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The Arabian Peninsula
The Arabian Peninsula (in Arabic: شبه الجزيرة العربية šibh al-jazīra al-ʻarabīya or جزيرة العرب jazīrat al-ʻArab), Arabia, Arabistan,[1] and the Arabian subcontinent[2] is a peninsula in Southwest Asia at the junction of Africa and Asia. The area is an important part of the Middle East and plays a critically important geopolitical role because of its vast reserves of oil and natural gas.

Contents

Geography

.The seas off the coast of the peninsula are, on the west the Red Sea and the Gulf of Aqaba, on the southeast the Arabian Sea (part of the Indian Ocean), and on the northeast, the Gulf of Oman, the Strait of Hormuz, and the Persian Gulf.^ Yemen had easy access to Mesopotamia and the Persian Gulf by way of the sea, as well as with Abyssinia.
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The peninsula and the Syrian Desert have no clear line of demarcation, but the commonly accepted boundary is the northern border of Saudi Arabia and Kuwait.[3] The most prominent feature of the peninsula is desert, but in the southwest there are mountain ranges which receive greater rainfall than the rest of the Arabian Peninsula.
Africa, Arabian subcontinent, and Eurasia
The Arabian Peninsula
The peninsula's constituent countries are Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, the United Arab Emirates (UAE), Yemen and Saudi Arabia.[4] The northern part of the peninsula is the Syrian Desert, which also includes northeastern Jordan, southeastern Syria, and western Iraq.[5] Some usage includes the entire subcontinent of Arabia.[6]
.Six countries of the list above, excluding Yemen, form the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC), mainly known as the Arab states of the Persian Gulf.^ Yemen had easy access to Mesopotamia and the Persian Gulf by way of the sea, as well as with Abyssinia.
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The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia covers the greater part of the peninsula. The majority of the population of the peninsula live in Saudi Arabia and in Yemen. The peninsula contains the world's largest reserves of oil. It is home to the Islamic holy cities of Mecca and Medina, both of which are in Saudi Arabia. The UAE and Saudi Arabia are economically the wealthiest in the region. Qatar, a small peninsula in the Persian Gulf on the larger peninsula, is home of the famous Arabic-language television station Al Jazeera and its English-language subsidiary Al Jazeera English. Kuwait, on the border with Iraq, was claimed as an Iraqi province and invaded by Saddam Hussein during the first Gulf War. It is also an important country strategically, forming one of the main staging grounds for coalition forces mounting the invasion of Iraq in 2003.

Population

.As of 2008, the estimated population of the Arabian Peninsula is 77,983,936.[7] In the Persian Gulf states there are many residents who are non-nationals: in Saudi Arabia it is 20% and in the United Arab Emirates it is 89%.^ These examples do not sit well with the traditional picture of the man who 'cleansed' the Arabian Peninsula of Jews and Christians.
  • The Exclusion of the Jews and Christians 3 February 2010 14:24 UTC debate.org.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ As we shall see, there is also evidence that the purported evacuation of the Christians from the Arabian Peninsula, especially Najran, bears uncanny resemblance to this historical reconstruction.
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^ A Qur'anic passage looks at the history of Bani Israil (note: not the Jews in Medina or the Arabian Peninsula) and states the following: .
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Landscape

Ras Aljinz, southeastern Arabia (Oman) also known as the 'Turtle Beach'
.Geologically, this region is perhaps more appropriately called the Arabian subcontinent because it lies on a tectonic plate of its own, the Arabian Plate, which has been moving incrementally away from northeast Africa (forming the Red Sea) and north into the Eurasian plate (forming the Zagros mountains).^ The Spirit is called Spirit because he breathes and is moved of the Father and rests in the Son.
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.The rocks exposed vary systematically across Arabia, with the oldest rocks exposed in the Arabian-Nubian Shield near the Red Sea, overlain by earlier sediments that become younger towards the Persian Gulf.^ Yemen had easy access to Mesopotamia and the Persian Gulf by way of the sea, as well as with Abyssinia.
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^ The fleet was provided by Byzantium and Abyssinia sent 70,000 of its troops by it across the Red Sea to Yaman.
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Perhaps the best-preserved ophiolite on Earth, the Semail ophiolite, lies exposed in the mountains of the UAE and northern Oman.
AR-Arabian Plate, velocities with respect to Africa in millimeters per year
The peninsula consists of:
  1. a central plateau, the Nejd, with fertile valleys and pastures used for the grazing of sheep and other livestock.
  2. a range of deserts: the Nefud in the north, which is stony; the Rub' Al-Khali or Great Arabian Desert in the south, with sand estimated to extend 600 ft. below the surface; between them, the Dahna.
  3. stretches of dry or marshy coastland with coral reefs on the Red Sea side (Tihamah).
  4. ranges of mountains, paralleling the Red Sea coast on the west (e.g., Asir province) but also at the southeastern end of the peninsula (Oman). .The mountains show a steady increase in altitude as they get nearer to Yemen, and the highest peaks and ranges are all located in Yemen.^ You replied that they were increasing, and in fact this is the way of true faith, till it is complete in all respects.
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    The highest, Jabal Al-Nabi Shu'ayb in Yemen, is 3666 m high.
Arabia has few lakes or permanent rivers. Most are drained by ephemeral watercourses called wadis, which are dry except during the rainy season. .Plentiful ancient aquifers exist beneath much of the peninsula, however, and where this water surfaces, oases form (e.g., Al-Hasa and Qatif, two of the worlds largest oases) and permit agriculture, especially palm trees, which allowed the peninsula to produce more dates than any other region in the world.^ Having watched the video again myself, it makes more sense than a "two handed" hand shake that didn't happen.
  • Ben Smith's Blog: White House: No bow to Saudi - POLITICO.com 19 September 2009 2:02 UTC www.politico.com [Source type: General]

^ He also told Talhah, so the story goes, that the Prophet would leave the sacred precincts of Makkah and migrate to a land of black soil, water and palm trees...
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^ HOW BACKWARDS IS THAT? I am completely against socialized medicine EXCEPT I strongly believe that our veterans, more than any other Americans, should get the best health care in the world at the taxpayer's expense.
  • Ben Smith's Blog: White House: No bow to Saudi - POLITICO.com 19 September 2009 2:02 UTC www.politico.com [Source type: General]

In general, the climate is extremely hot and arid, although there are exceptions. Higher elevations are made temperate by their altitude, and the Arabian Sea coastline can receive surprisingly cool, humid breezes in summer due to cold upwelling offshore. The peninsula has no thick forests, although desert-adapted wildlife is present throughout the region.
.A plateau more than 2,500 feet high extends across much of the Arabian Peninsula.^ I'll tell you what embarasses me much more than what probably was no more than a simple mistake in protocol, the complete ignorance displayed in many of these comments.
  • Ben Smith's Blog: White House: No bow to Saudi - POLITICO.com 19 September 2009 2:02 UTC www.politico.com [Source type: General]

^ It is much more likely that they were Abyssinian-influenced Monophysites, rather than Chalcedonian Orthodox of Byzantium.
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^ After a description of the high position which Jesus occupies as a prophet, we have a repudiation of the dogma that he was Allah, or the son of Allah, or anything more than a man.
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.The plateau slopes eastwards from the massive, rifted escarpment along the coast of the Red Sea, to the shallow waters of the Persian Gulf.^ Yemen had easy access to Mesopotamia and the Persian Gulf by way of the sea, as well as with Abyssinia.
  • The Exclusion of the Jews and Christians 3 February 2010 14:24 UTC debate.org.uk [Source type: Original source]

The interior is characterised by cuestas and valleys, drained by a system of wadis. A crescent of sand and gravel deserts lies to the east.

Land and sea

.Most of the Arabian Peninsula is unsuited to settled agriculture, making irrigation and land reclamation projects essential.^ Smith argues that this demonstrates that Jews and Muslims were still enjoying both good relations and a common sanctuary (and thus a common 'holy land') outside the Arabian Peninsula: .
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The narrow coastal plain and isolated oases, amounting to less than 1% of the land area, are used to cultivate grains, coffee and exotic fruits. Goats, sheep, and camels are widespread throughout the region.
The fertile soils of Yemen have encouraged settlement of almost all of the land from sea level up to the mountains at 10,000 feet. In the higher reaches elaborate terraces have been constructed to facilitate crop cultivation.

History of the term

The Romans named three regions with the prefix "Arabia", encompassing a larger area than the current term "Arabian Peninsula":
  • Arabia Petraea: for the area that is today southern modern Syria, Jordan, the Sinai Peninsula and northwestern Saudi Arabia. .It was the only one that became a province, with Petra as its capital.
  • Arabia Deserta ("Desert Arabia"): signified the desert interior of the Arabian peninsula.^ Undoubtedly, one barrier to improved Christian-Muslim relations is the prohibition on the existence of free and public Christian worship, especially with respect to religious buildings, in the Arabian Peninsula.
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    As a name for the region, it remained popular into the 19th and 20th centuries, and was used in Charles M. Doughty's Travels in Arabia Deserta (1888).
  • Arabia Felix ("Fortunate Arabia"): was used by geographers to describe what is now modern-day Yemen, which enjoys more rainfall, is much greener than the rest of the peninsula and has long enjoyed much more productive fields.
The Arab inhabitants used a north-south division of Arabia: Al Sham-Al Yaman, or Arabia Deserta-Arabia Felix. Arabia Felix had originally been used for the whole peninsula, and at other times only for the southern region. Because its use became limited to the south, the whole peninsula was simply called Arabia. Arabia Deserta was the entire desert region extending north from Arabia Felix to Palmyra and the Euphrates, including all the area between Pelusium on the Nile and Babylon. This area was also called Arabia and not sharply distinguished from the peninsula.[8]
The Arabs and the Ottoman Empire considered the entire region where the Arabs lived 'the land of the Arabs' – bilad al-Arab (Arabia or Arabistan), and its major divisions were the bilad al-Sham (Syria), bilad al-Yaman (the Land of the southern Peninsula), and Bilad al-Iraq (the Land of the River Banks).[9] The Ottomans used the term Arabistan in a broad sense for the subcontinent itself starting from Cilicia, where the Euphrates river makes its descent into Syria, through Palestine, and on through the remainder of the Sinai and Arabian peninsulas[10]
.The provinces of Arabia were: Al Tih, the Sinai peninsula, Hedjaz, Asir, Yemen, Hadramaut, Mahra and Shilu, Oman, Hasa, Bahrian, Dahna, Nejd, Nufud, the Hammad, which included the deserts of Syria, Mesopotamia and Babylonia.^ For example, according to Bukhari Hadith 4.288, identifying the borders of the Arabian Peninsula, Yemen is included in its bounds.
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[11][12] hi

History

Ancient history

Until comparatively recent times knowledge of the Arabian Peninsula was limited to that provided by ancient Greek and Roman writers and by early Arab geographers; much of this material was unreliable. In the 20th century however, archaeological exploration added considerable knowledge to the area.
In his book, The Real Eve, geneticist Stephen Oppenheimer claims based on mitochondrial evidence in conjunction with the contemporary environment (i.e. glaciation, sea levels) corresponding to these molecular clock timelines that the first humans to leave Africa crossed the virtually dry mouth of the Red Sea onto the Arabian peninsula. .They travelled along the coastline of the peninsula before crossing into Southern Asia.^ He came with a cloud above him shading him and when he approached the people he found they had gone before him into the shade of a tree.
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The old part of Sana'a, Yemen
The peninsula is one of the possible original homelands of the Proto-Semitic language ancestors of all the Semitic-speaking peoples in the region — the Akkadians, Arabs, Assyrians, Babylonians, Hebrews, etc. Linguistically, the peninsula was the cradle of the Arabic language (spread beyond the peninsula with the Islamic religion during the expansion of Islam beginning in the 7th century AD) and still maintains tiny populations of speakers of Semitic languages such as Mehri and Shehri, remnants of the language family that was spoken in earlier historical periods to the East of the kingdoms of Sheba and Hadramout which flourished in the southern part of the peninsula (modern-day Yemen and Oman).
Bernard Lewis mentions in his book The Arabs in History:
"According to this, Arabia was originally a land of great fertility and the first home of the Semitic peoples. Through the millennia it has been undergoing a process of steady desiccation, a drying up of wealth and waterways and a spread of the desert at the expense of the cultivable land. The declining productivity of the peninsula, together with the increase in the number of the inhabitants, led to a series of crises of overpopulation and consequently to a recurring cycle of invasions of the neighbouring countries by the Semitic peoples of the peninsula. It was these crises that carried the Assyrians, Aramaeans, Canaanites (including the Phoenicians and Hebrews), and finally the Arabs themselves into the Fertile Crescent."[13]
.The better-watered, higher portions of the extreme south-west portion of the Arabian Peninsula supported three early kingdoms.^ Then the Prophet ordered them to do three things saying, 'Turn out all the pagans from the Arabian Peninsula, show respect to all foreign delegates by giving them gifts as I used to do.'"
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The first, the Minaean, was centered in the interior of what is now Yemen, but probably embraced most of southern Arabia. Although dating is difficult, it is generally believed that the Minaean Kingdom existed from 1200 to 650 BC The second kingdom, the Sabaean (see Sheba), was founded around 930 BC and lasted until around 115 BC; it probably supplanted the Minaean Kingdom and occupied substantially the same territory. .The Sabaean capital and chief city, Ma’rib, probably flourished as did no other city of ancient Arabia, partly because of its controlling position on the caravan routes linking the seaports of the Mediterranean with the frankincense-growing region of the Hadhramaut and partly because a large nearby dam provided water for irrigation.^ Mooooommy was probably MIA and didn't tell you that because someone else did it first/too makes it right for you to do it.
  • Ben Smith's Blog: White House: No bow to Saudi - POLITICO.com 19 September 2009 2:02 UTC www.politico.com [Source type: General]

^ No doubt, as Trimingham accepts, Umar did indeed remove some Christians from Najran for some reason, and probably did the same to some Jews, as Arafat suggests.
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The Sabaean Kingdom was widely referred to as Saba, and it has been suggested that the Queen of Sheba mentioned in the Bible and the Quran, who visited King Solomon of Israel in Jerusalem in the 10th century BC, was Sabaean. Both the Bible and the Quran mention that under Soloman's rule the Kingdom of Israel included territories on the peninsula east of the Jordan river. .The Islamic view of Solomon holds that those territories reached as far south as Yemen.^ The Christians, however, were the majority in the conquered territories, and their objections to Qur'anic Christology were more far-reaching and dangerous.
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The Himyarites followed the Sabaeans as the leaders in southern Arabia; the Himyarite Kingdom lasted from around 115 BC to around AD 525. In 24 BC the Roman emperor Augustus sent the prefect of Egypt, Aelius Gallus, against the Himyarites, but his army of 10,000, which was unsuccessful, returned to Egypt. The Himyarites prospered in the frankincense, myrrh, and spice trade until the Romans began to open the sea routes through the Red Sea.
During the Roman period the peninsula was divided by three districts: Arabia Felix, Arabia Deserta, and Arabia Petraea. .The latter included the Sinai Peninsula, which is no longer considered part of the modern Arabian Peninsula.^ For example, according to Bukhari Hadith 4.288, identifying the borders of the Arabian Peninsula, Yemen is included in its bounds.
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Sabaean inscription addressed to the moon-god Almaqah, mentioning five South Arabian gods, two reigning sovereigns and two governors, 7th century BC.
.In the 3rd century, The East African Christian Kingdom of Aksum began interfering in South Arabian affairs, controlling at times the western Tihama region among other areas.^ If this is the case, the ahadith that claim that all Jews were 'cleansed' from the region at the time of 'Umar are historically inaccurate, and represent a politically motivated innovation centuries later.
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.The Kingdom of Aksum at its height extended its territory in Arabia across most of Yemen and southern and western Saudi Arabia before being eventually driven out by the Persians.^ Look how high the Saudi king raises his hand to greet B.O. - then see B.O.'s left hand never being extended.
  • Ben Smith's Blog: White House: No bow to Saudi - POLITICO.com 19 September 2009 2:02 UTC www.politico.com [Source type: General]

There is evidence of a Sabaean inscription about the alliance between the Himyarite king Shamir Yuhahmid and Aksum under King `DBH in the first quarter of the 3rd century AD. They had been living alongside the Sabaeans who lived across the Red Sea from them for many centuries:
"Shamir of Dhu-Raydan and Himyar had called in the help of the clans of Habashat for against the kings of Saba; but Ilmuqah granted... the submission of Shamir of Dhu-Raydan and the clans of Habashat."[14]</ historical importance of Siraf to ancient trade is only now being realised. Discovered there in past archaeological excavations are ivory objects from east Africa, pieces of stone from India, and lapis from Afghanistan. Sirif dates back to the Parthian era.[15] There is a lost city in The Empty Quarter known as Iram of the Pillars and Thamud. It is estimated that it lasted from around 3000 BC to the first century AD.

Medieval history

Age of the Caliphs      Expansion under Muhammad, 622–632/A.H. 1–11      Expansion during the Rashidun Caliphate, 632–661/A.H. 11–40      Expansion during the Umayyad Caliphate, 661–750/A.H. 40–129
The seventh century saw the introduction of Islam in the Arabian Peninsula. .The Islamic prophet Muhammad established a new unified polity in the Arabian peninsula which under the subsequent Rashidun and Umayyad Caliphates saw a century of rapid expansion of Arab power well beyond the Arabian peninsula in the form of a vast Muslim Arab Empire with an area of influence that stretched from northwest India, across Central Asia, the Middle East, North Africa, southern Italy, and the Iberian Peninsula, to the Pyrenees.^ Then the Prophet ordered them to do three things saying, 'Turn out all the pagans from the Arabian Peninsula, show respect to all foreign delegates by giving them gifts as I used to do.'"
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^ According to a Muslim biography of Muhammad ibn Maslamah, the cause of the conflict was a rash, reckless military challenge to the prophet: .
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^ One of the most telling arguments against the authenticity of the narrations of expulsion is the failure of the first caliph, Abu Bakr, to implement the supposed command of the Prophet to exile the People of the Book from the Arabian Peninsula.
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.Muhammad began preaching Islam at Mecca before migrating to Medina, from where he united the tribes of Arabia into a singular Arab Muslim religious polity.^ This would be especially true of the Jews near Mecca and Medina which had only lately been transformed into the leading shrines of Islam in place of Jerusalem.
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^ S. 2:191 has reference to the pagans at Mecca who had caused the migration of the Muslims through persecution.
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^ Similarly, Abu Rafi, a leading Jew of the Banu Nadir, was assassinated on the orders by Muhammad for conspiring against the Prophet after the expulsion of the tribe from Medina.
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.With Muhammad's death in 632 AD, disagreement broke out over who would succeed him as leader of the Muslim community.^ Muhammad ibn al-Ashath mentioned that to Umar ibn al-Khattab and said to him, "Who inherits from her?"
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^ The latter invited him to pray on the premises, but the Caliph declined, on the grounds that later Muslims would transform the Church into a mosque.
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^ He would take provisions with him and stay there for several days, then would return to Hadrat Khadijah who would again provide for him for a few more days.
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.Umar ibn al-Khattab, a prominent companion of Muhammad, nominated Abu Bakr, who was Muhammad's intimate friend and collaborator.^ Muhammad ibn al-Ashath mentioned that to Umar ibn al-Khattab and said to him, "Who inherits from her?"
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^ Sahih Al-Bukhari Hadith 3.531 Narrated by Ibn Umar Umar expelled the Jews and the Christians from Hijaz.
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^ I told my companions that the question of Ibn-Abi-Kabsha) (the Prophet Muhammad) has become so prominent that even the King of Bani Al-Asfar (Byzantine) is afraid of him.
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.Others added their support and Abu Bakr was made the first caliph.^ Allah will insist (on Abu Bakr becoming a Caliph) and the believers will prevent (anyone else from claiming the Caliphate)," or "...Allah will prevent (anyone else from claiming the Caliphate) and the believers will insist (on Abu Bakr becoming the Caliph)."
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^ One of the most telling arguments against the authenticity of the narrations of expulsion is the failure of the first caliph, Abu Bakr, to implement the supposed command of the Prophet to exile the People of the Book from the Arabian Peninsula.
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^ To a lesser extent this remains true, at least for Sunnis, with regard to Abu Bakr, the first Caliph.
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.This choice was disputed by some of Muhammad's companions, who held that Ali ibn Abi Talib, his cousin and son-in-law, had been designated his successor.^ I told my companions that the question of Ibn-Abi-Kabsha) (the Prophet Muhammad) has become so prominent that even the King of Bani Al-Asfar (Byzantine) is afraid of him.
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^ When Muhammad the Messenger of God rose up inviting people to Islam, his son Said was in the forefront of those who believed in the oneness of God and who affirmed their faith in the prophethood of Muhammad...
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^ Muhammad ibn al-Ashath mentioned that to Umar ibn al-Khattab and said to him, "Who inherits from her?"
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Abu Bakr's immediate task was to avenge a recent defeat by Byzantine (or Eastern Roman Empire) forces, although he first had to put down a rebellion by Arab tribes in an episode known as the Ridda wars, or "Wars of Apostasy".[16]
.His death in 634 resulted in the succession of Umar as the caliph, followed by Uthman ibn al-Affan and Ali ibn Abi Talib.^ Sahih Al-Bukhari Hadith 3.531 Narrated by Ibn Umar Umar expelled the Jews and the Christians from Hijaz.
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^ Muhammad ibn al-Ashath mentioned that to Umar ibn al-Khattab and said to him, "Who inherits from her?"
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^ Malik said, "Umar ibn al-Khattab expelled the Jews from Najran (a Jewish settlement in the Yemen) and Fadak (a Jewish settlement thirty miles from Madina).
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.These four are known as al-khulafā' ar-rāshidūn ("Rightly Guided Caliphs").^ Since he was one of the Khulafah Rashidun, the Rightly-Guided caliphs, and as Muhammad's immediate successor, his religious policy sheds great light on the historicity or otherwise of the event.
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Under them, the territory under Muslim rule expanded deeply into Persian and Byzantine territories.[17]

Modern history

.The provincial Ottoman Army for Arabia (Arabistan Ordusu) was headquartered in Syria, which included Lebanon, Palestine, and the Transjordan region.^ They were merchants doing business in Sham (Syria, Palestine, Lebanon and Jordan), at the time when Allah's Apostle had truce with Abu Sufyan and Quraish infidels.
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It was put in charge of Syria, Cilicia, Iraq, and the remainder of the Arabian Peninsula.[18][19] It is important to point out that the Ottomans never had any control over central Arabia also known as The Najd region, Oman, or Yemen.
The Damascus Protocol of 1914 provides an illustration of the regional relationships. .Arabs living in one of the existing districts of the Arabian peninsula, the Emirate of Hejaz, asked for a British guarantee of independence on behalf of 'the whole Arab nation'. Their proposal included all Arab lands south of a line roughly corresponding to the northern frontiers of present-day Syria and Iraq.^ Two deens shall not co-exist in the land of the Arabs.'"
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^ Then the Prophet ordered them to do three things saying, 'Turn out all the pagans from the Arabian Peninsula, show respect to all foreign delegates by giving them gifts as I used to do.'"
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^ But let's say this once again (doesn't look like you read all posts); the Arab nation is bragging about the very idea that obama was..
  • Ben Smith's Blog: White House: No bow to Saudi - POLITICO.com 19 September 2009 2:02 UTC www.politico.com [Source type: General]

.They envisioned a new Arab state, or confederation of states, adjoining the southern Arabian Peninsula.^ A Qur'anic passage looks at the history of Bani Israil (note: not the Jews in Medina or the Arabian Peninsula) and states the following: .
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^ They were much impressed on hearing this passage of the Qur'an explaining the true position of Christ, and they entered into tributary relations with the new Muslim State.
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^ As manifold as the different dogma of the Christians of the Arab peninsula might have been, they exercised a great influence upon their Arab Muslims there....
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It would have comprised Ciliciaİskenderun and Mersin, Iraq, Syria, Lebanon, Jordan, and Palestine.[20]
In the modern era, the term bilad al-Yaman came to refer specifically to the southwestern parts of the peninsula. Arab geographers started to refer to the whole peninsula as 'jazirat al-Arab', or the peninsula of the Arabs.[21]
Borders of the Ottoman Empire (1683)

Late Ottoman rule and the Hejaz Railway

In the beginning of the 20th century, the Ottomans embarked on an ambitious project: the construction of a railway connecting Istanbul, the capital of the Ottoman Empire and the seat of the Islamic Caliphate, and Hejaz with its holiest shrines of Islam which are the yearly pilgrimage destination of the Hajj. .Another important goal was to improve the economic and political integration of the distant Arabian provinces into the Ottoman state, and to facilitate the transportation of military troops in case of need.^ Haykal states that after the political/military collapse of the Jewish tribes, Jews began to return to Medina and resume their ordinary occupations.
  • The Exclusion of the Jews and Christians 3 February 2010 14:24 UTC debate.org.uk [Source type: Original source]

The Hejaz Railway was a narrow gauge railway (1050 mm) that ran from Damascus to Medina, through the Hejaz region of Arabia. .It was a part of the Ottoman railway network and was built in order to extend the previously existing line between Istanbul and Damascus (which began from the Haydarpaşa Terminal) all the way to the holy city of Mecca (eventually being able to reach only Medina due to the interruption of the construction works caused by the outbreak of World War I).^ The city of Yathrib, two hundred miles north of Mecca was at that time experiencing civil conflict between two rival tribes, the Aws and the Khazraj.
  • The Exclusion of the Jews and Christians 3 February 2010 14:24 UTC debate.org.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ This would be especially true of the Jews near Mecca and Medina which had only lately been transformed into the leading shrines of Islam in place of Jerusalem.
  • The Exclusion of the Jews and Christians 3 February 2010 14:24 UTC debate.org.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ THe people who work for a living (read Republican) or you Democrats who sit around all day thinking up ways to take and redistribute what I produce.
  • Ben Smith's Blog: White House: No bow to Saudi - POLITICO.com 19 September 2009 2:02 UTC www.politico.com [Source type: General]

The railway was started in 1900 at the behest of the Ottoman Sultan Abdul Hamid II and was built largely by the Turks, with German advice and support. A public subscription was opened throughout the Islamic world to fund the construction. The railway was to be a waqf, an inalienable religious endowment or charitable trust.[22]

The Arab Revolt and the unification of Saudi Arabia also known as The Third Saudi State

The major developments of the early 20th century were the Arab Revolt during World War I and the subsequent collapse and partitioning of the Ottoman Empire. The Arab Revolt (1916–1918) was initiated by the Sherif Hussein ibn Ali with the aim of securing independence from the ruling Ottoman Empire and creating a single unified Arab state spanning from Aleppo in Syria to Aden in Yemen. During World War I, the Sharif Hussein entered into an alliance with the United Kingdom and France against the Ottomans in June 1916.
.These events were followed by the unification of Saudi Arabia ( also known as the third Saudi State) under King Abdulaziz Ibn Saud.^ It doesn't matter if the king of Saudi Arabia is Muslim.
  • Ben Smith's Blog: White House: No bow to Saudi - POLITICO.com 19 September 2009 2:02 UTC www.politico.com [Source type: General]

^ I would much rather see the photos of George Bush holding hands with the King of Saudi Arabia again looking like he was going to kiss him.
  • Ben Smith's Blog: White House: No bow to Saudi - POLITICO.com 19 September 2009 2:02 UTC www.politico.com [Source type: General]

In 1902 Ibn Saud had captured Riyadh. .Continuing his conquests, Abdul Aziz subdued Al-Hasa, the rest of Nejd, and the Hejaz between 1913 and 1926, defeating the Sherif Hussein ibn Ali, and founded the modern state of Saudi Arabia.^ Sahih Al-Bukhari Hadith 6.537 Narrated by Abdul Aziz bin Rufai Shaddad bin Ma'qil and I entered upon Ibn 'Abbas.
  • The Exclusion of the Jews and Christians 3 February 2010 14:24 UTC debate.org.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ Najran, states that a place near Kufa called al-Nadjraniyya was founded for the Najran Christians.
  • The Exclusion of the Jews and Christians 3 February 2010 14:24 UTC debate.org.uk [Source type: Original source]

.Ibn Saud was not the first Saudi ruler to control much of Arabia.^ The fact that the Qur'an fails to mention this event in detail is surprising, since it effectively sealed Muhammad's control of much of Arabia, and crushed 'the Jewish threat' forever.
  • The Exclusion of the Jews and Christians 3 February 2010 14:24 UTC debate.org.uk [Source type: Original source]

.The house of Saud had been ruling parts of Arabia since the 17th century AD. Two Saudi states were formed and controlled much of Arabia before Ibn Saud was even born.^ Maryam) in the Qur'an, whereas Moses was born much before Jesus.
  • The Exclusion of the Jews and Christians 3 February 2010 14:24 UTC debate.org.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ I have been around and worked with people in DC even before your butt was born.
  • Ben Smith's Blog: White House: No bow to Saudi - POLITICO.com 19 September 2009 2:02 UTC www.politico.com [Source type: General]

^ I would much rather see the photos of George Bush holding hands with the King of Saudi Arabia again looking like he was going to kiss him.
  • Ben Smith's Blog: White House: No bow to Saudi - POLITICO.com 19 September 2009 2:02 UTC www.politico.com [Source type: General]

Ibn Saud however, established the third Saudi state.

Oil reserves

The second major development has been the discovery of vast reserves of oil in the 1930s. Its production brought great wealth to all countries of the region, with the exception of Yemen.
The oil boom in Kuwait converted Kuwait City from a small city to a financial hub.

Arab–Israeli conflict

The adoption of the United Nations Partition Plan for Palestine led to armed conflict between the Arab and Jewish communities of Palestine . Arabs have rejected the Partition Plan eventually lost the war and 78% of the Mandatory Palestine land except for what called West bank, and Gaza . That led to a series of conflicts between the newly established State of Israel and many of the Arab States of the peninsula, starting with the 1948 Arab–Israeli War.

Civil war in Yemen

.The North Yemen Civil War was fought in North Yemen between royalists of the Mutawakkilite Kingdom of Yemen and factions of the Yemen Arab Republic from 1962 to 1970. The war began with a coup d'etat carried out by the republican leader, Abdullah as-Sallal, which dethroned the newly crowned Imam Al-Badr and declare Yemen a republic under his presidency.^ Now, had the Imam al-Awza'i accepted the story of the slaughter of Banu Qurayza, he would have treated it as a precedent, and would not have come out with an argument against Authority, represented in 'Abdullah b.
  • The Exclusion of the Jews and Christians 3 February 2010 14:24 UTC debate.org.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ The city of Yathrib, two hundred miles north of Mecca was at that time experiencing civil conflict between two rival tribes, the Aws and the Khazraj.
  • The Exclusion of the Jews and Christians 3 February 2010 14:24 UTC debate.org.uk [Source type: Original source]

The Imam escaped to the Saudi Arabian border and rallied popular support.
The royalist side received support from Saudi Arabia, while the republicans were supported by Egypt and the Soviet Union. Both foreign irregular and conventional forces were also involved. .The Egyptian President, Gamal Abdel Nasser, supported the republicans with as many as 70,000 troops.^ The fleet was provided by Byzantium and Abyssinia sent 70,000 of its troops by it across the Red Sea to Yaman.
  • The Exclusion of the Jews and Christians 3 February 2010 14:24 UTC debate.org.uk [Source type: Original source]

Despite several military moves and peace conferences, the war sank into a stalemate. Egypt's commitment to the war is considered to have been detrimental to its performance in the Six-Day War of June 1967, after which Nasser found it increasingly difficult to maintain his army's involvement and began to pull his forces out of Yemen.
.By 1970, King Faisal of Saudi Arabia recognized the republic and a truce was signed.^ I would much rather see the photos of George Bush holding hands with the King of Saudi Arabia again looking like he was going to kiss him.
  • Ben Smith's Blog: White House: No bow to Saudi - POLITICO.com 19 September 2009 2:02 UTC www.politico.com [Source type: General]

^ It doesn't matter if the king of Saudi Arabia is Muslim.
  • Ben Smith's Blog: White House: No bow to Saudi - POLITICO.com 19 September 2009 2:02 UTC www.politico.com [Source type: General]

Egyptian military historians refer to the war in Yemen as their Vietnam.[23]

Kuwait and the Persian Gulf War

USAF aircraft fly over Kuwaiti oil fires, set by the retreating Iraqi army during Operation Desert Storm in 1991.
The British proposed a treaty with the Ottoman Empire in 1913 to establish Kuwait as an autonomous kaza. It was a district of the vilayet of Basra. The treaty was never ratified due to the outbreak of World War I. In 1990 Iraq made claims upon Kuwaiti territory, and insisted that the borders had never been properly delimited by the British in 1951.[24]
The invasion of Kuwait by Iraq forces, led to the 1990–91 Persian Gulf War. .Egypt, Syria and Saudi Arabia joined a multinational coalition that opposed Iraq.^ To return to Watt's comments about the consequence of Muslim conquest of Iraq, Syria and Egypt with their 'better-educated Christians', he notes that 'From this period onwards Islam and Christianity have been rivals...'
  • The Exclusion of the Jews and Christians 3 February 2010 14:24 UTC debate.org.uk [Source type: Original source]

Displays of support for Iraq by Jordan and the Palestinians resulted in strained relations between many of the Arab states. After the war, a so-called "Damascus Declaration" formalized an alliance for future joint Arab defensive actions between Egypt, Syria, and the GCC states.[25]

Transport and industry

The extraction and refining of oil and gas are the major industrial activities in the Arabian Peninsula. The region also has an active construction sector, with many cities reflecting the wealth generated by the oil industry. The service sector is dominated by financial and technical institutions, which, like the construction sector, mainly serve the oil industry. .Traditional handicrafts such as carpet-weaving are found in rural areas.^ A small amount of such texts can be found in some traditions in Usul al-Kafi and else.
  • The Exclusion of the Jews and Christians 3 February 2010 14:24 UTC debate.org.uk [Source type: Original source]

See also

References

  1. ^ see page 61 of Merriam-Webster's Geographical Dictionary, 3rd Edition, entry for Arabian Peninsula
  2. ^ Quaternary Deserts and Climatic Change, A. S. Alsharhan, IGCP Project 349, page 279
  3. ^ Arabia in Encyclopedia Britannica
  4. ^ "Arabia". Britannica Online Encyclopedia. http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/31551/Arabia. Retrieved 2009-02-26. 
  5. ^ "Syrian Desert". encarta. http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761572123/Syrian_Desert.html. Retrieved 2009-02-26. 
  6. ^ see for example the USGS Map Showing Oil and Gas Fields and Geological Provinces of the Arabian Peninsula
  7. ^ "The World Fact book". Central Intelligence Agency. 2007-08-07. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/index.html. Retrieved 2008-08-12. 
  8. ^ See Pilgrimage and Holy Space in Late Antique Egypt, David Frankfurter, BRILL, 1998, ISBN 9004111271, page 163
  9. ^ A House of Many Mansions: The History of Lebanon Reconsidered, By Kamal Suleiman Salibi, Published by University of California Press, 1988, ISBN 0520071964, pages 60–61
  10. ^ .see for example Palestine: The Reality, Joseph Mary Nagle Jeffries, Published by Longmans, Green and co., 1939, Page 4]
  11. ^ see Review of Reviews and World's Work: An International Magazine, Albert Shaw ed., The Review of Reviews Corporation, 1919, page 408
  12. ^ New International Encyclopedia, 2nd Edition, Dodd, Mead, Co., 1914 page 795
  13. ^ Bernard Lewis (2002), The Arabs in History, Oxford University Press, USA; 6New Ed edition, page 17
  14. ^ Stuart Munro-Hay. Aksum: A Civilization of Late Antiquity. Edinburgh: University Press. 1991. pp. 66.
  15. ^ "Foreign Experts Talk of Siraf History". Cultural Heritage News Agency. http://www.chnpress.com/news/?Section=2&id=5935. Retrieved 2006-12-11. 
  16. ^ See:
    • Holt (1977a), p.57
    • Hourani (2003), p.22
    • Lapidus (2002), p.32
    • Madelung (1996), p.43
    • Tabatabaei (1979), p.30–50
  17. ^ See
    • Holt (1977a), p.74
    • L. Gardet; J. Jomier. "Islam". Encyclopaedia of Islam Online. 
  18. ^ see History of the Ottoman Empire and Modern Turkey, Stanford J. Shaw, Ezel Kural Shaw, Cambridge University Press, 1977, ISBN 0521291666, page 85
  19. ^ The Politics of Interventionism in Ottoman Lebanon, 1830–1861, by Caesar E. Farah, explains that Mount Lebanon was in the jurisdiction of the Arabistan Army, and that its headquarters was briefly moved to Beirut.
  20. ^ As cited by R, John and S. Hadawi's, Palestine Diary, pp. 30–31, the 'Damascus Protocol' stated: "The recognition by Great Britain of the independence of the Arab countries lying within the following frontiers: North: The Line Mersin_Adana to parallel 37N. and thence along the line Birejek-Urga-Mardin-Kidiat-Jazirat (Ibn 'Unear)-Amadia to the Persian frontier; East: The Persian frontier down to the Persian Gulf; South: The Indian Ocean (with the exclusion of Aden, whose status was to be maintained). West: The Red Sea and the Mediterranean Sea back to Mersin. The abolition of all exceptional privileges granted to foreigners under the capitulations. The conclusion of a defensive alliance between Great Britain and the future independent Arab State. The grant of economic preference to Great Britain." see King Husain and the Kingdom of Hejaz, By Randall Baker, Oleander Press, 1979, ISBN 0900891483, pages 64–65
  21. ^ A House of Many Mansions: The History of Lebanon Reconsidered, By Kamal Suleiman Salibi, Published by University of California Press, 1988, ISBN 0520071964, pages 60–61
  22. ^ King Hussein And The Kingdom of Hejaz, Randall Baker, Oleander Press 1979, ISBN 0900891483, page 18
  23. ^ Aboul-Enein, Youssef (2004-01-01). "The Egyptian-Yemen War: Egyptian perspectives on Guerrilla warfare". Infantry Magazine (Jan–Feb, 2004). http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0IAV/is_1_93/ai_n6123802. Retrieved October 3, 2008. 
  24. ^ see Richard Schofield, Kuwait and Iraq: Historical Claims and Territorial. Disputes, London: Royal Institute of International Affairs 1991, ISBN 0905031350 and The Kuwait Crisis: Basic Documents, By E. Lauterpacht, C. J. Greenwood, Marc Weller, Published by Cambridge University Press, 1991, ISBN 0521463084
  25. ^ Egypt's Bid for Arab Leadership: Implications for U.S. Policy, By Gregory L. Aftandilian, Published by Council on Foreign Relations, 1993, ISBN 087609146X, pages 6–8
  • Global Nomads – Multi-media website documenting the current perspective of living in a diverse Oil Company Expatriate Community.

External links


1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

.'ARABIA, a peninsula in the south-west of Asia, lying between 34° 30 and 12° 45' N., and 32° 30' and 60° E., is bounded W. by the Red Sea, S. by the Gulf of Aden and the Indian Ocean, and E. by the Gulf of Oman and the Persian Gulf.^ ARABIA, a peninsula in the south-west of Asia , lying between 34° 30 and 12° 45' N., and 32° 30' and 60° E., is bounded W. by the Red Sea , S. by the Gulf of Aden and the Indian Ocean , and E. by the Gulf of Oman and the Persian Gulf.

