Arab Singaporean: Wikis

  
  

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Arab Singaporean
Total population
7,000 to 10,000 (estimates)
Languages

English, Malay, some Arabic speakers.

Religion

Predominantly Sunni Islam of the Shafi'i sect. A small minority practicing Christianity and Judaism.

Related ethnic groups

Arab diaspora, Malay Singaporeans.

The majority of the Arabs in Singapore trace their ancestry from the southern part of the Arabian Peninsula called Hadhramaut, which is now part of the Republic of Yemen. The Republic of Yemen was formed on 30 November 1967 when it achieved independence after 129 years of British rule. The people living there are known as “Hadhramis”. The land there is mostly desert region. The fertile areas, suitable for cultivation, are small and concentrated in the wadi region. This harsh natural environment drove the Hadhramis to travel out of the area to trade and acquire the necessary items they needed. They had travelled to and engaged in trade in several areas: Hyderabad, India (before 1947), Dar-es-Salaam and East Africa as well as Malaya and the Netherlands East Indies.

Ingram (1936) gave a description of the type of social classes of the Hadhramis. Among them were migrants from Iraq, the Seyyids (Syeds), who were descendants of the grandsons of Prophet Muhammad, Hasan ibn Ali and Husayn ibn Ali. The Syeds were well known for their education and influence over religious matters. Another social class, Sheikhs, was also influential in matters concerning religion. Both the Syeds and the Sheikhs formed the top of the social class in Hadhramaut. The Arabs in Singapore are descended from the Syeds and Sheikhs. As such, they carry the title of “Syed” and “Sharifah” (for men and women respectively) and “Sheikh” and "Shaykhah" (for men and women respectively).

Alkaff Mansion Singapore.

Contents

History

Hadhrami migration

The early Arab settlers came to Singapore with wealth made in Indonesia. Being already familiar with Malay customs, they were accepted by the Malays living there. In 1824, the population of Singapore was 10,683. Out of this total, there were only 15 Arabs. In 1829, there were 34 Arabs with only 3 Arab women among them. Their population increased as follows:

Year 1871 1881 1891 1901 1911 1921
Total Arab Population in Singapore 465 806 806 919 1,226 1,286
Population of Arabs compared to the population of Malays in Singapore:
Year 1931 1947 1957 1970 1980
Total Population of Singapore 557,754 938,144 1,444,929 2,074,507 2,413,945
Percentage of Malay Population 37,373 (6.70%) 70,331 (7.50%) 135,662 (9.38%) 268,175 (12.93%) 351,508 (14.56%)
Percentage of Arab Population 1,939 (0.35%) 2,588 (0.28%) 3,471 (0.24%) 2,186 (0.11%) 2,491 (0.10%)

(Source: Lim Lu Sia, 1987:32)

The census for 1970s and 1980s is not believed to reflect the actual number of Arabs in Singapore. This is because a number of Arabs have been officially registered as “Malay”. After Singapore became an independent country in 1965, the ethnic Malays enjoyed educational benefits granted by the state. Some Arab families then listed the ethnicity of their children to "Malay" to receive these benefits. Because of intermarriage between Malay or Indian Muslim men and Arab women, some Malays and Indians have Arab ancestry. People of Arab descent matrilineally are not officially listed as Arabs as a person's race in Singapore is determined by his father's race.

Identification with the Malays in Singapore

In Singapore, the Malays form the largest Muslim community. As such, being a Muslim in Singapore is usually closely associated with being Malay. Some Arabs had chosen to identify themselves as Malays. The Arabs here had been exposed to Malay culture and lifestyles and considered themselves a part of the Malay community. This choice of change of ethnicity on their part was also made possible because of their shared religion with the Malays, intermarriage with them and also an acceptance and assimilation of Malay culture and values by the Arab community in Singapore.

