]

Young apple trees are also prone to mammal pests like mice and deer, which feed on the soft bark of the trees, especially in winter.

Records

Guinness World Records reports that the heaviest apple known weighed 1.849 kg (4 lb 1 oz) and was grown in Hirosaki city, Japan in 2005.[35]

Commerce

At least 55 million tonnes of apples were grown worldwide in 2005, with a value of about $10 billion. China produced about two-fifths of this total.[36] United States is the second leading producer, with more than 7.5% of the world production.[24]

In the United States, more than 60% of all the apples sold commercially are grown in Washington state.[37] Imported apples from New Zealand and other more temperate areas are competing with US production and increasing each year.[36]

Most of Australia's apple production is for domestic consumption. Imports from New Zealand have been disallowed under quarantine regulations for fire blight since 1921.[38]

The largest exporters of apples in 2006 were China, Chile, Italy, France and the U.S., while the biggest importers in the same year were Russia, Germany, the UK and the Netherlands.[39]

Top Ten Apple Producers — 11 June 2008
Country Production (Tonnes) Footnote
 People's Republic of China 27 507 000 F
 United States 4 237 730
 Iran 2 660 000 F
 Turkey 2 266 437
 Russia 2 211 000 F
 Italy 2 072 500
 India 2 001 400
 France 1 800 000 F
 Chile 1 390 000 F
 Argentina 1 300 000 F
 World 64 255 520 A
No symbol = official figure, F = FAO estimate, A = Aggregate (may include official, semi-official, or estimates);

Source: FAO

Human consumption

Apples can be canned or juiced. They are milled to produce apple juice. The juice can be fermented to make apple cider (non-alcoholic, sweet cider) and cider (alcoholic, hard cider), ciderkin, and vinegar. Through distillation various alcoholic beverages are produced such as applejack (beverage) and Calvados.[40] Apple wine can also be made. Pectin is also produced.

Apples are an important ingredient in many desserts, such as apple pie, apple crumble, apple crisp and apple cake. They are often eaten baked or stewed, and they can also be dried and eaten or re-constituted (soaked in water, alcohol or some other liquid) for later use. Puréed apples are generally known as apple sauce. Apples are also made into apple butter and apple jelly. They are also used (cooked) in meat dishes.

  • In the UK, a toffee apple is a traditional confection made by coating an apple in hot toffee and allowing it to cool. Similar treats in the US are candy apples (coated in a hard shell of crystallised sugar syrup), and caramel apples, coated with cooled caramel.
  • Apples are eaten with honey at the Jewish New Year of Rosh Hashanah to symbolize a sweet new year.[40]
  • Farms with apple orchards may open them to the public, so consumers may themselves pick the apples they will buy.[40]

Sliced apples turn brown with exposure to air due to the conversion of natural phenolic substances into melanin upon exposure to oxygen.[41] Different cultivars vary in their propensity to brown after slicing. Sliced fruit can be treated with acidulated water to prevent this effect.[41]

Organic apples are commonly produced in the United States.[42] Organic production is difficult in Europe, though a few orchards have done so with commercial success,[42] using disease-resistant cultivars and the very best cultural controls. The latest tool in the organic repertoire is a spray of a light coating of kaolin clay, which forms a physical barrier to some pests, and also helps prevent apple sun scald.[25][42]

Fallen apples

Eating fallen apples (known in the UK as 'windfalls'), rather than picking directly from the tree, is generally safe. There may be a risk of food poisoning if the orchard is also the area of keeping cattle or other animals, which may contaminate the apples with feces. Still, the risk may be significantly higher if the apples are used to make home-made (unpasteurized) cider or juice, thus letting E. coli multiply.[43]

On the other hand, if the apples are eaten unprocessed, and kept free from risk of contamination with animal feces, then eating fallen apples are generally safe, even if there is some general decay or worms in them. Still, they may be submerged in water with salt added, which kills the worms.[44] Apparent molds may be largely removed by putting in water with some vinegar added,[44] but if they are of a large quantity then there might be mold or mold products left to evoke mold health issues such as allergic reactions and respiratory problems.

Apple allergy

Oral allergy syndrome is an allergic reaction some people will experience due to the birch pollen left on the apples.[45][46] Because the pollen is the main irritant, only the raw apples, especially their skin, cause the allergic reaction. Cooked apples do not cause these symptoms as the heat denatures the proteins in the pollen rendering them harmless to those sensitive. If one is allergic to apples, he or she may also experience an allergic reaction with other fruits in the Rosaceae family which include peaches and hazelnuts.[45]

Symptoms

Symptoms vary from person to person but are generally mild. This typically includes the sensation of itching and swelling around the mouth and lips. Other symptoms include watery eyes, runny nose and sneezing. Hives may develop in those who have a high sensitivity to the pollen. Abdominal pain and diarrhea may also occur.[45]

Health benefits

Apples, with skin (edible parts)
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Energy 218 kJ (52 kcal)
Carbohydrates 13.81 g
Sugars 10.39 g
Dietary fiber 2.4 g
Fat 0.17 g
Protein 0.26 g
Water 85.56 g
Vitamin A equiv. 3 μg (0%)
Thiamine (Vit. B1) 0.017 mg (1%)
Riboflavin (Vit. B2) 0.026 mg (2%)
Niacin (Vit. B3) 0.091 mg (1%)
Pantothenic acid (B5) 0.061 mg (1%)
Vitamin B6 0.041 mg (3%)
Folate (Vit. B9) 3 μg (1%)
Vitamin C 4.6 mg (8%)
Calcium 6 mg (1%)
Iron 0.12 mg (1%)
Magnesium 5 mg (1%)
Phosphorus 11 mg (2%)
Potassium 107 mg (2%)
Zinc 0.04 mg (0%)
Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults.
Source: USDA Nutrient database
Potential health benefits of apple consumption.[47][48][49][50]

The proverb "An apple a day keeps the doctor away," addressing the health effects of the fruit, dates from 19th century Wales.[51] Research suggests that apples may reduce the risk of colon cancer, prostate cancer and lung cancer.[47] Compared to many other fruits and vegetables, apples contain relatively low amounts of Vitamin C, but are a rich source of other antioxidant compounds.[41] The fiber content, while less than in most other fruits, helps regulate bowel movements and may thus reduce the risk of colon cancer. They may also help with heart disease,[52] weight loss,[52] and controlling cholesterol,[52] as they do not have any cholesterol, have fiber, which reduces cholesterol by preventing reabsorption, and are bulky for their caloric content like most fruits and vegetables.[49][52]

There is evidence that in vitro apples possess phenolic compounds which may be cancer-protective and demonstrate antioxidant activity.[53] The predominant phenolic phytochemicals in apples are quercetin, epicatechin, and procyanidin B2.[54]

Apple juice concentrate has been found to increase the production of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine in mice, providing a potential mechanism for the "prevent[ion of] the decline in cognitive performance that accompanies dietary and genetic deficiencies and aging." Other studies have shown an "alleviat[ion of] oxidative damage and cognitive decline" in mice after the administration of apple juice.[50]

The seeds are mildly poisonous, containing a small amount of amygdalin, a cyanogenic glycoside; usually not enough to be dangerous to humans, but it can deter birds.[55]


