The Full Wiki

Arab people: Wikis

  
  
  

Encyclopedia

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Arab
العرب al-ʿarab
Arab infobox.jpg
Philip the ArabJohn of DamascusAl-KindiAl-Khansa
Faisal I of IraqGamal Abdel NasserAsmahanMay Ziade
Total population
approx. 350 to 422 million[1]
Regions with significant populations
 Pan-Arab States 339,510,535
 Brazil 12,000,000[2]
 France 6,000,000[3]
 Argentina 3,500,000[4]
 United States 3,500,000[5]
 Iran 700,000 - 2,000,000[6]
 Israel 1,500,000[7]
 Mexico 1,100,000[8]
Languages
Religion
Predominantly Islam; largest minority: Christianity; other religions
.Arab people (Arabic: عربي‎, ʿarabi) or Arabs (العرب al-ʿarab) are a panethnicity of peoples of various ancestral origins, religious backgrounds and historic identities, whose members, on an individual basis, identify as such on one or more of linguistic, cultural, political, or genealogical grounds.^ For many centuries, the basis of cultural affinity (unity) among Arabs has been political.
  • Who Is an Arab? 10 February 2010 11:32 UTC www.sas.upenn.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Arab - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia An Arab (Arabic: عربي ‎, ʿarabi) is a person who identifies as such on ethnic, linguistic or cultural grounds.
  • Arabs - MSN Encarta 11 September 2009 0:34 UTC encarta.msn.com [Source type: General]

^ An Arab is a person who identifies as such on genealogical, linguistic, or cultural grounds.

[11] .Those self-identifing as Arab, however, rarely do so on their own.^ Living in the deserts of Arabia for all those years required the Arab to be strong in self- defense .
  • Arabic, Arabs, "The Arab World", Arabia - The Peace FAQ 10 February 2010 11:32 UTC www.peacefaq.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Article 3: The Palestinian Arab people possess the legal right to their homeland and to self-determination after the completion of the liberation of their country in accordance with their wishes and entirely of their own accord and will.
  • Permanent Observer Mission of Palestine to the United Nations 24 September 2009 21:021 UTC www.un.int [Source type: Original source]

^ ARTICLE 3:The Palestinian Arab people possesses the legal right to its homeland, and when the liberation of its homeland is completed it will exercise self-determination solely according to its own will and choice.

.Most hold multiple identities, with a more localized prioritized ethnic identity — such as Egyptian, Lebanese, or Palestinian — in addition to further tribal, village and clan identities.^ AAI data indicates that "most Arab Americans are of Lebanese or Syrian origin, but the population of Egyptian, Palestinian, and Iraqi Americans has been growing steadily."
  • Arab American Ehnic Market; Population, Media, Television, Newspapres, Diversity, Direct Marketing, PR, market research, Organizations, leaders, Advertising, Outreach, contributions 10 February 2010 11:32 UTC www.allied-media.com [Source type: General]

^ Beirut, Lebanon, 27.12.08 Palestinian and Lebanese protesters, holding candles and Palestinian flags, gathered outside the Egyptian embassy, calling on Egypt to open the Rafah crossing into Gaza and to support Palestinians in the Gaza Strip.
  • Hussein Assi, "Arab People, Not Regimes, Express Solidarity with Gaza" 24 September 2009 21:021 UTC mrzine.monthlyreview.org [Source type: General]

^ It should be noted that many, if not most, Coptic Christians do not identify as ethnic Arabs (see Egyptian people for more information on this ethnic controversy).

.Arabic, the main unifying feature among Arabs, is a Semitic language originating in Arabia.^ Arabic is the language Arabs speak.
  • Arab Girls Gone Wild | SPIKE 10 February 2010 11:32 UTC www.spike.com [Source type: General]

^ The influence of the Arabic language on the psychology of the Arabs.
  • Arab-communication 10 February 2010 11:32 UTC nw08.american.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Arabs - Semitic, Arabic-speaking peoples of Arabia and other regions.
  • Sicilian Peoples: The Arabs - Best of Sicily Magazine - Moors and Saracens in Sicilian History 10 February 2010 11:32 UTC www.bestofsicily.com [Source type: Original source]

.From there it spread to a variety of distinct peoples across most of West Asia and North Africa,[12] resulting in their acculturation as Arabs, or Arabization, often though not always, in conjunction with Islamization.^ As you will see, Arabs are a very large group of people, spread out over a vast expanse, who share a common language and heritage.
  • The Arab World 10 February 2010 11:32 UTC www.vestedowl.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Arabs of Central Asia Further information: History of Arabs in Afghanistan Most Arabs of Central Asia are fully assimilated with local populations, and call themselves the same as locals (e.g.

^ The Arab conquest of North Africa and parts of the Nile Valley spreading their influence throughout the Sahel in the seventh century planted confusion in the minds of Africans.
  • Trinicenter.com - Arab Slavery of Africans 10 February 2010 11:32 UTC www.trinicenter.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.With the rise of Islam in the 7th century CE as the language of the Qur'an, Arabic became the lingua franca of the wider Mediterranean region.^ All → Islam Politics Allah Qur'an Christianity Religion muslims Arabic News Israel Follow this tag via RSS .
  • Arab — Blogs, Pictures, and more on WordPress 10 February 2010 11:32 UTC en.wordpress.com [Source type: General]

^ Within a century, Islam spread throughout most of the present-day Arabic-speaking world, and beyond, from Central Asia to the Iberian Peninsula .
  • Arab (people) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 February 2010 11:32 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Originally the area was inhabited by a seafaring people who were converted to Islam in the 7th century.
  • United Arab Emirates: History, Geography, Government, and Culture — Infoplease.com 10 February 2010 11:32 UTC www.infoplease.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It was in this period that Arabic language and culture was widely disseminated with the early Islamic expansion, both through conquest and cultural contact.^ Though the Arabic language pre-dates the Common Era, Arabic culture was first spread in the Middle East beginning in the 2nd century as ethnically Arab Christians such as the Ghassanids, Lakhmids and Banu Judham began migrating into the Northern Arabian desert and the Levant.The Arabic language gained greater prominence with the rise of Islam in the 7th century AD as the language of the Qur'an, and Arabic language and culture were more widely disseminated as a result of early Islamic expansion.

^ But this period which marked the expansion of both Islam and Islamic culture came to an end with the conquest of much of India in 1526 by Babur, one of the Timurid princes.
  • History of Islam 10 February 2010 11:32 UTC www.barkati.net [Source type: Original source]

^ This chapter also used several books and articles about Arabic culture which are written in the Arabic language only.
  • Arab-American Culture and Health Care 10 February 2010 11:32 UTC www.case.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[13]
.Arabic culture and language, however, began a more limited diffusion before the Islamic age, first spreading in West Asia beginning in the 2nd century, as Arab Christians such as the Ghassanids, Lakhmids and Banu Judham began migrating north from Arabia into the Syrian Desert and the Levant.^ Therefore when one speaks of Arab Christians, one means Christians of Arab culture and language.
  • Arab World Studies Notebook - First Christians 10 February 2010 11:32 UTC www.mepc.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Though the Arabic language pre-dates the Common Era, Arabic culture was first spread in the Middle East beginning in the 2nd century as ethnically Arab Christians such as the Ghassanids, Lakhmids and Banu Judham began migrating into the Northern Arabian desert and the Levant.The Arabic language gained greater prominence with the rise of Islam in the 7th century AD as the language of the Qur'an, and Arabic language and culture were more widely disseminated as a result of early Islamic expansion.

^ Arabic is the language Arabs speak.
  • Arab Girls Gone Wild | SPIKE 10 February 2010 11:32 UTC www.spike.com [Source type: General]

[14][15]

Contents

Etymology

The earliest documented use of the word "Arab" as defining a group of people dates from the 9th century BCE.[16]
.The root of the word has many meanings in Semitic languages including "west/sunset," "desert," "mingle," "merchant," "raven" and are "comprehensible" with all of these having varying degrees of relevance to the emergence of the name.^ With all of these words .
  • Arab (people) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 February 2010 11:32 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Same with Chinese and many other languages; that and the now-universal use of the characters "H1N1" to describe the entity formerly named swine flu makes it relatively easy to identify relevant pages in unfamiliar languages.
  • Talk:Educational materials - Flu Wiki - Swine Flu Outbreak 10 February 2010 10:31 UTC flu.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Many Arab Americans do not use these terms at all.
  • 100 questions about arab americans leaving in the US 10 February 2010 11:32 UTC allied-media.com [Source type: Original source]

It is also possible that some forms were metathetical from ʿ-B-R "moving around" (Arabic ʿ-B-R "traverse"), and hence, it is alleged, "nomadic."

Arab identity

.Arab identity is defined independently of religious identity, and pre-dates the rise of Islam, with historically attested Arab Christian kingdoms and Arab Jewish tribes.^ This phase of Arab history began after the fall of the last civilization of our kinsmen, the Babylonians, the Assyrians, the Chaldians, the Phoenicians and Cananites, to whom we are indebted and stand as representatives, and we connect this to Christianity and the rise of the two Christian Arab Kingdoms, the Ghassanids and Montherits.

^ In many communities, Muslim and Christian Arabs live side by side with each other and with non-Arab religious communities.
  • 100 questions about arab americans leaving in the US 10 February 2010 11:32 UTC allied-media.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Arab Americans: religion 11 September 2009 0:34 UTC www.freep.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Re: Editorial “The Arab mainstream,“ The Jewish Independent, March 27, 2009 Re: Editorial “A dream of two states,” The Jewish Independent, March 20, 2009 Archives .
  • The Arab Democrat 10 February 2010 11:32 UTC thearabdemocrat.com [Source type: Original source]

.Today, however, most Arabs are Muslim, with a minority adhereing to other faiths, largely Christianity.^ It is not a lie that most terrorists are muslim arabs.
  • Do you think ARAB people are terrorists ? (middle east, illegal, racist) - Politics and Other Controversies - City-Data Forum 24 September 2009 21:021 UTC www.city-data.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Most Arab countries are predominantly Muslim.
  • 100 questions about arab americans leaving in the US 10 February 2010 11:32 UTC allied-media.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Arab Americans: religion 11 September 2009 0:34 UTC www.freep.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Today Arab Christians come to fan the embers of faith.
  • Arab Christians — Photo Gallery — National Geographic Magazine 10 February 2010 11:32 UTC ngm.nationalgeographic.com [Source type: General]

.Islamized but non-Arabized peoples, and therefore the majority, or 80% of the world's Muslim population, do not form part of the Arab World, but instead comprise what is the geographically larger, and more diverse, Muslim World.^ The Arab world is comprised of peoples of different background and religion .
  • Al Jazeera English - Arab Unity - Arabs seek common cause 11 September 2009 0:34 UTC english.aljazeera.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Iranian’s are not originally muslim we’re Zoroastrinism, the religion that was first consisted in the world but only in Persia, and in some parts of India and [...
  • Arab : Al Ayyam Yemen 10 February 2010 11:32 UTC al-ayyam-yemen.com [Source type: General]

^ In majority populations of the Middle East and in peoples derived from there, such as Jews and Muslims, circumcision is a mandatory part of their religion.
  • Circumcision - Who in the world gets circumcised? 24 September 2009 21:021 UTC www.circinfo.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

In the modern era, defining who is an Arab is done on the grounds of one or more of the following three criteria:
.
Distribution of Arabic as sole official language (green) and one of several official or national languages (blue).
  • Genealogical: someone who can trace his or her ancestry to the tribes of Arabia – the original inhabitants of the Arabian Peninsula – and the Syrian Desert.^ Arabic is one of several languages written from right to left.
    • 100 questions about arab americans leaving in the US 10 February 2010 11:32 UTC allied-media.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The scope of the term at that early stage is unclear, but it seems to have referred to various desert-dwelling Semitic tribes in the Syrian Desert and Arabia.

    ^ Originally the area was inhabited by a seafaring people who were converted to Islam in the 7th century.
    • United Arab Emirates: History, Geography, Government, and Culture — Infoplease.com 10 February 2010 11:32 UTC www.infoplease.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .This definition was the definition used in medieval times, for example by Ibn Khaldun,[citation needed] but has decreased in importance as more people have come to identify as Arabs.
  • Linguistic: someone whose first language, and by extension cultural expression, is Arabic, including any of its varieties.^ Arab is a word used to identify a certain cultural group or ethnicity.
    • Arab Costumes & Accessories | Costumzee.com 10 February 2010 11:32 UTC www.costumzee.com [Source type: General]

    ^ The Arabic language, a Semitic language akin to Hebrew, Aramaic and Amharic, bound the Arabs together providing them with the same cultural mannerisms and identity.
    • Al Jazeera English - Arab Unity - Arabs seek common cause 11 September 2009 0:34 UTC english.aljazeera.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Before the coming of Islam, most Arabs followed a religion with a number of deities, including Hubal, Wadd, Allat, Manat, and Uzza.