In fact, the Arabs have not only assimilated Malay culture and values but have played an active part in the lives of the Malay community in the religious and economic areas as well as providing intellectual and social leadership. This took place even in the early years of British rule in Singapore. During this time, the Hadhrami Arabs worked in land and property dealing, batik trade, importing goods from the Arab countries and as brokers. Some of them also became teachers of the Islamic faith and organizers of the Haj.

Contribution to Singapore

The position and contribution of the Arabs to Singapore can be seen when a member of the Aljunied clan was appointed as a member of the mostly European-dominated Chamber of Commerce in 1837. Two Arabs, Syed Mohamed bin Ahmed Alsagoff and Syed Mohammed bin Syed Omar Alsagoff, served as Municipal Commissioners in 1872–1898 and 1928–1933 respectively.

The Arabs formed their own association in 1946 which still exists today. The objectives then were to promote and enhance Islam as well as the use of Arabic language. By the time the Arab Association Singapore was founded, the Arab traders were the wealthiest community in Singapore. Syed Ali Mohammed Al-Juneid, for instance, donated a large plot of land near Victoria and Arab Streets to Tan Tock Seng’s hospital. He also built public wells across town to provide free water, at a time when none was being supplied by the municipality. The Al-Juneid family - after whom Aljunied Road is named - made large donations to the construction of the Town Hall (now the Victoria Memorial and Concert Hall), while paying for the building of public bridges. The Al-Kaff footbridge on the Singapore River takes its name from another prominent Arab family, which built the first Japanese Gardens opened to the public before the World War II (where the Sennett private housing estate is today).

The Arabs were also well known for their contribution to wakaf lands (lands held in trust). The wakaf land of Syed Mohamed Alsagoff was formed in 1904 to help support efforts for orphanages, mosques and Islamic schools. Today, the Aljunied Islamic School and the Alsagoff Islamic School stand as a legacy of the contribution of the Arab community towards Islamic education in Singapore.

Arab role in trade

The Arabs had played a dominant role in trade in South East Asia since the fifteenth century. When Sir Stamford Raffles founded Singapore in 1819, he attracted the Arab traders to his new city. By 1824, there were 15 Arabs out of a population of 10,683 and Raffles anticipated a rapid growth in Arab immigration. His blueprint for Singapore included plans for an Arab district. In his instructions to a Singapore housing committee in 1822, he stated:

"The Arab population would require every consideration. No situation will be more appropriate for them than the vicinity of the Sultan’s residence…" (Buckley 1902:85)

The first Arabs to arrive in Singapore in 1819 were two wealthy merchants from Palembang, Sumatra. Their numbers gradually increased and by 1846, there were five important Arab merchant houses. The al-Junied [al-junaid] الجنيد family in Singapore grew to be a rich and influential as did the al-Kaffs [al-kāf] الكاف and the al-Saggoffs [al-saqqāf] السقاف. There are streets and even a town council named after them.

The al-Saggoffs were spice traders and became influential by marrying into a royal family from the Celebes. They acquired many properties, like the other Arab families, including the "Perseverance Estate" where they grew lemon grass. The estate is now considered to be the heart of the Muslim community in Singapore. As well as being successful merchants and land owners, the family became involved in civic affairs. The family members, at times, held civic office from the 1870s until 1965. The al-Kaff family arrived here in 1852. All these families lived in mansions of considerable opulence like the al-Kaff house. Today, the building is a restaurant called the Alkaff Mansion (a gesture to preserve the name). Other than that, it has no other Hadhrami connection, either in architectural style or ownership.

Arab business domination

The Arabs dominated the businesses in Singapore, principally in oil and trade, during the British colonial period. Arabic culture had a strong influence on the local Malay culture through its religion. This is seen in the Middle Eastern-style architecture of the mosques in Kampong Glam.