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  28. ^ S. Sansavini (1 July 1986). "The chilling requirement in apple and its role in regulating Time of flowering in spring in cold-Winter Climate". Symposium on Growth Regulators in Fruit Production (International ed.). Acta Horticulturae. pp. 179. ISBN 978-90-66051-82-9. 
  29. ^ "Controlled Atmosphere Storage (CA)". Washington State Apple Advertising Commission. http://www.bestapples.com/facts/facts_controlled.shtml. Retrieved 24 January 2008. 
  30. ^ "Food Science Australia Fact Sheet: Refrigerated storage of perishable foods". Food Science Australia. February, 2005. http://www.foodscience.csiro.au/refrigerated.htm. Retrieved 2007-05-25. 
  31. ^ Pittsburgh Section, University of Pittsburgh School of Engineering, School of Engineering, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Pittsburgh Section, Instrument Society of America, Instrument Society of America Pittsburgh Section, University of Pittsburgh (1981). Modeling and Simulation: Proceedings of the Annual Pittsburgh Conference. Instrument Society of America. 
  32. ^ a b c d Lowther, Granville; William Worthington. The Encyclopedia of Practical Horticulture: A Reference System of Commercial Horticulture, Covering the Practical and Scientific Phases of Horticulture, with Special Reference to Fruits and Vegetables. The Encyclopedia of horticulture corporation. 
  33. ^ a b Coli, William et al.. "Apple Pest Management Guide". University of Massachusetts Amherst. http://www.umass.edu/fruitadvisor/NEAPMG/index.htm. Retrieved 3 March 2008. 
  34. ^ a b "How To Deal With Scab". GardenAction. http://www.gardenaction.co.uk/techniques/pests/scab.htm. Retrieved 3 March 2008. 
  35. ^ "Plant World - Heaviest Apple". Guinness World Records. http://www.guinnessworldrecords.com/records/natural_world/plant_world/heaviest_apple.aspx. Retrieved 2009-09-09. 
  36. ^ a b Kristin Churchill. "Chinese apple-juice concentrate exports to United States continue to rise". Great American Publishing. http://www.fruitgrowersnews.com/pages/2004/issue04_10/04_10_ChinaJuice.html. Retrieved 22 January 2008. 
  37. ^ Desmond, Andrew (1994). The World Apple Market. Haworth Press. pp. 144–149. ISBN 1560220414. OCLC 243470452. 
  38. ^ Gavin Evans (Tuesday, August 9, 2005). "Fruit ban rankles New Zealand - Australian apple growers say risk of disease justifies barriers". International Herald Tribune. http://www.iht.com/articles/2005/08/08/bloomberg/sxfruit.php. Retrieved 9 August 2005. 
  39. ^ FAO
  40. ^ a b c "Apples". Washington State Apple Advertising Commission. http://www.bestapples.com/varieties/varieties_foodsafety.shtml. Retrieved 22 January 2008. 
  41. ^ a b c Boyer, J; Liu, RH (May 2004). "Apple phytochemicals and their health benefits". Nutrition journal (Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853-7201 USA: Department of Food Science and Institute of Comparative and Environmental Toxicology) 3: 5. doi:10.1186/1475-2891-3-5. PMID 15140261. PMC 442131. http://www.nutritionj.com/content/3/1/5. 
  42. ^ a b c Ames, Guy (July 2001). "Considerations in organic apple production" (pdf). National Sustainable Agriculture Information Service. http://attra.ncat.org/attra-pub/PDF/omapple.pdf. Retrieved 24 January 2008. 
  43. ^ Food Poisoning and Safety California Poison Control System
  44. ^ a b fallen apples – safe? iVillage Garden Web
  45. ^ a b c http://www.wrongdiagnosis.com/f/food_allergy_apple/intro.htm
  46. ^ http://www.webmd.com/allergies/guide/food-allergy-treatments?page=2
  47. ^ a b For decreased risk of colon, prostate and lung cancer: "Nutrition to Reduce Cancer Risk". The Stanford Cancer Center (SCC). http://cancer.stanford.edu/information/nutritionAndCancer/reduceRisk/. Retrieved 2008-08-18. 
  48. ^ For weight loss and cholesterol control: "Apples Keep Your Family Healthy". Washington State Apple Advertising Commission. http://www.bestapples.com/healthy/. Retrieved 22 January 2008. 
  49. ^ a b Rajeev Sharma. (2005). Improve your health with Apple,Guava,Mango. Diamond Pocket Books (P) Ltd.. pp. 22. ISBN 8128809245. 
  50. ^ a b For prevention of dementia: Chan A, Graves V, Shea TB, A (Aug 2006). "Apple juice concentrate maintains acetylcholine levels following dietary compromise". Journal of Alzheimer's Disease 9 (3): 287–291. ISSN 1387-2877. PMID 16914839. 
  51. ^ Phillips, John Pavin (1866-02-24). "A Pembrokeshire Proverb". Notes and Queries (Oxford University Press) s3-IX (217): 153. http://nq.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/reprint/s3-IX/217/153-d. Retrieved 2009-02-11. 
  52. ^ a b c d "Apples Keep Your Family Healthy". Washington State Apple Advertising Commission. http://www.bestapples.com/healthy/. Retrieved 22 January 2008. 
  53. ^ Lee KW, Lee SJ, Kang NJ, Lee CY, Lee HJ, KW (2004). "Effects of phenolics in Empire apples on hydrogen peroxide-induced inhibition of gap-junctional intercellular communication". Biofactors 21 (1–4): 361–5. doi:10.1002/biof.552210169. ISSN 0951-6433. PMID 15630226. 
  54. ^ Lee KW, Kim YJ, Kim DO, Lee HJ, Lee CY, KW (Oct 2003). "Major phenolics in apple and their contribution to the total antioxidant capacity". J. Agric. Food Chem. 51 (22): 6516–6520. doi:10.1021/jf034475w. ISSN 0021-8561. PMID 14558772. 
  55. ^ Juniper BE, Mabberley DJ (2006). The Story of the Apple. Timber Press. pp. 20. ISBN 0881927848. 
This article incorporates text from the public domain 1911 edition of The Grocer's Encyclopedia.

External links


Apple
File:Red
A typical apple
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta
Class: Magnoliopsida
Order: Rosales
Family: Rosaceae
Subfamily: Maloideae or Spiraeoideae [1]
Tribe: Maleae
Genus: Malus
Species: M. domestica
Binomial name
Malus domestica
Borkh.

The apple is the pomaceous fruit of the apple tree, species Malus domestica in the rose family (Rosaceae), and is a perennial. It is one of the most widely cultivated tree fruits, and the most widely known of the many members of genus Malus that are used by humans.

The tree originated in Western Asia, where its wild ancestor is still found today. There are more than 7,500 known cultivars of apples, resulting in a range of desired characteristics. Cultivars vary in their yield and the ultimate size of the tree, even when grown on the same rootstock.[2]

At least 55 million tonnes of apples were grown worldwide in 2005, with a value of about $10 billion. China produced about 35% of this total.[3] The United States is the second-leading producer, with more than 7.5% of world production. Iran is third, followed by Turkey, Russia, Italy and India.