    .This definition covers more than 300 million people.^ One of the largest Arab cities is Cairo, with a population of more than 6 million.
    • 100 questions about arab americans leaving in the US 10 February 2010 11:32 UTC allied-media.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The granting of independence to Algeria marked the virtual end of a French African empire that once covered nearly 4 million square miles and contained more than 41 million people.
    • Postwar Arab Nationalism 10 February 2010 11:32 UTC mars.wnec.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Then in Oslo, Madrid and Washington , after more than fifty years, Palestinians were recognized partners of PEACE , people with full rights, a proud nation.
    • open_ltr 24 September 2009 21:021 UTC www.al-bushra.org [Source type: Original source]

    .Certain groups that fulfill this criterion reject this definition on the basis of non-Arab ancestry, such an example may be seen in the way that Egyptians identify themselves.^ Certain groups that fulfill this criterion reject this definition on the basis of genealogy, such an example may be seen in the identity of many Egyptians.
    • Arabs and Middle East in Cleveland | Cleveland Arabs and Arab-Americans 10 February 2010 11:32 UTC www.clevelandpeople.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Arab is a word used to identify a certain cultural group or ethnicity.
    • Arab Costumes & Accessories | Costumzee.com 10 February 2010 11:32 UTC www.costumzee.com [Source type: General]

    ^ It would exclude the entire Arab diaspora, but include not only those genealogically Arabs (Gulf Arabs and others, such as Bedouins, where they may exist) and those Arabized-Arab-identified, but would also include Arabized non-Arab-identified groups (including many Lebanese and many Egyptians, both Christians and Muslims) and even non-Arabized ethnic minorities which have remained non-Arabic-speaking (such as the Berbers in Morocco, Kurds in Iraq, or the Somali majority of Arab League member Somalia).
    • Arabs and Middle East in Cleveland | Cleveland Arabs and Arab-Americans 10 February 2010 11:32 UTC www.clevelandpeople.com [Source type: General]

    [17][18]
  • .
  • Political: in the modern nationalist era, any person who is a citizen of a country where Arabic is either the national language or one of the official languages, and/or a citizen of a country which may simply be a member of the Arab League (thereby having Arabic as an official government language, even if not used by the majority of the population).^ Members of twenty-one different countries, the Arabs consider themselves to be one nation.
    • The Great History of the Arab People and Civilization 24 September 2009 21:021 UTC middleeastnews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Arab is a noun for a person, and is used as an adjective, as in "Arab country."
    • 100 questions about arab americans leaving in the US 10 February 2010 11:32 UTC allied-media.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Arabic (official); other immigrant languages .
    • United Arab Emirates Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about United Arab Emirates 10 February 2010 11:32 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    This definition would cover over 300 million people. It may be the most contested definition, as it is the most simplistic one. It would exclude the entire Arab diaspora outside of the Arab world, but include not only people with Arab ancestry (Gulf Arabs and others, such as Bedouins, where they may exist) or who identify themselves as Arabs, but would also include Arabized groups who do not identify themselves as Arabs (including many Lebanese and many Egyptians, both Christians and Muslims) and even non-Arabized ethnic minorities who have remained non-Arabic-speaking (such as the Berbers in Morocco, Kurds in Iraq, or the Somali majority of Arab League member Somalia).
Traditional Bedouin
.The relative importance of these three factors is estimated differently by different groups and frequently disputed.^ But distinguishing these three modes of action can help to make sense of the different ways in which Arab bloggers might influence politics in the region.

Some combine aspects of each definition, as done by Habib Hassan Touma,[19] who defines an Arab "in the modern sense of the word", as "one who is a national of an Arab state, has command of the Arabic language, and possesses a fundamental knowledge of Arab tradition, that is, of the manners, customs, and political and social systems of the culture." Most people who consider themselves Arab do so based on the overlap of the political and linguistic definitions. .Few people consider themselves Arab based on the political definition without also having Arabic as a language.^ Arabic is the language Arabs speak.
  • Arab Girls Gone Wild | SPIKE 10 February 2010 11:32 UTC www.spike.com [Source type: General]

^ The influence of the Arabic language on the psychology of the Arabs.
  • Arab-communication 10 February 2010 11:32 UTC nw08.american.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Peoples Arabic is spoken only by half of the inhabitants, having caused English to be the major language of communication between peoples of different origins.
  • United Arab Emirates - LookLex Encyclopaedia 10 February 2010 11:32 UTC i-cias.com [Source type: Original source]

.Thus few Kurds and Berbers identify as Arab, although for instance some Berbers also consider themselves Arab (see for example: Gellner, Ernest and Micaud, Charles, Eds.^ Some Arab Americans identify themselves as Middle Eastern, for example.
  • 100 questions about arab americans leaving in the US 10 February 2010 11:32 UTC allied-media.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Although linguistically and culturally classified as Arabs, many consider themselves to be ethnically distinct from other Egyptians.
  • 100 questions about arab americans leaving in the US 10 February 2010 11:32 UTC allied-media.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Arab Americans: religion 11 September 2009 0:34 UTC www.freep.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Forms of transgender have been identified in at least some Arab countries, as among the hassas of Morocco and khanith of Oman.
  • Arab Sexualities | Solidarity 10 February 2010 11:32 UTC www.solidarity-us.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Arabs and Berbers: from tribe to nation in North Africa.^ Meanwhile, Arab nationalism had been as militant in the Middle East as it had been in North Africa.
  • Postwar Arab Nationalism 10 February 2010 11:32 UTC mars.wnec.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The Arab conquest of North Africa and parts of the Nile Valley spreading their influence throughout the Sahel in the seventh century planted confusion in the minds of Africans.
  • Trinicenter.com - Arab Slavery of Africans 10 February 2010 11:32 UTC www.trinicenter.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Berber is commonly spoken in North Africa, and Kurdish is spoken in regions of Syria and Iraq .
  • Arab-American Culture and Health Care 10 February 2010 11:32 UTC www.case.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Lexington: Lexington Books, 1972). .Some religious minorities within Western Asia and North Africa who speak Arabic or any of its varieties as their primary community language, such as Egyptian Copts and Lebanese and Syrian Christians, may not identify as Arabs.^ Arabic Speaking communities in American Cities.
  • Arab Detroit - Arab Americans 10 February 2010 11:32 UTC www.arabdetroit.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Therefore when one speaks of Arab Christians, one means Christians of Arab culture and language.
  • Arab World Studies Notebook - First Christians 10 February 2010 11:32 UTC www.mepc.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Arabic is the language Arabs speak.
  • Arab Girls Gone Wild | SPIKE 10 February 2010 11:32 UTC www.spike.com [Source type: General]

The Arab League at its formation in 1946 defined Arab as "a person whose language is Arabic, who lives in an Arabic speaking country, who is in sympathy with the aspirations of the Arabic speaking peoples".
.The relation of ʿarab and ʾaʿrāb is complicated further by the notion of "lost Arabs" al-ʿArab al-ba'ida mentioned in the Qur'an as punished for their disbelief.^ The Qur'an became regarded as the prime example of the al-?arabiyya, the language of the Arabs.

^ Shatt al-Arab is the continuation of the Tigris and the Euphrates rivers, which joins at Qurna, but has other tributary rivers further downstream, like the important Iranian Karun .
  • Shatt al-Arab - LookLex Encyclopaedia 10 February 2010 11:32 UTC looklex.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.All contemporary Arabs were considered as descended from two ancestors, Qahtan and Adnan.^ "Pure Arabs" of South Arabia, descending from Qahtan.

^ The followers of those faiths lived in harmony throughout the centuries in the Arab homeland, since all considered themselves the people of one God.
  • The Great History of the Arab People and Civilization 24 September 2009 21:021 UTC middleeastnews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ We provide free two-way Arab matchmaking service for all Arabic singles who seek for other Arabian singles at our site.
  • Arab Dating Site for Arabic Singles & Personals | Home 10 February 2010 11:32 UTC arabdatingwomen.com [Source type: General]

.Versteegh (1997) is uncertain whether to ascribe this distinction to the memory of a real difference of origin of the two groups, but it is certain that the difference was strongly felt in early Islamic times.^ His book was the first to include a section on general surgery, detailing different operations and containing some two hundred figures of surgical instruments in use at the time.
  • The Great History of the Arab People and Civilization - PART II 24 September 2009 21:021 UTC www.middleeastnews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The United States has, at different times, classified Arab immigrants as African, Asian, white, European or as belonging to a separate group.
  • Republican Arab American Congress 24 September 2009 21:021 UTC www.raaconline.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • 100 questions about arab americans leaving in the US 10 February 2010 11:32 UTC allied-media.com [Source type: Original source]

^ These early communities, cut off from their heritage and families, inevitably lost their Islamic identity as time went by.
  • History of Islam 10 February 2010 11:32 UTC www.barkati.net [Source type: Original source]

.Even in Islamic Spain there was enmity between the Qays of the northern and the Kalb of the southern group.^ Repel the evil with one which is better (then verily he, between whom and you there was enmity, will become as though he was a close friend .

^ There can be a lot of difference between one person and another, even a parent and child, so don't assume one way is always best.
  • 100 questions about arab americans leaving in the US 10 February 2010 11:32 UTC allied-media.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In its aggressive support for radical Islam, even the most violent of Islamic groups, like Egypt's Muslim Brotherhood, receives Saudi largesse.

.The so-called Himyarite language described by Al-Hamdani (died 946) appears to be a special case of language contact between the two groups, an originally north Arabic dialect spoken in the south, and influenced by Old South Arabian.^ The Arabian Peninsula is enclosed in the west by the Red Sea and Sinai, in the east by the Arabian Gulf, in the south by the Arabian Sea, which is an extension of the Indian Ocean, and in the north by old Syria and part of Iraq.
  • Location and Nature of Arab Tribes 24 September 2009 21:021 UTC www.witness-pioneer.org [Source type: Original source]

^ "Eastern Arabic, sometimes referred to as Mesopotamian Arabic, includes the Arabic dialects spoken in a large region encompassing North Africa ( Egypt and Sudan ), the Middle East (Syria, Iraq, and the Arabian Peninsula), and Arabic speaking communities in Asia (Bateson 1967).

^ Peoples Arabic is spoken only by half of the inhabitants, having caused English to be the major language of communication between peoples of different origins.
  • United Arab Emirates - LookLex Encyclopaedia 10 February 2010 11:32 UTC i-cias.com [Source type: Original source]

.During the Muslim conquests of the seventh and eighth centuries, the Arabs forged an Arab Empire (under the Rashidun and Umayyads, and later the Abbasids) whose borders touched southern France in the west, China in the east, Asia Minor in the north, and the Sudan in the south.^ Although the story of Christianity in the West has often been told, the history of Christianity in the East in Syria, Persian, Indian, Tang Dynasty China, and the Mongolian Empire of Genghis Khan and his grandson, Kublai Khan has not.
  • Arab World Studies Notebook - First Christians 10 February 2010 11:32 UTC www.mepc.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In Sassanid times, Arabia Petraea was a border province between the Roman and Persian empires[citation needed], and from the early centuries AD was increasingly affected by Arab influence, notably with the Ghassanids migrating north from the 3rd century.

^ The federation covers 82,820 square kilometers (31,976 square miles) and is bordered on the north by the Persian Gulf and Iran, on the east by Oman, and on the south and west by Saudi Arabia.
  • United Arab Emirates - Country overview, Location and size, Population, Industry, Mining, Manufacturing, Offsets program 11 September 2009 0:34 UTC www.nationsencyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

This was one of the largest land empires in history. .In much of this area, the Arabs spread Islam and the Arabic language (the language of the Qur'an) through conversion and cultural assimilation.^ Arabic is the language Arabs speak.
  • Arab Girls Gone Wild | SPIKE 10 February 2010 11:32 UTC www.spike.com [Source type: General]

^ The influence of the Arabic language on the psychology of the Arabs.
  • Arab-communication 10 February 2010 11:32 UTC nw08.american.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ By Milton Viorst , in Sudan's Islamic Experiment , Foreign Affairs, Spring, 1995 [Arabs are] A people/ ethnicity /nation, including a culture, language and religion, that originated in the 7th century western Arabian peninsula, and was spread to almost all the aboriginal semitic peoples of the near east by conquest , murder, rape , slavery and forced conversions to Islam .
  • Arabic, Arabs, "The Arab World", Arabia - The Peace FAQ 10 February 2010 11:32 UTC www.peacefaq.com [Source type: Original source]

.Many groups became known as "Arabs" through this process of Arabization rather than through descent.^ Thus, Qabbani makes clear the bitter fact that the Arabs were defeated by their own defects rather than by the strength of their enemy: The Jews did not come across our borders, but they crept in like ants through our defects.
  • Arab Authors 11 September 2009 0:34 UTC www.habiba.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Finally, Arab clients are more comfortable sitting very close to the counselor than are members of other groups (Jaclson, 1995, p.
  • Arab American Students in Public Schools. ERIC Digest 10 February 2010 11:32 UTC www.ericdigests.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Arab American students in American public schools 10 February 2010 11:32 UTC www.islamfortoday.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Currently, data on Americans of Arab descent is only available on the long form of the U.S. Census through the ancestry question.
  • Arab Americans : Race & US Census 11 September 2009 0:34 UTC www.allied-media.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Thus, over time, the term Arab came to carry a broader meaning than the original ethnic term: cultural Arab vs. ethnic Arab. .Arab nationalism declares that Arabs are united in a shared history, culture and language.^ Do Arabs have a shared language?
  • Republican Arab American Congress 24 September 2009 21:021 UTC www.raaconline.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • PublicEye.org - Basic Facts About Arab-Americans 24 September 2009 21:021 UTC www.publiceye.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • 100 questions about arab americans leaving in the US 10 February 2010 11:32 UTC allied-media.com [Source type: Original source]

^ There are 22 Arab countries, including Palestine, which are members of the Arab League and share a common history, language and culturethe immigrants who migrated to America and the Greater Detroit area are from a select group of Arab countries.
  • Arab Detroit - Arab Americans 10 February 2010 11:32 UTC www.arabdetroit.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ United Arab Emirates Arabic, English Math Teacher Purpose: To teach Mathematics to national students in a practical learner centered environment.
  • Teach in United Arab Emirates: Teach Abroad Programs, Emirati International Teaching Jobs Abroad 10 February 2010 11:32 UTC www.teachabroad.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A related ideology, Pan-Arabism, calls for all Arab lands to be united as one state.^ This relates to Muslims, not all Arabs.
  • 100 questions about arab americans leaving in the US 10 February 2010 11:32 UTC allied-media.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Arab Americans: religion 11 September 2009 0:34 UTC www.freep.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Its supreme organ is the council, where all member states are represented, and they each have 1 one, independent of their respective number of inhabitants.
  • Arab League - LookLex Encyclopaedia 10 February 2010 11:32 UTC lexicorient.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Book of Jubilees claims that the The sons of Ishmael intermingled with the 6 sons of Keturah from Abraham And was called Arabs and Ishmaelites: Book of Jubilees 20:13 And Ishmael and his sons, and the sons of Keturah and their sons, went together and dwelt from Paran to the entering in of Babylon in all the land which is towards the East facing the desert.