In the heyday of Arab prosperity, the Arabs in Singapore maintained close links with Hadhramaut and large amounts of money were sent back to the homeland. The rich built themselves splendid houses, like the Alkaff house. They also sent their sons back to Hadhramaut for periods of time to enhance their identity as Hadhramis. This custom maintained their language and Hadhrami culture. It even resulted in some Malay being incorporated in the spoken Arabic of Hadhramaut (see Hadhrami Arabic). Hadhramaut was regarded as a cultural training ground of the young Arab men and the time spent there was the final preparation for manhood. Upon their return to Singapore, these young men would take their place in the family businesses.

After World War II

During World War II it became impossible for the Hadhramis in Singapore to travel abroad but they continued to do so thereafter. However, after the Rent Control Act came into effect, Hadrami incomes were frozen and it became clear that the wakaf (trust) incomes would not be sufficient for the next generation. It was then that the Arab families took a keener interest in the education of their children. The richer families sent their children to London to study and the children of others spent time working in Aden rather than just going to Hadhramaut. The cultural and linguistic links were still maintained. However, the family incomes continued to decline.

The 1960s

In the 1960s, there came a major change. The independence of South Yemen with a communist government in power put an end to the Singapore Hadramis returning home. At the same time, the economic developments in Singapore made the importance of the English language and of obtaining an education even more essential. The new Arab generation had grown up without speaking Arabic and had lost both its identity and its affiliation with Hadhramaut. Some families, in the oil boom of the 1970s, tried sending their sons to the Persian Gulf or Saudi Arabia, but it was not a success. The young men did not like living in Saudi Arabia as their prospects in Singapore were better than on the Arabian peninsula.

Present day

Identity crisis

The Hadhrami community in Singapore is now facing an identity crisis. The younger generation does not speak Arabic and has lost its affiliation with Hadhramaut, partly because Hadhramis have stopped sending their children back there. The Arab community recognises the lack of knowledge of Arabic is a major problem and an Arabic language centre has been set up. It is hoped that the younger generation will learn both the language and about their culture and heritage. The challenge facing the community is to ensure that the new generation maintains its identity. The link with Hadhramaut needs to be re-established and travel to Hadhramaut needs to be encouraged.

Singaporean Arabs census today

Singapore is a cosmopolitan city state made up of various races. The 1990 census shows the Chinese as the majority with around 74% of the population, the indigenous Malays with 14%, the Indians at less than 10% and the balance placed in the category of "others". This "others" category includes Filipinos, Eurasians, Vietnamese, Arabs and all other "others". The census shows Arabs to be around 7,000, but unofficial estimates place the actual number of Arabs at around 10,000.

Arabs and wakaf (waqf وقف ) properties today

The Singapore Hadramis were major landlords, the large families having substantial properties held in trust, which ranged from private family trusts to public charitable trusts. Most of the land in today’s central business district of Singapore was once owned by Hadrami wakafs. These wakafs, bearing the family names, whether private or charitable, gave considerable prestige to the Arab community among the Muslims in Singapore. In recent years, four factors have affected the wakafs and undermined the status of the community. The first three factors have been a direct result of government policies.

First factor

The first was the enactment of the Administration of Muslim Law Act 1968. The Singapore Islamic Council is the corporate body now empowered to oversee the administration of charitable wakafs in Singapore. Prior to the Act, the Arab trustees were in total control of their wakafs. With the transfer of the wakafs’ administration to the Council, the Arabs’ authority over them was considerably undermined. The association of wakafs with the Arabs and their reputation as benefactors diminished as the public no longer saw their connection with the charitable functions of the wakafs.

Second factor

The second factor was the Rent Control Act 1947. The rents of pre-war properties were controlled and, in effect, frozen. As the Arab wakafs were mostly pre-war properties, the income of the Arab families have correspondingly diminished. The decline in the income from the wakafs resulted in the diminishing economic influence of the Arabs. The Arabs were also, unfortunately, not prepared for such a drastic drop in their income. They had not given their children a Western education. Many Arabs went to madrasas or Islamic schools and some families never sent their children for any formal education at all. The changing developments that started taking place in Singapore since the 1960s has made it difficult for the Arabs to compete.