Contents

Botanical information

[[File:|thumb|right|250px|Blossoms, fruits, and leaves of the apple tree (Malus domestica)]] apple in Kazakhstan]] The apple forms a tree that is small and deciduous, reaching 3 to 12 metres (9.8 to 39 ft) tall, with a broad, often densely twiggy crown.[4] The leaves are alternately arranged simple ovals 5 to 12 cm long and 3–6 centimetres (1.2–2.4 in) broad on a 2 to 5 centimetres (0.79 to 2.0 in) petiole with an acute tip, serrated margin and a slightly downy underside. Blossoms are produced in spring simultaneously with the budding of the leaves. The flowers are white with a pink tinge that gradually fades, five petaled, and 2.5 to 3.5 centimetres (0.98 to 1.4 in) in diameter. The fruit matures in autumn, and is typically 5 to 9 centimetres (2.0 to 3.5 in) diameter. The center of the fruit contains five carpels arranged in a five-point star, each carpel containing one to three seeds.[4]

Wild ancestors

The wild ancestors of Malus domestica are Malus sieversii, found growing wild in the mountains of Central Asia in southern Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and Xinjiang, China,[5] and possibly also Malus sylvestris.[6]

Genome

In 2010, an Italian-led consortium announced they had decoded the complete genome of the apple (Golden delicious variety).[7] It had about 57,000 genes, the highest number of any plant genome studied to date and more genes than the human genome (about 30,000).[8]

History

The center of diversity of the genus Malus is in eastern Turkey. The apple tree was perhaps the earliest tree to be cultivated,[9] and its fruits have been improved through selection over thousands of years. Alexander the Great is credited with finding dwarfed apples in Asia Minor in 300 BCE;[4] those he brought back to Macedonia might have been the progenitors of dwarfing root stocks. Winter apples, picked in late autumn and stored just above freezing, have been an important food in Asia and Europe for millennia, as well as in Argentina and in the United States since the arrival of Europeans.[9] Apples were brought to North America with colonists in the 17th century,[4] and the first apple orchard on the North American continent was said to be near Boston in 1625. In the 20th century, irrigation projects in Washington state began and allowed the development of the multibillion dollar fruit industry, of which the apple is the leading species.[4]

Until the 20th century, farmers stored apples in frostproof cellars during the winter for their own use or for sale. Improved transportation of fresh apples by train and road replaced the necessity for storage.[10][11]

Cultural aspects

Germanic paganism

" (1901) by Carl Larsson]]

In Norse mythology, the goddess Iðunn is portrayed in the Prose Edda (written in the 13th century by Snorri Sturluson) as providing apples to the gods that give them eternal youthfulness. English scholar H. R. Ellis Davidson links apples to religious practices in Germanic paganism, from which Norse paganism developed. She points out that buckets of apples were found in the Oseberg ship burial site in Norway, and that fruit and nuts (Iðunn having been described as being transformed into a nut in Skáldskaparmál) have been found in the early graves of the Germanic peoples in England and elsewhere on the continent of Europe, which may have had a symbolic meaning, and that nuts are still a recognized symbol of fertility in southwest England.[12]

Davidson notes a connection between apples and the Vanir, a tribe of gods associated with fertility in Norse mythology, citing an instance of eleven "golden apples" being given to woo the beautiful Gerðr by Skírnir, who was acting as messenger for the major Vanir god Freyr in stanzas 19 and 20 of Skírnismál. Davidson also notes a further connection between fertility and apples in Norse mythology in chapter 2 of the Völsunga saga when the major goddess Frigg sends King Rerir an apple after he prays to Odin for a child, Frigg's messenger (in the guise of a crow) drops the apple in his lap as he sits atop a mound.[13] Rerir's wife's consumption of the apple results in a six-year pregnancy and the Caesarean section birth of their son - the hero Völsung.[14]

Further, Davidson points out the "strange" phrase "Apples of Hel" used in an 11th-century poem by the skald Thorbiorn Brúnarson. She states this may imply that the apple was thought of by the skald as the food of the dead. Further, Davidson notes that the potentially Germanic goddess Nehalennia is sometimes depicted with apples and that parallels exist in early Irish stories. Davidson asserts that while cultivation of the apple in Northern Europe extends back to at least the time of the Roman Empire and came to Europe from the Near East, the native varieties of apple trees growing in Northern Europe are small and bitter. Davidson concludes that in the figure of Iðunn "we must have a dim reflection of an old symbol: that of the guardian goddess of the life-giving fruit of the other world."[12]

Greek mythology

with the apple of Hesperides]]

Apples appear in many religious traditions, often as a mystical or forbidden fruit. One of the problems identifying apples in religion, mythology and folktales is that the word "apple" was used as a generic term for all (foreign) fruit, other than berries, but including nuts, as late as the 17th century.[15] For instance, in Greek mythology, the Greek hero Heracles, as a part of his Twelve Labours, was required to travel to the Garden of the Hesperides and pick the golden apples off the Tree of Life growing at its center.[16][17][18]

The Greek goddess of discord, Eris, became disgruntled after she was excluded from the wedding of Peleus and Thetis.[19] In retaliation, she tossed a golden apple inscribed Καλλίστη (Kalliste, sometimes transliterated Kallisti, 'For the most beautiful one'), into the wedding party. Three goddesses claimed the apple: Hera, Athena, and Aphrodite. Paris of Troy was appointed to select the recipient. After being bribed by both Hera and Athena, Aphrodite tempted him with the most beautiful woman in the world, Helen of Sparta. He awarded the apple to Aphrodite, thus indirectly causing the Trojan War.

The apple was thus considered in ancient Greece to be sacred to Aphrodite, and to throw an apple at someone was to symbolically declare one's love; and similarly, to catch it was to symbolically show one's acceptance.[20] An epigram claiming authorship by Plato states:

I throw the apple at you, and if you are willing to love me, take it and share your girlhood with me; but if your thoughts are what I pray they are not, even then take it, and consider how short-lived is beauty.[21]


Showcasing the apple as a symbol of sin.
Albrecht Dürer, 1507]]

Atalanta, also of Greek mythology, raced all her suitors in an attempt to avoid marriage. She outran all but Hippomenes (a.k.a. Melanion, a name possibly derived from melon the Greek word for both "apple" and fruit in general),[17] who defeated her by cunning, not speed. Hippomenes knew that he could not win in a fair race, so he used three golden apples (gifts of Aphrodite, the goddess of love) to distract Atalanta. It took all three apples and all of his speed, but Hippomenes was finally successful, winning the race and Atalanta's hand.[16]

The Apple in the Garden of Eden

Though the forbidden fruit in the Book of Genesis is not identified, popular Christian tradition has held that it was an apple that Eve coaxed Adam to share with her.[22] This may have been the result of Renaissance painters adding elements of Greek mythology into biblical scenes (alternative interpretations also based on Greek mythology occasionally replace the apple with a pomegranate). In this case the unnamed fruit of Eden became an apple under the influence of story of the golden apples in the Garden of Hesperides. As a result, in the story of Adam and Eve, the apple became a symbol for knowledge, immortality, temptation, the fall of man into sin, and sin itself. In Latin, the words for "apple" and for "evil" are similar in the singular (malus—apple, malum—evil) and identical in the plural (mala). This may also have influenced the apple becoming interpreted as the biblical "forbidden fruit". The larynx in the human throat has been called Adam's apple because of a notion that it was caused by the forbidden fruit sticking in the throat of Adam.[22] The apple as symbol of sexual seduction has been used to imply sexuality between men, possibly in an ironic vein.[22]