.Arab nationalism has often competed for existence with regional nationalism in the Middle East, such as Lebanese, Syrian, Iraqi and Egyptian nationalism.^ Meanwhile, Arab nationalism had been as militant in the Middle East as it had been in North Africa.
  • Postwar Arab Nationalism 10 February 2010 11:32 UTC mars.wnec.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Arabs were a Semitic people of the Middle East.
  • Sicilian Peoples: The Arabs - Best of Sicily Magazine - Moors and Saracens in Sicilian History 10 February 2010 11:32 UTC www.bestofsicily.com [Source type: Original source]

^ So, not all people from the Middle East are Arabs?
  • PublicEye.org - Basic Facts About Arab-Americans 24 September 2009 21:021 UTC www.publiceye.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • The Arabic Student Organization: A.S.O.: Did You Know? 10 February 2010 11:32 UTC www.montclair.edu [Source type: Original source]

Population of Arabic speakers

.The Arab World is the largest geocultural unit in the world after Russia and Anglo-America, with a population exceeding 300 million and spanning more than 14,000,000 square kilometres (5,400,000 sq mi), from the Atlantic Ocean in the west to the Arabian Sea in the east.^ One of the largest Arab cities is Cairo, with a population of more than 6 million.
  • 100 questions about arab americans leaving in the US 10 February 2010 11:32 UTC allied-media.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Today, the largest Arab American community in the United States is in Detroit, which has an Arab American population of more than 80,000 (1).
  • Arab-American Culture and Health Care 10 February 2010 11:32 UTC www.case.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Although it may seem like a small segment of the population, there are more than 1.5 million Arab-American voters in the battleground states of Michigan, Ohio, Florida, and Pennsylvania who could influence the outcome if the election shapes up into a nailbiter as many expect.
  • NBC: Arab-Americans switch from Bush - Politics- msnbc.com 10 February 2010 11:32 UTC www.msnbc.msn.com [Source type: News]

.The table below is based on the number of Arabic-speakers (Arabophones), some of whom do not identify as Arabs, note that Gulf countries speak Arabic exclusively and the rate below includes foreign guest workers there.^ Arabic is the language Arabs speak.
  • Arab Girls Gone Wild | SPIKE 10 February 2010 11:32 UTC www.spike.com [Source type: General]

^ Whoever speaks Arabic is Arab."
  • Arab World Studies Notebook - First Christians 10 February 2010 11:32 UTC www.mepc.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Arab countries versus Israel - Table History Nationhood Arab-Israeli wars What is Palestine and Palestinians?
  • Arab-Israeli conflict - Basic facts 10 February 2010 11:32 UTC www.science.co.il [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Arab states
Flag Country Number of Arabic speakers Total Population % Arabic speakers Notes
Egypt Egypt 82,667,004 82,999,000 99.6% .[7] For more information, see Egyptians: Identity.^ It should be noted that many, if not most, Coptic Christians do not identify as ethnic Arabs (see Egyptian people for more information on this ethnic controversy).

^ For more facts and information , see all related premium articles .
  • United Arab Republic Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about United Arab Republic 10 February 2010 11:32 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Algeria Algeria 34,546,050 34,895,000 99%
Morocco Morocco 31,705,063 31,993,000 99.1%
Saudi Arabia Saudi Arabia 28,000,000 28,686,633 99.7% [7]
Iraq Iraq 24,206,350 31,234,000 77.5% [7]
Yemen Yemen 23,580,000 23,580,000 100% [7]
Syria Syria 19,781,118 21,906,000 90.3% [7]
Sudan Sudan 16,486,080 42,272,000 39% [7]
Somalia Somalia 20,456,080 27,342,000 80% [7]
Tunisia Tunisia 10,121,244 10,327,800 98% [7]
Libya Libya 6,227,400 6,420,000 97% [7]
Jordan Jordan 6,189,680 6,316,000 98% [7]
Lebanon Lebanon 4,012,800 4,224,000 95% [7] Many Lebanese reject Arab identity and do not self identify as Arabs (see Lebanese people: Identity, Lebanese nationalism, Phoenicianism)
Kuwait Kuwait 2,388,000 2,985,000 80% [7]
United Arab Emirates UAE 1,839,600 4,599,000 40% [7]
Oman Oman 1,650,100 2,845,000 58% [20]
Mauritania Mauritania 1,645,500 3,291,000 50% [7]
Qatar Qatar 563,600 1,409,000 40% [7]
Bahrain Bahrain 493,584 791,000 62.4% [7]
Total ~298,150,751 ~345,434,433 ~86.32%
.The Arab diaspora is a global diaspora estimated at between 30 and 50 million people distributed across every continent and almost every country in the world.^ Although bias against those of very dark complexion existed in the Arab world in the 15th century it didn't have the stigma currently seen globally.
  • ARAB SLAVE TRADE - The history of Arab Slavery in Africa 10 February 2010 11:32 UTC www.africanholocaust.net [Source type: Original source]

^ So when you invite 20 Arabs over for dinner, you can expect anywhere between 10-30.
  • too arab 10 February 2010 11:32 UTC tooarab.com [Source type: General]

^ In the age of neoliberal globalization, power relations between colonizers - witting or unwitting - and colonized cut across LGBT movements, anti-imperialist movements and for that matter the Marxist left.
  • Arab Sexualities | Solidarity 10 February 2010 11:32 UTC www.solidarity-us.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.More than half of the Arabic diaspora is concentrated in Latin America.^ Because Arabic and English characters and sounds are different, there is more than one way to transliterate the words.
  • 100 questions about arab americans leaving in the US 10 February 2010 11:32 UTC allied-media.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Do not assume that an Arab American should know Arabic, any more than any other American should speak the language of his or her ethnic group.
  • 100 questions about arab americans leaving in the US 10 February 2010 11:32 UTC allied-media.com [Source type: Original source]

^ These enslaved people were more akin to indentured servants in Europe than Chattel slaves in the Americas.
  • ARAB SLAVE TRADE - The history of Arab Slavery in Africa 10 February 2010 11:32 UTC www.africanholocaust.net [Source type: Original source]

.Other regions with high concentrations are Western Europe, Western Asia and North America.^ An Empire that presided directly over Iraq, Mesopotamia, and Western Persia, and indirectly over territories from North Africa to Central Asia, and from the Caspian Sea to the Red Sea.
  • ARAB SLAVE TRADE - The history of Arab Slavery in Africa 10 February 2010 11:32 UTC www.africanholocaust.net [Source type: Original source]

^ While academics in North America and Europe have many times more resources, the knowledge and experience of researchers in and from the Arab world are indispensable.
  • Arab Sexualities | Solidarity 10 February 2010 11:32 UTC www.solidarity-us.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But distinctive lesbian/gay identities as they exist in North America and Europe do seem less visible in Arab countries than in most other regions.
  • Arab Sexualities | Solidarity 10 February 2010 11:32 UTC www.solidarity-us.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Arab diaspora
Flag Country Number of Arabic speakers Total Population % Arabic speakers Notes
Brazil Brazil 12,000,000 191,241,714 6.28% [21]
France France 6,000,000 65,073,482 9.22%
Argentina Argentina 3,500,000 40,482,000 8.65% [22]
United States United States 3,500,000 307,473,000 1.14% [23]
Iran Iran 2,225,880 74,196,000 3% [7]
Italy Italy 1,950,210 60,234,000 3.1% [24]
Israel Israel 1,500,000 7,411,000 20.24% [25]
Turkey Turkey 1,200,000 74,816,000 1.60%
Mexico Mexico 1,100,000 111,211,789 1%
Chile Chile 700,000 16,928,873 4.2% [26]
Colombia Colombia 700,000 44,928,970 1.56% [27]
United Kingdom United Kingdom 500,000 61,113,205 0.82%
Australia Australia 500,000 21,885,016 2.29%
Canada Canada 500,000 33,790,000 1.48%
Venezuela Venezuela 400,000 26,814,843 1.5% [28]
Germany Germany 400,000 82,060,000 0.49%
Pakistan Pakistan 300,000 180,808,000 0.17%
Ecuador Ecuador 200,000 13,625,000 1.47%
Russia Russia 200,000 142,008,838 0.14%
Total ~36,025,880

History

Ancient Near East

Al Khazneh, "The Treasury" at Petra in Jordan, built in the early 1st century BCE by the Nabataeans
.Many scholars derive the entire population of the Mesopotamia from population movements out of Jazirat al-Arab ("island of the Arabs") – an area between the Red Sea and the Persian Gulf, with Hadramawt its southern perimeter, extending northward up to the area just east of the Dead Sea (Jordan).^ Middle East, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Israel and Syria .
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- Lebanon 24 September 2009 21:021 UTC www.cia.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Previous analyses carried out by this scholar on these two newspapers documented misrepresentations of Arabs and Arab Americans in these two newspapers, which, given their political differences, was surprising in its convergence.

^ The history of Arab mathematics began with Muhammad ibn Musa al-Khawarazmi who, in the ninth century, journeyed east to India to learn the sciences of that time.
  • The Great History of the Arab People and Civilization - PART II 24 September 2009 21:021 UTC www.middleeastnews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[29] .Early Semitic peoples from the Ancient Near East, such as the Arameans, Akkadians and Canaanites, built civilizations in Mesopotamia and the Levant; genetically, they often interlapped and mixed.^ Islam spread across to West Africa (by African traders such as the Fulani people ) from as early as the 8 th century by African traders and was firmly established by the 11 th century.
  • ARAB SLAVE TRADE - The history of Arab Slavery in Africa 10 February 2010 11:32 UTC www.africanholocaust.net [Source type: Original source]

[30] .Slowly, however, they lost their political domination of the Near East due to internal turmoil and attacks by non-Semitic peoples.^ However, it is inaccurate to assume that, because people are Arab or Arab American, they are involved in terrorism or, when an attack occurs, that Arabs must be behind it.
  • 100 questions about arab americans leaving in the US 10 February 2010 11:32 UTC allied-media.com [Source type: Original source]

.Although the Semites eventually lost political control of Western Asia to the Persian Empire, the Aramaic language remained the lingua franca of Mesopotamia and the Levant.^ Although Iran borders Iraq, it is descended from the Persian empire and has a different language and cultural history than the Arab countries.
  • 100 questions about arab americans leaving in the US 10 February 2010 11:32 UTC allied-media.com [Source type: Original source]

^ An Empire that presided directly over Iraq, Mesopotamia, and Western Persia, and indirectly over territories from North Africa to Central Asia, and from the Caspian Sea to the Red Sea.
  • ARAB SLAVE TRADE - The history of Arab Slavery in Africa 10 February 2010 11:32 UTC www.africanholocaust.net [Source type: Original source]

Aramaic itself was replaced by Greek as Western Asia's prestige language following the conquest of Alexander III of Macedon.
.The first written attestation of the ethnonym "Arab" occurs in an Assyrian inscription of 853 BCE, where Shalmaneser III lists a King Gindibu of mâtu arbâi (Arab land) as among the people he defeated at the Battle of Karkar.^ However, it is inaccurate to assume that, because people are Arab or Arab American, they are involved in terrorism or, when an attack occurs, that Arabs must be behind it.
  • 100 questions about arab americans leaving in the US 10 February 2010 11:32 UTC allied-media.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Arabs refused because it gave the majority of the land to the minority of the people.
  • Gaza Children « Saudi Jeans 10 February 2010 10:31 UTC saudijeans.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Arabs are largest in terms of population and land holdings, and this handbook focuses on people who have emigrated from or who are descended from people in those areas.
  • 100 questions about arab americans leaving in the US 10 February 2010 11:32 UTC allied-media.com [Source type: Original source]