Third factor

The third factor was the Land Acquisition Act. Given the size of the island, land is scarce in Singapore and it has been the government’s policy to have complete control over land usage. The Land Acquisition Act empowered the government to acquire land required for urban renewal and compensation to be paid on a predetermined formula. The compensation amounts calculated would be significantly lower than the prevailing market value. The government embarked on a major acquisition campaign in the 1970s and 1980s. Pre-war properties were the major target for acquisition as Singapore underwent a modernisation programme. These pre-war properties were subject to rent control and had tenants that could not be removed.

The wakafs were not in a position to develop these properties. Significant properties owned by Arab wakafs were acquired and minimal compensation paid. This eroded Arab wealth and influence. It also diminished the Arab identity as substantial landlords.

The Sheikh Salem Talib Family settlement, for example, used to have more than three pages in its audited accounts listing the properties held, but the current accounts have less than one page. More than half of the properties were acquired by the government. The al-Saggoff Perseverance Estate was acquired in 1962 for urban renewal. Another 10-acre (40,000 m2) plot of land in a prime area was donated by the al-Junied family to the Muslim Trust Fund (a wakaf created by the al-Saggoffs) to be developed so that the income could be used for welfare projects. The Trust wanted to build a mosque and a madrasah, but building permission was not granted by the government. That piece of land was acquired in 1985. In present-day Singapore, the Arabs are no longer considered as the main landowners. Many Singapore Arabs regard the land acquisition policy as the main reason for both their loss of status and identity.

Fourth factor

The fourth factor is the use of professional trustees to manage the wakafs instead of family members. Most of the large private family trusts had problems of mismanagement or breaches of trust and legal disputes. In many cases a professional trustee was then appointed, which had a similar effect to the Administration of Muslim Law Act: the management of the wakafs became impersonal and the Arab families lost the social status of being associated with them.

Notable Arab Singaporeans

This article contains a list of notable Arab Singaporeans, people with Arab ancestry born or naturalized in Singapore.

Politics

  • Dr Ahmad Mattar - former Minister for the Environment - credited with cleaning up the Singapore River and other waterways. In 1972, he entered politics and successfully contested for a seat in Parliament, representing the constituency of Brickworks, and was to remain in Parliament until 1996. During his long and distinguished political career, he has held many senior government positions, first as Parliamentary Secretary for Education and then as Minister for Social Affairs, and finally as Minister for the Environment. In 1996, he retired from politics. He is currently the Chairman of IMC Technologies, a private educational institution, where he continues to make contributions to education in Singapore.
  • Syed Ali Redha Alsagoff (b. 1928 – d. 1998) – businessman, politician and Islamic teacher. Known as the “father of Muslim bursaries”, his distinguished service to spur Muslim students via the Prophet Muhammad Birthday Celebration Board spanned three decades from 1965. He also set up the Mendaki Foundation in 1982 to help children of Muslim parents from the lower income group with their education. Served as a voluntary Islamic teacher at his former school, Aljunied Islamic School. He was also a businessman and real estate developer. Joining politics since the 1940s, he almost clinched the first Mayor of Singapore in the late 1950s. He led the Malay Chamber of Commerce and Industry into the mainstream in Singapore. Among the awards he received included the Knight of the Nation (in 1965, when Singapore was in Malaysia), the Public Service Star and Justice of Peace.