^ The Arabian peninsula ( Al-Jazira ) is bounded by the Red Sea to the west, the Arabian Sea to the south and the Persian Gulf to the east.
  • MidEast Web - Brief History of Saudi Arabia 10 January 2010 11:20 UTC www.mideastweb.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Saudi Arabia also borders the Red Sea to its west and the Persian Gulf to its northeast.
  • Saudi Arabia - Wikiversity 2 February 2010 13:31 UTC en.wikiversity.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Its northern or land boundary is more difficult to define; most authorities, however, agree in taking it from El Arish on the Mediterranean, along the southern border of Palestine, between the Dead Sea and the Gulf of Akaba, then bending northwards along the Syrian border nearly to Tadmur, thence eastwards to the edge of the Euphrates valley near Anah, and thence south-east to the mouth of the Shat el Arab at the head of the Persian Gulf, - the boundary so defined includes the northern desert, which belongs geographically to Arabia rather than to Syria; while on the same grounds lower Mesopotamia and Irak, although occupied by an Arab population, are excluded.^ The rest of the northern borderland is covered by the Syrian desert, extending from the borders of Palestine to the edge of the Euphrates valley.

^ Historically, Palestine was a country east of the Mediterranean Sea that includes Israel and parts of Jordan.
  • 100 questions about arab americans leaving in the US 10 February 2010 11:32 UTC allied-media.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Geographically, where is Arabia located and what does it border?
  • Arabia Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Arabia 2 February 2010 13:31 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Academic]

.In shape, the peninsula forms a rough trapezium, with its greatest length from north-west to south-east.^ Christianity in Arabia had three in centres in the north-west, north-east, and south-west of the peninsula.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Arabia 2 February 2010 13:31 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ West Africa felt the presence of Islam through North African traders who travelled with their camel caravans south of the Sahara.
  • History of Islam 10 February 2010 11:32 UTC www.barkati.net [Source type: Original source]

^ It borders Jordan on the northwest, Iraq on the north and northeast, Kuwait, Qatar, Bahrain, and the United Arab Emirates on the east, Oman on the southeast, and Yemen on the south, with the Persian Gulf to its northeast and the Red Sea to its west.
  • Saudi Arabia | ajc.com 10 January 2010 11:20 UTC projects.ajc.com [Source type: News]

.The length of its western side from Port Said to Aden is 1500 m.; its base from the Straits of Bab-el-Mandeb (or Bab al Mandab) to Ras el Had is 1300 m., its northern side from Port Said to the Euphrates 600 m.; its total area approximately 1,200,000 sq.^ The length of its western side from Port Said to Aden is 1500 m.; its base from the Straits of Bab-el-Mandeb (or Bab al Mandab) to Ras el Had is 1300 m., its northern side from Port Said to the Euphrates 600 m.; its total area approximately 1,200,000 sq.

^ Total area (sq mi) .
  • Saudi Arabia -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 January 2010 11:20 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Total area (sq km) .
  • Saudi Arabia -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 January 2010 11:20 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

m.
.Geography General Features.^ Geography General Features.

- .In
general terms Arabia may be described as a plateau sloping gently from south-west to north-east, and attaining its greatest elevation in the extreme south-west.^ Christianity in Arabia had three in centres in the north-west, north-east, and south-west of the peninsula.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Arabia 2 February 2010 13:31 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In general terms Arabia may be described as a plateau sloping gently from south-west to north-east, and attaining its greatest elevation in the extreme south-west.

^ To the north and east elevations decrease.
  • Arabian Desert (desert, Arabian Peninsula) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 3 February 2010 14:24 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The western escarpment of the plateau rises steeply from the Red Sea littoral to a height of from 4000 to 8000 ft., leaving a narrow belt of lowland rarely exceeding 30 m.^ The western escarpment of the plateau rises steeply from the Red Sea littoral to a height of from 4000 to 8000 ft., leaving a narrow belt of lowland rarely exceeding 30 m.

^ From the western coastal region ( Tihamah ), the land rises from sea level to a peninsula-long mountain range (Jabal al- Hejaz ) beyond which lies the plateau of Nejd in the center.
  • Top20SaudiArabia.com - Your Top20 Guide to Saudi Arabia! 10 January 2010 11:20 UTC top20saudiarabia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is the most striking feature of the Red Sea margin, rising abruptly from an elevation of roughly 600 feet (200 metres) to greater than 3,300 feet (1,000 metres).
  • Arabian Desert (desert, Arabian Peninsula) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 3 February 2010 14:24 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

in width between the shore and the foot-hills. .On the north-east and east the plateau shelves gradually to the Euphrates and the Persian Gulf; only in the extreme east is this general easterly slope arrested by the lofty range of Jebel Akhdar, which from Ras Musandan to Ras el Had borders the coast of Oman.^ Its general slope is to the north-east from the volcanic plateau of the Harra south of J. Hauran to the edge of the Euphrates valley.

^ On the north-east and east the plateau shelves gradually to the Euphrates and the Persian Gulf; only in the extreme east is this general easterly slope arrested by the lofty range of Jebel Akhdar, which from Ras Musandan to Ras el Had borders the coast of Oman.

^ Middle East, bordering the Persian Gulf and the Red Sea, north of Yemen .
  • Flag Counter » Saudi Arabia 10 January 2010 11:20 UTC flagcounter.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Middle East Internet Directory - Country Statistics - Saudi Arabi 28 January 2010 0:48 UTC www.middleeastdirectory.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Its chief characteristic is the bareness and aridity of its surface; one-third of the whole desert, and of the remainder only a small proportion is suited to settled life, owing to its scanty water-supply and uncertain rainfall.^ Its chief characteristic is the bareness and aridity of its surface; one-third of the whole desert, and of the remainder only a small proportion is suited to settled life, owing to its scanty water-supply and uncertain rainfall.

^ If the shade temperature at noon is 90°F, the top inch of bare soil can be 126°F versus only 88°F when only one small perennial native grass plant growing.
  • Reducing Global Warming with Revegetation 3 February 2010 14:24 UTC www.ecoseeds.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Substantial deposits of iron and copper now only await roads and water supplies to be exploited, with copper receiving priority attention.
  • Saudi Aramco World : Made In: Saudi Arabia 10 January 2010 11:20 UTC www.saudiaramcoworld.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Its mountains are insufficient in elevation and extent to attract their full share of the monsoon rains, which fall so abundantly on the Abyssinian highlands on the other side of the Red Sea; for this reason Arabia has neither lakes nor forests to control the water-supply and prevent its too rapid dissipation, and the rivers are mere torrent beds sweeping down occasionally in heavy floods, but otherwise dry.^ Its mountains are insufficient in elevation and extent to attract their full share of the monsoon rains, which fall so abundantly on the Abyssinian highlands on the other side of the Red Sea; for this reason Arabia has neither lakes nor forests to control the water-supply and prevent its too rapid dissipation, and the rivers are mere torrent beds sweeping down occasionally in heavy floods, but otherwise dry.

^ River beds are dry for the rest of the time.
  • Water profile of Saudi Arabia - Encyclopedia of Earth 10 January 2010 11:20 UTC www.eoearth.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Arabia may be described as a vast plateau, edged with deeply dissected escarpments on three sides and sloping gently northeastward from the Red Sea to the eastern lowlands adjoining the Persian Gulf.
  • Arabia (peninsula, Asia) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 2 February 2010 13:31 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The country falls naturally into three main divisions, a northern, a central and a southern; the first includes the area between the Midian coast on the west and the head of the Persian Gulf on the east, a desert tract throughout, stony in the north, sandy in the south, but furnishing at certain seasons excellent pasturage; its population is almost entirely nomad and pastoral.^ Christianity in Arabia had three in centres in the north-west, north-east, and south-west of the peninsula.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Arabia 2 February 2010 13:31 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The general aspect of Arabia is that of a central table-land surrounded by a desert belt, sandy to the west, south, and east and stony to the north.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Arabia 2 February 2010 13:31 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The country falls naturally into three main divisions, a northern, a central and a southern; the first includes the area between the Midian coast on the west and the head of the Persian Gulf on the east, a desert tract throughout, stony in the north, sandy in the south, but furnishing at certain seasons excellent pasturage; its population is almost entirely nomad and pastoral .

.The central zone includes Hejaz (or Hijaz), Nejd and El Hasa; much of it is a dry, stony or sandy steppe, with few wells or watering-places, and only occupied by nomad tribes; but the great wadis which intersect it contain many fertile stretches of alluvial soil, where cultivation is possible and which support a considerable settled population, with several large towns and numerous villages.^ Several nomadic tribes inhabit the desert .
  • Arabian Desert: Free Encyclopedia Articles at Questia.com Online Library 3 February 2010 14:24 UTC www.questia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The great central province of Nejd occupies all inner Arabia.

^ The central zone includes Hejaz (or Hijaz), Nejd and El Hasa ; much of it is a dry, stony or sandy steppe , with few wells or watering-places, and only occupied by nomad tribes; but the great wadis which intersect it contain many fertile stretches of alluvial soil, where cultivation is possible and which support a considerable settled population, with several large towns and numerous villages.

.The third or southern division contains the highland plateaus of Asir and Yemen in the west, and J. Akhdar in the east, which with a temperate climate, due to their great elevation and their proximity to the sea, deserve, if any part of Arabia does, the name of Arabia Felix - the population is settled and agricultural, and the soil, wherever the rainfall is sufficient, is productive.^ In the east where the elevation is lower the climate is warmer.

^ The third or southern division contains the highland plateaus of Asir and Yemen in the west, and J. Akhdar in the east, which with a temperate climate, due to their great elevation and their proximity to the sea, deserve, if any part of Arabia does, the name of Arabia Felix - the population is settled and agricultural, and the soil, wherever the rainfall is sufficient, is productive.

^ Arabia Felix in the Grinder.Yemen etc...
  • An Arab Woman Blues - Reflections in a sealed bottle... 10 February 2010 11:32 UTC arabwomanblues.blogspot.com [Source type: Original source]

.The Batina coast of Oman, irrigated by the mountain streams of J. Akhdar, is perhaps the most fertile district in the peninsula; Hadramut, too, contains many large and prosperous villages, and the torrents from the Yemen highlands fertilize several oases in the Tehama (or Tihama) or lowlands of the western and southern coast.^ The Batina coast of Oman, irrigated by the mountain streams of J. Akhdar, is perhaps the most fertile district in the peninsula; Hadramut , too, contains many large and prosperous villages, and the torrents from the Yemen highlands fertilize several oases in the Tehama (or Tihama) or lowlands of the western and southern coast.

^ YEMEN The southwestern corner of the peninsula, and the most fertile region within it.
  • Arabia 2 February 2010 13:31 UTC my.raex.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Zwemer says the fertility of the highland region of J. Akhdar is wonderful and is in striking contrast to the barrenness of so much of the coast; water issues in perennial springs from many rocky clefts, and is carefully husbanded by the ingenuity of the people; underground channels, known here as faluj, precisely similar to the kanat or karez of Persia and Afghanistan , are also largely used.

.These favourable conditions of soil and climate, however, extend only a comparatively short distance into the interior, by far the larger part of which is covered by the great southern desert, the Dahna, or Ruba el Khali, empty as its name implies, and uninhabitable.^ In Oman, where the conditions are more favourable, explorers have penetrated only a short distance from the coast.

^ These favourable conditions of soil and climate, however, extend only a comparatively short distance into the interior, by far the larger part of which is covered by the great southern desert, the Dahna, or Ruba el Khali, empty as its name implies, and uninhabitable.

^ More than nine-tenths is desert, including the world’s largest continuous sand area, the Rubʿ al-Khali (“Empty Quarter”).
  • Saudi Arabia -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 January 2010 11:20 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Table of contents

Exploration

.Before entering on a detailed description of the several provinces of Arabia, our sources of information will be briefly indicated.^ Before entering on a detailed description of the several provinces of Arabia, our sources of information will be briefly indicated.

^ In the deserts of Arabia, before the Islamic conquest, this Semitic tongue had developed over millennia into a descriptive flowing language of poetry, creating an enormous vocabulary.
  • http://www.alhewar.net/Basket/Habeeb_Salloum_Spanish_Language.htm 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.alhewar.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ We understand that there is a lot of information that you would like to know, before you consider a position in Saudi Arabia.
  • Saudi Arabia - Helen Ziegler and Associates 19 September 2009 2:02 UTC www.hziegler.com [Source type: General]

.Except in the neighbourhood of Aden, no regular surveys exist, and professional work is limited to the marine surveys of the Indian government and the admiralty, which, while laying down the coast line with fair accuracy, give little or no topographical information inland.^ Except in the neighbourhood of Aden, no regular surveys exist, and professional work is limited to the marine surveys of the Indian government and the admiralty, which, while laying down the coast line with fair accuracy, give little or no topographical information inland.

^ He had little regard for earlier mapmaking attempts: "The work of the cartographers in construing many unintelligible names of which no man in the country had ever heard, I found…to be commonly of little worth."
  • Saudi Aramco World : Mapping Arabia 2 February 2010 13:31 UTC www.saudiaramcoworld.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Its kings governed the western shore of the lower Euphrates, from the neighbourhood of Babylon down to the confines of Nejd, and along the coast of the Persian Gulf.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Arabia 2 February 2010 13:31 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

.For the mapping of the whole vast interior, except in rare cases, no data exist beyond the itineraries of explorers, travelling as a rule under conditions which precluded the use of even the simplest surveying instruments.^ For the mapping of the whole vast interior, except in rare cases, no data exist beyond the itineraries of explorers, travelling as a rule under conditions which precluded the use of even the simplest surveying instruments.

^ Even though Jawi is still taught in a few schools, it has lost much of its importance - almost disappearing in Indonesia and rarely used in Malaysia.
  • The Vocabula Review - October 2001 - The Odyssey of the Arabic Language and Its Script - Habeeb Salloum 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.vocabula.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ What’s remarkable is that so many people have no idea that these features exist, even though they live nearby and drive past some of them on the highway.” .
  • Saudi Aramco World : Volcanic Arabia 10 January 2010 11:20 UTC www.saudiaramcoworld.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.These journeys, naturally following the most frequented routes, often cover the same ground, while immense tracts, owing to their difficulty of access, remain unvisited by any European.^ These journeys, naturally following the most frequented routes, often cover the same ground, while immense tracts, owing to their difficulty of access, remain unvisited by any European.

^ We have strived to cover most aspects of the expatriate's lifestyle through the following sub-forums.
  • Saudi Arabia Expatriates Forums, Saudi Arabia Expats - Allo' Expat Saudi Arabia 10 January 2010 11:20 UTC www.alloexpat.com [Source type: General]

^ They look pretty Green to me...so it is most natural to have a Resistance in the same shades...
  • An Arab Woman Blues - Reflections in a sealed bottle... 10 February 2010 11:32 UTC arabwomanblues.blogspot.com [Source type: Original source]

.The region most thoroughly explored is Yemen, in the southwest corner of the peninsula, where the labours of a succession of travellers from Niebuhr in 1761 to E. Glaser and R. Manzoni in 1887 have led to a fairly complete knowledge of all that part of the province west of the capital Sana; while in 1902-1904 the operations of the Anglo-Turkish boundary commission permitted the execution of a systematic topographical survey of the British protectorate from the Red Sea to the Wadi Bana, 30 m.^ C. Niebuhr's accounts of his travels in Arabia in 1761.

^ YEMEN The southwestern corner of the peninsula, and the most fertile region within it.
  • Arabia 2 February 2010 13:31 UTC my.raex.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Saudi Arabia is bounded by the Red Sea to the...and Yemen to the southwest.
  • Saudi Arabia – FREE Saudi Arabia information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Saudi Arabia research 28 January 2010 0:48 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Academic]

east of Aden. .North of Yemen up to the Hejaz border the only authority is that of E. F. Jomard's map, published in 1839, based on the information given by the French officers employed with Ibrahim Pasha's army in Asir from 1824 to 1827, and of J. Halevy in Nejran.^ North of Yemen up to the Hejaz border the only authority is that of E. F. Jomard's map , published in 1839, based on the information given by the French officers employed with Ibrahim Pasha's army in Asir from 1824 to 1827, and of J. Halevy in Nejran.

^ As one of the Gulf States, it is bordered to the north by Jordan, Iraq, and Kuwait, to the south by Yemen and Qatar, and to the southeast by the UAE, Bahrain, and Qatar.
  • Saudi Arabia Press, Media, TV, Radio, Newspapers 19 September 2009 2:02 UTC www.pressreference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Geography: Location: Asia, Middle East, bordering the Persian Gulf and the Red Sea, north of Yemen.
  • Saudi Arabia - Country Profile - Kingdom of Saudi Arabia - Al Arabiya as Saudiya 10 January 2010 11:20 UTC www.nationsonline.org [Source type: News]

.On the south coast expeditions have penetrated but a short distance, the most notable exceptions being those of a.^ On the south coast expeditions have penetrated but a short distance, the most notable exceptions being those of a.

^ In Hadramawt, near the border between Oman and South Yemen on the southern coast of the Arabian peninsula, is the most important Islamic shrine of southern Arabia-the Tomb of Hud.
  • William J. Hamblin - Pre-Islamic Arabian Prophets 3 February 2010 14:24 UTC rsc.byu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The earliest attempt to penetrate into the interior from the south coast was made in 1835 when aieuts.

.Hirsch and J. T. Bent in 1887 to the Hadramut valley.^ Hirsch and J. T. Bent in 1887 to the Hadramut valley.

.S. B. Miles, J. R. Wellsted, and S. M. Zwemer have explored Oman in the extreme east; but the interior south of a line drawn from Taif to El Katr on the Persian Gulf is still virgin ground.^ S. B. Miles, J. R. Wellsted, and S. M. Zwemer have explored Oman in the extreme east; but the interior south of a line drawn from Taif to El Katr on the Persian Gulf is still virgin ground.

^ It is clear that some originated on the coast of the Arabian Gulf and some on the coast of the Gulf of Oman and some in the interior and they were all linked through land routes.
  • gulfnews : Seminar planned on cities in southeast of Arabian Peninsula 3 February 2010 14:24 UTC gulfnews.com [Source type: News]

^ It is bordered by Jordan , Iraq , and Kuwait to the north; by the Persian Gulf , Qatar , the United Arab Emirates , and Oman to the east; by a portion of Oman to the southeast; by Yemen to the south and southwest; and by the Red Sea and the Gulf of Aqaba to the west.
  • Saudi Arabia -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 January 2010 11:20 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In northern Arabia the Syrian desert and the great Nafud (Nefud) have been crossed by several travellers, though a large area remains unexplored in the north-east between Kasim and the gulf.^ In northern Arabia the Syrian desert and the great Nafud (Nefud) have been crossed by several travellers, though a large area remains unexplored in the north-east between Kasim and the gulf.

^ The northern edge of this great desert follows.

^ According to Saudi Aramco, exploration and development will also commence in non-producing areas such as the Red Sea, northern and western Saudi Arabia , and the Nafud basin, north of Riyadh .
  • Saudi Arabia Energy Data, Statistics and Analysis - Oil, Gas, Electricity, Coal 28 January 2010 0:48 UTC www.eia.doe.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In the centre, the journeys of W. Palgrave, C. Doughty, W. Blunt and C. Huber have done much to elucidate the main physical features of the country.^ In the centre, the journeys of W. Palgrave, C. Doughty, W. Blunt and C. Huber have done much to elucidate the main physical features of the country.

^ In Arabia, much of this progress hinged on the discoveries of other explorers such as Johann Burckhardt, William Palgrave, Richard Burton and Charles Doughty.
  • Saudi Aramco World : Mapping Arabia 2 February 2010 13:31 UTC www.saudiaramcoworld.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

aastly, in the northwest the .Sinai peninsula has been thoroughly explored, and the list of travellers who have visited the Holy Cities and traversed the main pilgrim routes through Hejaz is a fairly long one, though, owing to the difficulties peculiar to that region, the hydrography of southern Hejaz is still incompletely known.^ Sinai peninsula has been thoroughly explored, and the list of travellers who have visited the Holy Cities and traversed the main pilgrim routes through Hejaz is a fairly long one, though, owing to the difficulties peculiar to that region, the hydrography of southern Hejaz is still incompletely known.

^ Since the Abbasid era, the most powerful figure in this region was the Sharif of Mecca, who was the head of the sharifs representing Prophet Mohammads family of Hashim and the traditional steward of the two holy cities.
  • Turkey in the First World War - Arabian Peninsula 3 February 2010 14:24 UTC www.turkeyswar.com [Source type: Original source]

^ A few of these daring travelers, such as John Lewis Burckhardt from Switzerland (who, in 1812, was also the first European to visit the ruins of Petra) and Sir Richard Burton from Great Britain were able to convincingly impersonate Muslim pilgrims, gain entrance to Mecca, and write wonderfully of the holy city upon their return to Europe.

.The story of modern exploration begins with the despatch of C. Niebuhr's mission by the Danish government in 1761. After a year spent in Egypt and the Sinai peninsula Modern the party reached Jidda towards the end of 1762, and after a short stay sailed on to aohaia in the north of tion in Yemen, the exploration of which formed the principal Yemen. object of the expedition; thence, travelling through the Tehama or lowlands, Niebuhr and his companions visited the towns of Bet el Fakih, Zubed and Mokha, then the great port for the coffee trade of Yemen.^ Tehama or lowlands, Niebuhr and his companions visited the towns of Bet el Fakih, Zubed and Mokha , then the great port for the coffee trade of Yemen.

^ The story of modern exploration begins with the despatch of C. Niebuhr's mission by the Danish government in 1761.

^ Bet el Fakih and Zubed, once important centres of the coffee trade, have lost their position through the silting up of the ports which formerly served them.

.Continuing eastward they crossed the mountainous region and reached the highlands of Yemen at Uden, a small town and the centre of a district celebrated for its coffee.^ Continuing eastward they crossed the mountainous region and reached the highlands of Yemen at Uden, a small town and the centre of a district celebrated for its coffee.

^ The University of Albany offers Modern Standard Language Instruction for beginners who can continue with the program until they reach fluency in the language.
  • Arabic Language Training Information | Business.com 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.business.com [Source type: General]

^ Tehama or lowlands, Niebuhr and his companions visited the towns of Bet el Fakih, Zubed and Mokha , then the great port for the coffee trade of Yemen.

.Thence proceeding eastwards to higher altitudes where coffee plantations give way to fields of wheat and barley, they reached the town of Jibla situated among a group of mountains exceeding 10,000 ft.^ Thence proceeding eastwards to higher altitudes where coffee plantations give way to fields of wheat and barley , they reached the town of Jibla situated among a group of mountains exceeding 10,000 ft.

^ The limited agriculture that does occur is in the Western mountainous Hijaz province where, with some of the peaks reaching 10,000 feet, enough precipitation falls.
  • Saudi Arabia Press, Media, TV, Radio, Newspapers 19 September 2009 2:02 UTC www.pressreference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Israel imposed a curfew on several Arab villages and as villagers returned in small groups from working in the fields, where they were unaware of the curfew, they were gunned down by Israeli police.
  • Issues in the News: ARABIAN PENINSULA 3 February 2010 14:24 UTC www.wrmea.com [Source type: News]

above sea-level; and turning southwards to .Taiz descended again to the Tehama via Hes and Zubed to Mokha.^ Taiz descended again to the Tehama via Hes and Zubed to Mokha.

^ Tehama or lowlands, Niebuhr and his companions visited the towns of Bet el Fakih, Zubed and Mokha , then the great port for the coffee trade of Yemen.

.The mission, reduced in numbers by the death of its archaeologist, von Haven, again visited Taiz in June 1763, where after some delay permission was obtained to visit Sana, the capital of the province and the residence of the ruling sovereign or imam.^ The mission, reduced in numbers by the death of its archaeologist, von Haven, again visited Taiz in June 1763, where after some delay permission was obtained to visit Sana, the capital of the province and the residence of the ruling sovereign or imam.

^ The tourists were seized in the Abyan province (some 175 miles south of Sanaa the capital).
  • AMERICAN VICTIMS KILLED DURING ARAB TERRORIST ATTACKS 10 February 2010 11:32 UTC avpv.tripod.com [Source type: News]

^ The Shi'a Muslim minority (approximately 2 million persons) lived mostly in the Eastern Province, although a significant number also resided in Medina in the Western Province.
  • Report: Saudi Arabia does not offer religious freedom 28 January 2010 0:48 UTC www.arabicnews.com [Source type: Original source]

.The route lay by Jibla, passing the foot of the lofty Jebel Sorak, where, in spite of illness, Forskal, the botanist of the party, was able to make a last excursion; a few days later he died at Yarim.^ The route lay by Jibla, passing the foot of the lofty Jebel Sorak, where, in spite of illness, Forskal, the botanist of the party, was able to make a last excursion; a few days later he died at Yarim.

^ Full at last, he made a cocoon around himself and went to sleep, to wake up a few weeks later wonderfully transformed into a butterfly.
  • Worlds of Words » Arabic Speaking Countries Language & Culture Workshop 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC wowlit.org [Source type: General]

^ The program runs from mid-August until mid-December, with a two week break for the Dussera festival in October and a few days off for the Diwali holidays a few weeks later.
  • Summer Near Eastern Language Instruction (off campus) 15 September 2009 20:52 UTC www2.gsu.edu [Source type: Academic]

.The mission continued its march, passing Dhamar, the seat of a university of the Zedi sect, then frequented by 500 students.^ The mission continued its march, passing Dhamar, the seat of a university of the Zedi sect , then frequented by 500 students.

.Thence four marches, generally over a stony plateau dominated by bare, sterile mountains, brought them to Sana, where they received a cordial welcome from the imam, el Mandi Abbas.^ Thence four marches, generally over a stony plateau dominated by bare, sterile mountains, brought them to Sana, where they received a cordial welcome from the imam, el Mandi Abbas .

.The aspect of the city must have been nearly the same as at present; Niebuhr describes the enceinte flanked by towers, the citadel at the foot of J. Nukum which rises l000 ft.^ The aspect of the city must have been nearly the same as at present; Niebuhr describes the enceinte flanked by towers, the citadel at the foot of J. Nukum which rises l000 ft.

^ In the same century Ya`qubi wrote his Book of Countries, describing specially the great cities of the empire.

^ Presently a red and bluish stream, bursting from it, ran close to al-Madinah, and at the same time the city was fanned by a cooling zephyr from the same direction.” .
  • Saudi Aramco World : Volcanic Arabia 10 January 2010 11:20 UTC www.saudiaramcoworld.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

above the valley, the fortress and palace of the imams, now replaced by the .Turkish military hospital, the suburb of Bir el Azab with its scattered houses and gardens, the Jews' quarter and the village of Rauda, a few miles to the north in a fertile, irrigated plain which Niebuhr compares to that of Damascus.^ Turkish military hospital , the suburb of Bir el Azab with its scattered houses and gardens, the Jews ' quarter and the village of Rauda, a few miles to the north in a fertile, irrigated plain which Niebuhr compares to that of Damascus .

^ A few small fishing villages or ports are scattered along the coast, but except Nlukalla and Shihr none is of any importance.

^ We went first to el-Kurru , a few miles south of Karima, to see the royal burial chambers belonging to King Tantamani and Queen Kalhata.

.After a stay of ten days at Sana the mission set out again for Mokha, travelling by what is now the main route from the capital to Hodeda, through the rich coffee-bearing district of J. Haraz, and thence southward to Mokha, where they embarked for India.^ After a stay of ten days at Sana the mission set out again for Mokha, travelling by what is now the main route from the capital to Hodeda , through the rich coffee-bearing district of J. Haraz, and thence southward to Mokha, where they embarked for India .

^ It is clear that some originated on the coast of the Arabian Gulf and some on the coast of the Gulf of Oman and some in the interior and they were all linked through land routes.
  • gulfnews : Seminar planned on cities in southeast of Arabian Peninsula 3 February 2010 14:24 UTC gulfnews.com [Source type: News]

^ Other recent months which had previously set records are now 67,000 barrels per day to 417,000 barrels per day lower than reported just a month ago.
  • The Oil Drum | Stories tagged with "saudi arabia" 10 January 2010 11:20 UTC www.theoildrum.com [Source type: General]

.During the next year three other members of the party died, leaving Niebuhr the sole survivor.^ During the next year three other members of the party died, leaving Niebuhr the sole survivor.

^ The IOC will trim the list Wednesday to three or four finalists, with the winner to be decided next year.
  • Arabian Peninsula - Tag Story Index - USATODAY.com 3 February 2010 14:24 UTC www.usatoday.com [Source type: News]

^ In other words, our middle case is that the post-2005 Saudi Net Export Fuel Gauge is only 80% full, after only three years.
  • The Oil Drum | Saudi Arabia's Crude Oil Production Peaked in 2005 10 January 2010 11:20 UTC www.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Returning to Arabia a year later, he visited Oman and the shores of the Persian Gulf, and travelling from Basra through Syria and Palestine he reached Denmark in 1764 after four years' absence.^ Returning to Arabia a year later, he visited Oman and the shores of the Persian Gulf, and travelling from Basra through Syria and Palestine he reached Denmark in 1764 after four years' absence.

^ It rises steeply from the narrow Red Sea coastal plain, achieving its greatest height (c.12,000 ft/3,700 m) in SW Arabia, and slopes gently E to the Persian Gulf; the Oman Mts., SE Arabia, rise to c.10,000 ft (3,000 m).
  • Arabia Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Arabia 2 February 2010 13:31 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ There are several categories: Levantine dialect (Jordan, Syria, Palestine, Lebanon), Egyptian and North African dialect, and Khalijji, or Gulf, dialect.
  • 100 questions about arab americans leaving in the US 10 February 2010 11:32 UTC allied-media.com [Source type: Original source]
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.The period was perhaps specially favourable for a scientific mission of the sort.^ The period was perhaps specially favourable for a scientific mission of the sort.

.The outburst of fanaticism which convulsed Arabia twenty years later had not then reached Yemen, and Europeans, as such, were not exposed to any special danger.^ But twenty years later, he wrote that musical.
  • Principal at New NYC Arabic-Language School Forced to Resign 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.democracynow.org [Source type: News]

^ The outburst of fanaticism which convulsed Arabia twenty years later had not then reached Yemen, and Europeans, as such, were not exposed to any special danger.

^ Three years later Katif, at that time their chief city, was besieged and taken by a Bedouin sheik, and subsequently their political power in Arabia came to an end.

.The travellers were thus able to move freely and to pursue their scientific enquiries without hindrance from either people or ruler.^ The travellers were thus able to move freely and to pursue their scientific enquiries without hindrance from either people or ruler.

The results published in 1772 gave for the first time a comprehensive description not only of Yemen but of all Arabia; while the parts actually visited by Niebuhr were described with a fulness and accuracy of detail which left little or nothing for his successors to discover.
.C. G. Ehrenberg and W. F. Hemprich in 1825 visited the Tehama and the islands off the coast, and in 1836 P. E. Botta made an important journey in southern Yemen with Asir.^ C. G. Ehrenberg and W. F. Hemprich in 1825 visited the Tehama and the islands off the coast, and in 1836 P. E. Botta made an important journey in southern Yemen with Asir.

^ Hawar and the adjacent islands immediately off the west coast are the subject of a territorial dispute between Qatar and Bahrain (see Foreign Relations , this ch.
  • Study in Qatar - About Qatar 3 February 2010 14:24 UTC www.arabiancampus.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In Hadramawt, near the border between Oman and South Yemen on the southern coast of the Arabian peninsula, is the most important Islamic shrine of southern Arabia-the Tomb of Hud.
  • William J. Hamblin - Pre-Islamic Arabian Prophets 3 February 2010 14:24 UTC rsc.byu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

a view to botanical research, but the next advance in geographical knowledge in south .Arabia was due to the French officers, M. O. Tamisier, Chedufau and Mary, belonging to the Egyptian army in Asir; another Frenchman, a.^ Arabia was due to the French officers, M. O. Tamisier, Chedufau and Mary , belonging to the Egyptian army in Asir; another Frenchman, a.

^ North of Yemen up to the Hejaz border the only authority is that of E. F. Jomard's map , published in 1839, based on the information given by the French officers employed with Ibrahim Pasha's army in Asir from 1824 to 1827, and of J. Halevy in Nejran.

^ According to the agreement, the Egyptian army was to withdraw from Yemen and Saudi Arabia was to cease aiding the Yemeni royalists.
  • Saudi Arabia News - Breaking World Saudi Arabia News - The New York Times 19 September 2009 2:02 UTC topics.nytimes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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  • SAUDI ARABIA - AICbackground 10 January 2010 11:20 UTC games.soe.umich.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Arnaud, formerly in the Egyptian service, was the first to visit the southern Jauf and to report on the rock-cut inscriptions and ruins of Marib, though it was not till 1869 that a competent archaeologist, J. Halevy, was able to carry out any Jauf and complete exploration there.^ Arnaud, formerly in the Egyptian service, was the first to visit the southern Jauf and to report on the rock-cut inscriptions and ruins of Marib, though it was not till 1869 that a competent archaeologist, J. Halevy, was able to carry out any Jauf and complete exploration there.

^ There's now a city bus service in Doha (which unfortunately goes nowhere near the airport), and a huge Museum of Islamic Art is nearing completion on the Corniche.
  • Amazon.com: Lonely Planet Arabian Peninsula (9781741042948): Anthony Ham, Frances Linzee Gordon: Books 3 February 2010 14:24 UTC www.amazon.com [Source type: General]

^ We condemn the politically motivated trials and the on-going harassment of journalists who are carrying out their professional duties by reporting on matters of public interest.
  • Human Rights First Society » 2009 Archives 28 January 2010 0:48 UTC hrfssaudiarabia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Starting from Sana, Marib.^ Starting from Sana, Marib.

p p g .Halevy went north-eastward to El Madid, a town of 5000 inhabitants and the capital of the small district of Nihm; thence crossing a plateau, where he saw the ruins of numerous crenellated towers, he reached the village of Mijzar at the foot of J. Yam, on the borders of Jauf, a vast sandy plain, extending eastwards to El Jail and El Hazm, where Halevy made his most important discoveries of Sabaean inscriptions: here he explored Main, the ancient capital of the Minaeans, Kamna on the banks of the W. Kharid, the ancient Caminacum, and Kharibat el Beda, the Nesca of Pliny, where the Sabaean army was defeated by the Romans under Aelius Gallus in 24 B.C. From El Jail Halevy travelled northward, passing the oasis of Khab, and skirting the great desert, reached the fertile district of Nejran, where he found a colony of Jews, with whom he spent several weeks in the oasis of Makhlaf.^ Several new towns were founded along the incense road; the most important was Iatribbu.
  • Nabataea: Arabia 2 February 2010 13:31 UTC nabataea.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Asir, extending south to the Yemen border, has a fertile coastal plain.
  • Saudi Arabia News - Breaking World Saudi Arabia News - The New York Times 19 September 2009 2:02 UTC topics.nytimes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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^ As inscriptions in the Minaean language are found in al-`Ula in north Arabia, it is probable that they had colonies in that district.

.An hour's march to the east he discovered at the village of Medinat el Mahud the ruins of the Nagra metropolis of Ptolemy.^ An hour's march to the east he discovered at the village of Medinat el Mahud the ruins of the Nagra metropolis of Ptolemy .

In June 1870 he at last reached the goal of his journey, Marib; here he explored the ruins of Medinat an Nahas (so called from its numerous inscriptions engraved on brass plates), and two hours to the east he found the famous dam constructed by the Himyarites across the W. Shibwan, on which the water-supply of their capital depended.
.One other explorer has since visited Marib, the Austrian archaeologist, E. Glaser (1855-1908), who achieved more for science in Yemen than any traveller since Niebuhr.^ Is there more than one?
  • Arab - Wikiality, the Truthiness Encyclopedia 10 February 2010 11:32 UTC wikiality.wikia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ One other explorer has since visited Marib, the Austrian archaeologist, E. Glaser (1855-1908), who achieved more for science in Yemen than any traveller since Niebuhr.

^ On more than one occasion in taking photographs for "Empty Quarter," he writes, he came close to being shot down by security-minded military personnel.
  • Discovering Yemen and the Arabian Peninsula: Photographer George Steinmetz - WSJ.com 3 February 2010 14:24 UTC online.wsj.com [Source type: General]

.Under Turkish protection, he visited the territory of the Hashid and Bakil tribes north-east of Sana, and though their hostile attitude compelled him to return after reaching their first important town, Khamr, he had time to reconnoitre the plateau lying between the two great wadis Kharid and Hirran, formerly covered with Himyaritic towns and villages; and to trace the course of these wadis to their junction at El Ish in the Dhu Husen country, and thence onward to the Jauf.^ Under Turkish protection, he visited the territory of the Hashid and Bakil tribes north-east of Sana, and though their hostile attitude compelled him to return after reaching their first important town, Khamr, he had time to reconnoitre the plateau lying between the two great wadis Kharid and Hirran, formerly covered with Himyaritic towns and villages; and to trace the course of these wadis to their junction at El Ish in the Dhu Husen country, and thence onward to the Jauf.

^ The principal centres of production are the upper valleys of the W. Surdad, between Kaukaban and Manakha, and particularly on J. Haraz; in the Wadi Tubed west of Uden; in Hajaria on the slopes of J. Sabur, and in the Yafa district north-east of Aden.

^ Your business may be ready to expand and you've got your eye on a country in the Middle East or North Africa.
  • Arabic Language Training Information | Business.com 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.business.com [Source type: General]

.In 1889 he succeeded, again under Turkish escort, in reaching Marib, where he obtained, during a stay of thirty days, a large number of new Himyaritic inscriptions.^ In 1889 he succeeded, again under Turkish escort, in reaching Marib, where he obtained, during a stay of thirty days, a large number of new Himyaritic inscriptions.

^ During later centuries the Turks embraced Islam peacefully as did a large number of the people of the Indian subcontinent and the Malay-speaking world.
  • History of Islam 10 February 2010 11:32 UTC www.barkati.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The seven new complete mitochondrial DNA sequences are registered under GenBank accession numbers: EU370391 – EU370397 .
  • BioMed Central | Full text | Mitochondrial DNA structure in the Arabian Peninsula 3 February 2010 14:24 UTC www.biomedcentral.com [Source type: Academic]

.He was unable, however, to proceed farther east than his predecessors, and the problem of the Jauf drainage and its possible connexion with the upper part of the Hadramut valley still remains unsolved.^ He was unable, however, to proceed farther east than his predecessors, and the problem of the Jauf drainage and its possible connexion with the upper part of the Hadramut valley still remains unsolved.

^ The Arabian horse also made inroads into other parts of Europe and even farther east.

^ Arabia - Asir and northern Yemen - remain unexplored, and the hydrography of the Dawasir basin offers some interesting problems, while a great field remains for the archaeologist in the seat of the old Sabaean kingdom from Jauf to the Hadramut valley.

.The earliest attempt to penetrate into the interior from the south coast was made in 1835 when aieuts.^ The earliest attempt to penetrate into the interior from the south coast was made in 1835 when aieuts.

^ On the south coast expeditions have penetrated but a short distance, the most notable exceptions being those of a.

^ Niebuhr did not go inland from Muscat ; the operations by a British Indian force on the Pirate coast in 1810 gave no opportunities for visiting the interior, and it was not till 1835 that J. R. Wellsted, who had already tried to penetrate into Hadramut from the south, landed at Muscat with the idea of reaching it from the north-east.

.C. Cruttenden and J. R. Wellsted of the " Palinurus," employed on the marine survey of the Arabian coast, visited the ruins Ex oPn ra- ?' ?^ C. Cruttenden and J. R. Wellsted of the " Palinurus," employed on the marine survey of the Arabian coast, visited the ruins Ex oPn ra- ?'

tion in of .Nakb (el Hajar) in the W. Mefat.^ Nakb (el Hajar) in the W. Mefat.

.The Himyaritic Hadramut. inscriptions found there and at Husn Ghurab near Mukalla, were the first records discovered of ancient Arabian civilization in Hadramut.^ Husn Ghurab near Mukalla, were the first records discovered of ancient Arabian civilization in Hadramut.