Some of the names given in these texts are Aramaic, while others are the first attestations of Proto-Arabic dialects. .In fact several different ethnonyms are found in Assyrian texts that are conventionally translated "Arab": Arabi, Arubu, Aribi and Urbi.^ Religious differences among Arab Americans, in fact, may make it more desirable to marry a non-Arab of similar religious background than an Arab of a different religion.
  • 100 questions about arab americans leaving in the US 10 February 2010 11:32 UTC allied-media.com [Source type: Original source]

Many of the Qedarite queens were also described as queens of the aribi. The Hebrew Bible occasionally refers to Arvi peoples (or variants thereof), translated as "Arab" or "Arabian." The scope of the term at that early stage is unclear, but it seems to have referred to various desert-dwelling Semitic tribes in the Syrian Desert and Arabia.
.Proto-Arabic, or Ancient North Arabian, texts give a clearer picture of the Arabs' emergence.^ The bulk of African history after the Ancient Egyptians Medew Netjer , was written in the Arabic language by both Africans and Arabs.
  • ARAB SLAVE TRADE - The history of Arab Slavery in Africa 10 February 2010 11:32 UTC www.africanholocaust.net [Source type: Original source]

^ For its basis was the legacy of the ancient Greeks, and that legacy was unknown to Europe until the moment when it became available in Arabic translations and with the commentaries of Arab scholars.
  • The Great History of the Arab People and Civilization - PART II 24 September 2009 21:021 UTC www.middleeastnews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Should I say Arab, Arabic or Arabian?
  • 100 questions about arab americans leaving in the US 10 February 2010 11:32 UTC allied-media.com [Source type: Original source]

.The earliest are written in variants of epigraphic south Arabian musnad script, including the 8th century BCE Hasaean inscriptions of eastern Saudi Arabia, the 6th century BCE Lihyanite texts of southeastern Saudi Arabia and the Thamudic texts found throughout Arabia and the Sinai (not in reality connected with Thamud).^ Instead, they settled throughout the Middle East, including present-day Saudi Arabia, Jordan, Palestine, Iran, Lebanon, Yemen, the Persian Gulf countries and Turkey.
  • ARAB SLAVE TRADE - The history of Arab Slavery in Africa 10 February 2010 11:32 UTC www.africanholocaust.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Because it supports the idea that everything the Saudi Arabian brand of Islam does is 100% and anything which varies from this is impure.
  • ARAB SLAVE TRADE - The history of Arab Slavery in Africa 10 February 2010 11:32 UTC www.africanholocaust.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Middle East, peninsula bordering the Arabian Gulf and Saudi Arabia .
  • Union of Arab Banks : Arab Central Banks 10 February 2010 11:32 UTC www.uabonline.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The Nabataeans were nomadic newcomers[31] who moved into territory vacated by the Edomites – Semites who settled the region centuries before them. Their early inscriptions were in Aramaic, but gradually switched to Arabic, and since they had writing, it was they who made the first inscriptions in Arabic. .The Nabataean Alphabet was adopted by Arabs to the south, and evolved into modern Arabic script around the 4th century.^ Among her courses at Ocean College are Arabic Literature in Translation, Womens Literature, World Literature and History of the Modern Arab World.

This is attested by Safaitic inscriptions (beginning in the 1st century BCE) and the many Arabic personal names in Nabataean inscriptions. .From about the 2nd century BCE, a few inscriptions from Qaryat al-Faw (near Sulayyil) reveal a dialect which is no longer considered "proto-Arabic", but pre-classical Arabic.^ Perhaps it is in fact a shame so few people watch al-Hurrah, because anyone who knows Arabic and has any doubts about the utter contempt of the US for Arabs would quickly have those doubts dispelled by listening to Satloff.
  • The Angry Arab News Service 10 February 2010 11:32 UTC angryarab.net [Source type: General]

Five Syriac inscriptions mentioning Arabs have been found at Sumatar Harabesi, one of which has been dated to the 2nd century CE.

Early migrations

.In Sassanid times, Arabia Petraea was a border province between the Roman and Persian empires, and from the early centuries AD was increasingly affected by Arab influence, notably with the Ghassanids migrating north from the 3rd century.^ A 1974 agreement between Abu Dhabi and Saudi Arabia would have settled the Abu Dhabi-Saudi border dispute; however, the agreement has yet to be ratified by the U.A.E. Government.
  • United Arab Emirates (06/07) 10 February 2010 11:32 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Although Iran borders Iraq, it is descended from the Persian empire and has a different language and cultural history than the Arab countries.
  • 100 questions about arab americans leaving in the US 10 February 2010 11:32 UTC allied-media.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Since that time, the U.A.E. has constructed a border fence along the entire length with both Oman and Saudi Arabia.
  • United Arab Emirates (06/07) 10 February 2010 11:32 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The Ghassanids, Lakhmids and Kindites were the last major migration of non-Muslims out of Yemen to the north.
  • The Ghassanids revived the Semitic presence in the then Hellenized Syria. .They mainly settled in the Hauran region and spread to modern Lebanon, Palestine and Jordan.^ Instead, they settled throughout the Middle East, including present-day Saudi Arabia, Jordan, Palestine, Iran, Lebanon, Yemen, the Persian Gulf countries and Turkey.
    • ARAB SLAVE TRADE - The history of Arab Slavery in Africa 10 February 2010 11:32 UTC www.africanholocaust.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ There are several categories: Levantine dialect (Jordan, Syria, Palestine, Lebanon), Egyptian and North African dialect, and Khalijji, or Gulf, dialect.
    • 100 questions about arab americans leaving in the US 10 February 2010 11:32 UTC allied-media.com [Source type: Original source]

    The Ghassanids held Syria until the expansion of Islam.
Coin showing the Roman Emperor, Philip the Arab
Greeks and Romans referred to all the nomadic population of the desert in the Near East as Arabi. .The Romans called Yemen "Arabia Felix".[32] The Romans called the vassal nomadic states within the Roman Empire "Arabia Petraea" after the city of Petra, and called unconquered deserts bordering the empire to the south and east Arabia Magna.^ National Dialing Prefix (NDD) National Direct Dialing Prefix: The NDD prefix is the access code used to make a call WITHIN that country from one city to another.
  • United Arab Emirates Country Code 971 Country Code AE 10 February 2010 11:32 UTC countrycode.org [Source type: Reference]

.
  • The Lakhmids settled the mid Tigris region around their capital Al-hira they ended up allying with the Sassanid against the Ghassanids and the Byzantine Empire.^ Others sided with the Byzantines, hoping that they would provide a defense against the Arab invaders.
    • ARAB SLAVE TRADE - The history of Arab Slavery in Africa 10 February 2010 11:32 UTC www.africanholocaust.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Muslim conquered an Egypt that was part of the Byzantine Empire with its capital in Constantinople.
    • ARAB SLAVE TRADE - The history of Arab Slavery in Africa 10 February 2010 11:32 UTC www.africanholocaust.net [Source type: Original source]

    The Lakhmids contested control of the Central Arabian tribes with the Kindites with the Lakhmids eventually destroying Kinda in 540 after the fall of their main ally Himyar. The Sassanids dissolved the Lakhmid kingdom in 602.
  • The Kindites migrated from Yemen along with the Ghassanids and Lakhmids, but were turned back in Bahrain by the Abdul Qais Rabi'a tribe. .They returned to Yemen and allied themselves with the Himyarites who installed them as a vassal kingdom that ruled Central Arbia from Qaryah dhat Kahl (the present-day Qaryat al-Faw) in Central Arabia.^ Instead, they settled throughout the Middle East, including present-day Saudi Arabia, Jordan, Palestine, Iran, Lebanon, Yemen, the Persian Gulf countries and Turkey.
    • ARAB SLAVE TRADE - The history of Arab Slavery in Africa 10 February 2010 11:32 UTC www.africanholocaust.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Rules governing Jews who sold themselves into slavery: .
    • ARAB SLAVE TRADE - The history of Arab Slavery in Africa 10 February 2010 11:32 UTC www.africanholocaust.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Hamas say Israel don’t exist, so who will want they blame, apart for themselves?
    • Gaza Children « Saudi Jeans 10 February 2010 10:31 UTC saudijeans.org [Source type: Original source]

    They ruled much of the Northern/Central Arabian peninsula until the fall of the Himyarites in 525AD.

Early Islamic period

Age of the Caliphs      Expansion under Muhammad, 622–632/A.H. 1–11      Expansion during the Rashidun Caliphate, 632–661/A.H. 11–40      Expansion during the Umayyad Caliphate, 661–750/A.H. 40–129
Muslims of Medina referred to the nomadic tribes of the deserts as the A'raab, and considered themselves sedentary, but were aware of their close racial bonds. .The term "A'raab' mirrors the term Assyrians used to describe the closely related nomads they defeated in Syria.^ As a weak method of self-defense, they use terms like “more cultured”, “urban nomad”, and “citizens of the world” to describe themselves.
  • too arab 10 February 2010 11:32 UTC tooarab.com [Source type: General]

^ PLEASE READ THESE TERMS OF USE CAREFULLY BECAUSE THEY DESCRIBE YOUR RIGHTS AND RESPONSIBILITIES .
  • Arab Girls Gone Wild | SPIKE 10 February 2010 11:32 UTC www.spike.com [Source type: General]

The Qur'an does not use the word ʿarab, only the nisba adjective ʿarabiy. .The Qur'an calls itself ʿarabiy, "Arabic", and Mubin, "clear". The two qualities are connected for example in ayat 43.2–3, "By the clear Book: We have made it an Arabic recitation in order that you may understand". The Qur'an became regarded as the prime example of the al-ʿarabiyya, the language of the Arabs.^ Arabic is the language Arabs speak.
  • Arab Girls Gone Wild | SPIKE 10 February 2010 11:32 UTC www.spike.com [Source type: General]

^ You cannot call Arabs "Arabics".
  • Arab Girls Gone Wild | SPIKE 10 February 2010 11:32 UTC www.spike.com [Source type: General]

^ Fine writing is called calligraphy and is held in high regard and appreciated as an art form in the Arabic culture.
  • 100 questions about arab americans leaving in the US 10 February 2010 11:32 UTC allied-media.com [Source type: Original source]

The term ʾiʿrāb has the same root and refers to a particularly clear and correct mode of speech. The plural noun ʾaʿrāb refers to the Bedouin tribes of the desert who resisted Muhammad, for example in ayat 9.97, alʾaʿrābu ʾašaddu kufrān wa nifāqān "the Bedouin are the worst in disbelief and hypocrisy".
.Based on this, in early Islamic terminology, ʿarabiy referred to the language, and ʾaʿrāb to the Arab Bedouins, carrying a negative connotation due to the Qur'anic verdict just cited.^ The term "Islamic fundamentalist" has been used to refer to people who cite Islam to justify political actions.
  • 100 questions about arab americans leaving in the US 10 February 2010 11:32 UTC allied-media.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Also, please learn to use the proper terms when referring to Arabs and their language.
  • Arab Girls Gone Wild | SPIKE 10 February 2010 11:32 UTC www.spike.com [Source type: General]

.But after the Islamic conquest of the 8th century, the language of the nomadic Arabs became regarded as the most pure by the grammarians following Abi Ishaq, and the term kalam al-ʿArab, "language of the Arabs", denoted the uncontaminated language of the Bedouins.^ Bedouins, nomadic people depicted in movies, make up only about 2 percent of Arab people.
  • 100 questions about arab americans leaving in the US 10 February 2010 11:32 UTC allied-media.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This African American religious group is closely related to Islam, but evolved in the 20th Century with some different practices than those followed by most Muslims.
  • 100 questions about arab americans leaving in the US 10 February 2010 11:32 UTC allied-media.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Practiced Islam, like practiced Christianity, became the context for the cultural prevalence of Arab culture: Arab names became Islamic names and those who adopted Islam automatically adopted Arab culture in an attempt to become "Islamic."
  • ARAB SLAVE TRADE - The history of Arab Slavery in Africa 10 February 2010 11:32 UTC www.africanholocaust.net [Source type: Original source]

Levant and Iraq

Map detailing Rashidun Caliphates invasion of Levant.
.The arrival of Islam united many tribes in Arabia, who then moved northwards to conquer the Levant and Iraq.^ The second immigration also had many more people who practiced Islam, a religion that was not as familiar in the United States.
  • 100 questions about arab americans leaving in the US 10 February 2010 11:32 UTC allied-media.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Islam is not an Arab cultural invention but a religion born in a multi-racial Arabia; it was actually perceived as “foreign” by most Arab “tribes.” Islam in Africa is just as old as Islam in Arabia.
  • ARAB SLAVE TRADE - The history of Arab Slavery in Africa 10 February 2010 11:32 UTC www.africanholocaust.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Currently, she is researching Shii women from Saudi Arabia and Iraq who live in Nebraska.