Civil Service

  • Mr Po’ad Bin Shaik Abu Bakar Mattar, BBM, PBM - civil servant. He was appointed as a Member of the Public Service Commission in February 2004. An accountant by training, he had held various positions in Deloitte & Touche ( a major accounting firm in Singapore) before becoming its Senior Partner in 2002. He retired from this position on 28 Feb 2006 . He served as a Director of MediaCorp TV Singapore Private Limited (formerly Television Corporation Singapore) between 1994 and 1999. From 1992 to 2003, he was a member of the Ngee Ann Polytechnic Council. He was also a Board member of the Public Utilities Board from 1 Apr 2001 to 31 Mar 2007 and has been a director of its wholly-owned subsidiary, Singapore Utilities International Pte Ltd since 1 Apr 2004. He is currently a member of the Council of Presidential Advisers. He was awarded the Public Service Medal in 2002 and the Public Service Star in 2007.

Armed Forces

Religion

  • Syed Abdillah Bin Ahmad Al-Jufri (b. 1938 - d. 2003) – Islamic scholar and teacher. He founded and led the Islamic Scholars and Teachers Association (Pergas). He was also the principal of the Aljunied Islamic School (his alma mater) and a member of the Fatwa Committee of the Islamic Religious Council of Singapore (MUIS). He learnt from famed scholars such as the late Sheikh Omar Abdullah Al-Khatib. Since 1977, he taught in many schools, mosques and Islamic organizations. A prolific writer, he authored, co-authored and translated many books. He also wrote numerous articles and Friday sermons. He also served in the MUIS’ education department. He was awarded the Public Service Star and MUIS Distinguished Service. As a great teacher, his death on 4 January 2003 was mourned by the Muslims in Singapore.
  • Syed Ahmad Muhammad Semait (b. 1933 - d. 2006) – Islamic literary figure. His name was etched in the development of dakwah in the region especially the translation of noted Islamic scholars’ work from Arabic to Malay. He set up the Pustaka Nasional, one of the most enduring Malay publishing firms in the region. He learnt from famed scholars such as the late Sheikh Omar Abdullah Al-Khatib. He wrote, translated and edited hundreds of books on Islam and taught as far as he could. Was an advisor to the Islamic Scholars and Teachers Association (Pergas). To revive Malay literary developments after Singapore’s separation from Malaysia in 1965, he undertook the less lucrative venture of publishing novels, short stories and Malay poems.
  • Syed Isa bin Mohamed Semait (b. 1938 - ) – current Mufti of Singapore. He was born in Hadramaut, Yemen. He came to Singapore after his father had tried to seek a better life for his family. A graduate of the Aljunied Islamic School. He also studied at the Al-Azhar University in Cairo, Eygpt when the Asia Foundation decided to sponsor his air ticket after he had managed to obtain a scholarship from the institution. He subsequently received his bachelor's degree in Islamic jurisprudence from the university in 1969. He was appointed to the post of Mufti in 1972 at the age of 34. He was awarded the Public Administration Medal (Gold) in 2009.

Arts and entertainment

  • Sheikh Haikel Sheikh Salim (b. 1976 - ) – rapper, actor and radio deejay who is better known as Sheikh Haikel. He became known to the public when he first won the Asia Bagus Grand Championship as part of the rap duo, Construction Sight, in 1993. He has since established himself as a solo rap artist in both Singapore and Malaysia. He has also moved on to acting, appearing on stage, movies and television. He acted in the successful production of Army Daze (both the movie and the stage production), and appeared in the top rated television show Under One Roof. He was also a deejay for the local broadcast channel 98.7FM when he was asked to leave in 2004 after complaints from some listeners about inappropriate risqué comments he had made on-air. Due to his popularity though, he was later back with the Breakfast Show on channel 91.3FM in 2008.
  • Syed Mohsen Alkaff (b. 1964 - ) – entertainer who is better known as Moe Alkaff. Became famous when he hosted the Candid Camera like TV series, Gotcha in 1993–4. Also appeared in the comedy movie One Leg Kicking. He currently lives with his family in Colorado, USA where he runs a company as an organiser of meetings, incentives, conferences and events.

