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Apraclonidine
Systematic (IUPAC) name
2,6-dichloro-N- (4,5-dihydro-1H-imidazol-2-yl) benzene-1,4-diamine
Identifiers
CAS number 66711-21-5
ATC code S01EA03
PubChem 2216
DrugBank APRD00012
ChemSpider 2130
Chemical data
Formula C 9H10Cl2N4  
Mol. mass 245.108 g/mol
SMILES eMolecules & PubChem
Pharmacokinetic data
Bioavailability  ?
Protein binding 98.7%
Metabolism  ?
Half life 8 hours
Excretion  ?
Therapeutic considerations
Pregnancy cat.  ?
Legal status Rx only
Routes Ophthalmic solution
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Apraclonidine (INN), also known as Iopidine, is a sympathomimetic used in glaucoma therapy. It is an α2-adrenergic agonist.

Apraclonidine is administered at a concentration of 1% for the prevention and treatment of postsurgical intraocular pressure elevation and 0.5% for short-term adjunctive therapy in patients on maximally tolerated medical therapy who require additional redirection of intraocular pressure. One drop is usually added one hour prior to laser eye surgery and another drop is given after the procedure is complete.

Clinical uses

Apraclonidine is indicated for the short-term adjunctive treatment of patients on maximally tolerated medical therapy who require additional IOP reduction. Patients on maximally tolerated medical therapy who are treated with apraclonidine to delay surgery should have frequent followup examinations and treatment should be discontinued if the intraocular pressure rises significantly.

External links

References

  • Chen P, Chen J, Lu D, Chen Y, Hsiao C (2006). "Comparing efficacies of 0.5% apraclonidine with 4% cocaine in the diagnosis of horner syndrome in pediatric patients.". J Ocul Pharmacol Ther 22 (3): 182–7. doi:10.1089/jop.2006.22.182. PMID 16808679.  
  • Aslanides l, Tsiklis N, Ozkilic E, Coskunseven E, Pallikaris l, Jankov M (2006). "The effect of topical apraclonidine on subconjunctival hemorrhage and flap adherence in LASIK patients.". J Refract Surg 22 (6): 585–8. PMID 16805122.  
  • Koc F, Kansu T, Kavuncu S, Firat E (2006). "Topical apraclonidine testing discloses pupillary sympathetic denervation in diabetic patients.". J Neuroophthalmol 26 (1): 25–9. PMID 16518162.  
  • Garibaldi D, Hindman H, Grant M, Iliff N, Merbs S. "Effect of 0.5% apraclonidine on ptosis in Horner syndrome.". Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg 22 (1): 53–5. PMID 16418668.  
  • Onal S, Gozum N, Gucukoglu A. "Effect of apraclonidine versus dorzolamide on intraocular pressure after phacoemulsification.". Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging 36 (6): 457–62. PMID 16355950.  
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