In 661, and throughout the Caliphate's rule by the Ummayad dynasty, Damascus was established as the Muslim capital. In these newly acquired territories, Arabs comprised the ruling military elite and as such, enjoyed special privileges. .They were proud of their Arab ancestry and sponsored the poetry and culture of pre-Islamic Arabia whilst diffusing with Levantine and Iraqi culture.^ Some claim African Muslims blended ancient African traditions into the “pure” Islamic they encountered coming from Arabia.
  • ARAB SLAVE TRADE - The history of Arab Slavery in Africa 10 February 2010 11:32 UTC www.africanholocaust.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Although Arabs are connected by culture, they have different faiths.
  • 100 questions about arab americans leaving in the US 10 February 2010 11:32 UTC allied-media.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Islam is not an Arab cultural invention but a religion born in a multi-racial Arabia; it was actually perceived as “foreign” by most Arab “tribes.” Islam in Africa is just as old as Islam in Arabia.
  • ARAB SLAVE TRADE - The history of Arab Slavery in Africa 10 February 2010 11:32 UTC www.africanholocaust.net [Source type: Original source]

They established garrison towns at Ramla, ar-Raqqah, Basra, Kufa, Mosul and Samarra, all of which developed into major cities.[33]
.Caliph Abd al-Malik established Arabic as the Caliphate's official language in 686. This reform greatly influenced the conquered non-Arab peoples and fueled the Arabization of the region.^ Arabic is the language Arabs speak.
  • Arab Girls Gone Wild | SPIKE 10 February 2010 11:32 UTC www.spike.com [Source type: General]

^ Not all people in this region are Arabs.
  • 100 questions about arab americans leaving in the US 10 February 2010 11:32 UTC allied-media.com [Source type: Original source]

^ As with many people, in-group marriage may be encouraged as a way to preserve heritage, but Arabs and non-Arabs frequently marry one other.
  • 100 questions about arab americans leaving in the US 10 February 2010 11:32 UTC allied-media.com [Source type: Original source]

.However, the Arabs' higher status among non-Arab Muslim converts and the latter's obligation to pay heavy taxes caused resentment.^ However, it is a well-known fact that Europeans in their artistic depictions of slave raids have always intentionally portrayed slave raiders as Muslim Africans or Arabs .
  • ARAB SLAVE TRADE - The history of Arab Slavery in Africa 10 February 2010 11:32 UTC www.africanholocaust.net [Source type: Original source]

^ However, what remains elusive is whether or not these various socio-demographic and other characteristics of Arab American women vary with nativity status.

^ The ruling Arabs alienated the Berbers by taxing them heavily; treating converts as second-class Muslims and, at worst, by enslaving them.
  • ARAB SLAVE TRADE - The history of Arab Slavery in Africa 10 February 2010 11:32 UTC www.africanholocaust.net [Source type: Original source]

.Caliph Umar II strove to resolve the conflict when he came to power in 717. He rectified the situation, demanding that all Muslims be treated as equals, but his intended reforms did not take effect as he died after only three years of rule.^ The ruling Arabs alienated the Berbers by taxing them heavily; treating converts as second-class Muslims and, at worst, by enslaving them.
  • ARAB SLAVE TRADE - The history of Arab Slavery in Africa 10 February 2010 11:32 UTC www.africanholocaust.net [Source type: Original source]

By now, discontent with the Umayyads swept the region and an uprising occurred in which the Abbasids came to power and moved the capital to Baghdad. .The Abbasids were also Arabs (descendants of Muhammad's uncle Abbas), but unlike the Ummayads, they had the support of non-Arab Islamic groups.^ As with many people, in-group marriage may be encouraged as a way to preserve heritage, but Arabs and non-Arabs frequently marry one other.
  • 100 questions about arab americans leaving in the US 10 February 2010 11:32 UTC allied-media.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In trying for a more interesting image, they may emphasize the difference between Arab Americans and non-Arab Americans.
  • 100 questions about arab americans leaving in the US 10 February 2010 11:32 UTC allied-media.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Unlike Islamic law, there were no restrictions on how non-Jewish slaves could be obtained.
  • ARAB SLAVE TRADE - The history of Arab Slavery in Africa 10 February 2010 11:32 UTC www.africanholocaust.net [Source type: Original source]

[33] Through the adoption of the Arabic language and Islam, the Levantine and Iraqi populations became Arabized.

North Africa and the Iberian Peninsula

.Inland in North Africa, the nomadic Berbers allied with Arab Muslims in invading Spain.^ The biggest slavers in Africa where neither Muslim nor Christian, yet they constantly neglect Dahomy and focus on Arabs and Muslims as agents of enslavement.
  • ARAB SLAVE TRADE - The history of Arab Slavery in Africa 10 February 2010 11:32 UTC www.africanholocaust.net [Source type: Original source]

^ North Africa and the Mediterranean, where in slave markets such as Ceuta, Morocco, Africans were purchased to work as servants in Spain, Portugal, and other European countries.
  • ARAB SLAVE TRADE - The history of Arab Slavery in Africa 10 February 2010 11:32 UTC www.africanholocaust.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The ruling Arabs alienated the Berbers by taxing them heavily; treating converts as second-class Muslims and, at worst, by enslaving them.
  • ARAB SLAVE TRADE - The history of Arab Slavery in Africa 10 February 2010 11:32 UTC www.africanholocaust.net [Source type: Original source]

The Arabs mainly settled the old Phoenician and Carthagenian towns, while the Berbers remained dominant inland. .Inland north Africa remained partly Arab until the 11th century, whereas the Iberian Peninsula, particularly its southern part, remained heavily Arab, until the expulsion of the Moriscos in the 15th century.^ Although bias against those of very dark complexion existed in the Arab world in the 15th century it didn't have the stigma currently seen globally.
  • ARAB SLAVE TRADE - The history of Arab Slavery in Africa 10 February 2010 11:32 UTC www.africanholocaust.net [Source type: Original source]

^ In 14th century North Africa, Ibn Khaldun, wrote in his Muqaddimah: .
  • ARAB SLAVE TRADE - The history of Arab Slavery in Africa 10 February 2010 11:32 UTC www.africanholocaust.net [Source type: Original source]

^ So In Bangladesh we see the Barelwi flavor of Islam, bringing in aspects which are part of pre-Islamic Bengali spirituality, and again in North Africa and Saudi Arabia.
  • ARAB SLAVE TRADE - The history of Arab Slavery in Africa 10 February 2010 11:32 UTC www.africanholocaust.net [Source type: Original source]

Islamic Golden Age

View of the Alhambra from the Mirador de San Nicolás in the Albaycin of Granada.
.During the Muslim conquests of the 7th and early 8th centuries, Rashidun armies established the Caliphate, or Islamic Empire, one of the largest empires in history.^ One of these the Tariq-ul-Sudan, details the history of Islamic West Africa, but this manuscript remains inaccessible to non-Arabic speakers.
  • ARAB SLAVE TRADE - The history of Arab Slavery in Africa 10 February 2010 11:32 UTC www.africanholocaust.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Guilt sits with those who inherited control of Islamic history: The same ones who interpreted a Sharia that favoured enslavement over manumission.
  • ARAB SLAVE TRADE - The history of Arab Slavery in Africa 10 February 2010 11:32 UTC www.africanholocaust.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Islam spread across to West Africa (by African traders such as the Fulani people ) from as early as the 8 th century by African traders and was firmly established by the 11 th century.
  • ARAB SLAVE TRADE - The history of Arab Slavery in Africa 10 February 2010 11:32 UTC www.africanholocaust.net [Source type: Original source]

.The Islamic Golden Age was soon inaugurated by the middle of the 8th century by the ascension of the Abbasid Caliphate and the transfer of the capital from Damascus to the newly founded city Baghdad.^ And filter by the city of origin: Damascus, Beirut, Baghdad.
  • too arab 10 February 2010 11:32 UTC tooarab.com [Source type: General]

The Abbassids were influenced by the Qur'anic injunctions and hadith such as "The ink of the scholar is more holy than the blood of martyrs" stressing the value of knowledge. .During this period the Muslim world became an intellectual centre for science, philosophy, medicine and education as the Abbasids championed the cause of knowledge and established the "House of Wisdom" (Arabic:بيت الحكمة) in Baghdad; where both Muslim and non-Muslim scholars sought to translate and gather all the world's knowledge into Arabic.^ All tears have been wasted into the wrong direction, you should cry for god and not for humans, period.
  • Gaza Children « Saudi Jeans 10 February 2010 10:31 UTC saudijeans.org [Source type: Original source]

^ But it not strange be cause Allah messengers said in an authentic hadith “the Jews will split in to 71 sect the Christians 72 and the Muslims 73 all of them are in hell except 1.
  • Gaza Children « Saudi Jeans 10 February 2010 10:31 UTC saudijeans.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The agenda thus is to portray Muslims as champions of the most fearful aspects of our modern world.
  • ARAB SLAVE TRADE - The history of Arab Slavery in Africa 10 February 2010 11:32 UTC www.africanholocaust.net [Source type: Original source]

.Many classic works of antiquity that would otherwise have been forgotten were translated into Arabic and later in turn translated into Turkish, Persian, Hebrew and Latin.^ Had they the arms to do so they would turn Gazans into the Daleks of the Middle East.
  • Gaza Children « Saudi Jeans 10 February 2010 10:31 UTC saudijeans.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Quran has been translated into many languages, including English, and is available on the Web.
  • 100 questions about arab americans leaving in the US 10 February 2010 11:32 UTC allied-media.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Her poetry has been used in art installations, photography exhibits and political forums, as well as in more traditional venues, and has been translated into Arabic, Hebrew, Greek and German.

.During this period the Muslim world was a cauldron of cultures which collected, synthesized and advanced the knowledge gained from the ancient Mesopotamian, Roman, Chinese, Indian, Persian, Egyptian, North African, Greek and Byzantine civilizations.^ Egypt had ceased being African in 700 B.C. with the Persian conquest, and then the Greek (332 BC) and Roman conquest (30 BC).
  • ARAB SLAVE TRADE - The history of Arab Slavery in Africa 10 February 2010 11:32 UTC www.africanholocaust.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Recent linguistic, cultural and archaeological finds in Brazil and Peru offer documentary evidence" that West African Mandinka Muslims explored the early Americas.
  • ARAB SLAVE TRADE - The history of Arab Slavery in Africa 10 February 2010 11:32 UTC www.africanholocaust.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The bulk of African history after the Ancient Egyptians Medew Netjer , was written in the Arabic language by both Africans and Arabs.
  • ARAB SLAVE TRADE - The history of Arab Slavery in Africa 10 February 2010 11:32 UTC www.africanholocaust.net [Source type: Original source]

Rival Muslim dynasties such as the Fatimids of Egypt and the Umayyads of al-Andalus were also major intellectual centres with cities such as Cairo and Córdoba rivaling Baghdad.[34]

Arabs of the Caucasus and Central Asia

.In 1728, a Russian officer described a group of Sunni Arab nomads who populated the Caspian shores of Mughan (in present-day Azerbaijan) and spoke a mixed Turkic-Arabic language.^ Arabic is the language Arabs speak.
  • Arab Girls Gone Wild | SPIKE 10 February 2010 11:32 UTC www.spike.com [Source type: General]

^ The idea of religion over race has also presented a problem, as any Muslim Africans who would have sold other Africans to Arabs would have seen religious kinship, over racial kinship.
  • ARAB SLAVE TRADE - The history of Arab Slavery in Africa 10 February 2010 11:32 UTC www.africanholocaust.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The Arabic language is one of the great unifying and distinguishing characteristics of Arab people.
  • 100 questions about arab americans leaving in the US 10 February 2010 11:32 UTC allied-media.com [Source type: Original source]

[35] It is believed that these groups migrated to the Caucasus in the 16th century.[36] The 1888 edition of Encyclopædia Britannica also mentioned a certain number of Arabs populating the Baku Governorate of the Russian Empire.[37] They retained an Arabic dialect at least into the mid-19th century,[38] but since then have fully assimilated with the neighbouring Azeris and Tats. .Today in Azerbaijan alone, there are nearly 30 settlements still holding the name Arab (e.g.^ Are there any Arab conventions for naming children?
  • 100 questions about arab americans leaving in the US 10 February 2010 11:32 UTC allied-media.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Still today, the fastest way to get a book published as an African is to write on Arab/African slavery.
  • ARAB SLAVE TRADE - The history of Arab Slavery in Africa 10 February 2010 11:32 UTC www.africanholocaust.net [Source type: Original source]

Arabgadim, Arabojaghy, Arab-Yengija, etc.).
.From the time of the Arab conquest of the Caucasus, continuous small-scale Arab migration from various parts of the Arabic-speaking world was observed in Dagestan influencing and shaping the culture of the local peoples.^ Arabic is the language Arabs speak.
  • Arab Girls Gone Wild | SPIKE 10 February 2010 11:32 UTC www.spike.com [Source type: General]

^ However, from the ashes of inhumanity, the challenge for oppressed people is to unite and return humanity to the World, so that the legacy of the past will never be part of the future.
  • ARAB SLAVE TRADE - The history of Arab Slavery in Africa 10 February 2010 11:32 UTC www.africanholocaust.net [Source type: Original source]

^ This group of academics and activists, native-born and immigrant women from varied cultural and religious backgrounds united to form the Feminist Arab-American Network (FAN).