^ By the mid-1980s, Saudi Arabia had acquired complete control of the Arabian American Oil Company (ARAMCO), which had first discovered oil there in the 1930s and was previously owned by American firms.
  • Arabia Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Arabia 2 February 2010 13:31 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Starting like von Wrede from Mukalla, Hirsch first visited the W. Duwan and found ancient ruins and inscriptions near the village of Hajren; thence he proceeded north-eastward to Hauta in the main valley, where he was hospitably received by the Kaiti sultan, and sent on to his deputy at Shibam.

.Neither of these officers was able to follow up their discoveries, but in 1843 Adolph von Wrede landed at Mukalla and, adopting the character of a pilgrim to the shrine of the prophet Hud, made his way northward across the high plateau into the W. Duwan, one of the main southern tributaries of the Hadramut valley, and pushed on to the edge of the great southern desert; on his return to the W. Duwan his disguise was detected and he was obliged to return to Mukalla.^ The northern edge of this great desert follows.

^ Neither of these officers was able to follow up their discoveries, but in 1843 Adolph von Wrede landed at Mukalla and, adopting the character of a pilgrim to the shrine of the prophet Hud, made his way northward across the high plateau into the W. Duwan, one of the main southern tributaries of the Hadramut valley, and pushed on to the edge of the great southern desert; on his return to the W. Duwan his disguise was detected and he was obliged to return to Mukalla.

^ In Hadramawt, near the border between Oman and South Yemen on the southern coast of the Arabian peninsula, is the most important Islamic shrine of southern Arabia-the Tomb of Hud.
  • William J. Hamblin - Pre-Islamic Arabian Prophets 3 February 2010 14:24 UTC rsc.byu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Though he did not actually enter the main Hadramut valley, which lay to the east of his track, his journey established the existence of this populous and fertile district which had been reported to the officers of the " Palinurus " as lying between the coast range and the great desert to the north.^ Though he did not actually enter the main Hadramut valley, which lay to the east of his track, his journey established the existence of this populous and fertile district which had been reported to the officers of the " Palinurus " as lying between the coast range and the great desert to the north.

^ The principal centres of production are the upper valleys of the W. Surdad, between Kaukaban and Manakha, and particularly on J. Haraz; in the Wadi Tubed west of Uden; in Hajaria on the slopes of J. Sabur, and in the Yafa district north-east of Aden.

^ The country falls naturally into three main divisions, a northern, a central and a southern; the first includes the area between the Midian coast on the west and the head of the Persian Gulf on the east, a desert tract throughout, stony in the north, sandy in the south, but furnishing at certain seasons excellent pasturage; its population is almost entirely nomad and pastoral .

.This was at last visited in 1893 by a.^ This was at last visited in 1893 by a.

.Hirsch under the protection of the sultan of Mukalla, the head of the Kaiti family, and practically ruler of all Hadramut, with the exception of the towns of Saiyun and Tarim, which belong to the Kathiri tribe.^ Hirsch under the protection of the sultan of Mukalla, the head of the Kaiti family, and practically ruler of all Hadramut, with the exception of the towns of Saiyun and Tarim , which belong to the Kathiri tribe.

^ The governors of all these towns were of Othman's own family.

^ Warning: All of the pages on this site are protected under U.S. and International copyright laws.

.Starting like von Wrede from Mukalla, Hirsch first visited the W. Duwan and found ancient ruins and inscriptions near the village of Hajren; thence he proceeded north-eastward to Hauta in the main valley, where he was hospitably received by the Kaiti sultan, and sent on to his deputy at Shibam.^ Starting like von Wrede from Mukalla, Hirsch first visited the W. Duwan and found ancient ruins and inscriptions near the village of Hajren; thence he proceeded north-eastward to Hauta in the main valley, where he was hospitably received by the Kaiti sultan, and sent on to his deputy at Shibam.

^ The vast majority of Arab Muslims are like those that Pope John Paul II found when visiting Syria in May 2001 — compassionate, hospitable, kind, and tolerant to others, and with very little hatred in their hearts.
  • The Vocabula Review - October 2001 - The Odyssey of the Arabic Language and Its Script - Habeeb Salloum 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.vocabula.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Arnaud, formerly in the Egyptian service, was the first to visit the southern Jauf and to report on the rock-cut inscriptions and ruins of Marib, though it was not till 1869 that a competent archaeologist, J. Halevy, was able to carry out any Jauf and complete exploration there.

.Here he procured a Kathiri escort and pushed on through Saiyun to Tarim, the former capital.^ Here he procured a Kathiri escort and pushed on through Saiyun to Tarim, the former capital.

.After a very brief stay, however, he was compelled by the hostility of the people to return in haste to Shibam, from which he travelled by the W. bin Ali and W. Adim back to Mukalla.^ After a very brief stay, however, he was compelled by the hostility of the people to return in haste to Shibam, from which he travelled by the W. bin Ali and W. Adim back to Mukalla.

^ The Muslims then became friendly with 'Ali as he returned to what the people had done (i.e.
  • The Exclusion of the Jews and Christians 3 February 2010 14:24 UTC debate.org.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ There, the reference in Sura XXXIII, 26 is very brief: "He caused those of the People of the Book who helped them (i.e.
  • The Exclusion of the Jews and Christians 3 February 2010 14:24 UTC debate.org.uk [Source type: Original source]

.J. Theodore Bent and his wife followed in the same track a few months later with a well-equipped party including a surveyor, Imam Sharif, lent by the Indian government, who made a very valuable survey of the country passed through.^ J. Theodore Bent and his wife followed in the same track a few months later with a well-equipped party including a surveyor, Imam Sharif, lent by the Indian government, who made a very valuable survey of the country passed through.

^ Charged with conducting a rigorous survey of the physical Peninsula as well as its people, flora and fauna, the expedition included a doctor, a botanist, an artist, a philologist, a surveyor and a manservant.
  • Saudi Aramco World : Mapping Arabia 2 February 2010 13:31 UTC www.saudiaramcoworld.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ We should not be surprised that leaders of states in conflict-ridden areas want to have modern and well-equipped militaries, even if those militaries have very poor track records of actually doing anything.

.Both parties visited many sites where Himyaritic remains and inscriptions were found, but the hostile attitude of the natives, more particularly of the Seyyids, the religious hierarchy of Hadramut, prevented any adequate examination, and much of archaeological interest undoubtedly remains for future travellers to discover.^ The name Hud is much more interesting.
  • William J. Hamblin - Pre-Islamic Arabian Prophets 3 February 2010 14:24 UTC rsc.byu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Both parties visited many sites where Himyaritic remains and inscriptions were found, but the hostile attitude of the natives, more particularly of the Seyyids, the religious hierarchy of Hadramut, prevented any adequate examination, and much of archaeological interest undoubtedly remains for future travellers to discover.

^ The founding basis of the relationship six decades ago shared interests on oil and security issues remains in place.

.In Oman, where the conditions are more favourable, explorers have penetrated only a short distance from the coast.^ In Oman, where the conditions are more favourable, explorers have penetrated only a short distance from the coast.

^ These favourable conditions of soil and climate, however, extend only a comparatively short distance into the interior, by far the larger part of which is covered by the great southern desert, the Dahna, or Ruba el Khali, empty as its name implies, and uninhabitable.

^ There are only about 100 tanks there total and 10 or so of the big ones, but more are scattered up the coast.
  • The Oil Drum | Saudi Arabia's Crude Oil Reserves Propaganda 28 January 2010 0:48 UTC www.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Niebuhr did not go inland from Muscat; the operations by a British Indian force on the Pirate coast in 1810 gave no opportunities for visiting the interior, and it was not till 1835 that J. R. Wellsted, who had already tried to penetrate into Hadramut from the south, landed at Muscat with the idea of reaching it from the north-east.^ The earliest attempt to penetrate into the interior from the south coast was made in 1835 when aieuts.

^ Niebuhr did not go inland from Muscat ; the operations by a British Indian force on the Pirate coast in 1810 gave no opportunities for visiting the interior, and it was not till 1835 that J. R. Wellsted, who had already tried to penetrate into Hadramut from the south, landed at Muscat with the idea of reaching it from the north-east.

^ While Saudi officials have demanded that the pirates are dealt with by military force, commanders of the task force in the region gave no hint of possible action, preferrign to retain the initiative.

.Sailing thence to Sur near Ras el Had, he travelled southward through the country of the Bani bu Ali to the borders of the desert, then turning north-west up the Wadi Betha through a fertile, wellwatered country, running up to the southern slopes of J. Akhdar, inhabited by a friendly people who seem to have welcomed him everywhere, he visited Ibra, Semed and Nizwa at the southern foot of the mountains.^ It issues Consular Information Sheets, travel warnings and public announcements concerning conditions in countries where Americans may be planning to visit or reside.
  • Virtual Foreign Language Classroom: Arabic Language & Culture 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.nvcc.edu [Source type: News]

^ The geographically hostile Rub' al Khali ("Empty Quarter") desert along the country's imprecisely defined southern borders contains almost no life.
  • Top20SaudiArabia.com - Your Top20 Guide to Saudi Arabia! 10 January 2010 11:20 UTC top20saudiarabia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I know of people, who died in the desert on their way to Sudan and Libya, and people who died in the Red Sea in their way to Jeddah Saudi Arabia from Port Sudan during the Mengistu regime.
  • Ethiopian migrants undertake a treacherous journey to the Arabian peninsula. 3 February 2010 14:24 UTC nazret.com [Source type: Original source]

.Owing to the disturbed state of the country, due to the presence of raiding parties from Nejd, Wellsted was unable to carry out his original intention of exploring the country to the west, and after an excursion along the Batina coast to Sohar he returned to India.^ Owing to the disturbed state of the country, due to the presence of raiding parties from Nejd, Wellsted was unable to carry out his original intention of exploring the country to the west, and after an excursion along the Batina coast to Sohar he returned to India.

^ The country's southern boundary with Yemen was partially defined by the 1934 Treaty of Taif, which ended a brief border war between the two states.
  • Saudi Arabia 10 January 2010 11:20 UTC www.infoplease.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Comparative Criminology | Asia - Saudi Arabia 10 January 2010 11:20 UTC www-rohan.sdsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Its originator, Mahommed Ibn Abdul Wahhab, was born (1691) at Ayana in Nejd, and after studying in Basra and Damascus, and making the pilgrimage to Mecca returned to his native country and settled down at Huremala near Deraiya.

.In 1876 Colonel S. B. Miles, who had already done much to tion in Oman. advance geographical interests in south Arabia, continued Wellsted's work in Oman; starting from Sohar on the Batina coast he crossed the dividing range into the Dhahira, and reached Birema, one of its principal oases.^ Arabia, continued Wellsted's work in Oman; starting from Sohar on the Batina coast he crossed the dividing range into the Dhahira, and reached Birema, one of its principal oases.

^ In 1876 Colonel S. B. Miles, who had already done much to tion in Oman.

^ Like the segregated South of a bygone United States, today's Saudi Arabia shunts half the population into separate, inferior and usually invisible spaces.
  • From the archives: In Saudi Arabia, a view from behind the veil - latimes.com 10 January 2010 11:20 UTC www.latimes.com [Source type: General]

.His investigations show that the Dhahira contains many settlements, with an industrious agricultural population, and that the unexplored tract extending 250 m.^ His investigations show that the Dhahira contains many settlements, with an industrious agricultural population, and that the unexplored tract extending 250 m.

west to the peninsula of .El Katr is a desolate gravelly steppe, shelving'gradually down to the salt marshes which border the shores of the gulf.^ Its kings governed the western shore of the lower Euphrates, from the neighbourhood of Babylon down to the confines of Nejd, and along the coast of the Persian Gulf.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Arabia 2 February 2010 13:31 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

aeaving southern .Arabia, we now come to the centre and north.^ Arabia, we now come to the centre and north.

^ Although this expedition had come to nothing, southern Arabia was now part of a larger world, and several economic changes took place.
  • Nabataea: Arabia 2 February 2010 13:31 UTC nabataea.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Christianity in Arabia had three in centres in the north-west, north-east, and south-west of the peninsula.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Arabia 2 February 2010 13:31 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

.The first explorer to enter the sacred Hejaz with a definite scientific object was the Spaniard, Badia y aeblich, who, under the name of Ali Bey and claiming to be the last representative of the Abbasid Caliphs, arrived at Jidda in 1807, and performed the pilgrimage to Mecca.^ The first explorer to enter the sacred Hejaz with a definite scientific object was the Spaniard, Badia y aeblich, who, under the name of Ali Bey and claiming to be the last representative of the Abbasid Caliphs, arrived at Jidda in 1807, and performed the pilgrimage to Mecca .

^ Since the Abbasid era, the most powerful figure in this region was the Sharif of Mecca, who was the head of the sharifs representing Prophet Mohammads family of Hashim and the traditional steward of the two holy cities.
  • Turkey in the First World War - Arabian Peninsula 3 February 2010 14:24 UTC www.turkeyswar.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The first European scientific explorer of Arabia was C. Niebuhr, who, in 1761-64, by the order of the Danish government, undertook an expedition into the Arabian peninsula.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Arabia 2 February 2010 13:31 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

.Besides giving to the world the first accurate description of the holy city and the Haj ceremonies, he was the first to fix the position of Mecca by astronomical observations, and to describe the physical character of its surroundings.^ Besides giving to the world the first accurate description of the holy city and the Haj ceremonies, he was the first to fix the position of Mecca by astronomical observations, and to describe the physical character of its surroundings.

^ Another watershed came in March 2002, when a fire broke out at a girls' school in the holy city of Mecca, killing 15 students.
  • Saudi Arabia report: Princes, Clerics, and Censors - Reports - Committee to Protect Journalists 10 January 2010 11:20 UTC cpj.org [Source type: News]

^ And with the eventual partitioning of Saudi Arabia , the Muslim Holy cities of Mecca and Medina, far off in the west, would be safely separated from the oil, further weakening the linkage between the two in world opinion.
  • Saudi Arabia, West Africa -- Next Stops in the Infinite War for Oil 10 January 2010 11:20 UTC fromthewilderness.com [Source type: News]

.But the true pioneer of exploration in Hejaz was J. a.^ But the true pioneer of exploration in Hejaz was J. a.

.Burckhardt, who had already won a reputation as the discoverer of Petra, and whose experience of travel in Arab lands and knowledge of Arab life qualified him to pass as a Moslem, even in the headquarters of Islam.^ Burckhardt, who had already won a reputation as the discoverer of Petra , and whose experience of travel in Arab lands and knowledge of Arab life qualified him to pass as a Moslem, even in the headquarters of Islam .

^ We carry titles in English and Arabic of interest to those wishing to expand their knowledge of Arabic language, Islam, or the culture, literature or history of the Arab world.
  • Arabic | Faculty websites and blogs 10 February 2010 11:32 UTC esr.earlham.edu [Source type: General]

^ Racial Profiling and Traveling Employees - Tips for Arab Americans and Those Who Accompany Them (article continues onto additional pages; follow links at bottom) .
  • Links About Stereotyping of Arabs and Muslims 10 February 2010 11:32 UTC www.muhajabah.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Burckhardt landed in Jidda in July 1814, when Mehemet Ali had already driven the Wahhabi invaders out of Hejaz, and was preparing for his farther advance against their stronghold in Nejd.^ Burckhardt landed in Jidda in July 1814, when Mehemet Ali had already driven the Wahhabi invaders out of Hejaz, and was preparing for his farther advance against their stronghold in Nejd.

^ By 1818, however, the Wahhabis had been driven out of power again by the Ottomans and their Egyptian allies.
  • Saudi Arabia | Saudi Arabia 10 January 2010 11:20 UTC surgeryplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Burckhardt had hoped in 1815 that the advance of the Egyptian expedition would have given him the opportunity to see something of Nejd, but he had already left Arabia before the overthrow of the Wahhabi power by Ibrahim Pasha had opened Nejd to travellers from Hejaz, and though several European officers accompanied the expedition, none of them left any record of his experience.

.He first visited Taif at the invitation of the pasha, thence he proceeded to Mecca, where he spent three months studying every detail of the topography of the holy places, and going through all the ceremonies incumbent on a Moslem pilgrim.^ He first visited Taif at the invitation of the pasha , thence he proceeded to Mecca, where he spent three months studying every detail of the topography of the holy places, and going through all the ceremonies incumbent on a Moslem pilgrim.

^ As the place where the Holy Quran was compiled, and where the Prophet's companions administered the affairs of the Muslim community, it was the seat of the first Islamic state.
  • About Saudi Arabia 10 January 2010 11:20 UTC www.gip.gov.sa [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Kingdom is sometimes called "The Land of the Two Holy Mosques" in reference to Mecca and Medinah , the two holiest places in Islam .
  • Top20SaudiArabia.com - Your Top20 Guide to Saudi Arabia! 10 January 2010 11:20 UTC top20saudiarabia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In January 1815 he travelled to Medina by the western or coast route, and arrived there safely but broken in health by the hardships of the journey.^ In January 1815 he travelled to Medina by the western or coast route, and arrived there safely but broken in health by the hardships of the journey.

^ The south coast is free from the shoals that imperil the navigation of the Red Sea, and in Aden it possesses the only safe natural harbour on the route between Suez and India.

^ From Medina the route usually followed descends the W. Safra to Badr Hunen, whence it keeps near the coast passing Rabigh and Khulesa to Mecca.

.His illness did not, however, prevent his seeing and recording everything of interest in Medina with the same care as at Mecca, though it compelled him to cut short the further journey he had proposed to himself, and to return by Yambu and the sea to Cairo, where he died only two years later.^ His illness did not, however, prevent his seeing and recording everything of interest in Medina with the same care as at Mecca, though it compelled him to cut short the further journey he had proposed to himself, and to return by Yambu and the sea to Cairo , where he died only two years later.

^ The country is on the Arabian Peninsula and has the two holiest places for Muslims: Mecca and medina.
  • Saudi Arabia Phone Cards | Saudi Arabia Calling Cards - Cheap Saudi Arabia Phone Card to Saudi Arabia 10 January 2010 11:20 UTC www.phonecardsmile.com [Source type: News]

^ Zubayrid control over the holy sites in Mecca and Medina caused the early Umayyads to seek an alternative pilgrimage site to prevent the Zubayrids from gaining funds from pilgrims.
  • Arabia 2 February 2010 13:31 UTC my.raex.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.His striking successor, Sir Richard Burton, covered nearly the same ground thirty-eight years afterwards.^ His striking successor, Sir Richard Burton , covered nearly the same ground thirty-eight years afterwards.

.He, too, travelling as a Moslem pilgrim, noted the whole ritual of the pilgrimage with the same keen observation as Burckhardt, and while amplifying somewhat the latter's description of Medina, confirms the accuracy of his work there and at Mecca in almost every detail.^ He, too, travelling as a Moslem pilgrim, noted the whole ritual of the pilgrimage with the same keen observation as Burckhardt, and while amplifying somewhat the latter's description of Medina, confirms the accuracy of his work there and at Mecca in almost every detail.

^ The two-way dictionary contains important travel, geographical, and cultural terminology, while the phrasebook focuses on the needs of the traveler and covers almost every situation from arrival to departure.
  • Arabic Language Course, Self-Instruction Courses, Audio CD, Learn, Speak 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.maps2anywhere.com [Source type: General]

^ This Egyptian language phrasebook is full of essential words and phrases that cover almost every travel situation in Egypt, and makes communication with the local people easier.
  • Arabic Language Course, Self-Instruction Courses, Audio CD, Learn, Speak 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.maps2anywhere.com [Source type: General]

.Burton's topographical descriptions are fuller, and his march to Mecca from Medina by the eastern route led him over ground not traversed by any other explorer in Hejaz: this route leads at first south-east from Medina, and then south across the lava beds of the Harra, keeping throughout its length on the high plateau which forms the borderland between Hejaz and Nejd.^ Burton's topographical descriptions are fuller, and his march to Mecca from Medina by the eastern route led him over ground not traversed by any other explorer in Hejaz: this route leads at first south-east from Medina, and then south across the lava beds of the Harra, keeping throughout its length on the high plateau which forms the borderland between Hejaz and Nejd.

^ The Hejaz and Nejd regions were merged to form the kingdom of Saudi Arabia in 1932, which was an absolute monarchy ruled by sharia.
  • Saudi Arabia | Saudi Arabia 10 January 2010 11:20 UTC surgeryplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This report documents the sharpest sectarian tensions in the kingdom in years, set off by clashes between Shia pilgrims and religious police in Medina in February 2009, followed by arbitrary arrests of Shia protesters in the Eastern Province in March.
  • Human Rights First Society » 2009 Archives 28 January 2010 0:48 UTC hrfssaudiarabia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.His original intention had been after visiting Mecca to find his way across the peninsula to Oman, but the time at his disposal (as an Indian officer on leave) was insufficient for so extended a journey; and his further contributions to Arabian geography were not made until twenty-five years later, when he was deputed by the Egyptian government to examine the reported gold deposits of Midian.^ But twenty years later, he wrote that musical.
  • Principal at New NYC Arabic-Language School Forced to Resign 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.democracynow.org [Source type: News]

^ His original intention had been after visiting Mecca to find his way across the peninsula to Oman, but the time at his disposal (as an Indian officer on leave) was insufficient for so extended a journey; and his further contributions to Arabian geography were not made until twenty-five years later, when he was deputed by the Egyptian government to examine the reported gold deposits of Midian.

^ As the religion of Islam rapidly spread across the world from Indonesia and China in the Far East to Spain, Morocco and West Africa in the west, ever increasing numbers of pilgrims made the long, and often dangerous, journey to Mecca.

.Traces of ancient workings were found in several places, but the ores did not contain gold in paying quantities.^ Traces of ancient workings were found in several places, but the ores did not contain gold in paying quantities.

^ Since then air and land teams have found rock salt, marble and promising traces of magnesium, lead, zinc, silver and gold.
  • Saudi Aramco World : Made In: Saudi Arabia 10 January 2010 11:20 UTC www.saudiaramcoworld.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The quartz reefs which crop out in the granite ranges of the Tehama contain traces of gold.

.Interesting archaeological discoveries were made, and a valuable topographical survey was carried out, covering the whole Midian coast from the head of the Gulf of Akaba to the mouth of the Wadi Hamd, and including both the Tehama range and the Hisma valley behind it; while the importance of the W. Hamd and the extent of the area drained by its tributaries was for the first time brought to light.^ Interesting archaeological discoveries were made, and a valuable topographical survey was carried out, covering the whole Midian coast from the head of the Gulf of Akaba to the mouth of the Wadi Hamd, and including both the Tehama range and the Hisma valley behind it; while the importance of the W. Hamd and the extent of the area drained by its tributaries was for the first time brought to light.

^ We condemn the politically motivated trials and the on-going harassment of journalists who are carrying out their professional duties by reporting on matters of public interest.
  • Human Rights First Society » 2009 Archives 28 January 2010 0:48 UTC hrfssaudiarabia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The country falls naturally into three main divisions, a northern, a central and a southern; the first includes the area between the Midian coast on the west and the head of the Persian Gulf on the east, a desert tract throughout, stony in the north, sandy in the south, but furnishing at certain seasons excellent pasturage; its population is almost entirely nomad and pastoral .

.Burckhardt had hoped in 1815 that the advance of the Egyptian expedition would have given him the opportunity to see something of Nejd, but he had already left Arabia before the overthrow of the Wahhabi power by Ibrahim Pasha had opened Nejd to travellers from Hejaz, and though several European officers accompanied the expedition, none of them left any record of his experience.^ Burckhardt had hoped in 1815 that the advance of the Egyptian expedition would have given him the opportunity to see something of Nejd, but he had already left Arabia before the overthrow of the Wahhabi power by Ibrahim Pasha had opened Nejd to travellers from Hejaz, and though several European officers accompanied the expedition, none of them left any record of his experience.

^ The Hejaz and Nejd regions were merged to form the kingdom of Saudi Arabia in 1932, which was an absolute monarchy ruled by sharia.
  • Saudi Arabia | Saudi Arabia 10 January 2010 11:20 UTC surgeryplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The first European scientific explorer of Arabia was C. Niebuhr, who, in 1761-64, by the order of the Danish government, undertook an expedition into the Arabian peninsula.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Arabia 2 February 2010 13:31 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

.It is, however, to the Egyptian conquest that the first visit of a British traveller to Nejd is due.^ It is, however, to the Egyptian conquest that the first visit of a British traveller to Nejd is due.

^ The early non-Muslim sources, however, depict a good relationship between the Muslims and Jews at the time of the first conquests (late 620s AD), and even later.
  • The Exclusion of the Jews and Christians 3 February 2010 14:24 UTC debate.org.uk [Source type: Original source]

.The Indian government, wishing to enter into relations with Ibrahim Pasha, as de facto ruler of Nejd and El Hasa, with a view to putting down piracy in the Persian Gulf, which was seriously affecting Indian trade, sent a small mission under Captain G. F. Sadlier to congratulate the pasha on the success of the Egyptian arms, and no doubt with the ulterior object of obtaining a first-hand report on the real situation.^ The Indian government, wishing to enter into relations with Ibrahim Pasha, as de facto ruler of Nejd and El Hasa, with a view to putting down piracy in the Persian Gulf, which was seriously affecting Indian trade, sent a small mission under Captain G. F. Sadlier to congratulate the pasha on the success of the Egyptian arms, and no doubt with the ulterior object of obtaining a first-hand report on the real situation.

^ Khosroes at first was unwilling to undertake so dangerous an enterprise, but afterwards, won over by the promises of Saif and the advice of his ministers , sent an army of 4,000 Persian soldiers, drawn from prisons , under the command of Wahriz and accompanied by Saif himself.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Arabia 2 February 2010 13:31 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The first European scientific explorer of Arabia was C. Niebuhr, who, in 1761-64, by the order of the Danish government, undertook an expedition into the Arabian peninsula.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Arabia 2 February 2010 13:31 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

.On his arrival at Hofuf, Sadlier found that Ibrahim had already left Deraiya, but still hoping to intercept him before quitting Nejd, he followed up the retreating Egyptians through Yemama, and Wushm to Ras in Kasim, where he caught up the main body of Ibrahim's army, though the pasha himself had gone on to Medina.^ On his arrival at Hofuf, Sadlier found that Ibrahim had already left Deraiya, but still hoping to intercept him before quitting Nejd, he followed up the retreating Egyptians through Yemama, and Wushm to Ras in Kasim, where he caught up the main body of Ibrahim's army, though the pasha himself had gone on to Medina.

^ King Hussein attended a state dinner hosted by King Fahd that evening and prayed at the Prophet’s Mosque in Medina the following morning before returning to Jordan.

^ It has already announced a major arms deal with Great Britain for fighter aircraft, a follow-up on the huge al-Yamamah-BAE deal signed in the mid-1980s.

.Sadlier hesitated about going farther, but he was unable to obtain a safe conduct to Basra, or to return by the way he had come, and was compelled reluctantly to accompany the army to Medina.^ Sadlier hesitated about going farther, but he was unable to obtain a safe conduct to Basra, or to return by the way he had come, and was compelled reluctantly to accompany the army to Medina.

^ My answer was, "I've come a long way, but I have a long way to go."
  • Arabic | Faculty websites and blogs 10 February 2010 11:32 UTC esr.earlham.edu [Source type: General]

^ We accept these conditions for ourselves and for the people of our community, and in return we receive safe-conduct.
  • The Exclusion of the Jews and Christians 3 February 2010 14:24 UTC debate.org.uk [Source type: Original source]

.Here he at last met Ibrahim, but though courteously received, the interview had no results, and Sadlier soon after left for Yambu, whence he embarked for Jidda, and after another fruitless attempt to treat with Ibrahim, sailed for India.^ Here he at last met Ibrahim, but though courteously received, the interview had no results, and Sadlier soon after left for Yambu, whence he embarked for Jidda, and after another fruitless attempt to treat with Ibrahim, sailed for India.

.If the political results of the mission were nil, the value to geographical science was immense; for though no geographer himself, Sadlier's route across Arabia made it possible for the first time to locate the principal places in something like their proper relative positions; incidentally, too, it showed the practicability of a considerable body of regular troops crossing the deserts of Nejd even in the months of July and August.^ It took a local television host to bring a (professionally) even-tempered first-time author to the boiling point.
  • Saudi Arabia: Change We Can Believe In? - Opinionator Blog - NYTimes.com 10 January 2010 11:20 UTC opinionator.blogs.nytimes.com [Source type: News]

^ Arabia has no rivers, and its mountain streams and fresh-water springs, which in certain sections are quite numerous, are utterly inadequate, considering the immense geographical area the peninsula covers.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Arabia 2 February 2010 13:31 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The geographically hostile Rub' al Khali ("Empty Quarter") desert along the country's imprecisely defined southern borders contains almost no life.
  • Top20SaudiArabia.com - Your Top20 Guide to Saudi Arabia! 10 January 2010 11:20 UTC top20saudiarabia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Sadlier's route had left Jebel Shammar to one side; his successor, G. A. Wallin, was to make that the objective of his journey.^ Sadlier's route had left Jebel Shammar to one side; his successor, G. A. Wallin, was to make that the objective of his journey.

.Commissioned by Mehemet Ali to inform him about the situation in Nejd brought about by the rising power of Abdallah Ibn Rashid, Wallin left Cairo in April 1845, and crossing the pilgrim road at Ma`an, pushed on across the Syrian desert to the Wadi Sirhan and the Jauf oasis, where he halted during the hot summer months.^ In his company the Blunts set out from Damascus, and travelled across the Syrian desert by the Wadi Sirhan to Jauf.

^ Commissioned by Mehemet Ali to inform him about the situation in Nejd brought about by the rising power of Abdallah Ibn Rashid, Wallin left Cairo in April 1845, and crossing the pilgrim road at Ma`an, pushed on across the Syrian desert to the Wadi Sirhan and the Jauf oasis, where he halted during the hot summer months.

^ In the country's interior, rainfall is less common than on the coast and the average temperature is approximately 110 degrees Fahrenheit, though they can commonly rise to 130 degrees Fahrenheit during the summer months [5] .
  • Saudi Arabia - Wikiversity 2 February 2010 13:31 UTC en.wikiversity.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.From the wells of Shakik he crossed the waterless Nafud in four days to Jubba, and after a halt there in the nomad camps, he moved on to Hail, already a thriving town, and the capital of the Shammar state whose limits included all northern Arabia from Kasim to the Syrian border.^ From the wells of Shakik he crossed the waterless Nafud in four days to Jubba, and after a halt there in the nomad camps, he moved on to Hail , already a thriving town, and the capital of the Shammar state whose limits included all northern Arabia from Kasim to the Syrian border.

^ I t is not then in the peninsula of Arabia, where water is only to be had from wells, that the original stock can have been found, but rather in Mesopotamia and the great pastoral districts bordering the Euphrates, where water is abundant and pasture perennial.
  • History of Arabian Horses 3 February 2010 14:24 UTC fakulti0.tripod.com [Source type: Original source]

^ South Asians and Southeast Asians voluntarily move from their homes to Saudi Arabia looking for employment, while others from the same regions as well as the African continent and other Arab states are moved involuntarily to Saudi Arabia for participation in practices comparable to slavery , including sex slavery [98] .
  • Saudi Arabia - Wikiversity 2 February 2010 13:31 UTC en.wikiversity.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.After a stay in Hail, where he had every opportunity of observing the character of the country and its inhabitants, and the hospitality and patriarchal, if sometimes stern, justice of its chief, he travelled on to Medina and Mecca, and returned thence to Cairo to report to his patron.^ After a stay in Hail, where he had every opportunity of observing the character of the country and its inhabitants, and the hospitality and patriarchal, if sometimes stern, justice of its chief, he travelled on to Medina and Mecca, and returned thence to Cairo to report to his patron.

^ Stack reported in Saudi Arabia repeatedly during her tenure as The Times' Cairo Bureau chief from September 2003 until last month.
  • From the archives: In Saudi Arabia, a view from behind the veil - latimes.com 10 January 2010 11:20 UTC www.latimes.com [Source type: General]

^ Scientific and technical instruction takes place in English even at Cairo's venerable Arab-Islamic institution, Al-Azhar, and at the universities of Medina and Mecca.
  • Does the Arabic Language Encourage Radical Islam? :: Middle East Quarterly 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.meforum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Early in 1848 he again returned to Arabia, avoiding the long desert journey by landing at Muwela, thence striking inland to Tebuk on the pilgrim road, and re-entering Shammar territory at the oasis of Tema, he again visited Hail; and after spending a month there travelled northwards to Kerbela and Bagdad.^ Early in 1848 he again returned to Arabia, avoiding the long desert journey by landing at Muwela, thence striking inland to Tebuk on the pilgrim road, and re-entering Shammar territory at the oasis of Tema, he again visited Hail; and after spending a month there travelled northwards to Kerbela and Bagdad .

^ While there are several variants on the tale, one common version states that after a long journey through the desert, Muhammad turned his herd of horses loose to race to an oasis for a desperately-needed drink of water.
  • The Arabpedia : Arabian 3 February 2010 14:24 UTC thearabpedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The long stretch of waterless desert between Jauf and J. Shammar was crossed without difficulty, and the party was welcomed by the amir and hospitably entertained for a month, after which they travelled northwards in company with the Persian pilgrim caravan returning to Kerbela and Bagdad.

.The effects of the Egyptian invasion had passed away, and central Arabia had settled down again under its native rulers when W. G. Palgrave made his adventurous journey through Nejd, and published the remarkable narrative which has taken itslace as the classic of Arabian P Nejd. exploration.^ The effects of the Egyptian invasion had passed away, and central Arabia had settled down again under its native rulers when W. G. Palgrave made his adventurous journey through Nejd, and published the remarkable narrative which has taken itslace as the classic of Arabian P Nejd.

^ Saud family of the Nejd, in central Arabia.
  • Saudi Arabia News - Breaking World Saudi Arabia News - The New York Times 19 September 2009 2:02 UTC topics.nytimes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Saudi Arabia News - Breaking World Saudi Arabia News - The New York Times 19 September 2009 2:02 UTC topics.nytimes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Saudi Arabia Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Saudi Arabia 10 January 2010 11:20 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ His second book, "Empty Quarter: A Photographic Journey to the Heart of the Arabian Desert," exhibits the enthusiasm and passion for exotic people and locales that have made him as much an adventurer as he is a photographer.
  • Discovering Yemen and the Arabian Peninsula: Photographer George Steinmetz - WSJ.com 3 February 2010 14:24 UTC online.wsj.com [Source type: General]

aike .Burton he was once an officer in the Indian army, but for some time before his journey he had been connected with the Jesuit mission in Syria.^ Burton he was once an officer in the Indian army, but for some time before his journey he had been connected with the Jesuit mission in Syria.

^ The article suggests that he may have been working as a Saudi double agent for some time before defecting.

.By training and temperament he was better qualified to appreciate and describe the social life of the people than their physical surroundings, and if the results of his great journey are disappointing to the geographer, his account of the society of the oasis towns, and of the remarkable men who were then ruling in Hail and Riad, must always possess an absorbing interest as a portrait of Arab life in its freest development.^ By training and temperament he was better qualified to appreciate and describe the social life of the people than their physical surroundings, and if the results of his great journey are disappointing to the geographer, his account of the society of the oasis towns, and of the remarkable men who were then ruling in Hail and Riad, must always possess an absorbing interest as a portrait of Arab life in its freest development.

^ Kuwait developed a consensus style government that has evolved into what is called a diwaniyah a gathering of men from the community who discuss issues and make decisions.
  • Arabian Peninsula 3 February 2010 14:24 UTC www.thinkwow.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Posted by arab-families at 2/26/2008 04:49:00 PM 0 comments Labels: Interesting people and places in K.L. .

.Following Wallin's route across the desert by Mean and Jauf, Palgrave and his companion, a Syrian Christian, reached Hail in July 1862; here they were hospitably entertained by the amir Talal, nephew of the founder of the Ibn Rashid dynasty, and after some stay passed on with his countenance through Kasim to southern Nejd.^ Following Wallin's route across the desert by Mean and Jauf, Palgrave and his companion , a Syrian Christian, reached Hail in July 1862; here they were hospitably entertained by the amir Talal, nephew of the founder of the Ibn Rashid dynasty, and after some stay passed on with his countenance through Kasim to southern Nejd.

^ Bandar ibn Talal al Rashid (d.

^ In 1902, at the age of only 22, Abdul Aziz Ibn Saud re-captured Riyadh , the Al-Saud dynasty's ancestral capital, from the rival Al Rashid family.
  • Top20SaudiArabia.com - Your Top20 Guide to Saudi Arabia! 10 January 2010 11:20 UTC top20saudiarabia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Palgrave says little of the desert part of the journey or of its Bedouin inhabitants, but much of the fertility of the oases and of the civility of the townsmen; and like other travellers in Nejd he speaks with enthusiasm of its bright, exhilarating climate.^ Palgrave says little of the desert part of the journey or of its Bedouin inhabitants, but much of the fertility of the oases and of the civility of the townsmen; and like other travellers in Nejd he speaks with enthusiasm of its bright, exhilarating climate.

^ Mostly uninhabited, much of the nation's landmass consists of desert and semi-arid regions, with a dwindling traditional Bedouin population.
  • Top20SaudiArabia.com - Your Top20 Guide to Saudi Arabia! 10 January 2010 11:20 UTC top20saudiarabia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ His second book, "Empty Quarter: A Photographic Journey to the Heart of the Arabian Desert," exhibits the enthusiasm and passion for exotic people and locales that have made him as much an adventurer as he is a photographer.
  • Discovering Yemen and the Arabian Peninsula: Photographer George Steinmetz - WSJ.com 3 February 2010 14:24 UTC online.wsj.com [Source type: General]

.At Riad, Fesal, who had been in power since the Egyptian retirement, was still reigning; and the religious tyranny of Wahhabism prevailed, in marked contrast to the liberal regime of Talal in Jebel Shammar.^ At Riad, Fesal, who had been in power since the Egyptian retirement, was still reigning; and the religious tyranny of Wahhabism prevailed, in marked contrast to the liberal regime of Talal in Jebel Shammar.

^ As a reward for his services Abdallah was appointed governor of Jebel Shammar, and had already established himself in Hail when the Egyptian expedition of 1836 removed Fesal temporarily from Nejd.

^ The results of such methods are drastic since those who learn Egyptian will not be able to understand Lebanese nor Arabic.
  • Phoenicia: The Lebanese Language: What is the difference between the Arabic Language and the Lebanese language? 15 September 2009 20:52 UTC phoenicia.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Phoenicia: The Lebanese Language: What is the difference between the Arabic Language and the Lebanese language? 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.phoenicia.org [Source type: Original source]

.Still, Palgrave and his companions, though known as Christians, spent nearly two months in the capital without molestation, making short excursions in the neighbourhood, the most important of which was to El Kharfa in Aflaj, the most southerly district of Nejd.^ Still, Palgrave and his companions, though known as Christians, spent nearly two months in the capital without molestation, making short excursions in the neighbourhood, the most important of which was to El Kharfa in Aflaj, the most southerly district of Nejd.

^ Even though Poland is a predominant Roman Catholic country, Christianity doesn’t mean anything to most of the young people, except it’s a ‘tradition’ to stick with.
  • Long-term (10mo-3yrs+) 3 February 2010 14:24 UTC omusa.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As regards the unexplored southern region, Palgrave's informants in Aflaj, the most southerly district visited by him, stated that a day's march south of that place the Yemen road enters U nex- the W. Dawasir, up which it runs for ten days, perhaps bred 200 m., to El Kura, a thinly peopled district on the borders p i re o of Asir; this accords with the information of the French S. Nejd.

aeaving .Riad, they passed through Yemama, and across a strip of sandy desert to El Hasa where Palgrave found himself in more congenial surroundings.^ Riad, they passed through Yemama, and across a strip of sandy desert to El Hasa where Palgrave found himself in more congenial surroundings.