Apple cultivars

in a supermarket]]
File:Sundown and cross section
'Sundown' apple cultivar and its cross section

There are more than 7,500 known cultivars of apples.[23] Different cultivars are available for temperate and subtropical climates. One large collection of over 2,100[24] apple cultivars is housed at the National Fruit Collection in England. Most of these cultivars are bred for eating fresh (dessert apples), though some are cultivated specifically for cooking (cooking apples) or producing cider. Cider apples are typically too tart and astringent to eat fresh, but they give the beverage a rich flavour that dessert apples cannot.[25]

Commercially popular apple cultivars are soft but crisp. Other desired qualities in modern commercial apple breeding are a colourful skin, absence of russeting, ease of shipping, lengthy storage ability, high yields, disease resistance, typical 'Red Delicious' apple shape, and popular flavour.[2] Modern apples are generally sweeter than older cultivars, as popular tastes in apples have varied over time. Most North Americans and Europeans favour sweet, subacid apples, but tart apples have a strong minority following.[26] Extremely sweet apples with barely any acid flavour are popular in Asia[26] and especially India.[25]

Old cultivars are often oddly shaped, russeted, and have a variety of textures and colours. Some find them to have a better flavour than modern cultivators,[27] but may have other problems which make them commercially unviable, such as low yield, liability to disease, or poor tolerance for storage or transport. A few old cultivars are still produced on a large scale, but many have been kept alive by home gardeners and farmers that sell directly to local markets. Many unusual and locally important cultivars with their own unique taste and appearance exist; apple conservation campaigns have sprung up around the world to preserve such local cultivars from extinction. In the United Kingdom, old cultivars such as 'Cox's Orange Pippin' and 'Egremont Russet' are still commercially important even though by modern standards they are low yielding and disease prone.[4]

Apple production

Apple breeding

variety]]

In the wild, apples grow quite readily from seeds. However, like most perennial fruits, apples are ordinarily propagated asexually by grafting. This is because seedling apples are an example of "extreme heterozygotes", in that rather than inheriting DNA from their parents to create a new apple with those characteristics, they are instead different from their parents, sometimes radically.[28] Triploids have an additional reproductive barrier in that the 3 sets of chromosomes cannot be divided evenly during meiosis, yielding unequal segregation of the chromosomes (aneuploids). Even in the very unusual case when a triploid plant can produce a seed (apples are an example), it happens infrequently, and seedlings rarely survive.[29] Most new apple cultivars originate as seedlings, which either arise by chance or are bred by deliberately crossing cultivars with promising characteristics.[30] The words 'seedling', 'pippin', and 'kernel' in the name of an apple cultivar suggest that it originated as a seedling. Apples can also form bud sports (mutations on a single branch). Some bud sports turn out to be improved strains of the parent cultivar. Some differ sufficiently from the parent tree to be considered new cultivars.[31]

Breeders can produce more rigid apples through crossing.[32] For example, the Excelsior Experiment Station of the University of Minnesota has, since the 1930s, introduced a steady progression of important hardy apples that are widely grown, both commercially and by backyard orchardists, throughout Minnesota and Wisconsin. Its most important introductions have included 'Haralson' (which is the most widely cultivated apple in Minnesota), 'Wealthy', 'Honeygold', and 'Honeycrisp'.

Apples have been acclimatized in Ecuador at very high altitudes, where they provide crops twice per year because of constant temperate conditions in a whole year.[33]

Apple rootstocks

Rootstocks used to control tree size have been used in apple cultivation for over 2,000 years. Dwarfing rootstocks were probably discovered by chance in Asia. Alexander the Great sent samples of dwarf apple trees back to his teacher, Aristotle, in Greece. They were maintained at the Lyceum, a center of learning in Greece.

Most modern apple rootstocks were bred in the 20th century. Much research into the existing rootstocks was begun at the East Malling Research Station in Kent, England. Following that research, Malling worked with the John Innes Institute and Long Ashton to produce a series of different rootstocks with disease resistance and a range of different sizes, which have been used all over the world.

Pollination

in flower]]
on apple bloom, British Columbia, Canada]]

Apples are self-incompatible; they must cross-pollinate to develop fruit. During the flowering each season, apple growers usually provide pollinators to carry the pollen. Honeybees are most commonly used. Orchard mason bees are also used as supplemental pollinators in commercial orchards. Bumble bee queens are sometimes present in orchards, but not usually in enough quantity to be significant pollinators.[31]

There are four to seven pollination groups in apples, depending on climate:

  • Group A – Early flowering, May 1 to 3 in England (Gravenstein, Red Astrachan)
  • Group B – May 4 to 7 (Idared, McIntosh)
  • Group C – Mid-season flowering, May 8 to 11 (Granny Smith, Cox's Orange Pippin)
  • Group D – Mid/late season flowering, May 12 to 15 (Golden Delicious, Calville blanc d'hiver)
  • Group E – Late flowering, May 16 to 18 (Braeburn, Reinette d'Orléans)
  • Group F – May 19 to 23 (Suntan)
  • Group H – May 24 to 28 (Court-Pendu Gris) (also called Court-Pendu plat)

One cultivar can be pollinated by a compatible cultivar from the same group or close (A with A, or A with B, but not A with C or D).[34]

Varieties are sometimes classed as to the day of peak bloom in the average 30 day blossom period, with pollinizers selected from varieties within a 6 day overlap period.

Maturation and harvest

Cultivars vary in their yield and the ultimate size of the tree, even when grown on the same rootstock. Some cultivars, if left unpruned, will grow very large, which allows them to bear much more fruit, but makes harvesting very difficult. Mature trees typically bear 40–200 kilograms (88–440 lb) of apples each year, though productivity can be close to zero in poor years. Apples are harvested using three-point ladders that are designed to fit amongst the branches. Dwarf trees will bear about 10–80 kilograms (22–180 lb) of fruit per year.[31]

Storage

Commercially, apples can be stored for some months in controlled-atmosphere chambers to delay ethylene-induced onset of ripening. The apples are commonly stored in chambers with higher concentrations of carbon dioxide with high air filtration. This prevents ethylene concentrations from rising to higher amounts and preventing ripening from moving too quickly. Ripening continues when the fruit is removed.[35] For home storage, most varieties of apple can be held for approximately two weeks when kept at the coolest part of the refrigerator (i.e. below 5°C). Some types, including the Granny Smith and Fuji, have a longer shelf life.[36]

Pests and diseases

]]

The trees are susceptible to a number of fungal and bacterial diseases and insect pests. Many commercial orchards pursue an aggressive program of chemical sprays to maintain high fruit quality, tree health, and high yields. A trend in orchard management is the use of organic methods. These use a less aggressive and direct methods of conventional farming. Instead of spraying potent chemicals, often shown to be potentially dangerous and maleficent to the tree in the long run, organic methods include encouraging or discouraging certain cycles and pests. To control a specific pest, organic growers might encourage the prosperity of its natural predator instead of outright killing it, and with it the natural biochemistry around the tree. Organic apples generally have the same or greater taste than conventionally grown apples, with reduced cosmetic appearances.[37]

A wide range of pests and diseases can affect the plant; three of the more common diseases/pests are mildew, aphids and apple scab.