.Up until the mid-20th century, there were still individuals in Dagestan who claimed Arabic to be their native language, with the majority of them living in the village of Darvag to the north-west of Derbent.^ The dominant language in Iran is Farsi, not Arabic, although other languages are spoken there as well.
  • 100 questions about arab americans leaving in the US 10 February 2010 11:32 UTC allied-media.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The word Copt is derived from the Greek word for Egyptian and Coptic was the native language of Egypt before Arabic prevailed.
  • 100 questions about arab americans leaving in the US 10 February 2010 11:32 UTC allied-media.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Chaldean language is different from Arabic and, in Iraq, Chaldeans are religiously distinct from the Muslim majority.
  • 100 questions about arab americans leaving in the US 10 February 2010 11:32 UTC allied-media.com [Source type: Original source]

The latest of these accounts dates to the 1930s.[36] .Most Arab communities in southern Dagestan underwent linguistic Turkicisation, thus nowadays Darvag is a majority-Azeri village.^ While they may be closely tied to their countries of origin, most Arab Americans were born in the United States, and an even larger majority have U.S. citizenship.
  • 100 questions about arab americans leaving in the US 10 February 2010 11:32 UTC allied-media.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In a heterogeneous society, two major tendencies with regard to relation of the Arab community with the mainstream society surface.

[39][40]
.According to the History of Ibn Khaldun, the Arabs that were once in Central Asia have been either killed or have fled the Tatar invasion of the region, leaving only the locals .^ Her articles and reviews are published in Arab Studies Quarterly, The Journal of American Ethnic History, The Journal of Religion, Radical History Review, and Comparative Studies in South Asia, Africa and the Middle East.

[41] .However, today many people in Central Asia identify as Arabs.^ Many African people thus rose to great stations by virtue of their Arab fathers.
  • ARAB SLAVE TRADE - The history of Arab Slavery in Africa 10 February 2010 11:32 UTC www.africanholocaust.net [Source type: Original source]

.Most Arabs of Central Asia are fully integrated into local populations, and sometimes call themselves the same as locals (e.g.^ Arab 95%, Armenian 4%, other 1% note: many Christian Lebanese do not identify themselves as Arab but rather as descendents of the ancient Canaanites and prefer to be called Phoenicians .
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- Lebanon 24 September 2009 21:021 UTC www.cia.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Nevertheless, the Western press is fully aware of the racial tension that mislabeling these so-called Arabs would cause and have exploited race dynamics to their end.
  • ARAB SLAVE TRADE - The history of Arab Slavery in Africa 10 February 2010 11:32 UTC www.africanholocaust.net [Source type: Original source]

^ My doctoral dissertation focuses on how Islam and gender influence Arab families' integration into American mainstream.

.Tajiks, Uzbeks) but they use special titles to show their Arabic origin such as Sayyid, Khoja or Siddiqui.^ Journalists can show respect by using courtesy titles.
  • 100 questions about arab americans leaving in the US 10 February 2010 11:32 UTC allied-media.com [Source type: Original source]

[42]
Iranian Arab communities are also found in Khorasan Province.

Tribal genealogy

Arab family of Ramallah,1905
Medieval Arab genealogists divided Arabs into three groups:
.
  • "Ancient Arabs", tribes that had vanished or been destroyed, such as 'Ad and Thamud, often mentioned in the Qur'an as examples of God's power to destroy wicked peoples.
  • "Pure Arabs" of South Arabia, descending from Qahtan.^ Arab 95%, Armenian 4%, other 1% note: many Christian Lebanese do not identify themselves as Arab but rather as descendents of the ancient Canaanites and prefer to be called Phoenicians .
    • CIA - The World Factbook -- Lebanon 24 September 2009 21:021 UTC www.cia.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Arabs are largest in terms of population and land holdings, and this handbook focuses on people who have emigrated from or who are descended from people in those areas.
    • 100 questions about arab americans leaving in the US 10 February 2010 11:32 UTC allied-media.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Like all people, Arab Americans are too often described in simplistic terms.
    • 100 questions about arab americans leaving in the US 10 February 2010 11:32 UTC allied-media.com [Source type: Original source]

    .The Qahtanites (Qahtanis) are said to have migrated the land of Yemen following the destruction of the Ma'rib Dam (sadd Ma'rib).
  • The "Arabized Arabs" (musta`ribah) of center and North Arabia, descending from Ishmael son of Abraham.^ There is a low African Diaspora in the Arab lands due to the proliferation of miscegenation, the dynamics of being classified as an Arab, and the degree or easy of Arabization.
    • ARAB SLAVE TRADE - The history of Arab Slavery in Africa 10 February 2010 11:32 UTC www.africanholocaust.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ To satisfy this demand the Arabs hunted deep into the interiors of Africa, they following ancient trails from Bagamoyo, Kilwa, Tanga, where terror and destruction followed in their wake.
    • ARAB SLAVE TRADE - The history of Arab Slavery in Africa 10 February 2010 11:32 UTC www.africanholocaust.net [Source type: Original source]

    The Book of Jubilees claims that the sons of Ishmael intermingled with the 6 sons of Keturah from Abraham and their descendants were called Arabs and Ishmaelites:
Book of Jubilees 20:13 And Ishmael and his sons, and the sons of Keturah and their sons, went together and dwelt from Paran to the entering in of Babylon in all the land which is towards the East facing the desert. And these mingled with each other, and their name was called Arabs, and Ishmaelites.
.Ibn Khaldun's Muqaddima distinguishes between sedentary Muslims who used to be nomadic Arabs and the Bedouin nomadic Arabs of the desert.^ I used this question to identify those who identified with an Arab ancestry.

^ Most of the people in the west are too ignorant to be able to distinguish between an Arab and an Indian, or even between an Arab and a Chinese.
  • Arab Girls Gone Wild | SPIKE 10 February 2010 11:32 UTC www.spike.com [Source type: General]

^ The idea of religion over race has also presented a problem, as any Muslim Africans who would have sold other Africans to Arabs would have seen religious kinship, over racial kinship.
  • ARAB SLAVE TRADE - The history of Arab Slavery in Africa 10 February 2010 11:32 UTC www.africanholocaust.net [Source type: Original source]

.He used the term "formerly-nomadic" Arabs and refers to sedentary Muslims by the region or city they lived in, as in Egyptians, Spaniards and Yemenis.^ You can use the terms Arab or Arabian to refer to the people.
  • Arab Girls Gone Wild | SPIKE 10 February 2010 11:32 UTC www.spike.com [Source type: General]

^ Also, please learn to use the proper terms when referring to Arabs and their language.
  • Arab Girls Gone Wild | SPIKE 10 February 2010 11:32 UTC www.spike.com [Source type: General]

^ To begin with, most Arabs live in cities.
  • 100 questions about arab americans leaving in the US 10 February 2010 11:32 UTC allied-media.com [Source type: Original source]

[43] .The Christians of Italy and the Crusaders preferred the term Saracens for all the Arabs and Muslims of that time.^ This relates to Muslims, not all Arabs.
  • 100 questions about arab americans leaving in the US 10 February 2010 11:32 UTC allied-media.com [Source type: Original source]

^ There are more Muslims in Indonesia, for example, than in all Arab countries combined.
  • 100 questions about arab americans leaving in the US 10 February 2010 11:32 UTC allied-media.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Many Arab Americans do not use these terms at all.
  • 100 questions about arab americans leaving in the US 10 February 2010 11:32 UTC allied-media.com [Source type: Original source]

[44] .The Christians of Iberia used the term Moor to describe all the Arabs and Muslims of that time.^ Many Arab Americans do not use these terms at all.
  • 100 questions about arab americans leaving in the US 10 February 2010 11:32 UTC allied-media.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This relates to Muslims, not all Arabs.
  • 100 questions about arab americans leaving in the US 10 February 2010 11:32 UTC allied-media.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In many communities, Muslim and Christian Arabs live side by side with each other and with non-Arab religious communities.
  • 100 questions about arab americans leaving in the US 10 February 2010 11:32 UTC allied-media.com [Source type: Original source]

Religion

.Arab Muslims are generally Sunni, Shia, Ismaili and Druze.^ The so-called Arabs are really Africans, there are no different from the so-called non-Arabs of Sudan—they are generally the same complexion and both groups are Muslim.
  • ARAB SLAVE TRADE - The history of Arab Slavery in Africa 10 February 2010 11:32 UTC www.africanholocaust.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Their identity and religion (Muslim, Christian, and Druze) were called into question and many found themselves feeling pressure to choose between identity as an Arab and identity as an American.

.Arab Christians generally follow Eastern Churches such as the Greek Orthodox and Greek Catholic churches and the Maronite church.^ Eastern rite churches are part of the Catholic church with roots in the Middle East and include Maronites, Melkites and Chaldeans.
  • 100 questions about arab americans leaving in the US 10 February 2010 11:32 UTC allied-media.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Eastern Orthodox churches, which are independent from Vatican authority, include the Syrian and Coptic churches.
  • 100 questions about arab americans leaving in the US 10 February 2010 11:32 UTC allied-media.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Most Arab Americans are Catholic or Orthodox Christians, but this is not true in all parts of the United States.
  • 100 questions about arab americans leaving in the US 10 February 2010 11:32 UTC allied-media.com [Source type: Original source]

[45] .The Greek Catholic churches and Maronite church are under the Pope of Rome, and a part of the larger worldwide Catholic Church.^ Eastern rite churches are part of the Catholic church with roots in the Middle East and include Maronites, Melkites and Chaldeans.
  • 100 questions about arab americans leaving in the US 10 February 2010 11:32 UTC allied-media.com [Source type: Original source]

.
The Kaaba, located in Mecca (Saudi Arabia) is the center of Islam.
^ There is no more validity in Sufi Islam in Mali than the Wahabi fundamentalism of Saudi Arabia.
  • ARAB SLAVE TRADE - The history of Arab Slavery in Africa 10 February 2010 11:32 UTC www.africanholocaust.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Prior to the rise of Islam, Ethiopia, a super power of that time, had annexed modern day Yemen and parts of Saudi Arabia for centuries.
  • ARAB SLAVE TRADE - The history of Arab Slavery in Africa 10 February 2010 11:32 UTC www.africanholocaust.net [Source type: Original source]

^ They are facing Kaaba (the House of God) at Mecca, the holiest of the three cities of Islam.
  • 100 questions about arab americans leaving in the US 10 February 2010 11:32 UTC allied-media.com [Source type: Original source]

It is where Muslims from all over the world travel to and gather there to pray in unity
Christian martyr Saint Abo, the patron saint of Tbilisi
.Before the coming of Islam, most Arabs followed a pagan religion with a number of deities, including Hubal,[46] Wadd,[47] Allāt,[48] Manat,[49] and Uzza.^ Is Islam mostly an Arab religion, then?
  • 100 questions about arab americans leaving in the US 10 February 2010 11:32 UTC allied-media.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Islam is the religion, and a Muslim is a follower of the religion.
  • 100 questions about arab americans leaving in the US 10 February 2010 11:32 UTC allied-media.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It is said that when Bilal the Ethiopian, one of the most revered legends of Islam, first heard of Islam he called it the ancient religion.
  • ARAB SLAVE TRADE - The history of Arab Slavery in Africa 10 February 2010 11:32 UTC www.africanholocaust.net [Source type: Original source]

[50] A few individuals, the hanifs, had apparently rejected polytheism in favor of monotheism unaffiliated with any particular religion. .Some tribes had converted to Christianity or Judaism.^ Judaism existed among certain Arab tribes as well as Christianity , and like them Islam did not blatantly out law slavery; Islam did however blatantly outlawed chattel enslavement.
  • ARAB SLAVE TRADE - The history of Arab Slavery in Africa 10 February 2010 11:32 UTC www.africanholocaust.net [Source type: Original source]

.The most prominent Arab Christian kingdoms were the Ghassanid and Lakhmid kingdoms.^ Most early Arab immigrants were from Lebanon and Syria, and most were Christian.
  • 100 questions about arab americans leaving in the US 10 February 2010 11:32 UTC allied-media.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Most Arab Americans are Catholic or Orthodox Christians, but this is not true in all parts of the United States.
  • 100 questions about arab americans leaving in the US 10 February 2010 11:32 UTC allied-media.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Most Arab Americans are Christian, though this varies by region.
  • 100 questions about arab americans leaving in the US 10 February 2010 11:32 UTC allied-media.com [Source type: Original source]

[51] .When the Himyarite king converted to Judaism in the late 4th century,[52] the elites of the other prominent Arab kingdom, the Kindites, being Himyirite vassals, apparently also converted (at least partly).^ Strangely eunuchs were both distinguished and greatly revered as elites in Arab society, despite being enslaved.
  • ARAB SLAVE TRADE - The history of Arab Slavery in Africa 10 February 2010 11:32 UTC www.africanholocaust.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Arabs belong to many religions, including Islam, Christianity, Druze, Judaism and others.
  • 100 questions about arab americans leaving in the US 10 February 2010 11:32 UTC allied-media.com [Source type: Original source]

.With the expansion of Islam, polytheistic Arabs were rapidly Islamized, and polytheistic traditions gradually disappeared.^ Common misperceptions are to think that Arab traditions are Islamic, or that Islam unifies all Arabs.
  • 100 questions about arab americans leaving in the US 10 February 2010 11:32 UTC allied-media.com [Source type: Original source]