Surnames

People of Arab descent in Singapore hold the following surnames arranged alphabetically:

Notes on pronunciation: Pronunciation of names is that of Classical Arabic or Standard Arabic. Dialectal pronunciation may slightly differ in some sounds, e.g. Classical [q] may be pronounced [g]. Classical vowels such as [ai] or [aw] are pronounced in colloquial Arabic as [ē] or [ō] respectively. Thus the name Bagushair (Baq'shir) [bā qushair] باقشير is [bā gishēr]. Note also that Arabic glottal stop < ء > [hamzah] is transliterated <k> in Malay, e.g. Barajak [bā rajā’] بارجاء . Below is a list of names preceded by a table showing the transliteration system of consonants together with their IPA values. Transliteration and Arabic spelling of names with ??? need checking.) :

Arabic Transliteration IPA transcription
ث th or ṯ θ
ذ dh or ḏ ð
ظ đ̣ or ð̣ ðˤ
ص
ط
ض
ء ʔ
ع ʕ
غ gh or ġ ʁ
خ kh or x χ
ج j or ǧ d͡ʒ
ش sh or š ʃ
ي y j
  • Aboed [‘abūd / ‘abbūd]عبود/ عبّود
  • Aidid [‘aidīd] عيديد
  • Albahar [al-bāhr] الباحر
  • Al Bin Said [āl bin sa‘īd] آل بن سعيد
  • Al Bukhari [al-bukhārī] البخاري
  • Al Idrus [al-‘aidarūs] (also spelt Alaydrus) العيدروس
  • Alatas [al-‘aṭṭās] العطاس
  • Alaydrus [al-‘aidarūs] العيدروس
  • Albar [al-bār]البار
  • AlHabshi [al-ḥabshī] الحبشي
  • AlHadad [al-ḥaddād] الحداد
  • Alhadi [al-hādī] الهادي
  • AlHadry [al-ḥadrī] الحدري
  • AlHajri [al-hajrī] الهجري
  • AlHamid [al-ḥāmid] الحامد(different from the Bin Hamid [bin-ḥāmid]بن حامد)
  • AlJufry [al-jufrī] الجفري
  • Aljunied [al-junaid]الجنيد
  • Alkaff [al-kāf] الكاف
  • AlKhairid [al-khirid] الخرد
  • Alkhatib [al-khaṭīb]الخطيب
  • AlKhatiri ???الخاطري (but if Al Kathiri, pronunciation is [al-kathīrī] الكثيري)
  • AlMadihid ???[āl mudaiḥij]مديحج
  • AlMahdaly [al-mahdalī] المهدلي
  • AlMushaiya ???[also al-mushaikh]
  • AlNahdi [al-nahdī] النهدي
  • AlNaziri ???[al-nadhīri]
  • Alqadri [al-qādirī] القادري
  • AlQudsi [al-qudsī] القدسي
  • Alsagoff [al-saqāf] السقاف
  • AlShahab [āl shihāb] آل شهاب (other names : Bin Shahab & Bin Shihab بن شهاب - all belong to the same family).
  • Alsree [al-sirī] السري
  • Altuywai [al-tuwai] التوي
  • Alwaini [al-‘wuainī] العويني
  • Ashiblie [al shiblī] الشبلي
  • al-Zair ???(possibly also Az-zair)
  • Baashin [bā ‘ashin] باعشن
  • Badib [bā dhīb] باذيب
  • Bafadhal [bā faḍl] بافضل
  • Bafanah [bā fana‘] بافنع
  • Bages [bā qais] باقيس
  • Bagharib [bā gharīb] باغريب
  • Bagushair (Baq'shir) [bā qushair] باقشير
  • Bahajaj [bā ḥajjāj] باحجاج
  • Baharon [bā hārūn] باهارون
  • Bahashwan [bā ḥashwān]باحشوان
  • Bajrai [bā jirai]/[bā jurai] باجري
  • Bakhbireh [bā khubairah] باخبيرة
  • Balidram [bil-ladram] بالدرم or بن لدرم [bin ladram]
  • Bamadhaj [bā madḥaj] بامدحج
  • Banafe' [bā nāfi‘] بانافع
  • Bana'ma [bā nā‘imah] باناعمة
  • Ba'Arfan[bā ‘arfān] با عرفان
  • Bajammal [bā jammāl]با جمال
  • Baobed [bā ‘ubaid] باعبيد
  • Barabbah [bā rabbā‘] بارباع
  • Barajak [bā rajā’] بارجاء
  • Barosh ??? [bā ruwish] باروش
  • Basalamah [bā salāmah] باسلامة
  • Basharahil [bā sharāḥīl] باشراحيل
  • Basrawi [baṣrāwī] بصراوي
  • Baswedan [bā swaidān] باسويدان
  • Bathef ???[ bā ṭahaf] باطهف
  • Belwael [ba l-wa‘l] بالوعل / بلوعل (also known as Balweel or Balwael or Belweil [bil wi‘il]) (Classical Arabic أبا الوعل)
  • Bin Abdat [bin ‘abdāt] (also [bin ‘ibdāt]) بن عبدات
  • Bin Diab [bin dhiyāb]بن ذياب
  • Bin Hamid [bin ḥāmid] بن حامد
  • Bin Hassan [bin ḥasan] بن حسن
  • Bin Rabak [bin raba‘] بن ربع (possibly [bin rabbā‘] بن ربّاع )
  • Bin Shahab [bin shihāb] بن شهاب
  • Bin Shaykh Abu Bakar [bin al-shaikh abu-bakr] بن الشيخ ابوبكر
  • Bin Shelham ???[bin shalham] بن شلهم
  • Bin Tahir [bin ṭāhir] بن طاهر
  • Bin Talib [bin ṭālib] بن طالب
  • Binsmit [bin ṣumaiṭ] بن سميط
  • Binyahya/ Benyahya (or AlYahya to avoid any confusion due to the similarity in the way the malays use 'Bin' to reflect 'son of')
  • Harharah [(bin) harharah] بن هرهرة
  • Jawas [jawwās] جواس
  • Lahdji [al laḥjī] اللحجي
  • Lajam [la‘jam] لعجم (Classical Arabic الاعجم)
  • Magad ???المقد
  • Mattar [al-maṭar] المطر
  • San'ani [al-ṣan‘ānī]الصنعاني (previously Al-Jaisi - the name change occurred after they moved to San'aa)
  • and a lot more