^ A look at the Iraqi insurgency, through individuals involved in the struggle against coalition forces, as they reveal their motivations, hopes and goals, and more.
  • American University Library - Arabic Language Motion Pictures 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.library.american.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The general aspect of Arabia is that of a central table-land surrounded by a desert belt, sandy to the west, south, and east and stony to the north.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Arabia 2 February 2010 13:31 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

.Finally,"a voyage to the Oman coast and a brief stay there brought his adventures in Arabia to a successful ending.^ Finally,"a voyage to the Oman coast and a brief stay there brought his adventures in Arabia to a successful ending.

^ The opening of the overland route to India again brought the west coast of Arabia into importance.

^ As to central and south-east Arabia, such as Nejd and Oman, it is doubtful whether Christianity made any advance there.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Arabia 2 February 2010 13:31 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

.Charles Doughty, the next Englishman to visit northern Arabia, though he covered little new ground, saw more of the desert life, and has described it more minutely and Doughty. faithfully than any other explorer.^ Desert covers more than half the total area of Saudi Arabia.
  • About Saudi Arabia 10 January 2010 11:20 UTC www.gip.gov.sa [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Charles Doughty, the next Englishman to visit northern Arabia, though he covered little new ground, saw more of the desert life, and has described it more minutely and Doughty.

^ More than nine-tenths is desert, including the world’s largest continuous sand area, the Rubʿ al-Khali (“Empty Quarter”).
  • Saudi Arabia -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 January 2010 11:20 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Travelling down from Damascus in 1875 with the Haj caravan, he stopped at El Hajr, one of the pilgrim stations, with the intention of awaiting the return of the caravan and in the meantime of exploring the rock-cut tombs of Medain Salih and El Ala.^ Travelling down from Damascus in 1875 with the Haj caravan , he stopped at El Hajr, one of the pilgrim stations, with the intention of awaiting the return of the caravan and in the meantime of exploring the rock-cut tombs of Medain Salih and El Ala .

^ Azd-el-Musefir (food for the traveller) on account of her being fast enough to run down the gazelle.
  • History of Arabian Horses 3 February 2010 14:24 UTC fakulti0.tripod.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Yemen pilgrim route, known as the Haj el Kabsi, led from Sada through Asir to Tail and Mecca, but it is no longer used.

.Having successfully completed his investigations and sent copies of inscriptions and drawings of the tombs to Renan in Paris, he determined to push on farther into the desert.^ Having successfully completed his investigations and sent copies of inscriptions and drawings of the tombs to Renan in Paris , he determined to push on farther into the desert.

^ In 1902 Dussaud published a drawing of the original inscription in the Nabataean alphabet, a transliteration of the characters into Arabic, and a tentative translation of the result into French.
  • Arabic Language History 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.indiana.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ J. Cruttenden completed, in 1838, a similar journey from Mokha to Sana, copying several South-Arabian inscriptions, which Rödiger and Gesenius attempted to decipher.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Arabia 2 February 2010 13:31 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

.Under the protection of a sheikh of the Fukara Bedouin he wandered over the whole of the borderland between Hejaz and Nejd.^ Under the protection of a sheikh of the Fukara Bedouin he wandered over the whole of the borderland between Hejaz and Nejd.

^ The Hejaz fell to Saud in 1924–25 and in 1932 was combined with the Nejd to form the kingdom of Saudi Arabia, an absolute monarchy, ruled under Islamic law.
  • Saudi Arabia News - Breaking World Saudi Arabia News - The New York Times 19 September 2009 2:02 UTC topics.nytimes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Saudi Arabia News - Breaking World Saudi Arabia News - The New York Times 19 September 2009 2:02 UTC topics.nytimes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Visiting Tema, where among other ancient remains he discovered the famous inscribed stone, afterwards acquired by Huber for the aouvre.^ Visiting Tema, where among other ancient remains he discovered the famous inscribed stone, afterwards acquired by Huber for the aouvre.

^ Other cities in this region include Al-Kharj, famous for its agriculture; Darraiya, an ancient city; Dawadmi, Zulfi, Majma and Shargra, among others.
  • About Saudi Arabia 10 January 2010 11:20 UTC www.gip.gov.sa [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Next summer he went on to Hail and thence back to Khaibar, where the negro governor and townsmen, less tolerant than his former Bedouin hosts, ill-treated him and even threatened his life.^ Perhaps even less than that.
  • History of Arabian Horses 3 February 2010 14:24 UTC fakulti0.tripod.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Next summer he went on to Hail and thence back to Khaibar, where the negro governor and townsmen, less tolerant than his former Bedouin hosts, ill-treated him and even threatened his life.

^ Thence went out the governors to their provinces.

.Returning to Hail in the absence of the amir, he was expelled by the governor; he succeeded, however, in finding protection at Aneza, where he spent several months, and eventually after many hardships and perils found his way to the coast at Jidda.^ Returning to Hail in the absence of the amir, he was expelled by the governor; he succeeded, however, in finding protection at Aneza, where he spent several months, and eventually after many hardships and perils found his way to the coast at Jidda.

^ There were many reports of employers who refused to pay workers several months, or even years, of accumulated salary or other promised benefits .
  • Saudi Arabia 10 January 2010 11:20 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ However, not a negligible portion of those people are getting repelled by the price margin, and for some they find their way to get a product online somehow from outside Saudi Arabia and the Middle East, which could arise many problems.

.Three years later Mr Wilfrid and aady Anne Blunt made their expedition to J. Shammar.^ Three years later Mr Wilfrid and aady Anne Blunt made their expedition to J. Shammar.

^ The Crabbet Arabian Stud was owned and managed Mr. Wilfrid and Lady Anne Blunt and later by their daughter Judith Blunt Lytton, well-known as Lady Wentworth (Byford, et al.

^ In 1878-79, Lady Anne Blunt, Lord Byron's granddaughter, together with her husband, Sir Wilfrid Scawen Blunt, made a tour from Damascus through the North-Arabian Jof, the Nefud desert , and Hayil.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Arabia 2 February 2010 13:31 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

.In their previous travels in Syria they had gained the confidence and friendship of a young sheikh whose family, though long settled at Tadmur, came originally from Nejd, and who was anxious to renew the connexion with his kinsmen by seeking a bride among them.^ In their previous travels in Syria they had gained the confidence and friendship of a young sheikh whose family, though long settled at Tadmur, came originally from Nejd, and who was anxious to renew the connexion with his kinsmen by seeking a bride among them.

^ They settled down at Adhraat in Syria.
  • The Exclusion of the Jews and Christians 3 February 2010 14:24 UTC debate.org.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ Particularly coming on the night before a holiday, though, this correction will be seen by just a small fraction of the people who were misinformed by the original report.
  • ABC's Inaccurate Gitmo-Abdulmutallab Story Got Major Pickup | TPMMuckraker 3 February 2010 14:24 UTC tpmmuckraker.talkingpointsmemo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In his company the Blunts set out from Damascus, and travelled across the Syrian desert by the Wadi Sirhan to Jauf.^ In his company the Blunts set out from Damascus, and travelled across the Syrian desert by the Wadi Sirhan to Jauf.

^ An-Nafud , an erg desert, spreads across the width of Saudi Arabia below the Syrian Desert.
  • Saudi Arabia - Wikiversity 2 February 2010 13:31 UTC en.wikiversity.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Commissioned by Mehemet Ali to inform him about the situation in Nejd brought about by the rising power of Abdallah Ibn Rashid, Wallin left Cairo in April 1845, and crossing the pilgrim road at Ma`an, pushed on across the Syrian desert to the Wadi Sirhan and the Jauf oasis, where he halted during the hot summer months.

.Here the sheikh found some of his relations and the matrimonial alliance was soon arranged; but though the object of the journey had been attained, the Blunts were anxious to visit Hail and make the acquaintance of the amir Ibn Rashid, of whose might and generosity they daily heard from their hosts in Jauf.^ Here the sheikh found some of his relations and the matrimonial alliance was soon arranged; but though the object of the journey had been attained, the Blunts were anxious to visit Hail and make the acquaintance of the amir Ibn Rashid, of whose might and generosity they daily heard from their hosts in Jauf.

^ I have visited the website many times before (I saw billboards here in Denver) and found it to be compelling and full of information.
  • Ben Smith's Blog: White House: No bow to Saudi - POLITICO.com 19 September 2009 2:02 UTC www.politico.com [Source type: General]

^ Dan28 ( mail ): But I will make it explicitly: HRW apparently made a special pitch to some Saudis to help HRW with its Israel-related activities defense of Palestinians.
  • The Volokh Conspiracy - Human Rights Watch Goes to Saudi Arabia: 10 January 2010 11:20 UTC volokh.com [Source type: Original source]

.The long stretch of waterless desert between Jauf and J. Shammar was crossed without difficulty, and the party was welcomed by the amir and hospitably entertained for a month, after which they travelled northwards in company with the Persian pilgrim caravan returning to Kerbela and Bagdad.^ The long stretch of waterless desert between Jauf and J. Shammar was crossed without difficulty, and the party was welcomed by the amir and hospitably entertained for a month, after which they travelled northwards in company with the Persian pilgrim caravan returning to Kerbela and Bagdad.

^ Another important route is that taken by the Persian or Shia pilgrims from Bagdad and Kerbela across the desert, by the wells of aina, to Bureda in Kasim; thence across the steppes of western Nejd till it crosses the Hejaz border at the Ria Mecca, 50 m.

^ Early in 1848 he again returned to Arabia, avoiding the long desert journey by landing at Muwela, thence striking inland to Tebuk on the pilgrim road, and re-entering Shammar territory at the oasis of Tema, he again visited Hail; and after spending a month there travelled northwards to Kerbela and Bagdad .

.In 1883 the French traveller, C. Huber, accompanied by the archaeologist, J. Euting, followed the same route from Damascus.^ In 1883 the French traveller, C. Huber, accompanied by the archaeologist, J. Euting, followed the same route from Damascus.

to Hail. .The narrative of the last named forms a valuable supplement to that published by the Blunts, and together with Doughty's, furnishes as complete a picture as could be wished for of the social and political life of J. Shammar, and of the general nature of the country.^ The narrative of the last named forms a valuable supplement to that published by the Blunts, and together with Doughty's, furnishes as complete a picture as could be wished for of the social and political life of J. Shammar, and of the general nature of the country.

^ Containing a description of the country- an account of its inhabitants, antiquities, political condition, and early commerce- the life and religion of Mohammed- the conquests, arts, and literature of the Saracens- th .

^ Class, sexual orientation, nationality, chastity, and generational differences are also considered in this paper which aims to juxtapose African American feminist theory with the still forming political and social identity of Arab American women.

.Huber's journal, published after his death from his original notes, contains a mass of topographical and archaeological detail of the greatest scientific value: his routes and observations form, in fact, the first and only scientific data for the construction of the map of northern Arabia.^ Huber's journal, published after his death from his original notes, contains a mass of topographical and archaeological detail of the greatest scientific value: his routes and observations form, in fact, the first and only scientific data for the construction of the map of northern Arabia.

^ The first European scientific explorer of Arabia was C. Niebuhr, who, in 1761-64, by the order of the Danish government, undertook an expedition into the Arabian peninsula.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Arabia 2 February 2010 13:31 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In brief, the SIR-C L-band radar data not only confirm previous geological mapping but clearly bring out much information that is totally original, provide insights not previously possible, and thus establish the radar strips as a source of considerable cultural, economic, and geologic value.
  • GEOLOGIC AND HYDROLOGIC STUDIES OF SAUDI ARABIA UNDER THE SHUTTLE IMAGING RADAR (SIR-C) SCIENCE PLAN 3 February 2010 14:24 UTC southport.jpl.nasa.gov [Source type: Academic]

.To archaeology also his services were of equal importance, for, besides copying numerous inscriptions in the district between Hail and Tema, he succeeded in gaining possession of the since famous Tema stone, which ranks with the Moabite stone among the most valuable of Semitic inscriptions.^ To archaeology also his services were of equal importance, for, besides copying numerous inscriptions in the district between Hail and Tema, he succeeded in gaining possession of the since famous Tema stone, which ranks with the Moabite stone among the most valuable of Semitic inscriptions.

^ Most importantly, participants will engage in thematic cultural units, enabling them to gain valuable insight regarding the Arab-Islamic culture and its richly diverse dimensions.
  • STARTALK - Arabic Programs 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.startalk.umd.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Most debates are between those who value the Arabian most for its refined beauty and those who value the horse for its stamina and athleticism.
  • The Arabpedia : Arabian 3 February 2010 14:24 UTC thearabpedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.From Hail Huber followed nearly in Doughty's track to Aneza and thence across central Nejd to Mecca and Jidda, where he despatched his notes and copies of inscriptions.^ From Hail Huber followed nearly in Doughty's track to Aneza and thence across central Nejd to Mecca and Jidda, where he despatched his notes and copies of inscriptions.

^ Khaibar harra, runs north-eastward across the whole width of Nejd, till it is lost in the sands of the eastern Nafud, north of Aneza.

.A month later, in July 1884, he was murdered by his guides a few marches north of Jidda, on his way back to Hail.^ A month later, in July 1884, he was murdered by his guides a few marches north of Jidda, on his way back to Hail.

^ Returning to Hail in the absence of the amir, he was expelled by the governor; he succeeded, however, in finding protection at Aneza, where he spent several months, and eventually after many hardships and perils found his way to the coast at Jidda.

^ He occupied in his marches a period of six months, in consequence of the treachery of his guides.
  • Nabataea: Arabia 2 February 2010 13:31 UTC nabataea.net [Source type: Original source]

.One other traveller visited Hail during the lifetime of the amir Mahommed - Baron E. Nolde - who arrived there in 1893, not long after the amir had by his victory over the combined forces of Riad and Kasim brought the whole of Nejd under his dominion.^ One other traveller visited Hail during the lifetime of the amir Mahommed - Baron E. Nolde - who arrived there in 1893, not long after the amir had by his victory over the combined forces of Riad and Kasim brought the whole of Nejd under his dominion.

^ There were two sharia courts of appeal, one sitting in Riyadh and the other in Mecca.
  • Comparative Criminology | Asia - Saudi Arabia 10 January 2010 11:20 UTC www-rohan.sdsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Also, I was working and travelling with others who were disliked by the government.
  • Ethiopian migrants undertake a treacherous journey to the Arabian peninsula. 3 February 2010 14:24 UTC nazret.com [Source type: Original source]

.Nolde crossed the Nafud to Haiyania by 'a more direct track than that from Shakik to Jubba.^ Nolde crossed the Nafud to Haiyania by 'a more direct track than that from Shakik to Jubba.

.The amir was away from his capital settling the affairs of his newly acquired territory; Nolde therefore, after a short halt at Hail, journeyed on to Ibn Rashid's camp somewhere in the neighbourhood of Shakra.^ The amir was away from his capital settling the affairs of his newly acquired territory; Nolde therefore, after a short halt at Hail, journeyed on to Ibn Rashid's camp somewhere in the neighbourhood of Shakra.

^ In 1902, at the age of only 22, Abdul Aziz Ibn Saud re-captured Riyadh , the Al-Saud dynasty's ancestral capital, from the rival Al Rashid family.
  • Top20SaudiArabia.com - Your Top20 Guide to Saudi Arabia! 10 January 2010 11:20 UTC top20saudiarabia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The town, which has risen with the fortunes of the Ibn Rashid family to be the capital of Upper Nejd, is at the mouth of the valley between the twin ranges, about 2 m.

.Here he was on new ground, but unfortunately he gives little or no description of his route thither, or of his journey northwards by the Persian pilgrim road, already traversed by Huber in 1881. His narrative thus, while containing much of general interest on the climate and on the animal life of northern Arabia, its horses and camels in particular, adds little to those of his predecessors as regards topographical detail.^ Here he was on new ground, but unfortunately he gives little or no description of his route thither, or of his journey northwards by the Persian pilgrim road, already traversed by Huber in 1881.

^ His narrative thus, while containing much of general interest on the climate and on the animal life of northern Arabia, its horses and camels in particular, adds little to those of his predecessors as regards topographical detail.

^ In the interest of easy and rapid location of links, this thread will be composed of several posts, each containing a set of links relevant to a particular topic.
  • Arabic Resources | موارد للغة العربية - WordReference Forums 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC forum.wordreference.com [Source type: General]

.If the journeys detailed above be traced on the map they will be found to cover the northern half of the peninsula above the line Mecca-Hofuf, with a network of routes, General which, though sometimes separated by wide intervals, results are still close enough to ensure that no important of ex- geographical feature can have been overlooked, ploration. especially in a country whose general character varies so little over wide areas.^ Arabian Peninsula from northern areas.
  • BioMed Central | Full text | Mitochondrial DNA structure in the Arabian Peninsula 3 February 2010 14:24 UTC www.biomedcentral.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Mitochondrial DNA structure in the Arabian Peninsula 3 February 2010 14:24 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ If the journeys detailed above be traced on the map they will be found to cover the northern half of the peninsula above the line Mecca-Hofuf, with a network of routes, General which, though sometimes separated by wide intervals, results are still close enough to ensure that no important of ex- geographical feature can have been overlooked, ploration.

^ Local and Wide area network systems.
  • Careers - Saudi Arabia 10 January 2010 11:20 UTC www.abacustech.com [Source type: Reference]

.In the southern half, on the other hand, except in Nejran and Jauf, no European traveller has penetrated 100 m.^ In the southern half, on the other hand, except in Nejran and Jauf, no European traveller has penetrated 100 m.

^ No other public Ashura celebrations were allowed in the country, including in cities where Shi'a were in the majority, and many Shi'a traveled to Qatif or Bahrain to participate in Ashura celebrations.
  • Saudi Arabia 28 January 2010 0:48 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Since the languages that the Lebanese (in Lebanon) are familiar with are from different roots except for Arabic and Lebanese, they think that there are no two languages closer to each other than Arabic to Lebanese.
  • Phoenicia: The Lebanese Language: What is the difference between the Arabic Language and the Lebanese language? 15 September 2009 20:52 UTC phoenicia.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Phoenicia: The Lebanese Language: What is the difference between the Arabic Language and the Lebanese language? 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.phoenicia.org [Source type: Original source]

in a direct line from the coast. .The vast extent of the Dahna, or great southern desert, covering perhaps 250,000 sq.^ The vast extent of the Dahna, or great southern desert, covering perhaps 250,000 sq.

^ Owing to the great extent of the Nafud desert, the formation of sand- dunes is exemplified on a proportionate scale.

^ Whether there be any second line of drainage in southern Nejd skirting the edge of the great desert and following the depression of the W. Yabrin must remain a matter of conjecture.

m., accounts for about a third of this area, but some of the most favoured districts in .Arabia - Asir and northern Yemen - remain unexplored, and the hydrography of the Dawasir basin offers some interesting problems, while a great field remains for the archaeologist in the seat of the old Sabaean kingdom from Jauf to the Hadramut valley.^ Arabia - Asir and northern Yemen - remain unexplored, and the hydrography of the Dawasir basin offers some interesting problems, while a great field remains for the archaeologist in the seat of the old Sabaean kingdom from Jauf to the Hadramut valley.

^ Saudi Arabia is dotted with ruins of ancient cities, forts, castles, mosques and minarets that are of great interest to tourists.
  • Things to Do in Saudi Arabia, Shopping in Saudi Arabia, Saudi Arabia Travel Information 19 September 2009 2:02 UTC www.asiarooms.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Considerable forests are said to exist in Asir, and Burton found a few fine specimens which he regarded as the remains of an old forest, on the Tehama range in Midian.

Topographical Details. - .Beginning from the north-west, the Sinai peninsula belongs to Egypt, though geographically part of Arabia.^ Beginning from the north-west, the Sinai peninsula belongs to Egypt, though geographically part of Arabia.

^ Of particular significance to ancient Arabia was the domestication of the dromedary (one-humped camel) in the southern part of the peninsula between 3000 and 2500 B.C.E. By 1000 B.C.E. , camels were important in the lucrative caravan trade, especially for the transport of incense, between southern Arabia and markets in the north.
  • Culture of Saudi Arabia - History and ethnic relations, Urbanism, architecture, and the use of space 25 September 2009 4:25 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The general aspect of Arabia is that of a central table-land surrounded by a desert belt, sandy to the west, south, and east and stony to the north.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Arabia 2 February 2010 13:31 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

.It is bounded on the E. by a line drawn from Ar Rafa, 'a Sinai few miles E.tof El Arish on the Mediterranean, to the head of the Gulf of Akaba; and on the W. by the Suez Canal; I'enin- its length from El Arish to its most southern point is sula. 240 m., and its breadth from Suez to Akaba is nearly 160 m.^ Suez to Akaba is nearly 160 m.

^ It is bounded on the E. by a line drawn from Ar Rafa, 'a Sinai few miles E.tof El Arish on the Mediterranean, to the head of the Gulf of Akaba; and on the W. by the Suez Canal ; I'enin- its length from El Arish to its most southern point is sula.

^ Persian Gulf and Red Sea provide great leverage on shipping (especially crude oil) through Persian Gulf and Suez Canal .
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- Saudi Arabia 25 September 2009 4:25 UTC www.cia.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The greater part drains to the Mediterranean, from which the land rises gradually to the summit of the Tih plateau.^ The greater part drains to the Mediterranean, from which the land rises gradually to the summit of the Tih plateau.

^ East of Kasim the land rises gradually to the high plateau culminating in the ranges of Jebel Tuwek and J. Arid.

.The deep depression of Wadi Feran separates the Tih from the higher mass of Sinai (q.v.^ The deep depression of Wadi Feran separates the Tih from the higher mass of Sinai (q.v.

), in which .J. Katherine attains a height of 8500 ft.; except in W. Feran there is little cultivable land, the greater part consisting of bare, rocky hills and sandy valleys, sparsely covered with tamarisk and acacia bushes.^ J. Katherine attains a height of 8500 ft.; except in W. Feran there is little cultivable land, the greater part consisting of bare, rocky hills and sandy valleys, sparsely covered with tamarisk and acacia bushes.

^ The ground varies between rock, gravel, and bare sand, and little grows except in the oases and along the Red Sea coast, where slight seasonal rain makes possible the cultivation of dates and a few cereals.
  • Saudi Arabia Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Saudi Arabia 10 January 2010 11:20 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The greater part drains to the Mediterranean, from which the land rises gradually to the summit of the Tih plateau.

.The Egyptian pilgrim road crosses the peninsula from Suez to Akaba, passing the post of An Nakhl, with a reservoir and a little cultivation, about half way; a steep descent leads down from the edge of the Tih plateau to Akaba.^ The Egyptian pilgrim road crosses the peninsula from Suez to Akaba, passing the post of An Nakhl, with a reservoir and a little cultivation, about half way; a steep descent leads down from the edge of the Tih plateau to Akaba.

^ In the south, Egyptian forces crossed the Suez Canal and overran the Israeli military?s extensive fortifications, forcing the Israelis back.
  • Arab-Israeli War 1973 10 February 2010 11:32 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Egyptian pilgrim route from Cairo, across the Sinai peninsula and down the Midian coast to El Wijh, joins the Syrian route at Badr Hunen.

.The rest of the northern borderland is covered by the Syrian desert, extending from the borders of Palestine to the edge of the Euphrates valley.^ The rest of the northern borderland is covered by the Syrian desert, extending from the borders of Palestine to the edge of the Euphrates valley.

^ Syrian desert and border .

^ Eastward the plateau becomes still more sterile, and its elevation probably falls more rapidly till it reaches the level of the Jauf and Nejran valleys on the borders of the desert.

.This tract, known as the Hamad, is a Syrian gravelly plain unbroken by any considerable range of hills desert. or any continuous watercourse except the Wadi Hauran, which in rainy seasons forms a succession of pools from J. Hauran to the Euphrates.^ Wadi Hauran, which in rainy seasons forms a succession of pools from J. Hauran to the Euphrates.

^ This tract, known as the Hamad, is a Syrian gravelly plain unbroken by any considerable range of hills desert.

^ The Tehama is, however, by no means all desert, the mountain torrents where they debouch into the plain have formed considerable tracts of alluvial soil of the highest degree of fertility producing in that warm equable climate two and even three crops in the year.

.Its general slope is to the north-east from the volcanic plateau of the Harra south of J. Hauran to the edge of the Euphrates valley.^ Its general slope is to the north-east from the volcanic plateau of the Harra south of J. Hauran to the edge of the Euphrates valley.

^ The general direction of these hills is from north-west to south-east.

^ The principal centres of production are the upper valleys of the W. Surdad, between Kaukaban and Manakha, and particularly on J. Haraz; in the Wadi Tubed west of Uden; in Hajaria on the slopes of J. Sabur, and in the Yafa district north-east of Aden.

.The Wadi Sirhan, a broad depression some 500 ft.^ The Wadi Sirhan, a broad depression some 500 ft.

below the average level of the .Hamad, crosses it from north-east to south-west between Hauran and Jauf; it has a nearly uniform height above sea-level of 1850 ft., and appears to be the bed of an inland sea rather than a true watercourse.^ The general direction of these hills is from north-west to south-east.

^ Hamad, crosses it from north-east to south-west between Hauran and Jauf; it has a nearly uniform height above sea-level of 1850 ft., and appears to be the bed of an inland sea rather than a true watercourse.

^ It is bordered by Jordan on the northwest, Iraq on the north and northeast, Kuwait , Qatar , Bahrain , and the United Arab Emirates on the east, Oman on the southeast, and Yemen on the south.
  • Top20SaudiArabia.com - Your Top20 Guide to Saudi Arabia! 10 January 2010 11:20 UTC top20saudiarabia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Water is found in it a few feet below the surface, and a little cultivation is carried on at the small oases of Kaf and Ithri, whence salt produced in the neighbouring salt lakes is exported.^ Water is found in it a few feet below the surface, and a little cultivation is carried on at the small oases of Kaf and Ithri, whence salt produced in the neighbouring salt lakes is exported.

^ Small birds are found in the oases.
  • Saudi_Arabia calling cards and Saudi_Arabia International phone cards 10 January 2010 11:20 UTC www.aloarabs.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Small birds are found in the oases .
  • Top20SaudiArabia.com - Your Top20 Guide to Saudi Arabia! 10 January 2010 11:20 UTC top20saudiarabia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The W. Sirhan is continuous with the depression known as the Jauf, situated on the northern edge of the Nefud or Nafud, and the halfway station between Damascus and Hail; and it is possible that this depression continues eastward towards the Euphrates along a line a little north of the thirtieth parallel, where wells and pasturages are known to exist.^ The W. Sirhan is continuous with the depression known as the Jauf, situated on the northern edge of the Nefud or Nafud, and the halfway station between Damascus and Hail; and it is possible that this depression continues eastward towards the Euphrates along a line a little north of the thirtieth parallel, where wells and pasturages are known to exist.

^ The rest of the northern borderland is covered by the Syrian desert, extending from the borders of Palestine to the edge of the Euphrates valley.

^ In northern Arabia the Syrian desert and the great Nafud (Nefud) have been crossed by several travellers, though a large area remains unexplored in the north-east between Kasim and the gulf.

.Jauf is a small town consisting, at the time of the Blunts' visit in 1879, of not more than 500 houses.^ Last Visit: More than 3 months .
  • Women Seeking Men in Saudi Arabia 10 January 2010 11:20 UTC www.friendfinder.com [Source type: News]

^ Jauf is a small town consisting, at the time of the Blunts' visit in 1879, of not more than 500 houses.

^ OTOH, equities were more overvalued in 1929 than 2007, IMO we are close to a bottom in equities even though housing has further to go...
  • The Oil Drum | Saudi Arabia's Crude Oil Production Peaked in 2005 10 January 2010 11:20 UTC www.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The town with its gardens, surrounded by a mud wall, covers a space of 2 m.^ The town with its gardens, surrounded by a mud wall, covers a space of 2 m.

^ The town walls were strengthened, new wells dug, gardens planted, mosques and schools built.

in length by half a mile in width; the basin in which it lies is barely 3 m. across, and except for the .palm gardens and a few patches of corn, it is a dead flat of II. 9 white sand, closed in by high sandstone cliffs, beyond which lies the open desert.^ I sped through the sand and got as close to the large stone cliffs as I could.

.The oases of Sakaka and Kara are situated in a similar basin 15 m.^ The oases of Sakaka and Kara are situated in a similar basin 15 m.

to the east; the former a town of .10,000 inhabitants and somewhat larger than Jauf according to Huber.^ Jauf according to Huber.

^ More than 10 license suspensions is a felony offense, according to police.

^ A large public performance with more than 10,000 persons in attendance took place depicting the death of Imam Hussein.
  • Saudi Arabia 10 January 2010 11:20 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

.A short distance south of Jauf the character of the desert changes abruptly from a level black expanse of gravel to the red sands of the The Nafud.^ A short distance south of Jauf the character of the desert changes abruptly from a level black expanse of gravel to the red sands of the The Nafud.

^ Owing to the great extent of the Nafud desert, the formation of sand- dunes is exemplified on a proportionate scale.

^ On the south coast expeditions have penetrated but a short distance, the most notable exceptions being those of a.

.The northern edge of this great desert follows.^ The northern edge of this great desert follows.

^ The rest of the northern borderland is covered by the Syrian desert, extending from the borders of Palestine to the edge of the Euphrates valley.

^ It lies on the edge of the Great Northern Wastes, the Nafud, some 160 miles (256 km.
  • Arabia 2 February 2010 13:31 UTC my.raex.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

very nearly the line of the thirtieth parallel, along which it extends east and west for a length of some 400 m.; its breadth from north to south is 200 m. .Though almost waterless, it is in fact better wooded and richer in pasture than any part of the Hamad; the sand-hills are dotted with ghada, a species of tamarisk, and other bushes, and several grasses and succulent plants - among them the adar, on which sheep are said to feed for a month without requiring water - are found in abundance in good seasons.^ Though almost waterless, it is in fact better wooded and richer in pasture than any part of the Hamad; the sand-hills are dotted with ghada, a species of tamarisk, and other bushes, and several grasses and succulent plants - among them the adar, on which sheep are said to feed for a month without requiring water - are found in abundance in good seasons.

^ As on-site realities are understood, barriers of acceptance may be found in many of the larger people groups that will require multiple distinct church planting efforts.
  • Joshua Project - Arab, Saudi - Hijazi of Saudi Arabia Ethnic People Profile 28 January 2010 0:48 UTC www.joshuaproject.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I t is not then in the peninsula of Arabia, where water is only to be had from wells, that the original stock can have been found, but rather in Mesopotamia and the great pastoral districts bordering the Euphrates, where water is abundant and pasture perennial.
  • History of Arabian Horses 3 February 2010 14:24 UTC fakulti0.tripod.com [Source type: Original source]

.In the spring months, when their camels are in milk, the Bedouins care nothing for water, and wander far into the Nafud with their flocks in search of the green pasture which springs up everywhere after the winter rains.^ Where there was no pasture or water, the Bedouin fed their horses dates and camel's milk.
  • The Arabpedia : Arabian 3 February 2010 14:24 UTC thearabpedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the spring months, when their camels are in milk , the Bedouins care nothing for water, and wander far into the Nafud with their flocks in search of the green pasture which springs up everywhere after the winter rains.

^ The Angel then commanded the thundercloud to stop scattering dust and rain, and so it gathered itself into a prancing, handsome creature--a horse--that seemed to swallow up the ground.
  • The Arabpedia : Arabian 3 February 2010 14:24 UTC thearabpedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A few wells exist actually in the Nafud in the district called El Hajra, near its north-eastern border, and along its southern border, between J. Shammar and Tema, there are numerous wells and artificial as well as natural reservoirs resorted to by the nomad tribes.^ A few wells exist actually in the Nafud in the district called El Hajra, near its north-eastern border, and along its southern border, between J. Shammar and Tema, there are numerous wells and artificial as well as natural reservoirs resorted to by the nomad tribes.

^ It was the laws and customs of each tribe that dictated the relation between the individual and the group as well as the rights that were due to and obligatory upon - depending on the case - each member of the tribe.
  • The political situation of the Arabian Peninsula 3 February 2010 14:24 UTC mercyprophet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I t is not then in the peninsula of Arabia, where water is only to be had from wells, that the original stock can have been found, but rather in Mesopotamia and the great pastoral districts bordering the Euphrates, where water is abundant and pasture perennial.
  • History of Arabian Horses 3 February 2010 14:24 UTC fakulti0.tripod.com [Source type: Original source]

.Owing to the great extent of the Nafud desert, the formation of sand-dunes is exemplified on a proportionate scale.^ Owing to the great extent of the Nafud desert, the formation of sand- dunes is exemplified on a proportionate scale.

^ Aden, and an inner plateau falling gradually to the north-east till it merges in the Nejd steppes or the sands of the great desert.

^ A short distance south of Jauf the character of the desert changes abruptly from a level black expanse of gravel to the red sands of the The Nafud.

.In many places longitudinal dunes are found exceeding a day's journey in length, the valleys between which take three or four hours to cross; but the most striking feature of the Nafud are the high crescent-shaped sand-hills, known locally as falk or falj, described by Blunt and Huber, who devoted some time to their investigation.^ In many places longitudinal dunes are found exceeding a day's journey in length, the valleys between which take three or four hours to cross; but the most striking feature of the Nafud are the high crescent -shaped sand-hills, known locally as falk or falj, described by Blunt and Huber, who devoted some time to their investigation.

^ The Saudi Arabia national football team is often most known for being in four consecutive times in the FIFA World Cup and six times in the AFC Asian Cup , which the team won three times and was runner-up three times.
  • Top20SaudiArabia.com - Your Top20 Guide to Saudi Arabia! 10 January 2010 11:20 UTC top20saudiarabia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The shamal, sand-laden winds from the northern deserts, is most frequent in early summer and can blow for days at 40-48 km an hour, creating severe driving conditions.
  • Saudi Arabia Travel Advice and Advisories | Government of Canada 10 January 2010 11:20 UTC www.voyage.gc.ca [Source type: News]

.The falks enclose a deep hollow (known as ka`r), the floor of which is often hard soil bare of sand, and from which the inner slopes of the falk rise as steeply as the sand will lie (about 50°).^ The falks enclose a deep hollow (known as ka`r ), the floor of which is often hard soil bare of sand, and from which the inner slopes of the falk rise as steeply as the sand will lie (about 50°).

^ On the summit of the falk there is generally a mound known as tas or barkhus composed of white sand which stands out conspicuously against the deep red of the surrounding deserts; the exterior slopes are comparatively gentle.

.On the summit of the falk there is generally a mound known as tas or barkhus composed of white sand which stands out conspicuously against the deep red of the surrounding deserts; the exterior slopes are comparatively gentle.^ On the summit of the falk there is generally a mound known as tas or barkhus composed of white sand which stands out conspicuously against the deep red of the surrounding deserts; the exterior slopes are comparatively gentle.

^ The general aspect of Arabia is that of a central table-land surrounded by a desert belt, sandy to the west, south, and east and stony to the north.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Arabia 2 February 2010 13:31 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ II. 9 white sand , closed in by high sandstone cliffs, beyond which lies the open desert.

.The falks are singularly uniform in shape, but vary greatly in size; the largest were estimated by Huber and Euting at im.^ The falks are singularly uniform in shape, but vary greatly in size; the largest were estimated by Huber and Euting at im.

across and 330 ft. deep. .They run in strings irregularly from east to west, corresponding in this with their individual direction, the convex face of the falk being towards the west, i.e. the direction of the prevailing wind, and the cusps to leeward.^ They run in strings irregularly from east to west, corresponding in this with their individual direction, the convex face of the falk being towards the west, i.e.

^ Another Bedouin story states that Allah created the Arabian horse from the four winds; spirit from the North, strength from the South, speed from the East, and intelligence from the West.
  • The Arabpedia : Arabian 3 February 2010 14:24 UTC thearabpedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They ruled over the tribe of Ghassan in the extreme north-west of Arabia, east of the Jordan, from near Petra in the south to the neighbourhood of Rosafa in the north-east.

.In the south of the Nafud, where Huber found the prevailing wind to be from the south, the falks are turned in that direction.^ In the south of the Nafud, where Huber found the prevailing wind to be from the south, the falks are turned in that direction.

^ Sand dune trends and prevailing wind directions of the Arabian Peninsula.
  • GEOLOGIC AND HYDROLOGIC STUDIES OF SAUDI ARABIA UNDER THE SHUTTLE IMAGING RADAR (SIR-C) SCIENCE PLAN 3 February 2010 14:24 UTC southport.jpl.nasa.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ The general level of the Nafud was found by Huber's observations to be about 3000 ft.

.Though perhaps subject to slight changes in the course of years, there is no doubt that these dunes are practically permanent features; the more prominent ones serve as landmarks and have well-known distinctive names.^ Of course, as years roll by and reserves are depleted, this becomes more doubtful.
  • The Oil Drum | Saudi Arabia's Crude Oil Production Peaked in 2005 10 January 2010 11:20 UTC www.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Though perhaps subject to slight changes in the course of years, there is no doubt that these dunes are practically permanent features; the more prominent ones serve as landmarks and have well-known distinctive names.

^ Maneghi Ibn Sbeyel, but there is no distinct strain of that name.
  • History of Arabian Horses 3 February 2010 14:24 UTC fakulti0.tripod.com [Source type: Original source]

.The character of the vegetation which clothes their slopes shows that even superficial changes must be slight.^ The character of the vegetation which clothes their slopes shows that even superficial changes must be slight.

.The general level of the Nafud was found by Huber's observations to be about 3000 ft.^ The general level of the Nafud was found by Huber's observations to be about 3000 ft.

^ In the south of the Nafud, where Huber found the prevailing wind to be from the south, the falks are turned in that direction.

above sea-level; the highest point on the .Jauf-Hail route is at Falk Alam, the rocky peaks of which rise 200 or 300 ft.^ Jauf-Hail route is at Falk Alam, the rocky peaks of which rise 200 or 300 ft.

^ The principal trade routes are those leading from Damascus to Jauf and across the Nafud to Hail.

above the surface of the sand. .Other peaks cropping out of the Nafud are Jebel Tawil, near the wells of Shakik, and J. Abrak Rada, a long black ridge in the middle of the desert.^ Other peaks cropping out of the Nafud are Jebel Tawil, near the wells of Shakik, and J. Abrak Rada, a long black ridge in the middle of the desert.

^ A report hundreds of pages long has been written, but only nine pages of findings and 15 pages of recommendations are released at this time, and those have blacked out sections.

^ The largest oasis, al-Ahsa (al-Hasa), is watered by artesian wells and springs in the interior of the Eastern Province and provides dates and other crops.
  • Culture of Saudi Arabia - History and ethnic relations, Urbanism, architecture, and the use of space 25 September 2009 4:25 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The high plateau which from J. Hauran southward forms the main watershed of the peninsula is covered in places by deep beds of lava, which from their hardness have preserved the underlying sandstones from degradation, and now stand up consider ably above the general level.^ The high plateau which from J. Hauran southward forms the main watershed of the peninsula is covered in places by deep beds of lava, which from their hardness have preserved the underlying sandstones from degradation, and now stand up consider ably above the general level.

^ Over both sandstone and granite great sheets of lava have been poured, and these, protecting the softer beds beneath from further denudation, now stand up as the high plateaus and hills called harra.

^ Most Saudi oil production, except for "extra light" and "super light," is considered "sour," containing relatively high levels of sulfur.
  • Energy profile of Saudi Arabia - Encyclopedia of Earth 10 January 2010 11:20 UTC www.eoearth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.These tracts are known as harra; the most remarkable is the Harrat El Awerid, west of the Haj route from Tebuk to El Ala, a mountain mass 100 m.^ These tracts are known as harra; the most remarkable is the Harrat El Awerid, west of the Haj route from Tebuk to El Ala, a mountain mass 100 m.