  • Mildew: which is characterized by light grey powdery patches appearing on the leaves, shoots and flowers, normally in spring. The flowers will turn a creamy yellow colour and will not develop correctly. This can be treated in a manner not dissimilar from treating Botrytis; eliminating the conditions which caused the disease in the first place and burning the infected plants are among the recommended actions to take.[38][38]

]]

  • Aphids: There are five species of aphids commonly found on apples: apple grain aphid, rosy apple aphid, apple aphid, spirea aphid and the woolly apple aphid. The aphid species can be identified by their colour, the time of year when they are present and by differences in the cornicles, which are small paired projections from the rear of aphids.[38] Aphids feed on foliage using needle-like mouth parts to suck out plant juices. When present in high numbers, certain species reduce tree growth and vigor.[39]
  • Apple scab: Symptoms of scab are olive-green or brown blotches on the leaves.[40] The blotches turn more brown as time progresses, then brown scabs form on the fruit.[38] The diseased leaves will fall early and the fruit will become increasingly covered in scabs - eventually the fruit skin will crack. Although there are chemicals to treat scab, their use might not be encouraged as they are quite often systematic, which means they are absorbed by the tree, and spread throughout the fruit.[40]

Among the most serious disease problems are fireblight, a bacterial disease; and Gymnosporangium rust, and black spot, two fungal diseases.[39]

Young apple trees are also prone to mammal pests like mice and deer, which feed on the soft bark of the trees, especially in winter.

Records

Guinness World Records reports that the heaviest apple known weighed 1.849 kg (4 lb 1 oz) and was grown in Hirosaki city, Japan in 2005.[41]

Commerce

At least 55 million tonnes of apples were grown worldwide in 2005, with a value of about $10 billion. China produced about two-fifths of this total.[42] United States is the second leading producer, with more than 7.5% of the world production.[30]

In the United States, more than 60% of all the apples sold commercially are grown in Washington state.[43] Imported apples from New Zealand and other more temperate areas are competing with US production and increasing each year.[42]

Most of Australia's apple production is for domestic consumption. Imports from New Zealand have been disallowed under quarantine regulations for fireblight since 1921.[44]

The largest exporters of apples in 2006 were China, Chile, Italy, France and the U.S., while the biggest importers in the same year were Russia, Germany, the UK and the Netherlands.[45]

Top Ten Apple Producers — 11 June 2008
Country Production (Tonnes) Footnote
File:Flag of the People' People's Republic of China 27 507 000 F
 United States 4 237 730
Template:Country data Iran 2 660 000 F
 Turkey 2 266 437
 Russia 2 211 000 F
 Italy 2 072 500
Template:Country data India 2 001 400
 France 1 800 000 F
 Chile 1 390 000 F
 Argentina 1 300 000 F
 World 64 255 520 A
No symbol = official figure, F = FAO estimate, A = Aggregate (may include official, semi-official, or estimates);

Source: FAO

Human consumption

Apples can be canned or juiced. They are milled to produce apple cider (non-alcoholic, sweet cider) and filtered for apple juice. The juice can be fermented to make cider (alcoholic, hard cider), ciderkin, and vinegar. Through distillation, various alcoholic beverages can be produced, such as applejack, Calvados,[46] and apple wine. Pectin and apple seed oil may also produced.

Apples are an important ingredient in many desserts, such as apple pie, apple crumble, apple crisp and apple cake. They are often eaten baked or stewed, and they can also be dried and eaten or reconstituted (soaked in water, alcohol or some other liquid) for later use. Puréed apples are generally known as apple sauce. Apples are also made into apple butter and apple jelly. They are also used (cooked) in meat dishes.

  • In the UK, a toffee apple is a traditional confection made by coating an apple in hot toffee and allowing it to cool. Similar treats in the US are candy apples (coated in a hard shell of crystallised sugar syrup), and caramel apples, coated with cooled caramel.
  • Apples are eaten with honey at the Jewish New Year of Rosh Hashanah to symbolize a sweet new year.[46]
  • Farms with apple orchards may open them to the public, so consumers may themselves pick the apples they will buy.[46]

Sliced apples turn brown with exposure to air due to the conversion of natural phenolic substances into melanin upon exposure to oxygen.[47] Different cultivars vary in their propensity to brown after slicing. Sliced fruit can be treated with acidulated water to prevent this effect.[47]

Organic apples are commonly produced in the United States.[48] Organic production is difficult in Europe, though a few orchards have done so with commercial success,[48] using disease-resistant cultivars and the very best cultural controls. The latest tool in the organic repertoire is a spray of a light coating of kaolin clay, which forms a physical barrier to some pests, and also helps prevent apple sun scald.[31][48]

Fallen apples

Eating fallen apples (known in the UK as 'windfalls'), rather than picking directly from the tree, is generally safe. There may be a risk of food poisoning if the orchard is also the area of keeping cattle or other animals, which may contaminate the apples with feces. Still, the risk may be significantly higher if the apples are used to make home-made (unpasteurized) cider or juice, thus letting E. coli multiply.[49]

On the other hand, if the apples are eaten unprocessed, and kept free from risk of contamination with animal feces, then eating fallen apples is generally safe, even if there is some general decay or worms in them. Still, they may be submerged in water with salt added, which kills the worms.[50] Apparent molds may be largely removed by putting in water with some vinegar added,[50] but if they are of a large quantity, then there might be mold or mold products left to evoke mold health issues such as allergic reactions and respiratory problems.

Apple allergy

Oral allergy syndrome is an allergic reaction some people will experience due to the birch pollen left on the apples.[51][52] Because the pollen is the main irritant, only the raw apples, especially their skin, cause the allergic reaction. Cooked apples do not cause these symptoms as the heat denatures the proteins in the pollen, rendering them harmless to those sensitive. If one is allergic to apples, he or she may also experience an allergic reaction with other fruits in the Rosaceae family which include peaches and hazelnuts.[51]

Symptoms

Symptoms vary from person to person but are generally mild. This typically includes the sensation of itching and swelling around the mouth and lips. Other symptoms include watery eyes, runny nose and sneezing. Hives may develop in those who have a high sensitivity to the pollen. Abdominal pain and diarrhea may also occur.[51]

Health benefits

Apples, with skin (edible parts)
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Energy 218 kJ (52 kcal)
Carbohydrates 13.81 g
Sugars 10.39 g
Dietary fiber 2.4 g
Fat 0.17 g
Protein 0.26 g
Water 85.56 g
Vitamin A equiv. 3 μg (0%)
Thiamine (Vit. B1) 0.017 mg (1%)
Riboflavin (Vit. B2) 0.026 mg (2%)
Niacin (Vit. B3) 0.091 mg (1%)
Pantothenic acid (B5) 0.061 mg (1%)
Vitamin B6 0.041 mg (3%)
Folate (Vit. B9) 3 μg (1%)
Vitamin C 4.6 mg (8%)
Calcium 6 mg (1%)
Iron 0.12 mg (1%)
Magnesium 5 mg (1%)
Phosphorus 11 mg (2%)
Potassium 107 mg (2%)
Zinc 0.04 mg (0%)
Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults.
Source: USDA Nutrient database
File:Health benefits of
Health benefits of apple consumption.[53][54][55][56]