[53][54]
.Today, Sunni Islam dominates in most areas, overwhelmingly so in North Africa.^ Islam is not an Arab cultural invention but a religion born in a multi-racial Arabia; it was actually perceived as “foreign” by most Arab “tribes.” Islam in Africa is just as old as Islam in Arabia.
  • ARAB SLAVE TRADE - The history of Arab Slavery in Africa 10 February 2010 11:32 UTC www.africanholocaust.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Most Muslims worldwide and in the United States are Sunni, though Shi'as dominate in some communities.
  • 100 questions about arab americans leaving in the US 10 February 2010 11:32 UTC allied-media.com [Source type: Original source]

^ So In Bangladesh we see the Barelwi flavor of Islam, bringing in aspects which are part of pre-Islamic Bengali spirituality, and again in North Africa and Saudi Arabia.
  • ARAB SLAVE TRADE - The history of Arab Slavery in Africa 10 February 2010 11:32 UTC www.africanholocaust.net [Source type: Original source]

.Shia Islam is dominant in southern Iraq, Bahrain and Lebanon.^ Most Muslims in Iraq, Bahrain, Lebanon and the non-Arab country of Iran are Shi'a.
  • 100 questions about arab americans leaving in the US 10 February 2010 11:32 UTC allied-media.com [Source type: Original source]

.Substantial Shi'a populations exist in Saudi Arabia,[55] Kuwait, northern Syria, the al-Batinah region in Oman, and in northern Yemen.^ Arab Americans trace their roots to many places, including parts or all of Algeria, Bahrain, Djibouti, Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Mauritania, Morocco, Oman, Palestine, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Somalia, Sudan, Syria, Tunisia, United Arab Emirates and Yemen.
  • 100 questions about arab americans leaving in the US 10 February 2010 11:32 UTC allied-media.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Prior to the rise of Islam, Ethiopia, a super power of that time, had annexed modern day Yemen and parts of Saudi Arabia for centuries.
  • ARAB SLAVE TRADE - The history of Arab Slavery in Africa 10 February 2010 11:32 UTC www.africanholocaust.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Syria 10.7%, France 9.7%, US 9.5%, Italy 7.4%, China 6.7%, Germany 5%, Saudi Arabia 4.9%, Turkey 4.3% (2008) .
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- Lebanon 24 September 2009 21:021 UTC www.cia.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Druze community, concentrated in the Levant, follow a faith that was originally an offshoot of Ismaili Shia Islam,[56] and are also Arab.^ Arabs belong to many religions, including Islam, Christianity, Druze, Judaism and others.
  • 100 questions about arab americans leaving in the US 10 February 2010 11:32 UTC allied-media.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Islam has a strong Arab flavor, though, as the religion's holiest places are in the Middle East, and the Quran was originally written in Arabic.
  • 100 questions about arab americans leaving in the US 10 February 2010 11:32 UTC allied-media.com [Source type: Original source]

Christians make up 5.5% of the population of the Near East.[57] In Lebanon they number about 39% of the population.[58] In Syria, Christians make up 16% of the population.[59] .In Palestine before the creation of Israel estimates ranged as high as 25%, but is now 3.8% due largely to the 1948 Palestinian exodus.^ You also said: “in 1948 there was the possibilities of two states but the arabs refused….Israel isn’t your holy land, there weren’t a state Palestine…before there was Turks, then the english…” .
  • Gaza Children « Saudi Jeans 10 February 2010 10:31 UTC saudijeans.org [Source type: Original source]

^ They have been killing Palestinian since 1948 till now .
  • Gaza Children « Saudi Jeans 10 February 2010 10:31 UTC saudijeans.org [Source type: Original source]

^ As a distinct region, Palestine was under Ottoman control (a Turkish empire) and then British control until 1948, when the nation of Israel was created.
  • 100 questions about arab americans leaving in the US 10 February 2010 11:32 UTC allied-media.com [Source type: Original source]

.In West Bank and in Gaza, Arab Christians make up 8% and 0.8% of the populations, respectively.^ An Arab identity is often connected with an earlier time, with growing up, whereas in the present, the characters (again like the authors) have relocated to the west.

^ Israel’s actions, in Gaza and in the West Bank, just don’t hold up to their “security” argument (for example… why would 80% of the wall be on Palestinian land in the West bank… leaving thousands of Palestinians on…the other side?
  • Gaza Children « Saudi Jeans 10 February 2010 10:31 UTC saudijeans.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In addition, they are “targeting” civilians by making life miserable not just for the Palestinians in Gaza (ostensibly due to the presence of Hamas), but also the Palestinians in the West Bank, where there is little or no Hamas presence.
  • Gaza Children « Saudi Jeans 10 February 2010 10:31 UTC saudijeans.org [Source type: Original source]

[60][61] .In Israel, Arab Christians constitute 1.7% (roughly 9% of the Palestinian Arab population).^ Why a Jews can become Muslim in Israel and live free and unharmed and a Muslim (Arab or not) can not become an Israelite or a Christian without being harassed and killed?
  • Gaza Children « Saudi Jeans 10 February 2010 10:31 UTC saudijeans.org [Source type: Original source]

[62] .Arab Christians make up 6% of the population of Jordan.^ Bedouins, nomadic people depicted in movies, make up only about 2 percent of Arab people.
  • 100 questions about arab americans leaving in the US 10 February 2010 11:32 UTC allied-media.com [Source type: Original source]

[63] .Most North and South American Arabs are Christian,[64] as are about half of Arabs in Australia who come particularly from Lebanon, Syria, and the Palestinian territories.^ Most Arab Americans are Christian, though this varies by region.
  • 100 questions about arab americans leaving in the US 10 February 2010 11:32 UTC allied-media.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Most early Arab immigrants were from Lebanon and Syria, and most were Christian.
  • 100 questions about arab americans leaving in the US 10 February 2010 11:32 UTC allied-media.com [Source type: Original source]

^ About half of Arab Americans live in 20 metropolitan areas.
  • 100 questions about arab americans leaving in the US 10 February 2010 11:32 UTC allied-media.com [Source type: Original source]

.Jews from Arab countries – mainly Mizrahi Jews and Yemenite Jews – are today usually not categorised as Arab.^ Why a Jews can not live in an Arab country with the same rights of the Muslims Arabs when Arabs can live in Israel with the same rights of Jews?
  • Gaza Children « Saudi Jeans 10 February 2010 10:31 UTC saudijeans.org [Source type: Original source]

.Sociologist Philip Mendes asserts that before the anti-Jewish actions of the 1930s and 1940s, overall Iraqi Jews "viewed themselves as Arabs of the Jewish faith, rather than as a separate race or nationality".[65] Prior to the emergence of the term Mizrahi, the term "Arab Jews" was sometimes used to describe Jews of the Arab world.^ The paper describes the activism and renewed orientations towards faith-based and national communities that the crisis situations fostered among Arab/Muslim communities, paying particular attention to the role of the communities women.

^ Jewish slaves were to be treated more like servants than possessions, and were indentured for a fixed period rather than indefinitely.
  • ARAB SLAVE TRADE - The history of Arab Slavery in Africa 10 February 2010 11:32 UTC www.africanholocaust.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Many Arab Americans do not use these terms at all.
  • 100 questions about arab americans leaving in the US 10 February 2010 11:32 UTC allied-media.com [Source type: Original source]

The term is rarely used today. .The few remaining Jews in the Arab countries reside mostly in Morocco and Tunisia.^ The majority of people in Iran are not Arabs, the same for Morocco, Tunisia, Western Sahara, Mauritania and Libya.
  • ARAB SLAVE TRADE - The history of Arab Slavery in Africa 10 February 2010 11:32 UTC www.africanholocaust.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Why a Jews can not live in an Arab country with the same rights of the Muslims Arabs when Arabs can live in Israel with the same rights of Jews?
  • Gaza Children « Saudi Jeans 10 February 2010 10:31 UTC saudijeans.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The area around the Persian Gulf is one of several oil-producing areas in the world, but not all Arab countries produce oil, and very few Arabs are rich from oil.
  • 100 questions about arab americans leaving in the US 10 February 2010 11:32 UTC allied-media.com [Source type: Original source]

.From the late 1940s to the early 1960s, following the creation of the state of Israel, most of these Jews left or were expelled from their countries of birth and are now mostly concentrated in Israel.^ At the Detroit Free Press, published in the city with the United States' most concentrated Arab-American population, we try to better understand and explain these issues daily.
  • 100 questions about arab americans leaving in the US 10 February 2010 11:32 UTC allied-media.com [Source type: Original source]

^ While they may be closely tied to their countries of origin, most Arab Americans were born in the United States, and an even larger majority have U.S. citizenship.
  • 100 questions about arab americans leaving in the US 10 February 2010 11:32 UTC allied-media.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Why a Jews can not live in an Arab country with the same rights of the Muslims Arabs when Arabs can live in Israel with the same rights of Jews?
  • Gaza Children « Saudi Jeans 10 February 2010 10:31 UTC saudijeans.org [Source type: Original source]

.Some immigrated to France, where they form the largest Jewish community, outnumbering European Jews, but relatively few to the United States.^ These Shii Arabs hold multiple experiences in their homeland as well as in the United States, as marginalized minorities in both the Muslim and American communities.

^ Must be freed at the Jubilee year (every 50 years) The Jewish community as a whole must make efforts to free a Jew who belongs to a non Jew.
  • ARAB SLAVE TRADE - The history of Arab Slavery in Africa 10 February 2010 11:32 UTC www.africanholocaust.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Muslims, Africans, Europeans, Arabs, and Christian have come to terms to some degree with their role in this period of history, as uncomfortable as it is; unfortunately the Jewish community is proving to be the last to come around to dealing with these historical truths.
  • ARAB SLAVE TRADE - The history of Arab Slavery in Africa 10 February 2010 11:32 UTC www.africanholocaust.net [Source type: Original source]

See Jewish exodus from Arab lands.

Culture

.Arab culture is an inclusive term that draws together the common themes and overtones found in the Arabic-speaking cultures, especially those of the Middle-Eastern countries.^ Arabic is the language Arabs speak.
  • Arab Girls Gone Wild | SPIKE 10 February 2010 11:32 UTC www.spike.com [Source type: General]

^ Although Iran borders Iraq, it is descended from the Persian empire and has a different language and cultural history than the Arab countries.
  • 100 questions about arab americans leaving in the US 10 February 2010 11:32 UTC allied-media.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Arab Americans are U.S. citizens and permanent residents who trace their ancestry to or who immigrated from Arabic-speaking places in southwestern Asia and northern Africa, a region known as the Middle East.
  • 100 questions about arab americans leaving in the US 10 February 2010 11:32 UTC allied-media.com [Source type: Original source]

.This region's distinct religion, art, and food are some of the fundamental features that define Arab culture.^ Culture, language and religion are distinct qualities that act in different ways to connect Arabs, and to distinguish them from one another.
  • 100 questions about arab americans leaving in the US 10 February 2010 11:32 UTC allied-media.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Arab American music making has featured women musicians, primarily singers with some consistency.

^ Arabs are not defined specifically by race, like some minority groups, but are united by culture and language.
  • 100 questions about arab americans leaving in the US 10 February 2010 11:32 UTC allied-media.com [Source type: Original source]

.Arabic music is the music of Arabic-speaking people or countries, especially those centered around the Arabian Peninsula.^ City University of New York, and her research revolves around the lived economies of Arabic-speaking diasporas in the Atlantic region.

.The world of Arab music has long been dominated by Cairo, a cultural center, though musical innovation and regional styles abound from Morocco to Saudi Arabia.^ Concentrating in Culture and Society of the contemporary Arab world, her current academic focus is Arab-American literature.

^ Her work on US ethnic literatures positions the field of Arab-American literary studies within a US framework while underscoring its transcontinental and cross-cultural connections to the Arab world.

^ Most Arab Americans are Christian, though this varies by region.
  • 100 questions about arab americans leaving in the US 10 February 2010 11:32 UTC allied-media.com [Source type: Original source]

Beirut has, in recent years, also become a major center of Arabic music. Classical Arab music is extremely popular across the population, especially a small number of superstars known throughout the Arab world. Regional styles of popular music include Algerian raï, Moroccan gnawa, Kuwaiti sawt, Egyptian el gil and Turkish Arabesque-pop music.