^ A narrow coastal plane known as Tihama is predominant in the south, while a mountain chain with a steep western escarpment runs through these areas.
  • Culture of Saudi Arabia - History and ethnic relations, Urbanism, architecture, and the use of space 25 September 2009 4:25 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Yemen pilgrim route, known as the Haj el Kabsi, led from Sada through Asir to Tail and Mecca, but it is no longer used.

in length with an average height of over .5000 f t., and the highest summit of which, J. Anaz, exceeds 7000 ft.^ J. Anaz, exceeds 7000 ft.

^ The highest summits as determined by actual survey are between 10,000 and 11,000 ft.

.The harra east of Khaibar is also of considerable extent, and the same formation is found all along the Hejaz border from Medina to the Jebel el Kura, east of Mecca.^ The harra east of Khaibar is also of considerable extent, and the same formation is found all along the Hejaz border from Medina to the Jebel el Kura, east of Mecca.

^ Railway construction has begun in Arabia, and in 1908 the Hejaz line, intended to connect Damascus with Mecca, had reached Medina, Soo m.

^ As it was already found in Yemen [ 30 ], all the X haplotypes found in Saudi Arabia have the 195 transition, falling within the Eurasian branch, which discards East African introductions.
  • BioMed Central | Full text | Mitochondrial DNA structure in the Arabian Peninsula 3 February 2010 14:24 UTC www.biomedcentral.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Mitochondrial DNA structure in the Arabian Peninsula 3 February 2010 14:24 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

.The surface of the harra is extremely broken, forming a labyrinth of lava crags and blocks of every size; the whole region is sterile and almost waterless, and compared with the Nafud it produces little vegetation; but it is resorted to by the Bedouin in the spring and summer months when the air is always fresh and cool.^ The surface of the harra is extremely broken, forming a labyrinth of lava crags and blocks of every size; the whole region is sterile and almost waterless, and compared with the Nafud it produces little vegetation; but it is resorted to by the Bedouin in the spring and summer months when the air is always fresh and cool.

^ Winter is comparable to the spring and summer seasons of resorts on the Mediterranean Sea.
  • Saudi Arabia Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Saudi Arabia 10 January 2010 11:20 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The southwestern 'Asir that attracts many Saudis to resorts such as Abha in the summer months.
  • Top20SaudiArabia.com - Your Top20 Guide to Saudi Arabia! 10 January 2010 11:20 UTC top20saudiarabia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In winter it is cold and snow often lies for some time.^ In winter it is cold and snow often lies for some time.

^ Hail and snow may also be experienced in some parts of the country during the winter months.
  • About Saudi Arabia 10 January 2010 11:20 UTC www.gip.gov.sa [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Hejaz, if we except the Taif district in the south, which is properly a part of the Yemen plateau, forms a well-marked physical division, Hejaz. lying on the western slope of the peninsula, where that He slope is at its widest, between the Harra and the Red Sea.^ He slope is at its widest, between the Harra and the Red Sea.

^ It lies on the Red Sea, in the southwest of the Kingdom.
  • About Saudi Arabia 10 January 2010 11:20 UTC www.gip.gov.sa [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Hejaz, if we except the Taif district in the south, which is properly a part of the Yemen plateau, forms a well-marked physical division, Hejaz.

.A high range of granite hills, known as the Tehama range, the highest point of which, J. Shar, in Midian, exceeds 6500 ft., divides it longitudinally into a narrow littoral and a broader upland zone 2000 or 3000 ft.^ A high range of granite hills, known as the Tehama range, the highest point of which, J. Shar, in Midian, exceeds 6500 ft., divides it longitudinally into a narrow littoral and a broader upland zone 2000 or 3000 ft.

^ From the crest of the range there is a short drop of 2000 or 3000 ft.

^ Considerable forests are said to exist in Asir, and Burton found a few fine specimens which he regarded as the remains of an old forest, on the Tehama range in Midian.

above the sea. .Both are generally bare and unproductive, the uplands, however, contain the fertile valleys of Khaibar and Medina, draining to the Wadi Hamd, the principal river system of western Arabia; and the Wadi Jadid or Es Safra, rising in the Harra between Medina and Es Safina, which contain several settlements, of which the principal produce is dates.^ It has a good irrigation system and produces good harvests of grain and dates in its wet valleys, while the outcrop of rocks in the high ground affords sites for numerous fortresses.
  • The Exclusion of the Jews and Christians 3 February 2010 14:24 UTC debate.org.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ MEDINA (al-Madinah, Yathrib) A city in western Arabia, 200 miles (322 km.
  • Arabia 2 February 2010 13:31 UTC my.raex.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Saudi Arabia has its share of both the poor, the affluent, and the generous and kind.

.The quartz reefs which crop out in the granite ranges of the Tehama contain traces of gold.^ The quartz reefs which crop out in the granite ranges of the Tehama contain traces of gold.

^ Traces of ancient workings were found in several places, but the ores did not contain gold in paying quantities.

.These and the ancient copper workings were investigated by Burton in 1877. The richer veins had evidently been long ago worked out, and nothing of sufficient value to justify further outlay was discovered.^ The richer veins had evidently been long ago worked out, and nothing of sufficient value to justify further outlay was discovered.

^ These and the ancient copper workings were investigated by Burton in 1877.

^ Further inquiry into the origin of these works is called for, but some of them were plainly directed to stirring up fresh zeal against the Christians.

.The coast-line is fringed with small islets and shoals and reefs, which make navigation dangerous.^ The coast-line is fringed with small islets and shoals and reefs, which make navigation dangerous.

^ The south coast is free from the shoals that imperil the navigation of the Red Sea, and in Aden it possesses the only safe natural harbour on the route between Suez and India.

.The only ports of importance are Yambu and Jidda, which serve respectively Medina and Mecca; they depend entirely on the pilgrim traffic to the holy cities, without which they could not exist.^ Saudi Arabia is home to the holy cities of Mecca and Medina.
  • Saudi Arabian Americans - History, Modern era, The first saudis in america 3 February 2010 14:24 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The only ports of importance are Yambu and Jidda, which serve respectively Medina and Mecca; they depend entirely on the pilgrim traffic to the holy cities, without which they could not exist.

^ Non-Muslims are forbidden to travel to the holy cities of Mecca and Medina.
  • Saudi Arabia Travel Advice and Advisories | Government of Canada 10 January 2010 11:20 UTC www.voyage.gc.ca [Source type: News]

.The great central province of Nejd occupies all inner Arabia.^ Saud family of the Nejd, in central Arabia.
  • Saudi Arabia Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Saudi Arabia 10 January 2010 11:20 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The great central province of Nejd occupies all inner Arabia.

^ Saudi Arabia, after all, is to house the planned Gulf Co-operation Council central bank.
  • GSN - GSN's World - Saudi Arabia 10 January 2010 11:20 UTC www.gsn-online.com [Source type: News]

between the .Nafud and the southern desert.^ Nafud and the southern desert.

.Its northern part forms the basin of the Wadi Rumma, which, rising in the Nej d. Khaibar harra, runs north-eastward across the whole width of Nejd, till it is lost in the sands of the eastern Nafud, north of Aneza.^ Khaibar harra, runs north-eastward across the whole width of Nejd, till it is lost in the sands of the eastern Nafud, north of Aneza.

^ Its northern part forms the basin of the Wadi Rumma, which, rising in the Nej d.

^ An-Nafud , an erg desert, spreads across the width of Saudi Arabia below the Syrian Desert.
  • Saudi Arabia - Wikiversity 2 February 2010 13:31 UTC en.wikiversity.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The greater portion of this region is an open steppe, sandy in places and in others dotted with low volcanic hills, but with occasional ground water and in favourable seasons furnishing support for a considerable pastoral population.^ The greater portion of this region is an open steppe, sandy in places and in others dotted with low volcanic hills, but with occasional ground water and in favourable seasons furnishing support for a considerable pastoral population.

^ The central zone includes Hejaz (or Hijaz), Nejd and El Hasa ; much of it is a dry, stony or sandy steppe , with few wells or watering-places, and only occupied by nomad tribes; but the great wadis which intersect it contain many fertile stretches of alluvial soil, where cultivation is possible and which support a considerable settled population, with several large towns and numerous villages.

^ It sits in a valley surrounded by low hills, with a population of approximately 550,000.
  • Arabian Peninsula 3 February 2010 14:24 UTC www.thinkwow.com [Source type: Original source]

.Its elevation varies from about 5000 ft.^ Its elevation varies from about 5000 ft.

in the west to 2500 ft. in the east. In Jebel Shammar,. .Kasim and Wushm, where the water in the wadi beds rises nearly to the ground level, numerous fertile oases are found with thriving villages and towns.^ Kasim and Wushm, where the water in the wadi beds rises nearly to the ground level, numerous fertile oases are found with thriving villages and towns.

^ Fertile oases, many of which are the sites of towns and villages, are scattered through the Saudi Arabian deserts north of Rub' al Khali.
  • Joshua Project - Arab, Saudi - Hijazi of Saudi Arabia Ethnic People Profile 28 January 2010 0:48 UTC www.joshuaproject.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Hail, which, like most of the larger villages, lies along the wadi bed at the foot of J. Aja.

.Jebel Shammar, from which the northern district of Nejd takes its name, is a double range of mountains some 20 m.^ Jebel Shammar, from which the northern district of Nejd takes its name, is a double range of mountains some 20 m.

^ As a reward for his services Abdallah was appointed governor of Jebel Shammar, and had already established himself in Hail when the Egyptian expedition of 1836 removed Fesal temporarily from Nejd.

^ The great majority of the horses that come into the market as Arabs, are bred in the northern desert and in Mesopotamia, by the various sections of the Aneza and Shammar tribes, who emigrated from Nejd generations ago, taking with them the original Nejd stock.

apart, rising sharply out of the desert in bare, granite cliffs. .J. Aja, the western and higher of the two ranges, has a length of about 100 m.^ J. Aja, the western and higher of the two ranges, has a length of about 100 m.

^ It is a range of small group adventures, each about two weeks in length, whereby participants commit four to five days of their holiday to making a difference to a community in need.
  • Middle East; Adventure Travel: Oman & Arabian Peninsula Tour 3 February 2010 14:24 UTC www.worldexpeditions.com [Source type: General]

^ Over a third (38%) of Saudi Arabia's population is the under the age of fourteen years, while the rest of the population (52%) range from fifteen years of age and higher with the country's median age at about twenty-two years [15] .
  • Saudi Arabia - Wikiversity 2 February 2010 13:31 UTC en.wikiversity.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

from north-east to south-west, where it merges into the high plateau extending from and continuous with the Khaibar harra. .The highest point, J. Fara, near its north-eastern extremity, is about 4600 ft.^ The highest point, J. Fara, near its north-eastern extremity, is about 4600 ft.

^ The point about the cumulative number is that the bulk of the post-peak cumulative oil exports occur at high export rates near the peak.
  • The Oil Drum | Saudi Arabia's Crude Oil Production Peaked in 2005 10 January 2010 11:20 UTC www.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The town of Yarim lies near its southern extremity at an altitude of about 8000 ft.; within a short distance are the sources of the W. Yakla, W. Bana and W. Zubed, running respectively east and south and west.

above sea-level, or 1600 ft. above the town of .Hail, which, like most of the larger villages, lies along the wadi bed at the foot of J. Aja.^ Hail, which, like most of the larger villages, lies along the wadi bed at the foot of J. Aja.

^ Kasim and Wushm, where the water in the wadi beds rises nearly to the ground level, numerous fertile oases are found with thriving villages and towns.

.The town, which has risen with the fortunes of the Ibn Rashid family to be the capital of Upper Nejd, is at the mouth of the valley between the twin ranges, about 2 m.^ The town, which has risen with the fortunes of the Ibn Rashid family to be the capital of Upper Nejd, is at the mouth of the valley between the twin ranges, about 2 m.

^ In 1902, Abdul Aziz recaptured Riyadh, the Al-Saud dynasty's ancestral capital, from the rival Al-Rashid family.
  • Comparative Criminology | Asia - Saudi Arabia 10 January 2010 11:20 UTC www-rohan.sdsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ In 1902, Abdul Aziz recaptured Riyadh, the Al Saud dynasty's ancestral capital, from the rival Al-Rashid family.
  • Saudi Arabia (01/09) 10 January 2010 11:20 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

from the foot of .J. Aja, and contained at the time of Nolde's visit in 1893 about 12,000 inhabitants.^ J. Aja, and contained at the time of Nolde's visit in 1893 about 12,000 inhabitants.

^ The 1992 population consisted of 12,300,000 Saudi Arabian citizens and 4,600,000 resident foreigners, of whom about half were other Arabs.
  • Culture of Saudi Arabia - History and ethnic relations, Urbanism, architecture, and the use of space 25 September 2009 4:25 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On December 10 on the occasion of Eid al-Fitr, the Government released by royal pardon 12,000 prisoners serving time for minor offenses.
  • Comparative Criminology | Asia - Saudi Arabia 10 January 2010 11:20 UTC www-rohan.sdsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

The principal tributaries of the W. Rumma converge in lower Kasim, and at Aneza Doughty says its bed is 3 m. wide from bank to bank. .Forty years before his visit a flood is said to have occurred, which passed down the river till it was blocked by sand-drifts at Thuwerat, 50 m.^ Forty years before his visit a flood is said to have occurred, which passed down the river till it was blocked by sand-drifts at Thuwerat, 50 m.

^ Battery technology is 50 (ish) years older than the ICE. Electric cars in the uk were tax exempt in the 1980's if not long before that.
  • The Oil Drum | Saudi Arabia's Crude Oil Production Peaked in 2005 10 January 2010 11:20 UTC www.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The alluvial deposits brought down from the mountains by rivers and floods have created the fertile plains, which extend behind the coastal swampland.
  • About Saudi Arabia 10 January 2010 11:20 UTC www.gip.gov.sa [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

lower down, and for two years a lake stood nearly 100 m. long, crowded by waterfowl not known before in that desert country. .Below this its course has not been followed by any European traveller, but it may be inferred from the line of watering-places on the road to Kuwet, that it runs out to the Persian Gulf in that neighbourhood.^ Below this its course has not been followed by any European traveller, but it may be inferred from the line of watering-places on the road to Kuwet, that it runs out to the Persian Gulf in that neighbourhood.

^ Its kings governed the western shore of the lower Euphrates, from the neighbourhood of Babylon down to the confines of Nejd, and along the coast of the Persian Gulf.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Arabia 2 February 2010 13:31 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Saudi Arabia  -  Carrying out replacement of old illumination on roads and bridges for a water conversion corporation.
  • Latest Projects and Tenders information from Kingdom of Saudi Arabia 10 January 2010 11:20 UTC www.sauditenders.com [Source type: News]

.East of Kasim the land rises gradually to the high plateau culminating in the ranges of Jebel Tuwek and J. Arid.^ East of Kasim the land rises gradually to the high plateau culminating in the ranges of Jebel Tuwek and J. Arid.

^ On the north-east and east the plateau shelves gradually to the Euphrates and the Persian Gulf; only in the extreme east is this general easterly slope arrested by the lofty range of Jebel Akhdar, which from Ras Musandan to Ras el Had borders the coast of Oman.

^ Aden, and an inner plateau falling gradually to the north-east till it merges in the Nejd steppes or the sands of the great desert.

.The general direction of these hills is from north-west to south-east.^ The general direction of these hills is from north-west to south-east.

^ Its generally undefined and porous boundaries border the United Arab Emirates to the slight northeast, Oman to the direct east, Yemen to the south and southwest, Jordan to the northwest as well as Iraq and Kuwait to the northeast [3] .
  • Saudi Arabia - Wikiversity 2 February 2010 13:31 UTC en.wikiversity.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is bounded on the east by the Arabian (Persian) Gulf; on the west by the Red Sea; to the south and southeast by Yemen, Oman, the United Arab Emirates, and Qatar; and to the north and northeast by Jordan, Iraq, and Kuwait.
  • Culture of Saudi Arabia - History and ethnic relations, Urbanism, architecture, and the use of space 25 September 2009 4:25 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.On the west they rise somewhat steeply, exposing high cliffs of white limestone, which perhaps gave Palgrave the impression that the range is of greater absolute height than is actually the case.^ On the west they rise somewhat steeply, exposing high cliffs of white limestone , which perhaps gave Palgrave the impression that the range is of greater absolute height than is actually the case.

^ As a literary composition they do not rank very high, which may be due partly to the author's years, partly to the inequality of his sources, sometimes superabundant, sometimes defective, partly perhaps to the somewhat hasty condensation of his original draft.

^ For these reasons, rape may be reported at levels significantly less than they actually occur in Saudi Arabia.
  • Saudi Arabia - Wikiversity 2 February 2010 13:31 UTC en.wikiversity.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.J. Tuwek in any case forms an important geographical feature in eastern Nejd, interrupting by a transverse barrier 200 m.^ J. Tuwek in any case forms an important geographical feature in eastern Nejd, interrupting by a transverse barrier 200 m.

in length the general north-easterly slope of the peninusla, and separating the basin of the .W. Rumma from that of the other great river system of central Arabia, the Wadi Dawasir.^ W. Rumma from that of the other great river system of central Arabia, the Wadi Dawasir.

^ The great central province of Nejd occupies all inner Arabia.

^ He goes on to describe their lands: "There is a great river in Arabia, called the Corys, which empties itself into the Erythraean sea."
  • Nabataea: Arabia 2 February 2010 13:31 UTC nabataea.net [Source type: Original source]

.The districts of Suder and Wushm lie on its northern side, Arid in the centre, and Aflaj, Harik and Yemama on its south, in the basin of the W. Dawasir; the whole of this hilly region of eastern Nejd is, perhaps, rather a rolling down country than truly mountainous, in which high pastures alternate with deep fertile valleys, supporting numerous villages with a large agricultural population.^ The districts of Suder and Wushm lie on its northern side, Arid in the centre, and Aflaj, Harik and Yemama on its south, in the basin of the W. Dawasir; the whole of this hilly region of eastern Nejd is, perhaps, rather a rolling down country than truly mountainous, in which high pastures alternate with deep fertile valleys, supporting numerous villages with a large agricultural population.

^ The Batina coast of Oman, irrigated by the mountain streams of J. Akhdar, is perhaps the most fertile district in the peninsula; Hadramut , too, contains many large and prosperous villages, and the torrents from the Yemen highlands fertilize several oases in the Tehama (or Tihama) or lowlands of the western and southern coast.

^ As regards the unexplored southern region, Palgrave's informants in Aflaj, the most southerly district visited by him, stated that a day's march south of that place the Yemen road enters U nex- the W. Dawasir, up which it runs for ten days, perhaps bred 200 m., to El Kura, a thinly peopled district on the borders p i re o of Asir; this accords with the information of the French S. Nejd.

.The W. Hanifa is its principal watercourse; its course is marked by an almost continuous series of palm groves and settlements, among which Deraiya the former, and Riad the present, capital of the Ibn Saud kingdom are the most extensive.^ The W. Hanifa is its principal watercourse; its course is marked by an almost continuous series of palm groves and settlements, among which Deraiya the former, and Riad the present, capital of the Ibn Saud kingdom are the most extensive.

^ The two-front war faced by the burgeoning Saudi did not seem to slow down Ibn Saud, who continued to gain territory by the month.
  • Saudi Arabia - Wikiversity 2 February 2010 13:31 UTC en.wikiversity.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 1924-25 the Hejaz Province was conquered by Ibn Saud and became part of the kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
  • Saudi Arabia Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Saudi Arabia 10 January 2010 11:20 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Its lower course is uncertain, but it probably continues in a south-east direction to the districts of El Harik and Yemama when, joined by the drainage from Aflaj and the W. Dawasir, it runs eastward till it disappears in the belt of sandy desert 100 m.^ Its lower course is uncertain, but it probably continues in a south-east direction to the districts of El Harik and Yemama when, joined by the drainage from Aflaj and the W. Dawasir, it runs eastward till it disappears in the belt of sandy desert 100 m.

^ The general aspect of Arabia is that of a central table-land surrounded by a desert belt, sandy to the west, south, and east and stony to the north.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Arabia 2 February 2010 13:31 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Most of Saudi Arabia is set on a plateau of deserts, which rises to mountains in the south and falls away to a low plain in the east.
  • Saudi Arabia Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Saudi Arabia 10 January 2010 11:20 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

in width that forms the eastern boundary of .Nejd, to reappear in the copious springs that fertilize El Hasa and the Bahrein littoral.^ Nejd, to reappear in the copious springs that fertilize El Hasa and the Bahrein littoral.

^ Other important routes leading to Nejd are those from Kuwet to Hail, and from El Hasa to Riad respectively.

.As regards the unexplored southern region, Palgrave's informants in Aflaj, the most southerly district visited by him, stated that a day's march south of that place the Yemen road enters U nex- the W. Dawasir, up which it runs for ten days, perhaps bred 200 m., to El Kura, a thinly peopled district on the borders p i re o of Asir; this accords with the information of the French S. Nejd. officers of the Egyptian army in that district, and with that of Halevy, who makes all the drainage from Nejran northward run to the same great wadi.^ Asir, extending south to the Yemen border, has a fertile coastal plain.
  • Saudi Arabia Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Saudi Arabia 10 January 2010 11:20 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Making it up, day after day.
  • Obama Quote on Guantanamo Causing Al-Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula 3 February 2010 14:24 UTC www.freerepublic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As regards the unexplored southern region, Palgrave's informants in Aflaj, the most southerly district visited by him, stated that a day's march south of that place the Yemen road enters U nex- the W. Dawasir, up which it runs for ten days, perhaps bred 200 m., to El Kura, a thinly peopled district on the borders p i re o of Asir; this accords with the information of the French S. Nejd.

.Whether there be any second line of drainage in southern Nejd skirting the edge of the great desert and following the depression of the W. Yabrin must remain a matter of conjecture.^ The northern edge of this great desert follows.

^ Whether there be any second line of drainage in southern Nejd skirting the edge of the great desert and following the depression of the W. Yabrin must remain a matter of conjecture.

^ As the aim of the embassy was to ask the King of Himyar to grant freedom of worship to the Roman citizens in the Kingdom of Himyar, it follows that Christianity must have attained there a certain importance.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Arabia 2 February 2010 13:31 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

.Colonel Miles concluded, from his enquiries, that the low salt swamp, extending inland for some distance from Khor ed Duwan, in the bay east of El Katr, was the outlet of an extensive drainage system which may well be continuous with the W. Yabrin and extend far into the interior, if not to Nejran itself.^ Colonel Miles concluded, from his enquiries, that the low salt swamp, extending inland for some distance from Khor ed Duwan, in the bay east of El Katr, was the outlet of an extensive drainage system which may well be continuous with the W. Yabrin and extend far into the interior, if not to Nejran itself.

^ Next is a bay in which are some scattered islands , and continuous with the bay are three lofty mounds [modern Jebel Seik, Jebel el-Hawene, and Jebel Hester] of black sand.
  • Nabataea: Arabia 2 February 2010 13:31 UTC nabataea.net [Source type: Original source]

^ When the conquest of the West (by the Arabs) was completed, and merchants began to penetrate into the interior, they saw no nation of the Blacks so mighty as Ghanah, the dominions of which extended westward as far as the Ocean.
  • ARAB SLAVE TRADE - The history of Arab Slavery in Africa 10 February 2010 11:32 UTC www.africanholocaust.net [Source type: Original source]

.East of Nejd a strip of sandy desert 50 m.^ East of Nejd a strip of sandy desert 50 m.

^ Aden, and an inner plateau falling gradually to the north-east till it merges in the Nejd steppes or the sands of the great desert.

^ Riad, they passed through Yemama, and across a strip of sandy desert to El Hasa where Palgrave found himself in more congenial surroundings.

in width extends almost continuously from the great Nafud to the Dahna. .East of this again a succession of stony ridges running parallel to the coast has to be crossed before El Hasa is reached.^ East of this again a succession of stony ridges running parallel to the coast has to be crossed before El Hasa is reached.

^ A narrow coastal plain runs through the Kingdom’s western coast while a range of mountains run parallel to the coastal plain along the Red Sea.
  • About Saudi Arabia 10 January 2010 11:20 UTC www.gip.gov.sa [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This province, which skirts the Persian Gulf from the mouth of the Euphrates to the frontiers of Oman, is low and hot; its shores are flat, and with the exception of Kuwet at the north-west corner of the gulf, it possesses no deep water port.^ This province, which skirts the Persian Gulf from the mouth of the Euphrates to the frontiers of Oman, is low and hot; its shores are flat, and with the exception of Kuwet at the north-west corner of the gulf, it possesses no deep water port.

^ It is bounded on the east by the Arabian (Persian) Gulf; on the west by the Red Sea; to the south and southeast by Yemen, Oman, the United Arab Emirates, and Qatar; and to the north and northeast by Jordan, Iraq, and Kuwait.
  • Culture of Saudi Arabia - History and ethnic relations, Urbanism, architecture, and the use of space 25 September 2009 4:25 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Saudi Arabia also borders the Red Sea to its west and the Persian Gulf to its northeast.
  • Saudi Arabia - Wikiversity 2 February 2010 13:31 UTC en.wikiversity.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.North of Katif it is desert and only inhabited by nomads; at Katif, however, and throughout the district to the south bordering on the Gulf of Bahrein there are ample supplies of underground water, welling up in abundant springs often at a high temperature, and bringing fertility to an extensive district of which El Hofuf, a town of 15,000 to 20,000 inhabitants, is the most important centre.^ North of Katif it is desert and only inhabited by nomads; at Katif, however, and throughout the district to the south bordering on the Gulf of Bahrein there are ample supplies of underground water, welling up in abundant springs often at a high temperature, and bringing fertility to an extensive district of which El Hofuf, a town of 15,000 to 20,000 inhabitants, is the most important centre.

^ He says that Poseidium is situated within the Bay of Heroöpolis [this is the modern Gulf of Suez], and that continguous to Poseidium is a grove of palm trees, well-supplied with water, which is highly-valued, because all the district around is burnt up and is without water or shade.
  • Nabataea: Arabia 2 February 2010 13:31 UTC nabataea.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Owing to its endurance of thirst the long desert journeys which separate the populous centres are made practicable, and in the spring months, when green forage is plentiful in the desert, the Bedouins pitch their camps for long periods far from any water, and not only men but horses subsist on camel's milk.

.South-western Arabia, from the twenty-first parallel down to the Gulf of Aden, including the Taif district of Hejaz, Asir and Yemen, South forms one province geographically.^ South Arabia and Yemen, 1945-1995 .
  • Arabian Peninsula & Persian Gulf Database 3 February 2010 14:24 UTC www.acig.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ South-western Arabia, from the twenty-first parallel down to the Gulf of Aden, including the Taif district of Hejaz, Asir and Yemen, South forms one province geographically.

^ Instead, they settled throughout the Middle East, including present-day Saudi Arabia, Jordan, Palestine, Iran, Lebanon, Yemen, the Persian Gulf countries and Turkey.
  • ARAB SLAVE TRADE - The history of Arab Slavery in Africa 10 February 2010 11:32 UTC www.africanholocaust.net [Source type: Original source]

.Throughout its length it consists of three zones, a narrow coastal strip, rarely western Arabia. exceeding 20 m.^ Throughout its length it consists of three zones, a narrow coastal strip, rarely western Arabia.

^ A narrow coastal plane known as Tihama is predominant in the south, while a mountain chain with a steep western escarpment runs through these areas.
  • Culture of Saudi Arabia - History and ethnic relations, Urbanism, architecture, and the use of space 25 September 2009 4:25 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The narrow coastal strip seems to be moderately fertile, and the hills which in places come down to the seashore are covered with trees, among which the frankincense and other gumbearing trees are found.

in width, a central mountainous tract, embracing the great chain which runs parallel to the coast from near .Taif to within 50 m.^ Taif to within 50 m.

^ In the elevated highland district which extends from Taif to within 50 m.

of .Aden, and an inner plateau falling gradually to the north-east till it merges in the Nejd steppes or the sands of the great desert.^ Aden, and an inner plateau falling gradually to the north-east till it merges in the Nejd steppes or the sands of the great desert.

^ The general aspect of Arabia is that of a central table-land surrounded by a desert belt, sandy to the west, south, and east and stony to the north.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Arabia 2 February 2010 13:31 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Most of Saudi Arabia is set on a plateau of deserts, which rises to mountains in the south and falls away to a low plain in the east.
  • Saudi Arabia Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Saudi Arabia 10 January 2010 11:20 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The lowland strip or Tehama consists partly of a gravelly plain, the Khabt, covered sparsely with acacia and other desert shrubs and trees, and furnishing pasturage for large flocks of goats and camels; and partly of sterile wastes of sand like the Ramla, which extends on either side of Aden almost from the seashore to the foot of the hills.^ The lowland strip or Tehama consists partly of a gravelly plain, the Khabt, covered sparsely with acacia and other desert shrubs and trees, and furnishing pasturage for large flocks of goats and camels; and partly of sterile wastes of sand like the Ramla, which extends on either side of Aden almost from the seashore to the foot of the hills.

^ PaulusP on March 4, 2008 - 5:01pm I thank ace for shining a little more light through the misty desert, like others here did before.
  • The Oil Drum | Saudi Arabia's Crude Oil Reserves Propaganda 28 January 2010 0:48 UTC www.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ J. Katherine attains a height of 8500 ft.; except in W. Feran there is little cultivable land, the greater part consisting of bare, rocky hills and sandy valleys, sparsely covered with tamarisk and acacia bushes.

.The Tehama is, however, by no means all desert, the mountain torrents where they debouch into the plain have formed considerable tracts of alluvial soil of the highest degree of fertility producing in that warm equable climate two and even three crops in the year.^ Faulting, however, is by no means absent, and some of the faults are of considerable magnitude.

^ The Tehama is, however, by no means all desert, the mountain torrents where they debouch into the plain have formed considerable tracts of alluvial soil of the highest degree of fertility producing in that warm equable climate two and even three crops in the year.

^ Of cereals the common millets, dhura and dukhn, are grown in all parts of the country as the summer crop, and in the hot irrigated Tehama districts three crops are reaped in the year; in the highlands maize , wheat and barley are grown to a limited extent as the winter crop, ripening at the end of March or in April.

.The flood-water is controlled by a system of dams and channels constructed so as to utilize every drop, and the extent of cultivation is limited more by the supply of water available than by the amount of suitable soil.^ The flood-water is controlled by a system of dams and channels constructed so as to utilize every drop, and the extent of cultivation is limited more by the supply of water available than by the amount of suitable soil.

^ The combined production capacity of the four projects will produce more than 7000 MW of power and 600 million gallons of water daily.
  • Energy profile of Saudi Arabia - Encyclopedia of Earth 10 January 2010 11:20 UTC www.eoearth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On top of this, the IEA constructs a second floor: the predicted growth in oil demand for the next decades will not be restricted by any limits of supply.
  • The Oil Drum | Saudi Arabia's Crude Oil Reserves Propaganda 28 January 2010 0:48 UTC www.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.These districts support a large settled population and several considerable towns, of which Bet el Fakih and Zubed in the western and aahej in the southern Tehama, with 4000 to 6000 inhabitants, are the most important.^ In southern Arabia the Jews form a large element in the town population.

^ These districts support a large settled population and several considerable towns, of which Bet el Fakih and Zubed in the western and aahej in the southern Tehama, with 4000 to 6000 inhabitants, are the most important.

^ The central zone includes Hejaz (or Hijaz), Nejd and El Hasa ; much of it is a dry, stony or sandy steppe , with few wells or watering-places, and only occupied by nomad tribes; but the great wadis which intersect it contain many fertile stretches of alluvial soil, where cultivation is possible and which support a considerable settled population, with several large towns and numerous villages.

.There are signs that this coastal strip was until a geologically recent period below sea-level; and that the coast-line is still receding is evidenced by the history of the town of Muza, once a flourishing port, now 20 m.^ There are signs that this coastal strip was until a geologically recent period below sea-level; and that the coast-line is still receding is evidenced by the history of the town of Muza, once a flourishing port, now 20 m.

^ The Coast Guard deployed its units from ports along the Persian Gulf and the Red Sea with a primary mission to prevent smuggling.
  • Comparative Criminology | Asia - Saudi Arabia 10 January 2010 11:20 UTC www-rohan.sdsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The length of its western coast line along the Red Sea , is about 1,800 miles, while its breadth, from the Red Sea to the Persian Gulf, is about 600 miles.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Arabia 2 February 2010 13:31 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

inland; while .Bet el Fakih and Zubed, once important centres of the coffee trade, have lost their position through the silting up of the ports which formerly served them.^ Bet el Fakih and Zubed, once important centres of the coffee trade, have lost their position through the silting up of the ports which formerly served them.

^ Tehama or lowlands, Niebuhr and his companions visited the towns of Bet el Fakih, Zubed and Mokha , then the great port for the coffee trade of Yemen.

^ Oman, through its chief port Muscat, had a total trade of about £55 0, 000, two-thirds of which is due to imports and one-third to exports.

.The jvbel or mountain-land is, however, the typical Yemen, the Arabia Felix of the ancients.^ The jvbel or mountain-land is, however, the typical Yemen, the Arabia Felix of the ancients.

^ Arabia by his love for the ancient history of his land.

^ Today many people believe that the term Arabia Felix referred only to southern Yemen.
  • Nabataea: Arabia 2 February 2010 13:31 UTC nabataea.net [Source type: Original source]

.Deep valleys winding through the barren foothills lead gradually up to the higher mountains, and as the track ascends the scenery and vegetation change their character; the trees which line the banks of the wadi are overgrown with creepers, and the running stream is dammed at frequent intervals, and led off in artificial channels to irrigate the fields on either side; the steeper parts of the road are paved with large stones, substantially built villages, with their masonry towers or da y s, crowning every height, replace the collection of *mud walls and brushwood huts of the low country; while tier above tier, terraced fields cover the hill slopes and attest the industry of the inhabitants and the fertility of their mountains.^ Deep valleys winding through the barren foothills lead gradually up to the higher mountains, and as the track ascends the scenery and vegetation change their character; the trees which line the banks of the wadi are overgrown with creepers, and the running stream is dammed at frequent intervals, and led off in artificial channels to irrigate the fields on either side; the steeper parts of the road are paved with large stones, substantially built villages, with their masonry towers or da y s, crowning every height, replace the collection of *mud walls and brushwood huts of the low country; while tier above tier, terraced fields cover the hill slopes and attest the industry of the inhabitants and the fertility of their mountains.

^ The lowland strip or Tehama consists partly of a gravelly plain, the Khabt, covered sparsely with acacia and other desert shrubs and trees, and furnishing pasturage for large flocks of goats and camels; and partly of sterile wastes of sand like the Ramla, which extends on either side of Aden almost from the seashore to the foot of the hills.

^ In the morning the Tehama, as seen from the mountain tops, appears buried in a sea of white cloud ; towards noon the clouds drift up the mountain slopes and cover the summits with wreaths of light mist charged with moisture which condenses on the trees and vegetation; in the afternoon they disappear, and the evenings are generally clear and still.

.On the main route from Hodeda to Sana the first coffee plantations are reached at Usil, at an altitude of 4300 ft., and throughout the western slopes of the range up to an altitude of 7000 ft.^ On the main route from Hodeda to Sana the first coffee plantations are reached at Usil, at an altitude of 4300 ft., and throughout the western slopes of the range up to an altitude of 7000 ft.

^ Of the products special to Arabia coffee comes first; it is nowhere found wild, and is believed to have been introduced from Abyssinia in the 6th century A. D. It thrives on the seaward slopes of the western range in the zone of the tropical rains, at Coffee.

^ Thence proceeding eastwards to higher altitudes where coffee plantations give way to fields of wheat and barley , they reached the town of Jibla situated among a group of mountains exceeding 10,000 ft.

it is the most important crop. .Jebel Haraz, of which Manakha, a small town of 3000 inhabitants is the chief place, is described by Glaser as one vast coffee garden.^ Jebel Haraz, of which Manakha, a small town of 3000 inhabitants is the chief place, is described by Glaser as one vast coffee garden .

^ CE) Geographos refers to the place by a Hellenized version of the inhabitants of the chief city: the Iobaritae (Ubar).
  • Arabia 2 February 2010 13:31 UTC my.raex.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ One small question: can we accurately describe bitumen as oil, even very viscous oil?
  • The Oil Drum | Saudi Arabia's Crude Oil Reserves Propaganda 28 January 2010 0:48 UTC www.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Here the traveller ascending from the coast sees the first example of the jebel or highland towns, with their high three-storeyed houses, built of quarried stone, their narrow façades pierced with small windows with whitewashed borders and ornamented with varied arabesque patterns; each dar has the appearance of a small castle complete in itself, and the general effect is rather that of a cluster of separate forts than of a town occupied by a united community.^ The town itself is dominated by a castle built by Abdul Aziz.
  • Saudi Arabia Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Saudi Arabia 10 January 2010 11:20 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Here the traveller ascending from the coast sees the first example of the jebel or highland towns, with their high three-storeyed houses, built of quarried stone, their narrow façades pierced with small windows with whitewashed borders and ornamented with varied arabesque patterns; each dar has the appearance of a small castle complete in itself, and the general effect is rather that of a cluster of separate forts than of a town occupied by a united community.

^ If you look on a map you can see that we're traveling first to Dharahn on the Persian Gulf side then over to Jeddah on the Red Sea and finally to Riyahd!

.The scenery in this mountain region is of the most varied description; bare precipitous hill-sides seamed with dry, rocky watercourses give place with almost startling rapidity to fertile slopes, terraced literally for thousands of feet.^ The scenery in this mountain region is of the most varied description; bare precipitous hill-sides seamed with dry, rocky watercourses give place with almost startling rapidity to fertile slopes, terraced literally for thousands of feet.

^ YEMEN The southwestern corner of the peninsula, and the most fertile region within it.
  • Arabia 2 February 2010 13:31 UTC my.raex.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Most Arab Americans are Christian, though this varies by region.
  • 100 questions about arab americans leaving in the US 10 February 2010 11:32 UTC allied-media.com [Source type: Original source]

.General Haig in describing them says: " One can hardly realize the enormous labour, toil and perseverance that these represent; the terrace walls are usually 5 to 8 ft.^ General Haig in describing them says: " One can hardly realize the enormous labour, toil and perseverance that these represent; the terrace walls are usually 5 to 8 ft.

^ When saying goodbye, it is proper to say, in Arabic, "In the custody of God," the reply being "In the custody of the Generous One."
  • Culture of Saudi Arabia - History and ethnic relations, Urbanism, architecture, and the use of space 25 September 2009 4:25 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These also have existed as distinct breeds in Arabia from "time immemorial," but whether that means one hundred or five hundred, or a thousand years, it is quite impossible to say.
  • History of Arabian Horses 3 February 2010 14:24 UTC fakulti0.tripod.com [Source type: Original source]

in height, but towards the top of the mountains they are sometimes as much as 15 or 18 ft.; they are built entirely of rough stone without mortar, and I reckon that on an average each wall retains not more than twice its own height in breadth, and I do not think I saw a single break in them unrepaired." The highest summits as determined by actual survey are between 10,000 and 11,000 ft. above sea-level. .J. Sabur, a conspicuous mass in the extreme south, is 9900 ft., with a fall to the Taiz valley of 5000 ft.; farther north several points in the mountains above Ibb and Yarim attain a height of 10,500 ft., and J. Hadur, near the Sana-Hodeda road, exceeds 10,000 ft.^ J. Sabur, a conspicuous mass in the extreme south, is 9900 ft., with a fall to the Taiz valley of 5000 ft.; farther north several points in the mountains above Ibb and Yarim attain a height of 10,500 ft., and J. Hadur, near the Sana-Hodeda road, exceeds 10,000 ft.