The proverb "An apple a day keeps the doctor away.", addressing the health effects of the fruit, dates from the 19th century Wales.[57] Research suggests that apples may reduce the risk of colon cancer, prostate cancer and lung cancer.[53] Compared to many other fruits and vegetables, apples contain relatively low amounts of vitamin C, but are a rich source of other antioxidant compounds.[47] The fiber content, while less than in most other fruits, helps regulate bowel movements and may thus reduce the risk of colon cancer. They may also help with heart disease,[58] weight loss,[58] and controlling cholesterol,[58] as they do not have any cholesterol, have fiber, which reduces cholesterol by preventing reabsorption, and (like most fruits and vegetables) are bulky for their caloric content.[55][58]

There is evidence that in vitro apples possess phenolic compounds which may be cancer-protective and demonstrate antioxidant activity.[59] The predominant phenolic phytochemicals in apples are quercetin, epicatechin, and procyanidin B2.[60]

Apple juice concentrate has been found to increase the production of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine in mice, providing a potential mechanism for the "prevention of the decline in cognitive performance that accompanies dietary and genetic deficiencies and aging." Other studies have shown an "alleviat[ion of] oxidative damage and cognitive decline" in mice after the administration of apple juice.[56]

However, apple seeds are mildly poisonous, containing a small amount of amygdalin, a cyanogenic glycoside; it usually is not enough to be dangerous to humans, but can deter birds.[61]


References

Cite error: Invalid tag— no input is allowed. Use the {{Reflist}} template or the tag; see the help page.
This article incorporates text from the public domain 1911 edition of The Grocer's Encyclopedia.

External links


1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

APPLE (a common Teut. word, A.S. aepl, aeppel, O.H.G. aphul, aphal, apfal, mod. Ger. Apfel), the fruit of PyrusMalus, belonging to the sub-order Pomaceae, of the natural order Rosaceae. It is one of the most widely cultivated and best-known and appreciated of fruits belonging to temperate climates. In its wild state it is known as the crab-apple, and is found generally distributed throughout Europe and western Asia, growing in as high a latitude as Trondhjem in Norway. The crabs of Siberia belong to different species of Pyrus. The apple-tree as cultivated is a moderate-sized tree with spreading branches, ovate, acutely serrated or crenated leaves, and flowers in corymbs. The fruit is too well known to need any description of its external characteristics. The apple is successfully cultivated in higher latitudes than any other fruit tree, growing up to 65° N., but notwithstanding this, its blossoms are more susceptible of injury from frost than the flowers of the peach or apricot. It comes into flower much later than these trees, and so avoids the night frost which would be fatal to its fruit-bearing. The apples which are grown in northern regions are, however, small, hard, and crabbed, the best fruit being produced in hot summer climates, such as Canada and the United States. Besides in Europe and America, the fruit is now cultivated at the Cape of Good Hope, in northern India and China, and in Australia and New Zealand.

Apples have been cultivated in Great Britain probably since the period of the Roman occupation, but the names of many varieties indicate a French or Dutch origin of much later date. In 1688 Ray enumerated seventy-eight varieties in cultivation in the neighbourhood of London, and now it is calculated that about 2000 kinds can be distinguished. According to the purposes for which they are suitable, they can be classed asst, dessert; 2nd, culinary; and 3rd, cider apples. The principal dessert apples are the Pippins (pepins, seedlings), of which there are numerous varieties. As culinary apples, besides Rennets and other dessert kinds, Codlins and Biffins are cultivated. In England, Herefordshire and Devonshire are famous for the cultivation of apples, and in these counties the manufacture of cider is an important industry. Cider is also extensively prepared in Normandy and in Holland. Verjuice is the fermented juice of crab apples.

A large trade in the importation of apples is carried on in Britain, imports coming chiefly from French, Belgian and Dutch growers, and from the United States and British North America. Dried and pressed apples are imported from France for stewing, under the name of Normandy Pippins, and similarly prepared fruits come also from America.

The apple may be propagated by seeds to obtain stocks for grafting, and also for the production of new varieties. The established sorts are usually increased by grafting, the method called whip-grafting being preferred. The stocks should be at least as thick as the finger; and should be headed back to where the graft is to be fixed in January, unless the weather is frosty, but in any case before vegetation becomes active. The scions should be cut about the same time, and laid in firmly in a trench, in contact with the moist soil, until required.

The tree will thrive in any good well-drained soil, the best being a good mellow calcareous loam, while the less iron there is in the subsoil the better. The addition of marl to soils that are not naturally calcareous very much improves them. The trees are liable to canker in undrained soils or those of a hot sandy nature. Where the soil is not naturally rich enough, it should be well manured, but not to the extent of encouraging over-luxuriance. It is better to apply manure in the form of a compost than to use it in a fresh state or unmixed.

To form an orchard, standard trees should be planted at from 25 to 40 ft. between the rows, according to the fertility of the. soil and other considerations. The trees should be selected with clean, straight, self-supporting stems, and the head should be shapely and symmetrical, with the main branches well balanced. In order to obtain such a stem, all the leaves on the first shoot from the graft or bud should be encouraged to grow, and in the second season the terminal bud should be allowed to develop a further leading shoot, while the lateral shoots should be allowed to grow, but so that they do not compete with the leader, on which the growth of leaves should be encouraged in order that they may give additional strength to the stem below them. The side shoots should be removed gradually, so that the diminution of foliage in this direction may not exceed the increase made by the new branches and shoots of the upper portion. Dwarf pyramids, which occupy less space than open dwarfs, if not allowed to grow tall, may be planted at from io to I 2 ft. apart. Dwarf bush trees may be planted from io to 15 ft. apart, according to the variety and the soil. Dwarf bushes on the Paradise stock are both ornamental and useful in small gardens, the trees being always, conveniently under control. These bush trees, which must be on the proper stock - the French Paradise - may be planted at first 6 ft. apart, with the same distance between the rows, the space being afterwards increased, if desired, to 12 ft. apart, by removing every alternate row.

"Cordons" are trees trained to a single shoot, the laterals of which are kept spurred. They are usually trained horizontally, at about rz ft. from the ground, and may consist of one stem or of two, the stems in the latter case being trained in opposite directions. In cold districts the finer sorts of apples may be grown against walls as upright or oblique cordons. From these cordon trees very fine fruit may often be obtained. The apple may also be grown as an espalier tree, a form which does not require much lateral space. The ordinary trained trees for espaliers and walls should be planted 20 ft. apart.

The fruit of the apple is produced on spurs which form on the branchlets of two years old and upwards, and continue fertile for a series of years. The principal pruning should be performed in summer, the young shoots if crowded being thinned out, and the superabundant laterals shortened by breaking them half through. The general winter pruning of the trees may take place any time from the beginning of November to the beginning of March, in open weather. The trees are rather subject to the attacks of the American blight, the white cottony substance found on the bark and developed by an insect (Eriosoma mali), somewhat similar to the green-fly of the garden, but not a true aphis. It may be removed by scrubbing with a hard brush, by painting the affected spots with any bland oil, or by washing them with dilute paraffin and soft soap.