Acknowledgements

  • The contents for the headings "Hadhrami migration" "Identification with the Malays" and " Contribution to Singapore" were largely or in part based on the book Kilat Senja: Sejarah Sosial dan Budaya Kampung-Kampung di Singapura by Hadijah Rahmat. See http://mlcd.myplace.nie.edu.sg/kilat_senja.html

References

  • Article: For the impact of Hadhrami migration to South-East Asia on Hadhrami Arabic, see: http://www.informaworld.com/smpp/content~content=a907118635~db=all~order=page
  • Book: The Graves of Tarim: Genealogy and Mobility across the Indian Ocean by Engseng Ho, a professor at Harvard. California World History series. A 500-year history of Hadhramaut's diaspora, the most comprehensive account to date. ISBN 978-0-520-24453-5 (hb); ISBN 978-0-520-24454-2 (pb)
  • Book: Hadhrami Traders, Scholars and Statesmen in the Indian Ocean, 1750s-1960s Edited by Ulrike Freitag and William G. Clarence-Smith.
  • Article: Talib, Ameen, Hadramis in Singapore, Journal of Muslim Minority Affairs, vol 17 no1 (April 1997): 89- 97 (UK).
  • Hadijah Rahmat, Kilat Senja: Sejarah Sosial dan Budaya Kampung-Kampung di Singapura, H S Yang Publishing Pte Ltd, Singapore, 2005.

External links

See also








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