See also

Arabic-speaking world
Geography
Language and culture
Arab Organizations
Arab People

References

Notes
  1. ^ Arabic Language - ninemsn Encarta
  2. ^ Brazil - Brasil - BRAZZIL - News from Brazil - Arabs: They are 12 Million in Brazil - Brazilian Immigration - September 2004
  3. ^ http://www.variety.com/article/VR1117979837.html?categoryid=2879&cs=1
  4. ^ Inmigración sirio-libanesa en Argentina
  5. ^ http://www.aaiusa.org/about/17/our-history Arab American Institute (AAI)
  6. ^ Iran, CIA factbook (1% Arabic-speakers and 3% ethnic Arabs)
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r The World Factbook [1]
  8. ^ WorldStatesmen.org - Mexico
  9. ^ Kister, M.J. "Ķuāḍa." Encyclopaedia of Islam. Edited by: P. Bearman , Th. Bianquis , C.E. Bosworth , E. van Donzel and W.P. Heinrichs. Brill, 2008. Brill Online. 10 April 2008: "The name is an early one and can be traced in fragments of the old Arab poetry. The tribes recorded as Ķuḍā'ī were: Kalb [q.v.], Djuhayna , Balī, Bahrā' [q.v.], Khawlān [q.v.], Mahra , Khushayn, Djarm, 'Udhra [q.v.], Balkayn [see al-Kayn ], Tanūkh [q.v.] and Salīh"
  10. ^ Serge D. Elie, "Hadiboh: From Peripheral Village to Emerging City", Chroniques Yéménites: "In the middle, were the Arabs who originated from different parts of the mainland (e.g., prominent Mahrî tribes10, and individuals from Hadramawt, and Aden)". Footnote 10: "Their neighbours in the West scarcely regarded them as Arabs, though they themselves consider they are of the pure stock of Himyar.” [2]
  11. ^ Deng, 1995, p. 405.
  12. ^ Arab
  13. ^ Islam and the Arabic language
  14. ^ Banu Judham migration
  15. ^ Ghassanids Arabic linguistic influence in Syria
  16. ^ Retsö, 2003, p. 105.
  17. ^ Jankowski, James. "Egypt and Early Arab Nationalism" in Rashid Kakhlidi, ed., Origins of Arab Nationalism, pp. 244–45
  18. ^ qtd in Dawisha, Adeed. Arab Nationalism in the Twentieth Century. Princeton University Press. 2003, p. 99
  19. ^ 1996, p.xviii
  20. ^ Joshua Project. "Arab, Omani of Oman Ethnic People Profile". Joshua Project. http://www.joshuaproject.net/peopctry.php?rop3=100431&rog3=MU. Retrieved 2010-03-10. 
  21. ^ "Brazil – Brasil – BRAZZIL – News from Brazil – Arabs: They are 12 Million in Brazil – Brazilian Immigration – September 2004". Brazzil. http://www.brazzil.com/2004/html/articles/sep04/p118sep04.htm. Retrieved 2010-03-10. 
  22. ^ Inmigracion sirio-libanesa en Argentina
  23. ^ http://www.aaiusa.org/about/17/our-history Arab American Institute (AAI)
  24. ^ http://istati.it
  25. ^ CBS Israel
  26. ^ (Spanish) En Chile viven unas 700.000 personas de origen árabe y de ellas 500.000 son descendientes de emigrantes palestinos que llegaron a comienzos del siglo pasado y que constituyen la comunidad de ese origen más grande fuera del mundo árabe.
  27. ^ Colombia awakens to the Arab world
  28. ^ Arabs making their mark in Latin America
  29. ^ Cragg, 1991, p. 13.
  30. ^ Journal of Semitic Studies Volume 52, Number 1
  31. ^ Biblical Israel Tours
  32. ^ Reconstruction of the World Map according to Dionysus
  33. ^ a b Lunde, Paul (2002). Islam. New York: Dorling Kindersley Publishing. pp. 50–52. ISBN 0-7894-8797-7. 
  34. ^ Vartan Gregorian, "Islam: A Mosaic, Not a Monolith", Brookings Institution Press, 2003, pg 26–38 ISBN 081573283X
  35. ^ Genko, A. The Arabic Language and Caucasian Studies. USSR Academy of Sciences Publ. Moscow-Leningrad. 8–109
  36. ^ a b Zelkina, Anna. Arabic as a Minority Language. Walter de Gruyter, 2000; p. 101
  37. ^ Baynes, Thomas Spencer (ed). "Transcaucasia." Encyclopædia Britannica. 1888. p. 514
  38. ^ Golestan-i Iram by Abbasgulu Bakikhanov. Translated by Ziya Bunyadov. Baku: 1991, p. 21
  39. ^ Seferbekov, Ruslan. Characters Персонажи традиционных религиозных представлений азербайджанцев Табасарана.
  40. ^ Stephen Adolphe Wurm et al. Atlas of languages of intercultural communication. Walter de Gruyter, 1996; p. 966
  41. ^ History of Ibn Khaldun
  42. ^ Arabic As a Minority Language By Jonathan Owens, pg. 184
  43. ^ Levity.com, Islam
  44. ^ www.eyewitnesstohistory.com
  45. ^ CHRISTIANS (in the Arab world)
  46. ^ Is Hubal The Same As Allah?
  47. ^ Encyclopedia Mythica entry on Wadd
  48. ^ Dictionary of Ancient Deities
  49. ^ The Book of Idols (Kitab Al-Asnam) by Hisham Ibn Al-Kalbi
  50. ^ The Book of Idols (Kitab Al-Asnam) by Hisham Ibn Al-Kalbi
  51. ^ From Marib The Sabean Capital To Carantania
  52. ^ "Msn Encarta entry on Himyarites". Msn Encarta entry on Himyarites. http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761570797/himyarites.html. 
  53. ^ History of Islam
  54. ^ Encyclopedia of Politics and Religion
  55. ^ Shia Muslims in the Mideast
  56. ^ Britannica – Druze
  57. ^ Christian Communities in the Middle East. Oxford University Press. 1998. ISBN 0-19-829388-7. 
  58. ^ CIA – The World Factbook – Lebanon
  59. ^ CIA – The World Factbook – Syria
  60. ^ CIA The World Factbook – West Bank
  61. ^ CIA The World Factbook – Gaza
  62. ^ CIA The World Factbook – Israel
  63. ^ CIA The World Factbook – Jordan
  64. ^ "The Arab American Institute | Arab Americans". Aaiusa.org. http://www.aaiusa.org/arab-americans/22/demographics. Retrieved 2010-03-10. 
  65. ^ THE FORGOTTEN REFUGEES: the causes of the post-1948 Jewish Exodus from Arab Countries By Philip Mendes
Bibliography
.This article contains Arabic text, written from right to left in a cursive style with some letters joined. Without proper rendering support, you may see unjoined Arabic letters written left-to-right instead of right-to-left or other symbols instead of Arabic script.^ Arabic is one of several languages written from right to left.
  • 100 questions about arab americans leaving in the US 10 February 2010 11:32 UTC allied-media.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Arabic letters are connected like script.
  • 100 questions about arab americans leaving in the US 10 February 2010 11:32 UTC allied-media.com [Source type: Original source]

^ You can find restaurants, stores, markets and other businesses with Arabic names or writing on them.
  • 100 questions about arab americans leaving in the US 10 February 2010 11:32 UTC allied-media.com [Source type: Original source]

  • Cragg, Kenneth (1991). .The Arab Christian: A History in the Middle East.^ Gualtieri completed her undergraduate studies at McGill University in Montral, Qubec, and received an M.A. in Middle East studies and a doctorate in History from the University of Chicago.

    ^ Encounter with the Middle East: An Intimate Report on What Lies behind the Arab-Israeli Conflict .
    • Arab-Israeli War, 1967 - July 2002 10 February 2010 11:32 UTC www.jfsc.ndu.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Never forget that you are 300 million Arabs, in possesstion of 99.9% of the region known as the Middle East, including all of the oil.
    • Gaza Children « Saudi Jeans 10 February 2010 10:31 UTC saudijeans.org [Source type: Original source]

    Westminster John Knox Press. ISBN 0664221823, 9780664221829. http://books.google.ca/books?id=pMuxLlWih04C&pg=PP1&dq=%22arab+christian%22#v=onepage&q=&f=false.
     
  • Deng, Francis Mading (1995). War of Visions: Conflict of Identities in the Sudan. Brookings Institution Press. 
  • Touma, Habib Hassan. The Music of the Arabs. Portland, Oregon: Amadeus P, 1996. ISBN 0-931340-88-8.
  • Lipinski, Edward. .Semitic Languages: Outlines of a Comparative Grammar, 2nd ed., Orientalia Lovanensia Analecta: Leuven 2001
  • Kees Versteegh, The Arabic Language, Edinburgh University Press (1997)
  • The Catholic Encyclopedia, Robert Appleton Company, 1907, Online Edition, K. Night 2003: article Arabia
  • History of Arabic language(1894), Jelsoft Enterprises Ltd.
  • The Arabic language, National Institute for Technology and Liberal Education web page (2006)
  • Ankerl, Guy (2000) [2000].^ The bulk of African history after the Ancient Egyptians Medew Netjer , was written in the Arabic language by both Africans and Arabs.
    • ARAB SLAVE TRADE - The history of Arab Slavery in Africa 10 February 2010 11:32 UTC www.africanholocaust.net [Source type: Original source]

    Global communication without universal civilization. INU societal research. Vol.1: Coexisting contemporary civilizations : Arabo-Muslim, Bharati, Chinese, and Western. Geneva: INU Press. ISBN 2-88155-004-5. 
  • Hooker, Richard. ."Pre-Islamic Arabic Culture."^ When we collapse the Islamic and pre-Islamic religions, the surrounding languages, the culture(s), the ethnic diversity, in to one string of unreferenced diatribes we are committing academic heresy.
    • ARAB SLAVE TRADE - The history of Arab Slavery in Africa 10 February 2010 11:32 UTC www.africanholocaust.net [Source type: Original source]

    WSU Web Site. 6 June 1999. Washington State University.
  • Owen, Roger. "State Power and Politics in the Making of the Modern Middle East 3rd Ed" Page 57 ISBN 0-415-29714-1

External links


Simple English

Arab
إمساك al-ʿarab
File:Arab
Philip the Arab • John of Damascus • Al-Kindi • Al-Khansa
Faisal I of Iraq • Gamal Abdel Nasser • Asmahan • May Ziade
Total population

approx. 350 to 422 million[1]

Regions with significant populations
Template:Country data Arab League 339,510,535
12,000,000[2]
6,000,000[3]
3,500,000[4]
3,500,000[5]
700,000 - 2,000,000[6]
1,500,000[7]
1,100,000[8]
Languages

Arabic, Modern South Arabian[9][10]

Religions

Predominantly Islam; largest minority: Christianity; other religions

The Arabs (Arabic: العرب ʻarab) are an Arabian ethnicity widespread in the Middle East and North Africa. Arabic is one of the semitic languages.

Contents

Who is an Arab

There are three points which decide whether someone is considered Arab or not:

There are many people who can be called Arabs by these points who do not think of themselves as Arab. One such example includes the original Egyptians (Coptics) and the Syriacs (Aramaics/Assyrians). Although they live in countries like Syria or Egypt which is part of the Arab League and speak the official language-Arabic, they are different cultural groups. They have their own languages,[11] culture, identity and churches, such as the Coptic Orthodox and the Syriac Catholic and Orthodox churches. Even though many have assimilated to Arab society, they have their own heritage that spans 3,000 years.

Just because they live in a certain place and the government of those places act in a certain way, that does not make people a different race.

Traditional genealogy

In Islamic and Jewish tradition, Arabs are a Semitic people who trace their ancestry from Ishmael, a son of the ancient patriarch Abraham and Hagar. Medieval Arab genealogists separate the Arabs into two groups: the "original Arabs" of South Arabia, descending from Qahtan (identified with the biblical Joktan) and the "Arabized Arabs" (musta`ribah) of North Arabia, descending from Adnan who is descended from Ishmael.

References

  1. Arabic Language - ninemsn Encarta
  2. Brazil - Brasil - BRAZZIL - News from Brazil - Arabs: They are 12 Million in Brazil - Brazilian Immigration - September 2004
  3. By (2008-01-29). "French-Arabs battle stereotypes - Entertainment News, French Cinema, Media". Variety. http://www.variety.com/article/VR1117979837.html?categoryid=2879&cs=1. Retrieved 2010-08-22. 
  4. Inmigración sirio-libanesa en Argentina
  5. http://www.aaiusa.org/about/17/our-history Arab American Institute (AAI)
  6. Iran, CIA factbook (1% Arabic-speakers and 3% ethnic Arabs)
  7. The World Factbook [1]
  8. WorldStatesmen.org - Mexico
  9. Kister, M.J. "Ķuāḍa." Encyclopaedia of Islam. Edited by: P. Bearman , Th. Bianquis , C.E. Bosworth , E. van Donzel and W.P. Heinrichs. Brill, 2008. Brill Online. 10 April 2008: "The name is an early one and can be traced in fragments of the old Arab poetry. The tribes recorded as Ķuḍā'ī were: Kalb [q.v.], Djuhayna , Balī, Bahrā' [q.v.], Khawlān [q.v.], Mahra , Khushayn, Djarm, 'Udhra [q.v.], Balkayn [see al-Kayn ], Tanūkh [q.v.] and Salīh"
  10. Serge D. Elie, "Hadiboh: From Peripheral Village to Emerging City", Chroniques Yéménites: "In the middle, were the Arabs who originated from different parts of the mainland (e.g., prominent Mahrî tribes10, and individuals from Hadramawt, and Aden)". Footnote 10: "Their neighbours in the West scarcely regarded them as Arabs, though they themselves consider they are of the pure stock of Himyar.” [2]
  11. The Coptic language survives only in certain religious rituals; it is not now spoken by Coptic Christians.

Other websites


Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 18, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Arab people, which are similar to those in the above article.








Got something to say? Make a comment.
Your name
Your email address
Message