The apple-blossom weevil (Anthonomus pomorum), a small reddish-brown beetle, often causes serious damage to the flowers. The female bores and lays an egg in the unopened bud, and the maggot feeds on the stamens and pistil. The weevil hibernates in the crannies of the bark or in the soil at the base of the trees, and bandages of tarred cloth placed round the stem in spring will prevent the female from crawling up.

The codlin moth (Carpocapsa pomonana) lays its eggs in May in the calyx of the flowers. The young caterpillar, which is white with black head and neck, gnaws its way through the fruit, and pierces the rind. When nearly full grown it attacks the core, and the fruit soon drops. The insect emerges and spins its cocoon in a crack of the bark.

To check this disease the apples which fall before ripening should be promptly removed. A loosely made hay-band twisted round the stem about a foot from the ground is of use. The grubs will generally choose the bands in which to make their cocoon; at the end of the season the bands are collected and burned.

The following are a few of the most approved varieties of the apple tree, arranged in order of their ripening, with the months in which they are in use: - Dessert Apples.

White Juneating.. July Early Red Margaret. Aug.

Irish Peach.. Aug.

Devonshire Quarrenden Aug., Sept.

Duchess of Oldenburg Aug., Sept.

Red Astrachan.. Sept.

Kerry Pippin. Sept., Oct.

Peasgood's Nonesuch. Sept. - Nov.

Sam Young. Oct. - Dec.

King of the Pippins. Oct. - Jan.

Cox's Orange Pippin. Oct. - Feb.

Court of Wick. Oct. - Mar.

Blenheim Pippin. Nov. - Feb.

Sykehouse Russet Nov. - Feb.

Fearn's Pippin Nov. - Mar.

Mannington's Pearmain Nov. - Mar.

Margil. Nov. - Mar.

Ribston Pippin. Nov. - Mar.

Golden Pippin Nov. - Jan.

Reinette de Canada Nov. - Apr.

Ashmead's Kernel Nov. - Apr.

White Winter Calville (grown under glass) Dec. - Mar.

Braddick's Nonpareil. Dec. - Apr.

Court-penal Plat. Dec. - Apr.

Northern Spy. Dec.-May Cornish Gilliflower Dec. - May Scarlet Nonpareil Jan. - Mar.

Cockle's Pippin. Jan. - Apr.

Lamb Abbey Pearmain Jan. - May Old Nonpareil. Jan. - May Duke of Devonshire. Feb. - May Sturmer Pippin. Feb. - June Kitchen Apples.

Keswick Codlin. Aug. - Sept.

Lord Suffield. Aug. - Sept.

Manks Codlin Aug. - Oct.

Ecklinville Seedling Aug. - Nov.

Stirling Castle. Aug. - Nov.

New Hawthornden Sept. - Oct.

Stone's Seedling. Sept. - Nov.

Emperor Alexander Sept. - Dec.

Waltham Abbey Seedling Sept. - Jan.

Cellini.. Oct., Nov.

Gravenstein.. Oct. - Dec.

Hawthornden. Oct. - Dec.

Baumann's Red Winter Reinette Nov. - Mar.

Mere de Menage. Oct. - Mar.

Beauty of Kent.. Oct. - Feb.

Yorkshire Greening Oct. - Feb.

Gloria Mundi. Nov. - Jan.

Blenheim Pippin. Nov. - Feb.

Tower of Glammis Nov. - Feb.

Warner's King. Nov. - Mar.

Alfriston. Nov. - Apr.

Northern Greening Nov. - Apr.

Reinette de Canada Nov. - Apr.

Bess Pool. Nov. - May Winter Queening Nov. - May Lane's Prince Albert Oct. - May Norfolk Beaufin.. Nov. - July Apples for table use should have a sweet juicy pulp and rich aromatic flavour, while those suitable for cooking should possess the property of forming a uniform soft pulpy mass when boiled or baked. In their uncooked state they are not very digestible, but when cooked they form a very safe and useful food, exercising a gentle laxative influence.

Water.

Pro-

Ether

Extract.

te i d.

Carbo-

hydrate.

Ash.

Cellu-

lose.

Acids.

Fresh .

82.5

0.4

0.5

12.5

0.4

2.7

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Dried .

36.2

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3 o

49.1

1.8

4.9

3.6

According to Hutchison their composition is as follows: - Many exotic fruits, having nothing in common with the apple, are known by that name, e.g. the Balsam apple, Momordica Balsamina; the custard apple, Anona reticulata; the egg apple, Solanum esculentum; the rose apple, various species of Eugenia; the pineapple, Ananas sativus; the star apple, Chrysophyllum Cainito; and the apples of Sodom, Solanum sodomeum. (A. B. R.)


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Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

See also apple, A.P.P.L.E., and äpple

Contents

English

Pronunciation

  • enPR: ă'pəl, IPA: /ˈæpəl/, SAMPA: /"{p@l/

Proper noun

Singular
Apple

Plural
-

Apple

  1. (with the) A nickname for New York City, usually “the Big Apple”.
  2. (trademark) A multimedia corporation (Apple Corps) and record company (Apple Records) founded by the Beatles.
  3. (trademark) Name of the company Apple Inc., formerly Apple Computer, that produces computers and other digital devices.
  4. (trademark) A computer produced by the company Apple Inc.
  5. (rare) A female given name.

Anagrams

  • Anagrams of aelpp
  • appel

Strategy wiki

Up to date as of January 23, 2010
(Redirected to Category:Apple article)

From StrategyWiki, the free strategy guide and walkthrough wiki

Apple
Apple's company logo.
Founded April 1, 1976
Located Cupertino, California
Website http://www.apple.com

Apple is a long-running consumer electronics company, most well known for their Mac computers, Mac OS, and the iPod and iPhone. While Apple has promoted the gaming abilities of their various systems, their only system designed specifically for gaming was the short-lived Apple Pippin.

Apple's main competitor in the computer market is Microsoft, responsible for the popular Windows line of operating systems used by the majority of computers. The companies also compete on mobile devices to a lesser extent.

Application ratings

Apple rates applications worldwide based on their content, and determines what age group each is appropriate for. According to the iPhone OS 3.0 launch event, the iPhone will allow blocking of objectionable apps in the iPhone's Settings. The following are the ratings that Apple has detailed:

Rating Description
4+ Contains no objectionable material.
9+ May contain mild or infrequent occurrences of cartoon, fantasy or realistic violence, and infrequent or mild mature, suggestive, or horror-themed content which may not be suitable for children under the age of 9.
12+ May also contain infrequent mild language, frequent or intense cartoon, fantasy or realistic violence, and mild or infrequent mature or suggestive themes, and simulated gambling which may not be suitable for children under the age of 12.
17+ May also contain frequent and intense mature, horror, and suggestive themes; plus sexual content, nudity, alcohol, tobacco, and drugs which may not be suitable for children under the age of 17. Consumers must be at least 17 years old to purchase games with this rating.

Subcategories

This category has the following 6 subcategories, out of 6 total.