^ Its outlying circle is girt by a line of mountains low and sterile, although, towards Yemen and Oman, on the lower south-west and lower south-east, these mountains attain a considerable height, breadth, and fertility.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Arabia 2 February 2010 13:31 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Most of Saudi Arabia is set on a plateau of deserts, which rises to mountains in the south and falls away to a low plain in the east.
  • Saudi Arabia Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Saudi Arabia 10 January 2010 11:20 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.From the crest of the range there is a short drop of 2000 or 3000 ft.^ From the crest of the range there is a short drop of 2000 or 3000 ft.

^ And there may be a short period of “cresting” as this point is reached but it’s not very relevant at that time.
  • The Oil Drum | Saudi Arabia's Crude Oil Production Peaked in 2005 10 January 2010 11:20 UTC www.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A high range of granite hills, known as the Tehama range, the highest point of which, J. Shar, in Midian, exceeds 6500 ft., divides it longitudinally into a narrow littoral and a broader upland zone 2000 or 3000 ft.

to the broad open valleys which form the principal feature of the inner plateau. .The town of Yarim lies near its southern extremity at an altitude of about 8000 ft.; within a short distance are the sources of the W. Yakla, W. Bana and W. Zubed, running respectively east and south and west.^ This valley runs nearly east and west for a distance of 500 m.

^ The town of Yarim lies near its southern extremity at an altitude of about 8000 ft.; within a short distance are the sources of the W. Yakla, W. Bana and W. Zubed, running respectively east and south and west.

^ It is about 770 miles east of Jeddah and 280 miles west of Dhahran.
  • Saudi Arabia Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Saudi Arabia 10 January 2010 11:20 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The first named is a dry watercourse ultimately joining the basin of the W. Hadramut; the two others run for a long distance through fertile valleys and, like many of the wadis on the seaward side of the range, have perennial streams down to within a few miles of the sea.^ If so, then can this exercise be run through again by outside "others"?
  • The Oil Drum | Saudi Arabia's Crude Oil Production Peaked in 2005 10 January 2010 11:20 UTC www.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The first named is a dry watercourse ultimately joining the basin of the W. Hadramut; the two others run for a long distance through fertile valleys and, like many of the wadis on the seaward side of the range, have perennial streams down to within a few miles of the sea.

^ Fertile oases, many of which are the sites of towns and villages, are scattered through the Saudi Arabian deserts north of Rub' al Khali.
  • Joshua Project - Arab, Saudi - Hijazi of Saudi Arabia Ethnic People Profile 28 January 2010 0:48 UTC www.joshuaproject.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Sana, the capital of Yemen, lies in a broad valley 7300 ft.^ Sana, the capital of Yemen, lies in a broad valley 7300 ft.

^ In 1877-80 the Italian Renzo Manzoni made three excursions to Sana, the Turkish capital of Yemen.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Arabia 2 February 2010 13:31 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Arabic Program (MALI - AP) is located both in Sana'a, the capital city of Yemen, and Aden in South Yemen.
  • Summer Near Eastern Language Instruction (off campus) 15 September 2009 20:52 UTC www2.gsu.edu [Source type: Academic]

above sea-level, sloping northwards to the .W. Kharid which, with the Ghail Hirran, the sources of which are on the eastern slopes of J. Hadur, run north-eastward to the Jauf depression.^ W. Kharid which, with the Ghail Hirran, the sources of which are on the eastern slopes of J. Hadur, run north-eastward to the Jauf depression.

^ Khaibar harra, runs north-eastward across the whole width of Nejd, till it is lost in the sands of the eastern Nafud, north of Aneza.

.The Arhab district, through which these two great wadis run, was formerly the centre of the Himyar kingdom; cultivation is now only to be found in the lower parts on the borders of the watercourses, all above being naked rock from which every particle of soil has been denuded.^ The Arhab district, through which these two great wadis run, was formerly the centre of the Himyar kingdom; cultivation is now only to be found in the lower parts on the borders of the watercourses, all above being naked rock from which every particle of soil has been denuded.

^ A narrow coastal plane known as Tihama is predominant in the south, while a mountain chain with a steep western escarpment runs through these areas.
  • Culture of Saudi Arabia - History and ethnic relations, Urbanism, architecture, and the use of space 25 September 2009 4:25 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I don't believe she said that the two of them were part of the plot, only put that out as a possibility.
  • ABC's Inaccurate Gitmo-Abdulmutallab Story Got Major Pickup | TPMMuckraker 3 February 2010 14:24 UTC tpmmuckraker.talkingpointsmemo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In the higher parts there are fine plains where Glaser found numerous Himyaritic remains, and which he considers were undoubtedly cultivated formerly, but they have long fallen out of cultivation owing to denudation and desiccation - the impoverishment of the country from these causes is increasing.^ In the higher parts there are fine plains where Glaser found numerous Himyaritic remains, and which he considers were undoubtedly cultivated formerly, but they have long fallen out of cultivation owing to denudation and desiccation - the impoverishment of the country from these causes is increasing.

^ At times, the increased load has lead to shortages, blackouts and power rations in various parts of the country.
  • Energy profile of Saudi Arabia - Encyclopedia of Earth 10 January 2010 11:20 UTC www.eoearth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But they suffered reprisals, when an armament was sent out against them, which devastated their country.
  • Nabataea: Arabia 2 February 2010 13:31 UTC nabataea.net [Source type: Original source]

.Eastward the plateau becomes still more sterile, and its elevation probably falls more rapidly till it reaches the level of the Jauf and Nejran valleys on the borders of the desert.^ Eastward the plateau becomes still more sterile, and its elevation probably falls more rapidly till it reaches the level of the Jauf and Nejran valleys on the borders of the desert.

^ Aden, and an inner plateau falling gradually to the north-east till it merges in the Nejd steppes or the sands of the great desert.

^ In Yemen this tree was probably more common formerly; the place-name Arar, signifying juniper, is still often found where the tree no longer exists.

.The water-parting between central and southern Arabia seems to be somewhere to the south of Nej ran, which, according to Halevy, drains northward to the W. Dawasir, while the Jauf is either an isolated depression, or perhaps forms part of the Hadramut basin.^ The water-parting between central and southern Arabia seems to be somewhere to the south of Nej ran, which, according to Halevy, drains northward to the W. Dawasir, while the Jauf is either an isolated depression, or perhaps forms part of the Hadramut basin.

^ Its northern part forms the basin of the Wadi Rumma, which, rising in the Nej d.

^ Of particular significance to ancient Arabia was the domestication of the dromedary (one-humped camel) in the southern part of the peninsula between 3000 and 2500 B.C.E. By 1000 B.C.E. , camels were important in the lucrative caravan trade, especially for the transport of incense, between southern Arabia and markets in the north.
  • Culture of Saudi Arabia - History and ethnic relations, Urbanism, architecture, and the use of space 25 September 2009 4:25 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Farther north, in Asir, the plateau is more mountainous and contains many fertile valleys.^ Farther north, in Asir, the plateau is more mountainous and contains many fertile valleys.

^ Very many of them are votive inscriptions and contain little more than the names of gods and princes or private men.

^ Eastward the plateau becomes still more sterile, and its elevation probably falls more rapidly till it reaches the level of the Jauf and Nejran valleys on the borders of the desert.

.Of these may be mentioned Khamis Mishet and the Wadi Shahran rising among the high Asir. summits of the maritime chain, and the principal affluents of the Wadi Besha; the latter is a broad well-watered valley, with numerous scattered hamlets, four days' journey (perhaps 80 m.^ Of these may be mentioned Khamis Mishet and the Wadi Shahran rising among the high Asir.

^ Wadi Besha; the latter is a broad well-watered valley, with numerous scattered hamlets, four days' journey (perhaps 80 m.

^ The principal villages on the eastern slopes are Rustak, Nakhl and Semail in the well-watered valley of the same name; on the western slopes are Tanuf and Nizwa, lying immediately below the highest summit of the range; Semed, Ibra and Bidiya in the W. Betha are all well-built villages with palm-groves and irrigated fields.

) from the crest of the range. Still farther north is the Wadi Taraba and its branches running down from the highland district of Zahran. .The lower valleys produce dates in abundance, and at higher elevations wheat, barley, millets and excellent fruit are grown, while juniper forests are said to cover the mountain slopes.^ The lower valleys produce dates in abundance, and at higher elevations wheat, barley, millets and excellent fruit are grown, while juniper forests are said to cover the mountain slopes.

^ Wheat, barley, tomatoes, melons, dates, and citrus fruit are grown, and livestock is raised.
  • Saudi Arabia Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Saudi Arabia 10 January 2010 11:20 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Of Coniferae the juniper is found on the higher slopes of J. Sabur near Taiz, where Botta describes it as forming an extensive forest and growing to a large size; it is also found in the range overlooking the W. Madin, 50 m.

.In Yemen this tree was probably more common formerly; the place-name Arar, signifying juniper, is still often found where the tree no longer exists.^ In Yemen this tree was probably more common formerly; the place-name Arar, signifying juniper, is still often found where the tree no longer exists.

^ The Yemen pilgrim route, known as the Haj el Kabsi, led from Sada through Asir to Tail and Mecca, but it is no longer used.

^ Subsequently, Saif was murdered by some Abyssinian members of his own court; and after his death no more native Himyarite princes were placed on the throne.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Arabia 2 February 2010 13:31 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

.The western coast of Yemen, like that of Hejaz, is studded with shoals and islands, of which Perim in the Straits of Bab-el-Mandeb, Kamaran, the Turkish quarantine post, 40 m.^ The western coast of Yemen, like that of Hejaz, is studded with shoals and islands, of which Perim in the Straits of Bab-el-Mandeb, Kamaran, the Turkish quarantine post, 40 m.

^ Straits of Bab-el-Mandeb, backed by mountains rising to 7000 ft.

^ It lies in the western part of the country, the Hijaz (or Hejaz), about 50 miles from the Red Sea coast, in a narrow valley surrounded by low hills.
  • Saudi Arabia Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Saudi Arabia 10 January 2010 11:20 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

north of .Coast of Hodeda, and the Farsan group, off the Abu Arish coast, Yemen. are the principal.^ Coast of Hodeda, and the Farsan group, off the Abu Arish coast, Yemen.

^ C. G. Ehrenberg and W. F. Hemprich in 1825 visited the Tehama and the islands off the coast, and in 1836 P. E. Botta made an important journey in southern Yemen with Asir.

.Hodeda is the only port of any import ance since the days of steamships began; the other ports, Mokha, aohaia and Kanfuda merely share in the coasting trade.^ Hodeda is the only port of any import ance since the days of steamships began; the other ports, Mokha, aohaia and Kanfuda merely share in the coasting trade.

^ Oman, through its chief port Muscat, had a total trade of about £55 0, 000, two-thirds of which is due to imports and one-third to exports.

^ Tehama or lowlands, Niebuhr and his companions visited the towns of Bet el Fakih, Zubed and Mokha , then the great port for the coffee trade of Yemen.

.The south coast is free from the shoals that imperil the navigation of the Red Sea, and in Aden it possesses the only safe natural harbour on the route between Suez and India.^ The south coast is free from the shoals that imperil the navigation of the Red Sea, and in Aden it possesses the only safe natural harbour on the route between Suez and India.

^ Persian Gulf and Red Sea provide great leverage on shipping (especially crude oil) through Persian Gulf and Suez Canal .
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- Saudi Arabia 25 September 2009 4:25 UTC www.cia.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- Saudi Arabia 10 January 2010 11:20 UTC www.umsl.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Continuing his conquests, Abdul Aziz subdued Al-Hasa in the east, the rest of the central Nejd region, and the Hijaz along the Red Sea coast between 1913 and 1926.
  • Saudi Arabia (01/09) 10 January 2010 11:20 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Several isolated volcanic hills crop out on the shore line between Aden and the straits; the most remarkable are J. Kharaz, 2500 ft., and J. Shamshan, 1700 ft., at the base of which Aden itself is built.^ Several isolated volcanic hills crop out on the shore line between Aden and the straits; the most remarkable are J. Kharaz, 2500 ft., and J. Shamshan, 1700 ft., at the base of which Aden itself is built.

^ Manzoni estimated their number in Sana in 1878 at 1700 out of a total population of 20,000; at Aden they are a numerous and wealthy community, with agents in most of the towns of Yemen.

^ An extinct volcano occurs at Aden, and volcanic rocks are found at other places near the Straits of Bab-el-Mandeb.

.In both of these the crater form is very clearly marked.^ In both of these the crater form is very clearly marked.

.A low maritime plain, similar to the Tehama of the western coast, extends for some 200 m.^ A low maritime plain, similar to the Tehama of the western coast, extends for some 200 m.

^ It lies in the western part of the country, the Hijaz (or Hejaz), about 50 miles from the Red Sea coast, in a narrow valley surrounded by low hills.
  • Saudi Arabia Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Saudi Arabia 10 January 2010 11:20 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

east of the .Straits of Bab-el-Mandeb, backed by mountains rising to 7000 ft.^ Straits of Bab-el-Mandeb, backed by mountains rising to 7000 ft.

^ Aden, the island of Perim, in the Strait of Bab-el-Mendeb, and Socotra are under English authority.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Arabia 2 February 2010 13:31 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The length of its western side from Port Said to Aden is 1500 m.; its base from the Straits of Bab-el-Mandeb (or Bab al Mandab) to Ras el Had is 1300 m., its northern side from Port Said to the Euphrates 600 m.; its total area approximately 1,200,000 sq.

or more; farther east the elevation of the highland decreases steadily, and in the .Hadramut, north of Mukalla, does not much exceed Hadramut.^ Hadramut, north of Mukalla, does not much exceed Hadramut.

4000 ft. .The mountain chain, too, is less distinctly marked, and becomes little more than the seaward escarpment of the plateau which intervenes between the coast and the Hadramut valley.^ The mountain chain, too, is less distinctly marked, and becomes little more than the seaward escarpment of the plateau which intervenes between the coast and the Hadramut valley.

^ Well, this is both more and less ambiguous than the shortened circulating paraphrase that goes something like “Al-Qaeda formed because of Gitmo”.
  • Obama Quote on Guantanamo Causing Al-Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula 3 February 2010 14:24 UTC www.freerepublic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A narrow coastal plane known as Tihama is predominant in the south, while a mountain chain with a steep western escarpment runs through these areas.
  • Culture of Saudi Arabia - History and ethnic relations, Urbanism, architecture, and the use of space 25 September 2009 4:25 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This valley runs nearly east and west for a distance of 500 m.^ This valley runs nearly east and west for a distance of 500 m.

^ The town of Yarim lies near its southern extremity at an altitude of about 8000 ft.; within a short distance are the sources of the W. Yakla, W. Bana and W. Zubed, running respectively east and south and west.

^ They run in strings irregularly from east to west, corresponding in this with their individual direction, the convex face of the falk being towards the west, i.e.

from the eastern slopes of the .Yemen highlands to its mouth on the Mahra coast near Sihut.^ Yemen highlands to its mouth on the Mahra coast near Sihut.

^ AKRABI A minor sultanate in southwestern Yemen, on the coast near Aden.
  • Arabia 2 February 2010 13:31 UTC my.raex.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The greater part of it is desert, but a short stretch lying between the 48th and 50th meridians is well watered and exceptionally fertile.^ The greater part of it is desert, but a short stretch lying between the 48th and 50th meridians is well watered and exceptionally fertile.

.This begins a little to the east of Shabwa, the ancient capital, now half buried in the advancing sand, and for a distance of over 70 m.^ This begins a little to the east of Shabwa, the ancient capital, now half buried in the advancing sand, and for a distance of over 70 m.

a succession of villages and towns surrounded by fields and date groves extends along the main valley and into the tributaries which join it from the south. .Shibam, Saiyun and Tarim are towns of 6000 or more inhabitants, and Hajren and Haura in the W. Duwan are among the larger villages.^ Shibam, Saiyun and Tarim are towns of 6000 or more inhabitants, and Hajren and Haura in the W. Duwan are among the larger villages.

.Himyaritic remains have been found here and in the W. Mefat which enters the Gulf of Aden near Balhaf.^ Himyaritic remains have been found here and in the W. Mefat which enters the Gulf of Aden near Balhaf.

^ An extinct volcano occurs at Aden, and volcanic rocks are found at other places near the Straits of Bab-el-Mandeb.

.A few small fishing villages or ports are scattered along the coast, but except Nlukalla and Shihr none is of any importance.^ A few small fishing villages or ports are scattered along the coast, but except Nlukalla and Shihr none is of any importance.

^ The Coast Guard deployed its units from ports along the Persian Gulf and the Red Sea with a primary mission to prevent smuggling.
  • Comparative Criminology | Asia - Saudi Arabia 10 January 2010 11:20 UTC www-rohan.sdsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The ground varies between rock, gravel, and bare sand, and little grows except in the oases and along the Red Sea coast, where slight seasonal rain makes possible the cultivation of dates and a few cereals.
  • Saudi Arabia Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Saudi Arabia 10 January 2010 11:20 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Gara coast was visited by the Bents, who went inland from Dhafar, one of the centres of the old frankincense trade, to the crest of the plateau.^ The Gara coast was visited by the Bents, who went inland from Dhafar, one of the centres of the old frankincense trade, to the crest of the plateau.

^ She says she "understood he should be imprisoned for the wrong he had done… One Thursday I went to visit him at the central prison and asked for Ahmed al-Khidr.
  • The Gulf and the Arabian Peninsula: Human rights fall victim to the "War on Terror" 3 February 2010 14:24 UTC www.amnestyusa.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Colvill, who went to Riad in 1854, assures me that he saw but one single mare during the whole of his journey there and back, and that that was a small insignificant animal.
  • History of Arabian Horses 3 February 2010 14:24 UTC fakulti0.tripod.com [Source type: Original source]

.The narrow coastal strip seems to be moderately fertile, and the hills which in places come down to the seashore are covered with trees, among which the frankincense and other gumbearing trees are found.^ The narrow coastal strip seems to be moderately fertile, and the hills which in places come down to the seashore are covered with trees, among which the frankincense and other gumbearing trees are found.

^ The lowland strip or Tehama consists partly of a gravelly plain, the Khabt, covered sparsely with acacia and other desert shrubs and trees, and furnishing pasturage for large flocks of goats and camels; and partly of sterile wastes of sand like the Ramla, which extends on either side of Aden almost from the seashore to the foot of the hills.

^ In the highlands are to be found scattered groves of the frankincense tree, source of what some regard as the finest of aromatic incenses.
  • Arabia 2 February 2010 13:31 UTC my.raex.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.On the plateau, which has an altitude of 4000 ft., there is good pasturage; inland the country slopes gently to a broad valley beyond which the view was bounded by the level horizon of the desert.^ What is the income level like, and is there a focus on material goods?

^ This tribe occupies a large part of the coast and not a little of the country which stretches inland, and it has a people numerous beyond telling and clocks and herds in multitude beyond belief.
  • Nabataea: Arabia 2 February 2010 13:31 UTC nabataea.net [Source type: Original source]

Oman (q.v.) includes all the south-eastern corner of the peninsula. .Its chief feature is the lofty range of J. Akhdar, 10,000 ft.^ Its chief feature is the lofty range of J. Akhdar, 10,000 ft.

^ The highest summits as determined by actual survey are between 10,000 and 11,000 ft.

above sea-level. aike the great range of western .Arabia, it runs Oman. parallel to the coast; it differs, however, from the western range in that its fall on the landward side is as abrupt and nearly as great as on its seaward side.^ Arabia, it runs Oman.

^ Of the products special to Arabia coffee comes first; it is nowhere found wild, and is believed to have been introduced from Abyssinia in the 6th century A. D. It thrives on the seaward slopes of the western range in the zone of the tropical rains, at Coffee.

^ Finally,"a voyage to the Oman coast and a brief stay there brought his adventures in Arabia to a successful ending.

.Its northern extremity, Ras Musandan, rises precipitously from the straits of Hormuz; farther south the range curves inland somewhat, leaving a narrow but fertile strip, known as the Batina coast, between it and the sea, and containing several populous towns and villages of which Sohar, Barka and Sib are the chief.^ Its northern extremity, Ras Musandan, rises precipitously from the straits of Hormuz ; farther south the range curves inland somewhat, leaving a narrow but fertile strip, known as the Batina coast, between it and the sea, and containing several populous towns and villages of which Sohar, Barka and Sib are the chief.

^ A narrow coastal plane known as Tihama is predominant in the south, while a mountain chain with a steep western escarpment runs through these areas.
  • Culture of Saudi Arabia - History and ethnic relations, Urbanism, architecture, and the use of space 25 September 2009 4:25 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There are signs that this coastal strip was until a geologically recent period below sea-level; and that the coast-line is still receding is evidenced by the history of the town of Muza, once a flourishing port, now 20 m.

.Muscat, the capital of the province and the principal port on the coast, is surrounded on three sides by bare, rocky hills, and has the reputation of being the hottest place in [[[Geology: Climate: Fauna]] Arabia.^ It lies in the western part of the country, the Hijaz (or Hejaz), about 50 miles from the Red Sea coast, in a narrow valley surrounded by low hills.
  • Saudi Arabia Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Saudi Arabia 10 January 2010 11:20 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Zwemer says the fertility of the highland region of J. Akhdar is wonderful and is in striking contrast to the barrenness of so much of the coast; water issues in perennial springs from many rocky clefts, and is carefully husbanded by the ingenuity of the people; underground channels, known here as faluj, precisely similar to the kanat or karez of Persia and Afghanistan, are also largely used.^ Zwemer says the fertility of the highland region of J. Akhdar is wonderful and is in striking contrast to the barrenness of so much of the coast; water issues in perennial springs from many rocky clefts, and is carefully husbanded by the ingenuity of the people; underground channels, known here as faluj, precisely similar to the kanat or karez of Persia and Afghanistan , are also largely used.

^ Governments in the region are using it as a pretext for restricting freedom of expression and political dissent in the Gulf and the Arabian Peninsula, generating fear among journalists, government critics and generally people known or perceived to have militant religious views.
  • The Gulf and the Arabian Peninsula: Human rights fall victim to the "War on Terror" 3 February 2010 14:24 UTC www.amnestyusa.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Khaibar is a Harrat or volcanic tract, well-watered with many springs issuing from its basaltic rocks.
  • The Exclusion of the Jews and Christians 3 February 2010 14:24 UTC debate.org.uk [Source type: Original source]

.The principal villages on the eastern slopes are Rustak, Nakhl and Semail in the well-watered valley of the same name; on the western slopes are Tanuf and Nizwa, lying immediately below the highest summit of the range; Semed, Ibra and Bidiya in the W. Betha are all well-built villages with palm-groves and irrigated fields.^ The principal villages on the eastern slopes are Rustak, Nakhl and Semail in the well-watered valley of the same name; on the western slopes are Tanuf and Nizwa, lying immediately below the highest summit of the range; Semed, Ibra and Bidiya in the W. Betha are all well-built villages with palm-groves and irrigated fields.

^ He says that Poseidium is situated within the Bay of Heroöpolis [this is the modern Gulf of Suez], and that continguous to Poseidium is a grove of palm trees, well-supplied with water, which is highly-valued, because all the district around is burnt up and is without water or shade.
  • Nabataea: Arabia 2 February 2010 13:31 UTC nabataea.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The greater part of it is desert, but a short stretch lying between the 48th and 50th meridians is well watered and exceptionally fertile.

.In the north-west the Dhahira district sloping towards the Jewasimi coast is more steppe-like in character; but there two oases of great fertility are found, of which Birema, visited by both Miles and Zwemer, supports a population of 15,000. West of Abu Dhabi a low flat steppe with no settled inhabitants extends up to the Katr peninsula, merging on the north into the saline marshes which border the Persian Gulf, and on the south into the desert.^ Asir, extending south to the Yemen border, has a fertile coastal plain.
  • Saudi Arabia Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Saudi Arabia 10 January 2010 11:20 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the north-west the Dhahira district sloping towards the Jewasimi coast is more steppe-like in character; but there two oases of great fertility are found, of which Birema, visited by both Miles and Zwemer, supports a population of 15,000.

^ West of Abu Dhabi a low flat steppe with no settled inhabitants extends up to the Katr peninsula, merging on the north into the saline marshes which border the Persian Gulf, and on the south into the desert.

.The great desert known as the Dahna or the Rub`a el Khali (" the empty quarter ") is believed to cover all the interior of southern Arabia from the borders of Yemen in the west to those of Oman in the east.^ The fourth is Sabatacha, in southern Arabia, and as far east as Oman.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Arabia 2 February 2010 13:31 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The great desert known as the Dahna or the Rub`a el Khali (" the empty quarter ") is believed to cover all the interior of southern Arabia from the borders of Yemen in the west to those of Oman in the east.

^ For example, several hundred thousand Yemenis were expelled from Saudi Arabia after the Government of Yemen announced its position, thus exacerbating an existing border dispute.
  • Saudi Arabia (01/09) 10 January 2010 11:20 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Halevy in Nejran, Von Wrede in Hadramut, and Wellsted in Oman reached its edge, though none of them actually entered it, and the guides accompanying them all concurred in describing it as uninhabitable and uncrossed by any track.^ Halevy in Nejran, Von Wrede in Hadramut, and Wellsted in Oman reached its edge, though none of them actually entered it, and the guides accompanying them all concurred in describing it as uninhabitable and uncrossed by any track.

^ Though he did not actually enter the main Hadramut valley, which lay to the east of his track, his journey established the existence of this populous and fertile district which had been reported to the officers of the " Palinurus " as lying between the coast range and the great desert to the north.

^ Egyptian army in that district, and with that of Halevy, who makes all the drainage from Nejran northward run to the same great wadi.

.Its northern fringe is no doubt frequented by the Bedouin tribes of southern Nejd after the rains, when its sands, like those of the northern desert, produce herbage; but towards the east, according to Burckhardt's information, it is quite without vegetation even in the winter and spring.^ Its northern fringe is no doubt frequented by the Bedouin tribes of southern Nejd after the rains, when its sands, like those of the northern desert, produce herbage; but towards the east, according to Burckhardt's information, it is quite without vegetation even in the winter and spring.

^ There is no reason to doubt this, and indeed, it is quite likely that this occurred.
  • The Exclusion of the Jews and Christians 3 February 2010 14:24 UTC debate.org.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ The shamal, sand-laden winds from the northern deserts, is most frequent in early summer and can blow for days at 40-48 km an hour, creating severe driving conditions.
  • Saudi Arabia Travel Advice and Advisories | Government of Canada 10 January 2010 11:20 UTC www.voyage.gc.ca [Source type: News]

.The farthest habitable spot to the south of Nejd is the Wadi Yabrin, which a.^ The farthest habitable spot to the south of Nejd is the Wadi Yabrin, which a.

.Pelly heard of from the Ahl Murra Bedouins as once a fertile district, and which still produces dates, though, owing to malaria, it is now deserted; thence southward to the Hadramut valley no communication is known to exist.^ Pelly heard of from the Ahl Murra Bedouins as once a fertile district, and which still produces dates, though, owing to malaria , it is now deserted; thence southward to the Hadramut valley no communication is known to exist.

^ Though he did not actually enter the main Hadramut valley, which lay to the east of his track, his journey established the existence of this populous and fertile district which had been reported to the officers of the " Palinurus " as lying between the coast range and the great desert to the north.

^ The kingdom of Hira (Hira) was established in the boundary land between the Euphrates and the Arabian desert, a district renowned for its good air and extr a ordinary fertility.

.==[Geology== The geological structure of Arabia is very similar to that of Egypt.^ Moreover, he examined the HL data for Texas, which had also had production constraints similar to Saudi Arabia, and found that HL gave very different predictions at very different times.
  • The Oil Drum | Saudi Arabia's Crude Oil Production Peaked in 2005 10 January 2010 11:20 UTC www.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ [Geology == The geological structure of Arabia is very similar to that of Egypt.

^ Stating that oil anywhere is not bound by geological constraints is bad enough, but implying that Saudia Arabia is special and is outside the bounds of geology is just patently absurd.
  • The Oil Drum | Saudi Arabia's Crude Oil Production Peaked in 2005 10 January 2010 11:20 UTC www.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The oldest rocks consist of granite and schist, penetrated by intrusive dykes, and upon this foundation rest the flat-lying sedimentary deposits, beginning with a sandstone like the Nubian sandstone of Egypt.^ The oldest rocks consist of granite and schist, penetrated by intrusive dykes, and upon this foundation rest the flat-lying sedimentary deposits, beginning with a sandstone like the Nubian sandstone of Egypt.

^ According to Doughty, the geological aspect of Arabia is simple, consisting of a foundation stock of plutonic rock whereon lie sandstone and, above that, limestone.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Arabia 2 February 2010 13:31 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ At Marbat the granite is overlaid by sandstone, presumably the Nubian sandstone: this is followed by marls containing Cenomanian fossils; and these are overlaid by Upper Cretaceous limestones, upon which rest isolated patches of Alveolina limestone.

.In the northern part of Arabia the crystalline rocks form a broad area extending from the peninsula of Sinai eastwards to Hail and southwards at least as far as Mecca.^ In the northern part of Arabia the crystalline rocks form a broad area extending from the peninsula of Sinai eastwards to Hail and southwards at least as far as Mecca.

^ The Minean Kingdom seems to have flourished in southern Arabia as early as 1200 B.C., and from the various Minean inscriptions found in northern Arabia they seem to have extended their power even to the north of the peninsula.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Arabia 2 February 2010 13:31 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The original area of Saudi Arabia ruled by the Al-Saud was the Nejd, the central and more tribal part of Saudi Arabia.
  • Saudi Arabia Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Saudi Arabia 10 January 2010 11:20 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Towards the north the crystalline floor is overlaid by the great sandstone series which covers nearly the whole of the country north of Hail.^ Towards the north the crystalline floor is overlaid by the great sandstone series which covers nearly the whole of the country north of Hail.

^ For example, in May 2002 Bahrain declared al-Jazeera biased towards Israel and against Bahrain and banned it from covering events inside the country.
  • The Gulf and the Arabian Peninsula: Human rights fall victim to the "War on Terror" 3 February 2010 14:24 UTC www.amnestyusa.org [Source type: Original source]

.Upon the sandstone rest a few scattered outliers of limestone, probably of Cretaceous age, the largest of which occur near Jauf and east of Bureda.^ Upon the sandstone rest a few scattered outliers of limestone, probably of Cretaceous age, the largest of which occur near Jauf and east of Bureda.

^ At Marbat the granite is overlaid by sandstone, presumably the Nubian sandstone: this is followed by marls containing Cenomanian fossils; and these are overlaid by Upper Cretaceous limestones, upon which rest isolated patches of Alveolina limestone.

^ Generally, however, the Cretaceous beds do not appear, and the greater part of southern Arabia seems to be formed of Alveolina and nummulite limestones of Tertiary age.

.Over both sandstone and granite great sheets of lava have been poured, and these, protecting the softer beds beneath from further denudation, now stand up as the high plateaus and hills called harra. Volcanic cones still exist in large numbers, and the sheets of lava appear as fresh as any recent flows of Etna or Vesuvius.^ Volcanic cones still exist in large numbers, and the sheets of lava appear as fresh as any recent flows of Etna or Vesuvius .

^ Then he stands up and uses both.
  • Ben Smith's Blog: White House: No bow to Saudi - POLITICO.com 19 September 2009 2:02 UTC www.politico.com [Source type: General]

^ Over both sandstone and granite great sheets of lava have been poured, and these, protecting the softer beds beneath from further denudation, now stand up as the high plateaus and hills called harra.

.Arabian manuscripts describe an eruption on the harra near Medina in A.D. 1256. In the south of Arabia the crystalline floor appears at intervals along the southern coast and on the shores of the Gulf of Oman.^ In the south of Arabia the crystalline floor appears at intervals along the southern coast and on the shores of the Gulf of Oman.

^ Arabian manuscripts describe an eruption on the harra near Medina in A.D. 1256.

^ It is bounded on the east by the Arabian (Persian) Gulf; on the west by the Red Sea; to the south and southeast by Yemen, Oman, the United Arab Emirates, and Qatar; and to the north and northeast by Jordan, Iraq, and Kuwait.
  • Culture of Saudi Arabia - History and ethnic relations, Urbanism, architecture, and the use of space 25 September 2009 4:25 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.At Marbat the granite is overlaid by sandstone, presumably the Nubian sandstone: this is followed by marls containing Cenomanian fossils; and these are overlaid by Upper Cretaceous limestones, upon which rest isolated patches of Alveolina limestone.^ At Marbat the granite is overlaid by sandstone, presumably the Nubian sandstone: this is followed by marls containing Cenomanian fossils; and these are overlaid by Upper Cretaceous limestones, upon which rest isolated patches of Alveolina limestone.

^ Generally, however, the Cretaceous beds do not appear, and the greater part of southern Arabia seems to be formed of Alveolina and nummulite limestones of Tertiary age.

^ The oldest rocks consist of granite and schist, penetrated by intrusive dykes, and upon this foundation rest the flat-lying sedimentary deposits, beginning with a sandstone like the Nubian sandstone of Egypt.

.Generally, however, the Cretaceous beds do not appear, and the greater part of southern Arabia seems to be formed of Alveolina and nummulite limestones of Tertiary age.^ Generally, however, the Cretaceous beds do not appear, and the greater part of southern Arabia seems to be formed of Alveolina and nummulite limestones of Tertiary age.

^ Although this expedition had come to nothing, southern Arabia was now part of a larger world, and several economic changes took place.
  • Nabataea: Arabia 2 February 2010 13:31 UTC nabataea.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The water-parting between central and southern Arabia seems to be somewhere to the south of Nej ran, which, according to Halevy, drains northward to the W. Dawasir, while the Jauf is either an isolated depression, or perhaps forms part of the Hadramut basin.

.An extinct volcano occurs at Aden, and volcanic rocks are found at other places near the Straits of Bab-el-Mandeb.^ An extinct volcano occurs at Aden, and volcanic rocks are found at other places near the Straits of Bab-el-Mandeb.

^ Straits of Bab-el-Mandeb, backed by mountains rising to 7000 ft.

^ The length of its western side from Port Said to Aden is 1500 m.; its base from the Straits of Bab-el-Mandeb (or Bab al Mandab) to Ras el Had is 1300 m., its northern side from Port Said to the Euphrates 600 m.; its total area approximately 1,200,000 sq.

.Throughout the whole of Arabia, so far as is known, the sedimentary beds show no signs of any but the most gentle folding.^ Throughout the whole of Arabia, so far as is known, the sedimentary beds show no signs of any but the most gentle folding.

^ He had bone enough to satisfy all the requirements, even those of a Yorkshire man, but showed no sign of lacking quality.
  • History of Arabian Horses 3 February 2010 14:24 UTC fakulti0.tripod.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This money usually supports Wahhabism, a fundamentalist version of Islam dominant in Saudi Arabia but far less popular in most other Islamic nations.

.Faulting, however, is by no means absent, and some of the faults are of considerable magnitude.^ There is no legislation that mandates public accessibility; however, newer commercial buildings often included such access, as did some newer government buildings.
  • Saudi Arabia 10 January 2010 11:20 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

.The Gulf of Akaba is a strip of country which has been let down between two parallel faults, and several similar faulted troughs occur in the Sinai peninsula.^ The country's southern boundary with Yemen was partially defined by the 1934 Treaty of Taif, which ended a brief border war between the two states.
  • Saudi Arabia (01/09) 10 January 2010 11:20 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Comparative Criminology | Asia - Saudi Arabia 10 January 2010 11:20 UTC www-rohan.sdsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Kenny January 6th, 2010 - 5:56 am NO MORON! LET ME BE CLEAR! You will go down as the DUMBEST PRESIDENT this country will ever have!
  • Breitbart.tv » Obama Blames Creation of Al-Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula on Gitmo 3 February 2010 14:24 UTC www.breitbart.tv [Source type: General]

^ The area around the Persian Gulf is one of several oil-producing areas in the world, but not all Arab countries produce oil, and very few Arabs are rich from oil.
  • 100 questions about arab americans leaving in the US 10 February 2010 11:32 UTC allied-media.com [Source type: Original source]

.The Red Sea itself is a great trough bounded by faults along each side.] Climate.^ Persian Gulf and Red Sea provide great leverage on shipping (especially crude oil) through Persian Gulf and Suez Canal .
  • Saudi Arabia - SPAMfighter 10 January 2010 11:20 UTC www.spamfighter.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Climate: Arid, with great extremes of temperature in the interior; humidity and temperature are both high along the coast.
  • Saudi Arabia (01/09) 10 January 2010 11:20 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Hijazi Arab (more commonly known as the Saudi Arab) form the majority of the Saudi Arabian population and live predominantly along the Red Sea coast and in the major urban areas.
  • Joshua Project - Arab, Saudi - Hijazi of Saudi Arabia Ethnic People Profile 28 January 2010 0:48 UTC www.joshuaproject.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

- .Owing
to its low latitude and generally arid surface, Arabia is on the whole one of the hottest regions of the earth; this is especially the case along the coasts of the Persian Gulf and the southern half of the Red Sea, where the moist heat throughout the year is almost intolerable to Europeans.^ Saudi Arabia also borders the Red Sea to its west and the Persian Gulf to its northeast.
  • Saudi Arabia - Wikiversity 2 February 2010 13:31 UTC en.wikiversity.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Of particular significance to ancient Arabia was the domestication of the dromedary (one-humped camel) in the southern part of the peninsula between 3000 and 2500 B.C.E. By 1000 B.C.E. , camels were important in the lucrative caravan trade, especially for the transport of incense, between southern Arabia and markets in the north.
  • Culture of Saudi Arabia - History and ethnic relations, Urbanism, architecture, and the use of space 25 September 2009 4:25 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Persian Gulf and Red Sea provide great leverage on shipping (especially crude oil) through Persian Gulf and Suez Canal .
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- Saudi Arabia 25 September 2009 4:25 UTC www.cia.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- Saudi Arabia 10 January 2010 11:20 UTC www.umsl.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Saudi Arabia - SPAMfighter 10 January 2010 11:20 UTC www.spamfighter.com [Source type: Academic]

.In the interior of northern and central Arabia, however, where the average level of the country exceeds 3000 ft., the fiery heat of the summer days is followed by cool nights, and the winter climate is fresh and invigorating; while in the highlands of Asir and Yemen in the south-west, and of Oman in the east, the summer heat is never excessive, and the winters are, comparatively speaking, cold.^ This was the name of the country to the west and south of Mesopotamia.
  • Nabataea: Arabia 2 February 2010 13:31 UTC nabataea.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Its generally undefined and porous boundaries border the United Arab Emirates to the slight northeast, Oman to the direct east, Yemen to the south and southwest, Jordan to the northwest as well as Iraq and Kuwait to the northeast [3] .
  • Saudi Arabia - Wikiversity 2 February 2010 13:31 UTC en.wikiversity.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the country's interior, rainfall is less common than on the coast and the average temperature is approximately 110 degrees Fahrenheit, though they can commonly rise to 130 degrees Fahrenheit during the summer months [5] .
  • Saudi Arabia - Wikiversity 2 February 2010 13:31 UTC en.wikiversity.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In the northern desert the temperature is subject to extreme variations.^ The desert horse needed to thrive on very little food, and have anatomical traits to compensate for life in a dry climate with wide temperature extremes from day to night.
  • The Arabpedia : Arabian 3 February 2010 14:24 UTC thearabpedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Nolde states that on the 1st of February 1893 in the desert north of Hail the thermometer fell from 78° a little before sunset to 18° a quarter of an hour after.^ Nolde states that on the 1st of February 1893 in the desert north of Hail the thermometer fell from 78° a little before sunset to 18° a quarter of an hour after.

^ PaulusP on March 4, 2008 - 5:01pm I thank ace for shining a little more light through the misty desert, like others here did before.
  • The Oil Drum | Saudi Arabia's Crude Oil Reserves Propaganda 28 January 2010 0:48 UTC www.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Snow falls on the Harra and on the Tehama range in northern Arabia, and Nolde records a fall of snow which lay on the Nafud on the 1st of February 1893.

.The midday temperatures recorded by Huber at Hail during January and the first half of February average about 65° F., and water froze on several nights; at Medina the winters are cold and night frosts of frequent occurrence, and these conditions prevail over all the western part of the Nejd plateau.^ The midday temperatures recorded by Huber at Hail during January and the first half of February average about 65° F., and water froze on several nights; at Medina the winters are cold and night frosts of frequent occurrence, and these conditions prevail over all the western part of the Nejd plateau.

^ These garments are designed to be worn over clothing - thus they are mostly lightweight fabrics which are suitable for all weather use - and hot temperatures.
  • AlHannah Islamic Clothing - Muslim Womens Abayas featuring AlKaram 2 February 2010 13:31 UTC www.alhannah.com [Source type: General]

^ Temperatures in Makkah range between 60 and 80 degrees Fahrenheit during the winter months of December, January, and February.
  • Saudi Arabia 10 January 2010 11:20 UTC travel.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In the east where the elevation is lower the climate is warmer.^ In the east where the elevation is lower the climate is warmer.

In the elevated highland district which extends from .Taif to within 50 m.^ Taif to within 50 m.

^ In the elevated highland district which extends from Taif to within 50 m.

of .Aden, the summer heat is tempered by the monsoon winds, and the seasonal variation of temperature is less marked.^ Aden, the summer heat is tempered by the monsoon winds, and the seasonal variation of temperature is less marked.

.From observations made at Sana by Manzoni, Defiers and Glaser, the mean temperature for the year of that city at an altitude of 7300 ft.^ From observations made at Sana by Manzoni, Defiers and Glaser, the mean temperature for the year of that city at an altitude of 7300 ft.

^ In 1877-80 the Italian Renzo Manzoni made three excursions to Sana, the Turkish capital of Yemen.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Arabia 2 February 2010 13:31 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Sana, the capital of Yemen, lies in a broad valley 7300 ft.

and in .15° 22' N. appears to be 60° F.; for July the mean maximum was 77°, mean minimum 54°; for January the figures were 62 ° and 40° respectively, the lowest recorded temperature in 1878 was 26.6° on the 26th of January.^ N. appears to be 60° F.; for July the mean maximum was 77°, mean minimum 54°; for January the figures were 62 ° and 40° respectively, the lowest recorded temperature in 1878 was 26.6° on the 26th of January.

^ Eileen for Freedom/Liberty January 6th, 2010 - 2:26 am Dear ‘mentally unstable’ Democratzi at 2:15 am…it is not I who will need the help…it will be you and your comrades!
  • Breitbart.tv » Obama Blames Creation of Al-Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula on Gitmo 3 February 2010 14:24 UTC www.breitbart.tv [Source type: General]

^ At Aden at the sea-level the mean temperature for the year is 83°; the highest observed temperature in 1904 was 97.3°, the lowest 67.4°.

.At Aden at the sea-level the mean temperature for the year is 83°; the highest observed temperature in 1904 was 97.3°, the lowest 67.4°.^ At Aden at the sea-level the mean temperature for the year is 83°; the highest observed temperature in 1904 was 97.3°, the lowest 67.4°.

^ It declined year-over-year in 2006, then again in 2007, then increased sharply in 2008, back to almost its 2005 level and above its highest 2005 monthly level.
  • The Oil Drum | Saudi Arabia's Crude Oil Production Peaked in 2005 10 January 2010 11:20 UTC www.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the Tehama occasional showers fall during the winter months; at Aden the average rainfall for the year is 2.97 in., but during 1904 only 0.5 in.

.The rainfall throughout northern and central Arabia is chiefly in the winter months between October and April, and is scanty and irregular.^ The rainfall throughout northern and central Arabia is chiefly in the winter months between October and April, and is scanty and irregular.

^ Temperatures in Makkah range between 60 and 80 degrees Fahrenheit during the winter months of December, January, and February.
  • Saudi Arabia 10 January 2010 11:20 UTC travel.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This victory placed the whole of northern and central Arabia under the supremacy of Mahommed Ibn Rashid, which he held undisputed during the rest of his life.

.Doughty states that in 1876 rain to wet the ground had not fallen for three years at Medain Salih; in that year showers fell on the 29th of December and on two days in January and again in March.^ Doughty states that in 1876 rain to wet the ground had not fallen for three years at Medain Salih; in that year showers fell on the 29th of December and on two days in January and again in March.

^ The program runs from mid-August until mid-December, with a two week break for the Dussera festival in October and a few days off for the Diwali holidays a few weeks later.
  • Summer Near Eastern Language Instruction (off campus) 15 September 2009 20:52 UTC www2.gsu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ These are kept most of the year in the Nafud, five or ten days' march from Hail, where they find their own food on the desert herbage.

.After a very hot summer the bright weather changed to clouded skies on the 2nd of October, rain fell tempestuously the same evening, and there were showery days and nights till the 14th.^ After a very hot summer the bright weather changed to clouded skies on the 2nd of October, rain fell tempestuously the same evening, and there were showery days and nights till the 14th.

^ He said, "Do you have any difficulty in seeing the moon on a full moon night when it is bright and there is no cloud in the sky?"
  • The Exclusion of the Jews and Christians 3 February 2010 14:24 UTC debate.org.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ Very few days, even in winter, are cool enough to wear wool fabrics comfortably all day.
  • Saudi Arabia Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Saudi Arabia 10 January 2010 11:20 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The autumn rains fell that year abundantly in the Nafud towards Jauf, but very little in the basin of the W. Hamd (on the western slope).^ The autumn rains fell that year abundantly in the Nafud towards Jauf, but very little in the basin of the W. Hamd (on the western slope).

.Doughty adds that the Nejd highlands between Kasim and Mecca are watered yearly by seasonable rains, which at Taif are expected about the end of August and last commonly from four to six weeks.^ Doughty adds that the Nejd highlands between Kasim and Mecca are watered yearly by seasonable rains, which at Taif are expected about the end of August and last commonly from four to six weeks.

^ The dynasty of the aakhmids, famed in Arabian history and literature, arose towards the end of the 3rd century and lasted until about 602.

^ The town, which has risen with the fortunes of the Ibn Rashid family to be the capital of Upper Nejd, is at the mouth of the valley between the twin ranges, about 2 m.

.This appears to be about the northern limit reached by the south-west monsoon, which from June to September brings a fairly abundant rainfall to the Yemen highlands, though the Tehama remains almost entirely rainless.^ This appears to be about the northern limit reached by the south-west monsoon, which from June to September brings a fairly abundant rainfall to the Yemen highlands, though the Tehama remains almost entirely rainless.

^ In the south of Arabia 'Ali succeeded in establishing his own governor in Yemen, though the government treasure was carried off to Mecca.

^ Continuing eastward they crossed the mountainous region and reached the highlands of Yemen at Uden, a small town and the centre of a district celebrated for its coffee.

.The rainfall is heaviest along the western fringe of the plateau, and penetrates inland in decreasing quantity over a zone which perhaps extends to loo m.^ The rainfall is heaviest along the western fringe of the plateau, and penetrates inland in decreasing quantity over a zone which perhaps extends to loo m.

in width. .In good seasons it is sufficient for the cultivation of the summer crop of millet, and for the supply of the perennial streams and springs, on which the irrigation of the winter crops of wheat and barley depend.^ In good seasons it is sufficient for the cultivation of the summer crop of millet , and for the supply of the perennial streams and springs, on which the irrigation of the winter crops of wheat and barley depend.

^ Winter is comparable to the spring and summer seasons of resorts on the Mediterranean Sea.
  • Saudi Arabia Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Saudi Arabia 10 January 2010 11:20 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Of cereals the common millets, dhura and dukhn, are grown in all parts of the country as the summer crop, and in the hot irrigated Tehama districts three crops are reaped in the year; in the highlands maize , wheat and barley are grown to a limited extent as the winter crop, ripening at the end of March or in April.

.The amount measured at Dhala at the extreme south of the plateau at an elevation of 4800 ft.^ The amount measured at Dhala at the extreme south of the plateau at an elevation of 4800 ft.

^ In general terms Arabia may be described as a plateau sloping gently from south-west to north-east, and attaining its greatest elevation in the extreme south-west.

was in 1902 as follows: - June, 4 . .0 in.; July, 5.5; August, 5.8; September, 1.9. Only slight showers were recorded in the other months of the year.^ In other words, our middle case is that the post-2005 Saudi Net Export Fuel Gauge is only 80% full, after only three years.
  • The Oil Drum | Saudi Arabia's Crude Oil Production Peaked in 2005 10 January 2010 11:20 UTC www.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Only slight showers were recorded in the other months of the year.

^ There were many reports of employers who refused to pay workers several months, or even years, of accumulated salary or other promised benefits .
  • Saudi Arabia 10 January 2010 11:20 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

.At higher elevations the rainfall is no doubt heavier; Manzoni mentions that at Sana there was constant rain throughout August and September 1878, and that the thermometer during August did not reach 65°.^ Rainfall in both Jeddah and Dhahran is sparse, about 3-4 inches a year concentrated in a few heavy showers during fall and spring.
  • Saudi Arabia Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Saudi Arabia 10 January 2010 11:20 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There is a constant and high terrorist threat throughout the Arabian Peninsula and Jordan.
  • Saudi Arabia Travel Advice and Advisories | Government of Canada 10 January 2010 11:20 UTC www.voyage.gc.ca [Source type: News]

^ No doubt, as Trimingham accepts, Umar did indeed remove some Christians from Najran for some reason, and probably did the same to some Jews, as Arafat suggests.
  • The Exclusion of the Jews and Christians 3 February 2010 14:24 UTC debate.org.uk [Source type: Original source]

.In the Tehama occasional showers fall during the winter months; at Aden the average rainfall for the year is 2.97 in., but during 1904 only 0.5 in.^ In the Tehama occasional showers fall during the winter months; at Aden the average rainfall for the year is 2.97 in., but during 1904 only 0.5 in.

^ Temperatures in Makkah range between 60 and 80 degrees Fahrenheit during the winter months of December, January, and February.
  • Saudi Arabia 10 January 2010 11:20 UTC travel.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the country's interior, rainfall is less common than on the coast and the average temperature is approximately 110 degrees Fahrenheit, though they can commonly rise to 130 degrees Fahrenheit during the summer months [5] .
  • Saudi Arabia - Wikiversity 2 February 2010 13:31 UTC en.wikiversity.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

was recorded. .Snow falls on the Harra and on the Tehama range in northern Arabia, and Nolde records a fall of snow which lay on the Nafud on the 1st of February 1893. It also falls on J. Akhdar in Oman, but is very rarely known on the Yemen mountains, probably because the precipitation during the winter months is so slight.^ It also falls on J. Akhdar in Oman, but is very rarely known on the Yemen mountains, probably because the precipitation during the winter months is so slight.

^ Snow falls on the Harra and on the Tehama range in northern Arabia, and Nolde records a fall of snow which lay on the Nafud on the 1st of February 1893.

^ Temperatures in Makkah range between 60 and 80 degrees Fahrenheit during the winter months of December, January, and February.
  • Saudi Arabia 10 January 2010 11:20 UTC travel.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The prevailing winds in northern Arabia as far as is known are from the west; along the southern coast they are from the east; at Sana there is generally a light breeze from the north-north-west from 9 to II A.M., from noon till 4 P.M. a steady and often strong wind blows from the south-south-east, which dies away later.^ The fourth is Sabatacha, in southern Arabia, and as far east as Oman.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Arabia 2 February 2010 13:31 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Christianity in Arabia had three in centres in the north-west, north-east, and south-west of the peninsula.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Arabia 2 February 2010 13:31 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The general direction of these hills is from north-west to south-east.

.The climate is extremely dry, but this is compensated for by the heavy mists which sweep up from the plains during the rainless months and exercise a most beneficial effect in the coffee-growing districts.^ Men: During the 5-month hot season most men wear lightweight suits with short-sleeved shirts to work.
  • Saudi Arabia Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Saudi Arabia 10 January 2010 11:20 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The desert horse needed to thrive on very little food, and have anatomical traits to compensate for life in a dry climate with wide temperature extremes from day to night.
  • The Arabpedia : Arabian 3 February 2010 14:24 UTC thearabpedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This phenomenon is known as the sukhemani or amama.^ This phenomenon is known as the sukhemani or amama.

.In the morning the Tehama, as seen from the mountain tops, appears buried in a sea of white cloud; towards noon the clouds drift up the mountain slopes and cover the summits with wreaths of light mist charged with moisture which condenses on the trees and vegetation; in the afternoon they disappear, and the evenings are generally clear and still.^ In the morning the Tehama, as seen from the mountain tops, appears buried in a sea of white cloud ; towards noon the clouds drift up the mountain slopes and cover the summits with wreaths of light mist charged with moisture which condenses on the trees and vegetation; in the afternoon they disappear, and the evenings are generally clear and still.

^ Classes can be any day of the week (even weekends) in the morning, afternoon or evening.
  • Arabic Courses New York :: Arabic School New York :: Arabic Language Course New York 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.languagetrainers.com [Source type: News]

^ How the Muslims would know this is not revealed, still less is it clear how someone writing generations after the event would be aware of it in the absence of any reference in the Qur'an or Hadith .
  • The Exclusion of the Jews and Christians 3 February 2010 14:24 UTC debate.org.uk [Source type: Original source]

.==Fauna== The wild animals of Arabia are all of the desert-loving type: antelopes and gazelles are found in small numbers throughout the peninsula; the latter are similar to the chikara or ravine deer of India.^ Fauna == The wild animals of Arabia are all of the desert-loving type: antelopes and gazelles are found in small numbers throughout the peninsula; the latter are similar to the chikara or ravine deer of India.

^ Among the wild animals are the lion and panther (both at present scarce), the wolf, wild boar, jackal, gazelle, fox, monkey, wild cow, or white antelope, ibex, horned viper, cobra, hawk, and ostrich.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Arabia 2 February 2010 13:31 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Yet if non-Muslims did remain in the peninsula their numbers in the central region were small.
  • The Exclusion of the Jews and Christians 3 February 2010 14:24 UTC debate.org.uk [Source type: Original source]

.The larger antelopes, so common on the African side of the Gulf of Aden, are not found, except one variety, the Oryx beatrix (called by the Arabs, wild cow), which is an inhabitant of the Nafud between Tema and Hail; it is about the size of a donkey, white, and with long straight horns.^ The larger antelopes, so common on the African side of the Gulf of Aden, are not found, except one variety, the Oryx beatrix (called by the Arabs , wild cow), which is an inhabitant of the Nafud between Tema and Hail; it is about the size of a donkey, white, and with long straight horns.

^ The same “sin” the so-called Arabized African is guilty of, in defending the brutality of Arab enslavement, is the same sin the “Afrocentric” is guilty of, when defending African-to-African enslavement.
  • ARAB SLAVE TRADE - The history of Arab Slavery in Africa 10 February 2010 11:32 UTC www.africanholocaust.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Book III 43.4 After one has sailed past this country the Laeanites Gulf (On the Sinai) comes next, about which are many inhabited villages of Arabs who are known as Nabataeans.
  • Nabataea: Arabia 2 February 2010 13:31 UTC nabataea.net [Source type: Original source]

.Hares are numerous both in the desert and in cultivated tracts.^ Hares are numerous both in the desert and in cultivated tracts.

.In the Yemen mountains the wal, a wild goat with massive horns, similar to the Kashmir ibex, is found; monkeys also abound.^ In the Yemen mountains the wal, a wild goat with massive horns, similar to the Kashmir ibex , is found; monkeys also abound.

^ Hyenas, wolves and panthers are found in most parts of the country, and in the mountains the leopard and wild cat .

^ Among the wild animals are the lion and panther (both at present scarce), the wolf, wild boar, jackal, gazelle, fox, monkey, wild cow, or white antelope, ibex, horned viper, cobra, hawk, and ostrich.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Arabia 2 February 2010 13:31 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

.Among smaller animals the jerboa and other descriptions of rat, and the wabar or cony are common; lizards and snakes are numerous, most of the latter being venomous.^ Among smaller animals the jerboa and other descriptions of rat , and the wabar or cony are common; lizards and snakes are numerous, most of the latter being venomous.

.Hyenas, wolves and panthers are found in most parts of the country, and in the mountains the leopard and wild cat.^ Hyenas, wolves and panthers are found in most parts of the country, and in the mountains the leopard and wild cat .

^ In the Yemen mountains the wal, a wild goat with massive horns, similar to the Kashmir ibex , is found; monkeys also abound.

^ Beyond the enclosure the country is for the most part a desert, particularly towards Judaea.
  • Nabataea: Arabia 2 February 2010 13:31 UTC nabataea.net [Source type: Original source]

.Of birds the ostrich is found in the Nafud and in the W. Dawasir.^ Of birds the ostrich is found in the Nafud and in the W. Dawasir.

.Among game birds the bustard, guinea fowl, sand grouse (kata), blue rock, green pigeon, partridge, including a large chikor (akb) and a small species similar to the Punjab sisi; quail and several kinds of duck and snipe are met with.^ Among game birds the bustard , guinea fowl , sand grouse ( kata ), blue rock, green pigeon , partridge , including a large chikor ( akb ) and a small species similar to the Punjab sisi; quail and several kinds of duck and snipe are met with.

^ They all live on venison, and are further supported on a great abundance of milk, and on many kinds of herbs, and on whatever birds they can catch by fowling.
  • Nabataea: Arabia 2 February 2010 13:31 UTC nabataea.net [Source type: Original source]

.In the cultivated parts of Yemen and Tehama small birds are very numerous, so also are birds of prey, vultures, kites and hawks.^ We've made each lesson very easy for you to learn by breaking them down into small parts, so you can practice each part individually and then put it all together...
  • Learn to Speak Arabic Online with Rocket Arabic Premium 10 February 2010 11:32 UTC www.rocketlanguages.com [Source type: General]

.Insects of all sorts abound; scorpions, centipedes,spiders, and an ugly but harmless millipede known in Yemen as hablub are very common in summer.^ Insects of all sorts abound; scorpions, centipedes,spiders, and an ugly but harmless millipede known in Yemen as hablub are very common in summer.

^ No taxes at all (2) No inflation at all, they have same prices now that they had in 1980s (3) Very precise, well known and extremely stable laws.
  • The Oil Drum | Saudi Arabia's Crude Oil Production Peaked in 2005 10 January 2010 11:20 UTC www.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It also falls on J. Akhdar in Oman, but is very rarely known on the Yemen mountains, probably because the precipitation during the winter months is so slight.

.Ants and beetles too are very numerous, and anthills are prominent features in many places.^ Ants and beetles too are very numerous, and anthills are prominent features in many places.

aocusts appear in great swarms and do much damage; fires are lighted at night to attract them, and large quantities are caught and eaten by the poorer people. Bees are kept, and in Yemen and Hadramut the honey is exceptionally good.
.Of domesticated animals the camel is far the most useful to the Arab.^ Of domesticated animals the camel is far the most useful to the Arab.

^ Arabic is by far the most popularly used language in Saudi Arabia [25] .
  • Saudi Arabia - Wikiversity 2 February 2010 13:31 UTC en.wikiversity.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The chief domestic animals are the ass, mule, sheep, goat, dog, and above all the horse and the camel.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Arabia 2 February 2010 13:31 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

.Owing to its endurance of thirst the long desert journeys which separate the populous centres are made practicable, and in the spring months, when green forage is plentiful in the desert, the Bedouins pitch their camps for long periods far from any water, and not only men but horses subsist on camel's milk.^ Owing to its endurance of thirst the long desert journeys which separate the populous centres are made practicable, and in the spring months, when green forage is plentiful in the desert, the Bedouins pitch their camps for long periods far from any water, and not only men but horses subsist on camel's milk.

^ They are milked once a day about sunset by the women (the men milk the camels), and a large proportion of the milk is made into samn, clarified butter , or marisi, dried curd.

^ In the spring months, when their camels are in milk , the Bedouins care nothing for water, and wander far into the Nafud with their flocks in search of the green pasture which springs up everywhere after the winter rains.

.The Arabian camel belongs to the one-humped species, though there are many varieties differing in appearance as much as the thoroughbred race-horse from the English cart-horse.^ The Arabian camel belongs to the one-humped species, though there are many varieties differing in appearance as much as the thoroughbred race- horse from the English cart -horse.

^ There are many varieties.

^ If you want some real activity, try out your hands at something new like falconry, camel racing or even horse racing.
  • Things to Do in Saudi Arabia, Shopping in Saudi Arabia, Saudi Arabia Travel Information 19 September 2009 2:02 UTC www.asiarooms.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The ordinary load for a pack camel is about 400 lb, and in hot weather good camels will march 20 to 25 m.^ Page 20 shows the IHS increase in URR for Saudi Arabia from about 320 Gb from its 2004 data to almost 400 Gb from its 2006 data.
  • The Oil Drum | Saudi Arabia's Crude Oil Reserves Propaganda 28 January 2010 0:48 UTC www.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the antebellum South, about 5,000 Jews (out of 20,000) owned one or more slaves, making up 1.25 percent of Southern slaveowners.
  • ARAB SLAVE TRADE - The history of Arab Slavery in Africa 10 February 2010 11:32 UTC www.africanholocaust.net [Source type: Original source]

daily and only require water every third or fourth day: in cool weather, with ample green fodder they can go twentyfive days or more without drinking. .A good dalul or riding camel will carry his rider zoo m.^ A good dalul or riding camel will carry his rider zoo m.

a day for a week on end. .Nolde gives an instance from his own experience of a camel rider covering 62 m.^ Nolde gives an instance from his own experience of a camel rider covering 62 m.

in seven hours. .The pure-bred riding camel is only found in perfection in inner Arabia; for some unexplained reason when taken out of their own country or north of the 30th degree they rapidly degenerate.^ The pure-bred riding camel is only found in perfection in inner Arabia; for some unexplained reason when taken out of their own country or north of the 30th degree they rapidly degenerate.

^ I don't think that there is any geological reason that Saudi Arabia pumps out a low percentage of its reserves.
  • The Oil Drum | Saudi Arabia's Crude Oil Reserves Propaganda 28 January 2010 0:48 UTC www.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some claim African Muslims blended ancient African traditions into the “pure” Islamic they encountered coming from Arabia.
  • ARAB SLAVE TRADE - The history of Arab Slavery in Africa 10 February 2010 11:32 UTC www.africanholocaust.net [Source type: Original source]

.The horse does not occupy the important position in the Bedouin economy that is popularly supposed.^ The horse does not occupy the important position in the Bedouin economy that is popularly supposed.

^ It is important to realize that being ethnically Bedouin does not mean that you are nomadic!

.In Nejd the number of horses is, comparatively speaking, very small; the want of water in the Nafud where alone forage is obtainable, and the absence of forage in the neighbourhood of the towns makes horse-breeding on a large scale impracticable there.^ In Nejd the number of horses is, comparatively speaking, very small; the want of water in the Nafud where alone forage is obtainable, and the absence of forage in the neighbourhood of the towns makes horse-breeding on a large scale impracticable there.

^ There are schools and hospitals and a number of large bazaars.
  • Saudi Arabia Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Saudi Arabia 10 January 2010 11:20 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The reasons for rejecting the story are the following: As already stated above, the reference to the story in the Qur'an is extremely brief, and there is no indication whatever of the killing of a large number.
  • The Exclusion of the Jews and Christians 3 February 2010 14:24 UTC debate.org.uk [Source type: Original source]

.Horses are in fact only kept by the principal sheiks, and by far the larger proportion of those now in Nejd are the property of the amir and his family.^ Horses are in fact only kept by the principal sheiks, and by far the larger proportion of those now in Nejd are the property of the amir and his family.

.These are kept most of the year in the Nafud, five or ten days' march from Hail, where they find their own food on the desert herbage.^ These are kept most of the year in the Nafud, five or ten days' march from Hail, where they find their own food on the desert herbage.

^ They can remain on stand-by for five days.

^ They were given ten days to leave upon pain of death.
  • The Exclusion of the Jews and Christians 3 February 2010 14:24 UTC debate.org.uk [Source type: Original source]

When a raid is in contemplation, they are brought in and given a little barley for a few weeks. .Reared in this way they are capable of marvellous endurance, marching during a raid twenty hours a day for eight or ten days together.^ Reared in this way they are capable of marvellous endurance, marching during a raid twenty hours a day for eight or ten days together.

^ They were given ten days to leave upon pain of death.
  • The Exclusion of the Jews and Christians 3 February 2010 14:24 UTC debate.org.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ Camping and day trips in the desert are popular during the cooler weather, from November through March.
  • Saudi Arabia Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Saudi Arabia 10 January 2010 11:20 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

As a rule, they are only mounted at the moment of attack, or in pursuit. .Water and forage have to be carried for them on camels.^ Water and forage have to be carried for them on camels.

.The great majority of the horses that come into the market as Arabs, are bred in the northern desert and in Mesopotamia, by the various sections of the Aneza and Shammar tribes, who emigrated from Nejd generations ago, taking with them the original Nejd stock.^ The great majority of the horses that come into the market as Arabs, are bred in the northern desert and in Mesopotamia, by the various sections of the Aneza and Shammar tribes, who emigrated from Nejd generations ago, taking with them the original Nejd stock.

^ The northern edge of this great desert follows.

^ Do Arabs come from the desert?
  • 100 questions about arab americans leaving in the US 10 February 2010 11:32 UTC allied-media.com [Source type: Original source]

.In size and appearance, and in everything but endurance, these northern horses are admittedly superior to the true Nejdi.^ In size and appearance, and in everything but endurance, these northern horses are admittedly superior to the true Nejdi.

.A few of the latter are collected by dealers in the nomad camps and exported chiefly from Kuwet.^ A few of the latter are collected by dealers in the nomad camps and exported chiefly from Kuwet.

.The amir Mahommed Ibn Rashid used to send down about one hundred young horses yearly.^ The amir Mahommed Ibn Rashid used to send down about one hundred young horses yearly.

^ The town, which has risen with the fortunes of the Ibn Rashid family to be the capital of Upper Nejd, is at the mouth of the valley between the twin ranges, about 2 m.

^ Arafat quotes ibn Kathir as holding that the Khaybar Jews were still in residence about three hundred years after their supposed general expulsion.
  • The Exclusion of the Jews and Christians 3 February 2010 14:24 UTC debate.org.uk [Source type: Original source]

.Asses of excellent quality are bred all over the country; they are much used as mounts by the richer townsmen.^ Asses of excellent quality are bred all over the country; they are much used as mounts by the richer townsmen.

^ However, as a reality check, we all know that in the late 80's all the OPEC countries increased their oil reserves so they could sell more.
  • The Oil Drum | Saudi Arabia's Crude Oil Reserves Propaganda 28 January 2010 0:48 UTC www.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ You think all other on surface of earth have no culture, no wisdom and no ability to make use of what they have.
  • The Oil Drum | Saudi Arabia's Crude Oil Production Peaked in 2005 10 January 2010 11:20 UTC www.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Except in the settled districts horned cattle are not numerous; they are similar to the Indian humped cattle, but are greatly superior in milking qualities.^ Except in the settled districts horned cattle are not numerous; they are similar to the Indian humped cattle, but are greatly superior in milking qualities.

.The great wealth of the Arabs is in their flocks of sheep and goats; they are led out to pasture soon after sunrise, and in the hotter months drink every second day.^ During this month of self-discipline and purification, Muslims abstain from food, drink and sex from before sunrise until sundown.
  • 100 questions about arab americans leaving in the US 10 February 2010 11:32 UTC allied-media.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This area contains the heaviest concentration of nomadic Bedouins who still lead their flocks of sheep, goats, and camels across the arid land in search of pastures.
  • Saudi Arabia Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Saudi Arabia 10 January 2010 11:20 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I listen to Rush and Michael Stupid Savage and Glenn Beck every day and all they are doing is creating havoc.
  • Ben Smith's Blog: White House: No bow to Saudi - POLITICO.com 19 September 2009 2:02 UTC www.politico.com [Source type: General]

.In the spring when the succulent ashub and adar grow plentifully in the desert, they go for weeks without drinking.^ In the spring when the succulent ashub and adar grow plentifully in the desert, they go for weeks without drinking.

.They are milked once a day about sunset by the women (the men milk the camels), and a large proportion of the milk is made into samn, clarified butter, or marisi, dried curd.^ They are milked once a day about sunset by the women (the men milk the camels), and a large proportion of the milk is made into samn, clarified butter , or marisi, dried curd.

^ In fact the periods of conservative production once you take into account they may be refilling storage and not reporting production.
  • The Oil Drum | Saudi Arabia's Crude Oil Reserves Propaganda 28 January 2010 0:48 UTC www.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He then killed their men and distributed their women, children and property among the Muslims, but some of them came to the Prophet and he granted them safety, and they embraced Islam.
  • The Exclusion of the Jews and Christians 3 February 2010 14:24 UTC debate.org.uk [Source type: Original source]

.The wool is not of much value, and is spun by the women and woven into rugs, and made up into saddlebags or into the black Bedouin tents.^ The wool is not of much value, and is spun by the women and woven into rugs, and made up into saddlebags or into the black Bedouin tents.

^ The rise of Persian influence made itself felt in much the same way as the Norman influence in England by bringing a newer refinement into poetry.

.==Flora== The flora of Arabia has been investigated by P. Forskal, the botanist of Niebuhr's mission, P. E. Botta, G. Schweinfurth and A. Deflers, to whose publications the technical reader is referred.^ Flora == The flora of Arabia has been investigated by P. Forskal, the botanist of Niebuhr's mission, P. E. Botta, G. Schweinfurth and A. Deflers, to whose publications the technical reader is referred.

^ The fauna and flora of Arabia have not been as yet carefully investigated and studied.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Arabia 2 February 2010 13:31 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

.Its general type approaches more closely to the African than to that of southern Asia.^ Its general type approaches more closely to the African than to that of southern Asia.

^ Although in general the culture greatly prizes children, studies by doctors indicated that severe abuse and neglect of children appeared to be more widespread than previously reported.
  • Saudi Arabia 10 January 2010 11:20 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Rural Central Asia is one of the most under-developed and needy regions on earth, even more so than many African or S E Asian countries.
  • Long-term (10mo-3yrs+) 3 February 2010 14:24 UTC omusa.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In the higher regions the principal trees are various species of fig, tamarind, carob and numerous kinds of cactiform Euphorbia, of which one, the Euphorbia arborea, grows to a height of 20 ft.^ In the higher regions the principal trees are various species of fig, tamarind , carob and numerous kinds of cactiform Euphorbia , of which one, the Euphorbia arborea, grows to a height of 20 ft.

^ It is planted in terraces on the mountain slopes; shady trees, such as tamarind and fig, are planted in the border as a protection from the sun, and the terraces are irrigated by channels led from a neighbouring rivulet or spring.

^ Mutawwa'in practices and incidents of abuse varied widely in different regions of the country, but they were most numerous in the central Nejd region.
  • Comparative Criminology | Asia - Saudi Arabia 10 January 2010 11:20 UTC www-rohan.sdsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Of Coniferae the juniper is found on the higher slopes of J. Sabur near Taiz, where Botta describes it as forming an extensive forest and growing to a large size; it is also found in the range overlooking the W. Madin, 50 m.^ Of Coniferae the juniper is found on the higher slopes of J. Sabur near Taiz, where Botta describes it as forming an extensive forest and growing to a large size; it is also found in the range overlooking the W. Madin, 50 m.

^ Considerable forests are said to exist in Asir, and Burton found a few fine specimens which he regarded as the remains of an old forest, on the Tehama range in Midian.

^ The lower valleys produce dates in abundance, and at higher elevations wheat, barley, millets and excellent fruit are grown, while juniper forests are said to cover the mountain slopes.

W. of Aden. .Considerable forests are said to exist in Asir, and Burton found a few fine specimens which he regarded as the remains of an old forest, on the Tehama range in Midian.^ Considerable forests are said to exist in Asir, and Burton found a few fine specimens which he regarded as the remains of an old forest, on the Tehama range in Midian.

.On the rocky hill-sides in Yemen the Adenium Obesum is worthy of notice, with its enormous bulb-like stems and brilliant red flowers.^ On the rocky hill-sides in Yemen the Adenium Obesum is worthy of notice, with its enormous bulb-like stems and brilliant red flowers.

^ I'm not talking about things like abortion and homosexuality which are side issues at best and generally totally irrelevant these are red herrings.
  • The Oil Drum | Saudi Arabia's Crude Oil Production Peaked in 2005 10 January 2010 11:20 UTC www.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Some fine aloes or agaves are also found. .In the cultivated upland valleys all over Arabia the Zizyphus j ujuba, called by some travellers lotus, grows to a large tree; its thorny branches are clipped yearly and used to fence the cornfields among which it grows.^ In the cultivated upland valleys all over Arabia the Zizyphus j ujuba, called by some travellers lotus , grows to a large tree; its thorny branches are clipped yearly and used to fence the cornfields among which it grows.

^ Entirely different scripts were used in southern Arabia, and so historians today often refuse to classify all of these languages under the heading "Arabic."
  • Nabataea: Arabia 2 February 2010 13:31 UTC nabataea.net [Source type: Original source]

^ (The traders used camels: this animal was domesticated in the tenth century BC and could travel some hundred kilometers/day.
  • Nabataea: Arabia 2 February 2010 13:31 UTC nabataea.net [Source type: Original source]

.In the broad sandy wadi beds the tamarisk (athl) is everywhere found; its wood is used for making domestic implements of all sorts.^ In the broad sandy wadi beds the tamarisk ( athl ) is everywhere found; its wood is used for making domestic implements of all sorts.

^ You think all other on surface of earth have no culture, no wisdom and no ability to make use of what they have.
  • The Oil Drum | Saudi Arabia's Crude Oil Production Peaked in 2005 10 January 2010 11:20 UTC www.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Kasim and Wushm, where the water in the wadi beds rises nearly to the ground level, numerous fertile oases are found with thriving villages and towns.

.Among fruit trees the vine, apricot, peach, apple, quince, fig and banana are cultivated in the highlands, and in the lower country the date palm flourishes, particularly throughout the central zone of Arabia, in Hejaz, Nejd and El Hasa, where it is the prime article of food.^ Among fruit trees the vine , apricot , peach , apple , quince , fig and banana are cultivated in the highlands, and in the lower country the date palm flourishes, particularly throughout the central zone of Arabia, in Hejaz, Nejd and El Hasa, where it is the prime article of food.

^ Saud family of the Nejd, in central Arabia.
  • Saudi Arabia Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Saudi Arabia 10 January 2010 11:20 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As to central and south-east Arabia, such as Nejd and Oman, it is doubtful whether Christianity made any advance there.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Arabia 2 February 2010 13:31 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

.A hundred kinds of date are said to grow at Medina, of which the birni is considered the most wholesome; the halwa and the jalebi are the most delicately flavoured and sell at very high rates; the khulas of El Hasa is also much esteemed.^ A hundred kinds of date are said to grow at Medina, of which the birni is considered the most wholesome; the halwa and the jalebi are the most delicately flavoured and sell at very high rates; the khulas of El Hasa is also much esteemed.

^ Or I could be wrong and all this oil from expected increases in recovery factors technical advances etc will be pumped at high rates and production will continue to grow.
  • The Oil Drum | Saudi Arabia's Crude Oil Reserves Propaganda 28 January 2010 0:48 UTC www.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Arab plunders met with savage resistance, which meant that the trade had a very high mortality rate.
  • ARAB SLAVE TRADE - The history of Arab Slavery in Africa 10 February 2010 11:32 UTC www.africanholocaust.net [Source type: Original source]

.Of cereals the common millets, dhura and dukhn, are grown in all parts of the country as the summer crop, and in the hot irrigated Tehama districts three crops are reaped in the year; in the highlands maize, wheat and barley are grown to a limited extent as the winter crop, ripening at the end of March or in April.^ In February, March, and April 2005, Saudis voted in the country's first municipal elections in more than 50 years.
  • Saudi Arabia (01/09) 10 January 2010 11:20 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ (Sura 38:48) All of the three previously mentioned references are found in the Meccan Suras from the early part of Mohammed's life.
  • Nabataea: Arabia 2 February 2010 13:31 UTC nabataea.net [Source type: Original source]

^ And with the water which is brought into them from the rivers and that which comes with the summer rains they irrigate a large part of the country and get two crops yearly.
  • Nabataea: Arabia 2 February 2010 13:31 UTC nabataea.net [Source type: Original source]

.Among vegetables the common kinds grown include radishes, pumpkins, cucumbers, melons, potatoes, onions and leeks.^ Among vegetables the common kinds grown include radishes, pumpkins, cucumbers, melons, potatoes, onions and leeks.

.Roses are grown in some places for the manufacture of atr, or attar of roses; mignonette, jasmine, thyme, lavender and other aromatic plants are favourites in Yemen, when the Arabs often stick a bunch in their head-dress.^ Roses are grown in some places for the manufacture of atr, or attar of roses; mignonette , jasmine , thyme , lavender and other aromatic plants are favourites in Yemen, when the Arabs often stick a bunch in their head- dress .

^ In Yemen this tree was probably more common formerly; the place-name Arar, signifying juniper, is still often found where the tree no longer exists.

.Of the products special to Arabia coffee comes first; it is nowhere found wild, and is believed to have been introduced from Abyssinia in the 6th century A. D. It thrives on the seaward slopes of the western range in the zone of the tropical rains, at Coffee. altitudes between 4000 and 7000 ft.^ Of the products special to Arabia coffee comes first; it is nowhere found wild, and is believed to have been introduced from Abyssinia in the 6th century A. D. It thrives on the seaward slopes of the western range in the zone of the tropical rains, at Coffee.

^ On the main route from Hodeda to Sana the first coffee plantations are reached at Usil, at an altitude of 4300 ft., and throughout the western slopes of the range up to an altitude of 7000 ft.

^ It is quite possible for production to be bound by geology but not determined by it; geology binds Saudi Arabia to some maximum level of production, but they are free to politically determine any level of production between that upper bound and zero.
  • The Oil Drum | Saudi Arabia's Crude Oil Production Peaked in 2005 10 January 2010 11:20 UTC www.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The principal centres of production are the upper valleys of the W. Surdad, between Kaukaban and Manakha, and particularly on J. Haraz; in the Wadi Tubed west of Uden; in Hajaria on the slopes of J. Sabur, and in the Yafa district north-east of Aden.^ The principal centres of production are the upper valleys of the W. Surdad, between Kaukaban and Manakha, and particularly on J. Haraz; in the Wadi Tubed west of Uden; in Hajaria on the slopes of J. Sabur, and in the Yafa district north-east of Aden.

^ This delimitation places the whole of southern Arabia, east of this line, within the British sphere of influence, which thus includes the district surrounding Aden (q.v.

^ Aden, and an inner plateau falling gradually to the north-east till it merges in the Nejd steppes or the sands of the great desert.

.It is planted in terraces on the mountain slopes; shady trees, such as tamarind and fig, are planted in the border as a protection from the sun, and the terraces are irrigated by channels led from a neighbouring rivulet or spring.^ It is planted in terraces on the mountain slopes; shady trees, such as tamarind and fig, are planted in the border as a protection from the sun, and the terraces are irrigated by channels led from a neighbouring rivulet or spring.

^ It was supernaturally revealed to him that this person was in the caravan, seeing a cloud and a tree protecting him from the glaring sun.
  • The Exclusion of the Jews and Christians 3 February 2010 14:24 UTC debate.org.uk [Source type: Original source]

.The plants are raised from seedlings, and when six or seven weeks old they are transplanted in rows 4 to 6 ft.^ The plants are raised from seedlings, and when six or seven weeks old they are transplanted in rows 4 to 6 ft.