A

I

M


Bible wiki

Up to date as of January 23, 2010

From BibleWiki

(Heb. tappuah, meaning "fragrance"). Probably the apricot or quince is intended by the word, as Palestine was too hot for the growth of apples proper. It is enumerated among the most valuable trees of Palestine (Joel 1:12), and frequently referred to in Canticles, and noted for its beauty (Song 2:3ff; Song 8:5). There is nothing to show that it was the "tree of the knowledge of good and evil." Dr. Tristram has suggested that the apricot has better claims than any other fruit-tree to be the apple of Scripture. It grows to a height of 30 feet, has a roundish mass of glossy leaves, and bears an orange coloured fruit that gives out a delicious perfume. The "apple of the eye" is the Heb. ishon, meaning manikin, i.e., the pupil of the eye (Prov 7:2). (Comp. the promise, Zech 2:8; the prayer, Ps 178; and its fulfilment, Deut 32:10.)

The so-called "apple of Sodom" some have supposed to be the Solanum sanctum (Heb. hedek), rendered "brier" in Mic 7:4, a thorny plant bearing fruit like the potato-apple. This shrub abounds in the Jordan valley. (See Engedi)

This entry includes text from Easton's Bible Dictionary, 1897.

what mentions this? (please help by turning references to this page into wiki links)

This article needs to be merged with APPLE (Jewish Encyclopedia).

Simple English

Apple
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta
Class: Magnoliopsida
Order: Rosales
Family: Rosaceae
Subfamily: Maloideae[1]
Genus: Malus
Species: M. domestica
Binomial name
Malus domestica
Borkh.

The apple is a pomaceous fruit from the apple tree. It is in the species Malus domestica in the rose family Rosaceae. It is one of the most cultivated tree fruits.

The tree came from Central Asia. Its wild ancestor is still there today. There are more than 7,500 kinds of different apple trees.[2]

At least 55 million tons of apples were grown around in the world in 2005. All together, they cost about $10 billion. China produced about 35% of the world's apples.[3] The United States produces more than 7.5% of the apples around the world. This makes it the second greatest producer. Iran is third, after which comes Turkey, Russia, Italy and India.

Contents

Botanical information

The apple has a small, deciduous tree that grows up to 3 to 12 metres (9.8 to 39 ft) tall. The apple tree has a broad crown with thick twigs. The leaves are alternately arranged simple ovals. They are 5 to 12 cm long and 3–6 centimetres (1.2–2.4 in) wide. It has a sharp top with a soft underside. Blossoms come out in spring at the same time that the leaves begin to bud. The flowers are white. They also have a slightly pink color. They are five petaled, and 2.5 to 3.5 centimetres (0.98 to 1.4 in) in diameter. The fruit matures in autumn. It is usually 5 to 9 centimetres (2.0 to 3.5 in) diameter. There are five carpels arranged in a star in the middle of the fruit. Every carpel has one to three seeds. ]]

Wild ancestors

The wild ancestors of Malus domestica are Malus sieversii. They grow wild in the mountains of Central Asia in the south of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and Xinjiang, China,[4] and possibly also Malus sylvestris.[5] Unlike domesticated apples, their leaves become red in autumn.[6] They are being used recently to develop Malus domestica to grow in colder climates.[7]

History

The apple tree was possibly the earliest tree to be cultivated.[8] Its fruits have become better over thousands of years. It is said that Alexander the Great discovered dwarfed apples in Asia Minor in 300 BCE. Asia and Europe have used winter apples as an important food for thousands of years. From when Europeans arrived, Argentina and the United States have used apples as food as well.[8] Apples were brought to North America in the 1600s. The first apple orchard on the North American continent was said to be near Boston in 1625. In the 1900s, costly fruit industries, where the apple was a very important species, began developing.[7]

In culture

Germanic paganism

" (1901) by Carl Larsson]]

In Norse mythology, the goddess Iðunn gives apples to the gods in Prose Edda (written in the 13th century by Snorri Sturluson) that makes them young forever. English scholar H. R. Ellis Davidson suggests that apples were related to religious practices in Germanic paganism. It was from there, she claims, that Norse paganism developed. She points out that buckets of apples were discovered in the place of burial for the Oseberg ship in Norway. She also remarks that fruit and nuts (Iðunn having been described as changing into a nut in Skáldskaparmál) have been discovered in the early graves of the Germanic peoples in England. They have also been discovered somewhere else on the continent of Europe. She suggests that this may have had a symbolic meaning. Nuts are still a symbol of fertility in Southwest England.

Sometimes apples are eaten after they are cooked. Often apples are eaten uncooked. Apples can also be made into drinks. Apple juice and apple cider are apple drinks.

The flesh of the fruit is firm with a taste anywhere from sour to sweet. Apples used for cooking are sour, and need to be cooked with sugar, while other apples are sweet, and do not need cooking. There are some seeds at the core, that can be removed with a tool that removes the core, or by carefully using a knife.

The scientific name of the apple tree genus in the Latin language is Malus. Most apples that people grow are of the Malus domestica species.

Most apples are good to eat raw (not cooked), and are also used in many kinds of baked foods, such as apple pie. Apples are cooked until they are soft to make apple sauce.

Apples are also made into the drinks apple juice and cider. Usually, cider contains a little alcohol, about as much as beer. The regions of Brittany in France and Cornwall in England are known for their apple ciders.

If one wants to grow a certain type of apple it is not possible to do this by planting a seed from the wanted type. The seed will have DNA from the apple that the seeds came from, but it will also have DNA from the apple flower that pollinated the seeds, which may well be a different type. This means that the tree which would grow from planting would be a mixture of two. In order to grow a certain type of apple, a small twig, or 'scion', is cut from the tree that grows the type of apple desired, and then added on to a specially grown stump called a rootstock. The tree that grows will only create apples of the type needed.

Apple cultivars

There are more than 7,500 known cultivars of apples.[9] Different cultivars are available for temperate and subtropical climates. One large collection of over 2,100 [10] apple cultivars is at the National Fruit Collection in England. Most of these cultivars are grown for eating fresh (dessert apples). However, some are grown simply for cooking or making cider. Cider apples are usually too tart to eat immediately. However, they give cider a rich flavor that dessert apples cannot.[11]

Most popular apple cultivars are soft but crisp. Colorful skin, easy shipping, disease resistance, 'Red Delicious' apple shape, and popular flavor are also needed.[2] Modern apples are usually sweeter than older cultivars. This is because popular tastes in apples have become different. Most North Americans and Europeans enjoy sweet apples.[12] Extremely sweet apples with hardly any acid taste are popular in Asia[12] and India.[11]

In the United Kingdom

In the United Kingdom there are about 3000 different types of apples. The most common apple type grown in England is the 'Bramley seedling', which is a popular cooking apple.

Apple orchards are not as common as they were in the early 1900s, when apples were rarely brought in from other countries. Organizations such as Common Ground teach people about the importance of rare and local varieties of fruit. 'Apple Day' is celebrated each October 21 in many countries.

In North America

Many apples are grown in temperate parts of the United States and Canada. In many areas where apple growing is important, people have huge celebrations:

  • Shenandoah Apple Blossom Festival - held six days every spring in Winchester, Virginia.
  • Annapolis Valley Apple Blossom Festival - held five days every spring (May-June) in Nova Scotia.
  • Washington State Apple Blossom Festival - held two weeks every spring (April-May) in Wenatchee, Washington.

Varieties of apples

File:Golden delicious
A Golden Delicious apple.

There are lots of different varieties of apples, including:

Family

Apples are in the group Maloideae. It is a subfamily of the family Rosaceae. They are in the same subfamily as pears. Its family is the family of rose like plants, and roses are in the family.

References

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