^ Sixteen-year-old Mut'i Hassan Nasser Munif was detained in the Political Security Prison in Sana'a for six weeks and then transferred to Umran Prison where he was detained for a further seven months.
  • The Gulf and the Arabian Peninsula: Human rights fall victim to the "War on Terror" 3 February 2010 14:24 UTC www.amnestyusa.org [Source type: Original source]

apart; they require watering twice a month, and .bear in two to four years.^ After serving, residents cannot be called for a minimum of four years, or two years if called to serve on a federal or grand jury.

^ "I had only been married for two years… there was the occupation and the blow of my husband's death… all too much to bear."
  • The Gulf and the Arabian Peninsula: Human rights fall victim to the "War on Terror" 3 February 2010 14:24 UTC www.amnestyusa.org [Source type: Original source]

.The berries are dried in the sun and sent down to Hodeda or Aden, where they are subjected to a process for separating the husk from the bean; the result is about 50% of cleaned berries, bun safe, which is exported, and a residue of husk or kishr, from which the Yemenis make their favourite beverage.^ The berries are dried in the sun and sent down to Hodeda or Aden, where they are subjected to a process for separating the husk from the bean ; the result is about 50% of cleaned berries, bun safe, which is exported, and a residue of husk or kishr, from which the Yemenis make their favourite beverage.

.Another plant universally used as a stimulant in Southern Arabia is khat (Catha edulis). The best is grown on J. Sabur and the mountainous Tountry round Taiz.^ Another plant universally used as a stimulant in Southern Arabia is khat (Catha edulis).

^ The best is grown on J. Sabur and the mountainous Tountry round Taiz.

.It is a small bush propagated from cuttings which are left to grow for three years; the leaves are then stripped, except a few buds which develop next year into young shoots, these being cut and sold in bunches under the name of khat mubarak; next year on the branches cut back new shoots grow; these are sold as khat malhani, or second-year kat, which commands the highest price.^ The bush is then left for three years, when the process is repeated.

^ It is a small bush propagated from cuttings which are left to grow for three years; the leaves are then stripped, except a few buds which develop next year into young shoots, these being cut and sold in bunches under the name of khat mubarak; next year on the branches cut back new shoots grow; these are sold as khat malhani, or second-year kat, which commands the highest price.

^ 'Whatever you (O Muslims) cut down of the palm-trees (of the enemy) or you left them standing on their stems, it was by the leave of Allah, so that He might humiliate the rebels.'
  • The Exclusion of the Jews and Christians 3 February 2010 14:24 UTC debate.org.uk [Source type: Original source]

.The bush is then left for three years, when the process is repeated.^ The bush is then left for three years, when the process is repeated.

^ But it's obvious he's pointing to the lipstick stain on the white headcovering which the King is wearing: probably left over from Bush's kowtowing years ago...
  • Ben Smith's Blog: White House: No bow to Saudi - POLITICO.com 19 September 2009 2:02 UTC www.politico.com [Source type: General]

.The leaves and young shoots are chewed; they have stimulating properties, comparable with those of the coca of Peru.^ The leaves and young shoots are chewed; they have stimulating properties, comparable with those of the coca of Peru .

.The aromatic gums for which Arabia was famed in ancient times are still produced, though the trade is a very small one.^ The aromatic gums for which Arabia was famed in ancient times are still produced, though the trade is a very small one.

^ Moreover, he examined the HL data for Texas, which had also had production constraints similar to Saudi Arabia, and found that HL gave very different predictions at very different times.
  • The Oil Drum | Saudi Arabia's Crude Oil Production Peaked in 2005 10 January 2010 11:20 UTC www.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Its also right of every country to stop trade with any country though saudi arabia was never allowed to use this right.
  • The Oil Drum | Saudi Arabia's Crude Oil Production Peaked in 2005 10 January 2010 11:20 UTC www.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The tree from which myrrh is extracted grows in many places, but the industry is chiefly carried on at Suda, 60 m.^ The tree from which myrrh is extracted grows in many places, but the industry is chiefly carried on at Suda, 60 m.

^ The Nafud sands, too, are tufted in many places with bushes or small trees, and after the winter rains they produce excellent pasture.

north-north-east of Sana. aongitudinal slits are made in the bark, and the gum is caught in cups fixed beneath. .The balsam of Mecca is produced in the same way, chiefly in the mountains near the W. Safra between Yambu and Medina.^ The balsam of Mecca is produced in the same way, chiefly in the mountains near the W. Safra between Yambu and Medina.

^ From Medina the route usually followed descends the W. Safra to Badr Hunen, whence it keeps near the coast passing Rabigh and Khulesa to Mecca.

^ The harra east of Khaibar is also of considerable extent, and the same formation is found all along the Hejaz border from Medina to the Jebel el Kura, east of Mecca.

.The stony plains which cover so large a part of the country are often covered with acacia jungle, and in the dry water-courses a kind of wild palm, the dom, abounds, from the leaves of which baskets and mats are woven.^ The stony plains which cover so large a part of the country are often covered with acacia jungle , and in the dry water-courses a kind of wild palm, the dom, abounds, from the leaves of which baskets and mats are woven.

^ Hyenas, wolves and panthers are found in most parts of the country, and in the mountains the leopard and wild cat .

^ He also told Talhah, so the story goes, that the Prophet would leave the sacred precincts of Makkah and migrate to a land of black soil, water and palm trees...
  • The Exclusion of the Jews and Christians 3 February 2010 14:24 UTC debate.org.uk [Source type: Original source]

.Brushwood and rough pasturage of some sort is found almost everywhere, except in the neighbourhood of the larger settlements, where forage and firewood have to be brought in from long distances.^ Brushwood and rough pasturage of some sort is found almost everywhere, except in the neighbourhood of the larger settlements, where forage and firewood have to be brought in from long distances.

^ In the broad sandy wadi beds the tamarisk ( athl ) is everywhere found; its wood is used for making domestic implements of all sorts.

.The Nafud sands, too, are tufted in many places with bushes or small trees, and after the winter rains they produce excellent pasture.^ The Nafud sands, too, are tufted in many places with bushes or small trees, and after the winter rains they produce excellent pasture.

^ They were allowed to take with them whatever their camels could carry, their property, the doors of their houses, and their wood (many dismantled their houses) but they forfeited the palm trees and their armour.
  • The Exclusion of the Jews and Christians 3 February 2010 14:24 UTC debate.org.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ In the spring months, when their camels are in milk , the Bedouins care nothing for water, and wander far into the Nafud with their flocks in search of the green pasture which springs up everywhere after the winter rains.

Population

.The people, according to their own traditions, are derived from two stocks, the pure Arabs, descended from Kahtan or Joktan, fourth in descent from Shem; and the Mustarab or naturalized Arabs, from Ishmael.^ The people, according to their own traditions, are derived from two stocks , the pure Arabs, descended from Kahtan or Joktan, fourth in descent from Shem ; and the Mustarab or naturalized Arabs, from Ishmael .

^ Arabs are largest in terms of population and land holdings, and this handbook focuses on people who have emigrated from or who are descended from people in those areas.
  • 100 questions about arab americans leaving in the US 10 February 2010 11:32 UTC allied-media.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The People of the Book should have known all this as well as "they knew their own sons", as their past traditions and teaching should have made them receptive of the new message.
  • The Exclusion of the Jews and Christians 3 February 2010 14:24 UTC debate.org.uk [Source type: Original source]

.The former are represented at the present day by the inhabitants of Yemen, Hadramut and Oman, in general a settled agricultural population; the latter by those of Hejaz, Nejd, El Hasa, the Syrian desert and Mesopotamia, consisting of the Bedouin or pastoral tribes (see Arabs and Bedouins).^ The former are represented at the present day by the inhabitants of Yemen, Hadramut and Oman, in general a settled agricultural population; the latter by those of Hejaz, Nejd, El Hasa, the Syrian desert and Mesopotamia, consisting of the Bedouin or pastoral tribes (see Arabs and Bedouins).

^ It could be that unfavorable climatic conditions forced a fast migration through Arabia without leaving a permanent track, but it is also possible that sample sizes have been insufficient to detect ancient residual lineages in the present day Arab populations.
  • BioMed Central | Full text | Mitochondrial DNA structure in the Arabian Peninsula 3 February 2010 14:24 UTC www.biomedcentral.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Mitochondrial DNA structure in the Arabian Peninsula 3 February 2010 14:24 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Instead, they settled throughout the Middle East, including present-day Saudi Arabia, Jordan, Palestine, Iran, Lebanon, Yemen, the Persian Gulf countries and Turkey.
  • ARAB SLAVE TRADE - The history of Arab Slavery in Africa 10 February 2010 11:32 UTC www.africanholocaust.net [Source type: Original source]

.This distinction between the characteristics of the two races is only true in a general sense, for a considerable population of true Bedouin origin has settled down to agricultural life in the oases of Hejaz and Nejd, while in southern Arabia the tribes dwelling on the fringe of the great desert have to a certain extent adopted the nomad life.^ Kindah originated as a tribe west of Hadramaut, in Southern Arabia - even so, from c.
  • Arabia 2 February 2010 13:31 UTC my.raex.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This distinction between the characteristics of the two races is only true in a general sense, for a considerable population of true Bedouin origin has settled down to agricultural life in the oases of Hejaz and Nejd, while in southern Arabia the tribes dwelling on the fringe of the great desert have to a certain extent adopted the nomad life.

^ In 845-846 the lawless raids of Bedouin tribes compelled the caliph Wathiq to send his Turkish general Bogha, who was more successful in the north than in the centre and south of Arabia in restoring peace.

.Both among the nomad and settled Arabs the organization is essentially tribal.^ Both among the nomad and settled Arabs the organization is essentially tribal.

.The affairs of the tribe are administered by the sheiks, or heads of clans and families; the position of sheik in itself gives no real governing power, his word and counsel carry weight, but his influence depends on his own personal qualities.^ The affairs of the tribe are administered by the sheiks, or heads of clans and families; the position of sheik in itself gives no real governing power, his word and counsel carry weight, but his influence depends on his own personal qualities.

^ The government and private organizations cooperated in providing services for persons with disabilities; however, there is no legislation mandating public access.
  • Saudi Arabia 10 January 2010 11:20 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]
  • Saudi Arabia 28 January 2010 0:48 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Homicide is considered a crime against a person rather than a crime against society in which the state administers justice of its own volition.
  • Comparative Criminology | Asia - Saudi Arabia 10 January 2010 11:20 UTC www-rohan.sdsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

.All matters affecting the community are discussed in the majlis or assembly, to which any tribesman has access; here, too, are brought the tribesmen's causes; both sides plead and judgment is given impartially, the loser is fined so many head of small cattle or camels, which he must pay or go into exile.^ All matters affecting the community are discussed in the majlis or assembly, to which any tribesman has access; here, too, are brought the tribesmen's causes; both sides plead and judgment is given impartially, the loser is fined so many head of small cattle or camels, which he must pay or go into exile.

^ Here we have a victimology answer, we must have been the cause of the attack upon ourselves like a rape victim in a short skirt.
  • Breitbart.tv » Obama Blames Creation of Al-Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula on Gitmo 3 February 2010 14:24 UTC www.breitbart.tv [Source type: General]

^ I strongly suggest we return to PRAYING for our country and our president or we're going to have more of the same "Change" and we will all pay the consequences.
  • Ben Smith's Blog: White House: No bow to Saudi - POLITICO.com 19 September 2009 2:02 UTC www.politico.com [Source type: General]

.Murder can be expiated by the payment of diya or bloodmoney, if the kinsmen of the murdered man consent; they may, however, claim the life of the murderer, and long and troublesome blood feuds often ensue, involving the relatives of both sides for generations.^ At night, however, they may feast.
  • 100 questions about arab americans leaving in the US 10 February 2010 11:32 UTC allied-media.com [Source type: Original source]

^ They may have been involved in the Khaybar campaign.
  • The Exclusion of the Jews and Christians 3 February 2010 14:24 UTC debate.org.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ Murder can be expiated by the payment of diya or bloodmoney, if the kinsmen of the murdered man consent; they may, however, claim the life of the murderer, and long and troublesome blood feuds often ensue, involving the relatives of both sides for generations.

.Apart from the tribesmen there is in Hejaz and south Arabia a privileged, religious class, the Sharifs or Seyyids, who claim descent from Mahomet through his daughter Fatima.^ Apart from the tribesmen there is in Hejaz and south Arabia a privileged, religious class, the Sharifs or Seyyids, who claim descent from Mahomet through his daughter Fatima.

^ Yassin also recieves funding from business leaders in Saudi Arabia who are also hostile to the secular PLO for religious reasons.

^ Arabia even asked a Pre-K class to sing the "birthday song" to a student who was also celebrating her special day.

.Until the Egyptian invasion in 1814 the Sharifs of Mecca were the recognized rulers of Hejaz, and though the Turks have attempted to suppress their importance, the Sharif still executes justice according to the Mahommedan law in the holy cities, though, nominally, as a Turkish official.^ Until the Egyptian invasion in 1814 the Sharifs of Mecca were the recognized rulers of Hejaz, and though the Turks have attempted to suppress their importance, the Sharif still executes justice according to the Mahommedan law in the holy cities, though, nominally, as a Turkish official.

^ In 1517 the Osmanli Turkish sultan Selim conquered Egypt, and having received the right of succession to the caliphate was solemnly presented by the sherif of Mecca with the keys of the city, and recognized as the spiritual head of Islam and ruler of the Hejaz.

^ Thus in 966 the name of the caliph Moti was banished from the prayers at Mecca, and an `Alyite took possession of the government of the city and recognized the Egyptian caliph as his master.

.In Yemen and Hadramut many villages are occupied exclusively by this religious hierarchy, who are known as Ashraf, Sada or Kudha (i.e.Sharifs, Seyyids or Kadhis); the religious affairs of the tribes are left in their hands; they do not, however, interfere in tribal matters generally, or join in fighting.^ In Yemen and Hadramut many villages are occupied exclusively by this religious hierarchy, who are known as Ashraf , Sada or Kudha (i.e.Sharifs, Seyyids or Kadhis); the religious affairs of the tribes are left in their hands; they do not, however, interfere in tribal matters generally, or join in fighting.

^ In return for their loyalty and the maintenance of peace and order in the tribal areas, the king provided subsidies to the shaykhs and a minimum of government interference in tribal affairs.
  • Comparative Criminology | Asia - Saudi Arabia 10 January 2010 11:20 UTC www-rohan.sdsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The Yemen pilgrim route, known as the Haj el Kabsi, led from Sada through Asir to Tail and Mecca, but it is no longer used.

.Below these two classes, which may be looked on as the priestly and the military castes, there is, especially in the settled districts, a large population of artisans and labourers, besides negro slaves and their descendants, slave or free.^ In cities where there are large populations, this is easy.
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^ Below these two classes, which may be looked on as the priestly and the military castes, there is, especially in the settled districts, a large population of artisans and labourers, besides negro slaves and their descendants, slave or free.

^ Besides these there are gravestones, stelae with human heads, fragments of limestone, architectural designs as well as bronze castings of camels, horses, mice, serpents, &c.

.The population of Khaibar consists almost entirely of the latter, and in Hail Huber estimates the pure Arab inhabitants at only one-third of the whole.^ The population of Khaibar consists almost entirely of the latter, and in Hail Huber estimates the pure Arab inhabitants at only one-third of the whole.

^ In any case, as Hubbert pointed out some time ago, a one third increase in estimated Lower 48 URR only postponed the projected Lower 48 peak by five years, from 1966 to 1971.
  • The Oil Drum | Saudi Arabia's Crude Oil Production Peaked in 2005 10 January 2010 11:20 UTC www.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ One of the largest Arab cities is Cairo, with a population of more than 6 million.
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.In the desert, too, there is a widely scattered tribe, the Salubi, which from its name (Salib, cross) is conjectured to be of early Christian origin; they are great hunters, killing ostriches and gazelles; the Arabs despise them as an inferior race, but do not harm them; they pay a small tax to the tribe under whose protection they live, and render service as labourers, for which they receive in the spring milk and cheese; at the date harvest they get wages in kind; with this, and the produce of the chase, they manage to exist in the desert without agriculture or flocks.^ Another source of Christian propaganda among the northern Arabs was undoubtedly the many holy hermits and monks scattered in the Syro-Arabian desert , for whom the Arab tribes had great respect, and to whose solitary abodes they made numerous pilgrimages .
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Arabia 2 February 2010 13:31 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Christianity must have been introduced among the Syrian Arabs at a very early period; if not among the tribes living in the interior of the Syro-Arabian desert , certainly among those whose proximity brought them into continuous social and commercial contact with Syria .
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Arabia 2 February 2010 13:31 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The above sketch clearly shows that Christian Arab tribes were scattered through all Syria , Phoenicia , and northern Arabia, having their own bishops and churches.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Arabia 2 February 2010 13:31 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

In southern Arabia the Jews form a large element in the town population. .According to one authority their presence in Yemen dates from the time of Solomon, others say from the capture of Jerusalem by Nebuchadrezzar.^ According to one authority their presence in Yemen dates from the time of Solomon , others say from the capture of Jerusalem by Nebuchadrezzar .

^ "I mean I'd love to meet the president, but I'm not going to walk around holding his hand," says one wag in New York's Times Square.
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^ One authority, Ibn Hajar, however, denounces this story and the other related ones as "odd tales".
  • The Exclusion of the Jews and Christians 3 February 2010 14:24 UTC debate.org.uk [Source type: Original source]

.Manzoni estimated their number in Sana in 1878 at 1700 out of a total population of 20,000; at Aden they are a numerous and wealthy community, with agents in most of the towns of Yemen.^ They have a population of 20 million.
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^ Manzoni estimated their number in Sana in 1878 at 1700 out of a total population of 20,000; at Aden they are a numerous and wealthy community, with agents in most of the towns of Yemen.

^ Hofuf's population is estimated at over 150,000.
  • Saudi Arabia Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Saudi Arabia 10 January 2010 11:20 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Even in remote Nejran, Halevy, himself a Jew, found a considerable colony of his co-religionists.^ Even in remote Nejran, Halevy, himself a Jew, found a considerable colony of his co-religionists.

^ But Jews have set up a system where to even question the numbers of Jewish people murdered is to be partners with the devil himself.
  • ARAB SLAVE TRADE - The history of Arab Slavery in Africa 10 February 2010 11:32 UTC www.africanholocaust.net [Source type: Original source]

.They wear a distinctive garb and are not allowed to carry arms or live in the same quarter as Moslems.^ They wear a distinctive garb and are not allowed to carry arms or live in the same quarter as Moslems.

^ To this end he expelled the Christians from Nejran and gave them lands in Syria and Irak, where they were allowed to live in peace on payment of tribute.

^ But they laid waste their homes before they left: Their lives were spared, and they were allowed ten days in which to remove themselves, their families, and such goods as they could carry.
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.Another foreign element of considerable strength in the coast towns of Muscat, Aden and Jidda, is the British Indian trading class; many families of Indian origin also have settled at Mecca, having originally come as pilgrims.^ Another foreign element of considerable strength in the coast towns of Muscat, Aden and Jidda, is the British Indian trading class; many families of Indian origin also have settled at Mecca, having originally come as pilgrims.

^ Many immigrants come to the United States having learned two or three languages in their country of origin.
  • 100 questions about arab americans leaving in the US 10 February 2010 11:32 UTC allied-media.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Bahrein, Kuwet and Muscat are in steam communication with India, and the Persian Gulf ports; all the great lines of steamships call at Aden on their way between Suez and the East, and regular services are maintained between Suez, Jidda, Hodeda and Aden, as well as to the ports on the African coast, while native coasting craft trade to the smaller ports on the Red Sea and Indian Ocean.

Hejaz .
300,000
Yemen and Asir.
1,800,000
Nejd .
1,000,000
Hadramut
150,000
Oman .
1,000,000
El Hasa
300,000
Syrian desert and border .
275,000
.Estimates of the population of Arabia vary enormously, and the figures given in the following table can only be regarded as a very rough approximation: 4,825,000 Communications.^ Hofuf's population is estimated at over 150,000.
  • Saudi Arabia Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Saudi Arabia 10 January 2010 11:20 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Estimates of the population of Arabia vary enormously, and the figures given in the following table can only be regarded as a very rough approximation: 4,825,000 Communications.

^ Other reputable estimates vary between 1,960,582 km2[10] (756,934 mi) and 2,240,000 km2 (860,000 sq mi).
  • Saudi_Arabia calling cards and Saudi_Arabia International phone cards 10 January 2010 11:20 UTC www.aloarabs.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

- .The
principal land routes in Arabia are those leading to the holy cities.^ The principal land routes in Arabia are those leading to the holy cities.

^ Because it is the birthplace of the prophet Mohammed and the site of the Muslim holy cities of Mecca and Medina, Saudi Arabia is considered Islam's Holy Land.
  • Saudi Arabia Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Saudi Arabia 10 January 2010 11:20 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Other important routes leading to Nejd are those from Kuwet to Hail, and from El Hasa to Riad respectively.

.In the present day the Syrian pilgrim route, or Darb el Haj, from Damascus to Medina and Mecca is the most used.^ In the present day the Syrian pilgrim route, or Darb el Haj, from Damascus to Medina and Mecca is the most used.

^ Zubayrid control over the holy sites in Mecca and Medina caused the early Umayyads to seek an alternative pilgrimage site to prevent the Zubayrids from gaining funds from pilgrims.
  • Arabia 2 February 2010 13:31 UTC my.raex.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Railway construction has begun in Arabia, and in 1908 the Hejaz line, intended to connect Damascus with Mecca, had reached Medina, Soo m.

.The annual pilgrim caravan or haj, numbering some 6000 people with Io,000 pack animals, is escorted by a few Turkish irregulars known as agel; small fortified posts have been established at the regular halting-places some 30 m.^ The annual pilgrim caravan or haj, numbering some 6000 people with Io,000 pack animals, is escorted by a few Turkish irregulars known as agel; small fortified posts have been established at the regular halting-places some 30 m.

^ Some Arabic-speaking tribal people were Christian, including some from the Najdi interior and the well-known Ghassanids and Lakhmids on the Arabian borderlands with Constantinople.
  • Comparative Criminology | Asia - Saudi Arabia 10 January 2010 11:20 UTC www-rohan.sdsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ But Arabia is a complex and fast-moving society - spend some time with its people to get a true feel for the place.
  • Lonely Planet Oman, UAE & Arabian Peninsula Travel Guide 3 February 2010 14:24 UTC sta.lonelyplanet.com [Source type: News]

apart, each furnished with a well and reservoir, and for the further protection of the haj, payments are made to the .Bedouin tribes through whose territories the route passes.^ Bedouin tribes through whose territories the route passes.

.The road is a mere camel track across the desert, the chief places passed are Ma`an on the Syrian border, a station on the old Sabaean trade route to Petra, and Medain Salih, the site of the rock-cut tombs and inscriptions first brought to notice by Doughty.^ Syrian desert and border .

^ The road is a mere camel track across the desert, the chief places passed are Ma`an on the Syrian border, a station on the old Sabaean trade route to Petra, and Medain Salih, the site of the rock-cut tombs and inscriptions first brought to notice by Doughty.

^ The rest of the northern borderland is covered by the Syrian desert, extending from the borders of Palestine to the edge of the Euphrates valley.

.From Medina the route usually followed descends the W. Safra to Badr Hunen, whence it keeps near the coast passing Rabigh and Khulesa to Mecca.^ From Medina the route usually followed descends the W. Safra to Badr Hunen, whence it keeps near the coast passing Rabigh and Khulesa to Mecca.

^ The Egyptian pilgrim route from Cairo, across the Sinai peninsula and down the Midian coast to El Wijh, joins the Syrian route at Badr Hunen.

^ Medina was besieged and sacked by the troops of Yazid (682) and Mecca was besieged the following year.

.The total distance, 1300 m., is covered in forty days.^ The total distance, 1300 m., is covered in forty days.

.The Egyptian pilgrim route from Cairo, across the Sinai peninsula and down the Midian coast to El Wijh, joins the Syrian route at Badr Hunen.^ The Egyptian pilgrim route from Cairo, across the Sinai peninsula and down the Midian coast to El Wijh, joins the Syrian route at Badr Hunen.

^ The Dilmun culture, along the Gulf coast, was contemporaneous with the Sumerians and ancient Egyptians, and most of the empires of the ancient world traded with the states of the peninsula.
  • Comparative Criminology | Asia - Saudi Arabia 10 January 2010 11:20 UTC www-rohan.sdsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ These are the two natural passageways that connect both continents: the northern route through the Sinai Peninsula and the southern route across the Bab al Mandab strait.
  • BioMed Central | Full text | Mitochondrial DNA structure in the Arabian Peninsula 3 February 2010 14:24 UTC www.biomedcentral.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Mitochondrial DNA structure in the Arabian Peninsula 3 February 2010 14:24 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

.It also was formerly provided with stations and reservoirs, but owing to the greater facilities of the sea journey from Suez to Jidda it is now little used.^ It also was formerly provided with stations and reservoirs, but owing to the greater facilities of the sea journey from Suez to Jidda it is now little used.

.Another important route is that taken by the Persian or Shia pilgrims from Bagdad and Kerbela across the desert, by the wells of aina, to Bureda in Kasim; thence across the steppes of western Nejd till it crosses the Hejaz border at the Ria Mecca, 50 m.^ Another important route is that taken by the Persian or Shia pilgrims from Bagdad and Kerbela across the desert, by the wells of aina, to Bureda in Kasim; thence across the steppes of western Nejd till it crosses the Hejaz border at the Ria Mecca, 50 m.

^ The long stretch of waterless desert between Jauf and J. Shammar was crossed without difficulty, and the party was welcomed by the amir and hospitably entertained for a month, after which they travelled northwards in company with the Persian pilgrim caravan returning to Kerbela and Bagdad.

^ The Egyptian pilgrim route from Cairo, across the Sinai peninsula and down the Midian coast to El Wijh, joins the Syrian route at Badr Hunen.

north-east of the city. .It lies almost entirely in the territory of the amir Ibn Rashid of J. Shammar, who derives a considerable revenue from the pilgrimage.^ It lies almost entirely in the territory of the amir Ibn Rashid of J. Shammar, who derives a considerable revenue from the pilgrimage.

^ His uncle Obed, to whom equally with Abdallah is due the foundation of the Ibn Rashid dynasty, laboured to extend the Shammar boundaries.

^ A rival state had, however, arisen, under Abdallah Ibn Rashid in Jebel Shammar.

.The old reservoirs on this route attributed to Zubeda, wife of Harun al Rashid, were destroyed during the Wahhabi raids early in the 19th century, and have not been repaired.^ The old reservoirs on this route attributed to Zubeda, wife of Harun al Rashid, were destroyed during the Wahhabi raids early in the 19th century, and have not been repaired.

^ After reviving in the mid-19th cent., the Wahhabis were defeated in 1891 by the Rashid dynasty, which gained effective control of central Arabia.
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^ In the contest between the two sons of Harun al Rashid all Arabia sided with Mamun (812).

.The Yemen pilgrim route, known as the Haj el Kabsi, led from Sada through Asir to Tail and Mecca, but it is no longer used.^ The Yemen pilgrim route, known as the Haj el Kabsi, led from Sada through Asir to Tail and Mecca, but it is no longer used.

^ In Yemen this tree was probably more common formerly; the place-name Arar, signifying juniper, is still often found where the tree no longer exists.

^ The Egyptian pilgrim route from Cairo, across the Sinai peninsula and down the Midian coast to El Wijh, joins the Syrian route at Badr Hunen.

.The principal trade routes are those leading from Damascus to Jauf and across the Nafud to Hail.^ The principal land routes in Arabia are those leading to the holy cities.

^ The principal trade routes are those leading from Damascus to Jauf and across the Nafud to Hail.

^ Jauf-Hail route is at Falk Alam, the rocky peaks of which rise 200 or 300 ft.

.Other important routes leading to Nejd are those from Kuwet to Hail, and from El Hasa to Riad respectively.^ Other important routes leading to Nejd are those from Kuwet to Hail, and from El Hasa to Riad respectively.

^ Nejd, to reappear in the copious springs that fertilize El Hasa and the Bahrein littoral.

^ The principal trade routes are those leading from Damascus to Jauf and across the Nafud to Hail.

.In the west and south the principal routes, other than those already mentioned, are from Yambu to Medina, from Jidda to Mecca, Hodeda to Sana, Aden to Sana, and from Mukalla to the Hadramut valley.^ In the west and south the principal routes, other than those already mentioned, are from Yambu to Medina, from Jidda to Mecca, Hodeda to Sana, Aden to Sana, and from Mukalla to the Hadramut valley.

^ The principal centres of production are the upper valleys of the W. Surdad, between Kaukaban and Manakha, and particularly on J. Haraz; in the Wadi Tubed west of Uden; in Hajaria on the slopes of J. Sabur, and in the Yafa district north-east of Aden.

^ Languages other than those listed above may be offered if sufficient interest is expressed and qualified instructors are available.
  • Summer Near Eastern Language Instruction (off campus) 15 September 2009 20:52 UTC www2.gsu.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Railway construction has begun in Arabia, and in 1908 the Hejaz line, intended to connect Damascus with Mecca, had reached Medina, Soo m.^ Railway construction has begun in Arabia, and in 1908 the Hejaz line, intended to connect Damascus with Mecca, had reached Medina, Soo m.

^ Saudi Arabia  -  Construction of 440-kilometre-long Haramain high-speed electrified railway line between the holy cities of Makkah and Medina equipped with modern signalling and telecommunications systems, including the provision of state-of-the-art train sets.
  • Latest Projects and Tenders information from Kingdom of Saudi Arabia 10 January 2010 11:20 UTC www.sauditenders.com [Source type: News]

^ Saudi Arabia, in turn, accused Iran of staging the riots to support its demands that Mecca and Medina be internationalized as pan-Islamic cities.
  • Comparative Criminology | Asia - Saudi Arabia 10 January 2010 11:20 UTC www-rohan.sdsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

south of Ma`an. .This line is of great strategical importance, as strengthening the Turkish hold on the Red Sea provinces.^ This line is of great strategical importance, as strengthening the Turkish hold on the Red Sea provinces.

^ The Red Sea itself is a great trough bounded by faults along each side.

^ Kurdish Green Line, Turkish Red Line (March 11, 2005) .
  • Middle East Report Online Subject Index 3 February 2010 14:24 UTC www.merip.org [Source type: News]

.But the principal means of commercial communication for a country like Arabia must always be by sea.^ But the principal means of commercial communication for a country like Arabia must always be by sea.

^ Staten Island Advance by Carol Ann Benanti Whoever coined the phrase " Once a Cop, Always a Cop " must had Ron Arabia and Larry Guidice in mind.

^ Residents in Saudi Arabia who are departing the country must obtain an exit permit prior to leaving and an exit/reentry permit if they intend to return to Saudi Arabia.
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.Bahrein, Kuwet and Muscat are in steam communication with India, and the Persian Gulf ports; all the great lines of steamships call at Aden on their way between Suez and the East, and regular services are maintained between Suez, Jidda, Hodeda and Aden, as well as to the ports on the African coast, while native coasting craft trade to the smaller ports on the Red Sea and Indian Ocean.^ Bahrein, Kuwet and Muscat are in steam communication with India, and the Persian Gulf ports; all the great lines of steamships call at Aden on their way between Suez and the East, and regular services are maintained between Suez, Jidda, Hodeda and Aden, as well as to the ports on the African coast, while native coasting craft trade to the smaller ports on the Red Sea and Indian Ocean.

^ Yemen had easy access to Mesopotamia and the Persian Gulf by way of the sea, as well as with Abyssinia.
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^ The larger antelopes, so common on the African side of the Gulf of Aden, are not found, except one variety, the Oryx beatrix (called by the Arabs , wild cow), which is an inhabitant of the Nafud between Tema and Hail; it is about the size of a donkey, white, and with long straight horns.

Commerce

.The total value of the trade of Aden for 1904 amounted to over £6,000,000. The imports to Jidda in the same year were £1,405,000, largely consisting of rice, wheat and other food stuffs from India; the exports, which have dwindled away in late years, amounted in 1904 to only £25,000. To balance the exports and imports specie was exported in the three years 1902-1904 amounting to £2,319,000; a large proportion of this was perhaps provided by cash brought into the country by pilgrims.^ The imports to Jidda in the same year were £1,405,000, largely consisting of rice , wheat and other food stuffs from India; the exports, which have dwindled away in late years, amounted in 1904 to only £25,000.

^ The total value of the trade of Aden for 1904 amounted to over £6,000,000.

^ The United States exports arms to 25 countries this year.

.The pilgrim traffic increased largely in 1904 as compared with previous years; 74,600 persons landed at Jidda, 18,000 of whom were from British India, 13,000 from Java and the Straits Settlements, and the remainder from Turkish territory, Egypt and other countries: 235 out of a total of 334 steamships engaged in this traffic were British.^ The pilgrim traffic increased largely in 1904 as compared with previous years; 74,600 persons landed at Jidda, 18,000 of whom were from British India, 13,000 from Java and the Straits Settlements , and the remainder from Turkish territory, Egypt and other countries: 235 out of a total of 334 steamships engaged in this traffic were British.

^ In the latter year the imports amounted to £467,000, and the exports to £451,000; coffee, the mainstay of Yemen trade, shows a serious decline from £302,000 in 1902 to £229,000 in 1904; this is attributable partly to the great increase of production in other countries, but mainly to the insecurity of the trade routes and the exorbitant transit dues levied by the Turkish administration.

^ Only 13.7% failed to identify Palin as the person their party spent $150,000 in clothes on 7.
  • Ben Smith's Blog: White House: No bow to Saudi - POLITICO.com 19 September 2009 2:02 UTC www.politico.com [Source type: General]

.The trade of Hodeda, which contributes by far the largest share to that of Turkish Yemen, fell off considerably during the period from 1901-1905, chiefly owing to the disturbed state of the country.^ The trade of Hodeda, which contributes by far the largest share to that of Turkish Yemen, fell off considerably during the period from 1901-1905, chiefly owing to the disturbed state of the country.

^ For the history of Yemen during this period cf.

^ Coast of Hodeda, and the Farsan group, off the Abu Arish coast, Yemen.

.In the latter year the imports amounted to £467,000, and the exports to £451,000; coffee, the mainstay of Yemen trade, shows a serious decline from £302,000 in 1902 to £229,000 in 1904; this is attributable partly to the great increase of production in other countries, but mainly to the insecurity of the trade routes and the exorbitant transit dues levied by the Turkish administration.^ In the latter year the imports amounted to £467,000, and the exports to £451,000; coffee, the mainstay of Yemen trade, shows a serious decline from £302,000 in 1902 to £229,000 in 1904; this is attributable partly to the great increase of production in other countries, but mainly to the insecurity of the trade routes and the exorbitant transit dues levied by the Turkish administration.

^ The total value of the trade of Aden for 1904 amounted to over £6,000,000.

^ Matthew Simmons has suggested that Saudi Arabia is greatly exaggerating its reserves and may soon show production declines (see peak oil).
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.Oman, through its chief port Muscat, had a total trade of about £55 0, 000, two-thirds of which is due to imports and one-third to exports.^ Oman, through its chief port Muscat, had a total trade of about £55 0, 000, two-thirds of which is due to imports and one-third to exports.

^ The principal trade centre of the Arabian side of the Persian Gulf is Bahrein; the total volume of trade of which amounted in 1904 to £1,900,000, nearly equally divided between imports and exports; rice, piece goods, &c., form the bulk of the former, while pearls are the most valuable part of the latter.

^ Located on the Red Sea, Jeddah is the country's chief port and is about the same latitude as Calcutta, Hong Kong, and Honolulu.
  • Saudi Arabia Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Saudi Arabia 10 January 2010 11:20 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The chief items of imports are arms and ammunition, rice, coffee and piece goods; the staple export is dates, which in a good year accounts for nearly half the total; much of the trade is in the hands of British Indians, and of the shipping 92% is British.^ The chief items of imports are arms and ammunition , rice, coffee and piece goods; the staple export is dates, which in a good year accounts for nearly half the total; much of the trade is in the hands of British Indians, and of the shipping 92% is British.

^ The principal trade centre of the Arabian side of the Persian Gulf is Bahrein; the total volume of trade of which amounted in 1904 to £1,900,000, nearly equally divided between imports and exports; rice, piece goods, &c., form the bulk of the former, while pearls are the most valuable part of the latter.

^ The United States exports arms to 25 countries this year.

.The principal trade centre of the Arabian side of the Persian Gulf is Bahrein; the total volume of trade of which amounted in 1904 to £1,900,000, nearly equally divided between imports and exports; rice, piece goods, &c., form the bulk of the former, while pearls are the most valuable part of the latter.^ The total strength of each side amounted to about 30,000 men.

^ The principal trade centre of the Arabian side of the Persian Gulf is Bahrein; the total volume of trade of which amounted in 1904 to £1,900,000, nearly equally divided between imports and exports; rice, piece goods, &c., form the bulk of the former, while pearls are the most valuable part of the latter.

^ The total value of the trade of Aden for 1904 amounted to over £6,000,000.

.(R. A. W.) Antiquities Arabia cannot be said to be " destitute of antiquities," but the material for the study of these is still very incomplete.^ (R. A. W.) Antiquities Arabia cannot be said to be " destitute of antiquities," but the material for the study of these is still very incomplete.

^ The aromatic gums for which Arabia was famed in ancient times are still produced, though the trade is a very small one.

^ The Apple iPod is very popular in Saudi Arabia, even though it still lacks support for Arabic language.

.The Jews Arabia. The difficulties in the way of travelling in Arabia with a view to scientific investigation are such that little or nothing is being done, and the systematic work which has given such good results in Egypt, Palestine and Babylonia-Assyria is unknown in Arabia.^ The difficulties in the way of travelling in Arabia with a view to scientific investigation are such that little or nothing is being done, and the systematic work which has given such good results in Egypt, Palestine and Babylonia-Assyria is unknown in Arabia.

^ Not to be denied, Arabia and Guidice got hotel permission to conduct their own investigation and set to work.

^ Indirectly, nearly all citizens worked for the government in one way or another if those working for parastatals, such as Saudi Arabian Airlines and Saudi Aramco, were included.
  • Saudi Arabia 28 January 2010 0:48 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

.Yet the passing notes of travellers from the time of Carsten Niebuhr show that antiquities are to be found.^ Yet the passing notes of travellers from the time of Carsten Niebuhr show that antiquities are to be found.

Prehistoric Remains

.Since prehistoric remains must be studied where they are found, the difficulty in the way of exploration makes itself severely felt.^ Since prehistoric remains must be studied where they are found, the difficulty in the way of exploration makes itself severely felt.

^ As soon as they halted the cloud ceased to move, remaining stationary over the tree beneath which they took shelter, while the tree itself lowered its branches over them.
  • The Exclusion of the Jews and Christians 3 February 2010 14:24 UTC debate.org.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ The answer is although optimistic the claims they make are not way out of line when compared to the rest of the industry.
  • The Oil Drum | Saudi Arabia's Crude Oil Reserves Propaganda 28 January 2010 0:48 UTC www.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.That such remains exist seems clear from the casual remarks ofl travellers.^ That such remains exist seems clear from the casual remarks ofl travellers.

.Thus Palgrave (Central and Eastern Arabia, vol.^ Thus Palgrave ( Central and Eastern Arabia, vol.

^ Nevertheless, the central wastes proved ungovernable to any save the nomad Bedouin clans of the interior, chief among them the Uyunid family of the Banu Murra tribe of eastern Arabia.
  • Arabia 2 February 2010 13:31 UTC my.raex.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

i. ch. 6) speaks of part of a circle of roughly shaped stones taken from the adjacent limestone mountains in the Nejd. .Eight or nine of these stones still exist, some of them 15 ft.^ Eight or nine of these stones still exist, some of them 15 ft.

^ Inscriptions are still found in some of these in the south.

^ In Yemen and Hadramut especially these ruins abound, and in some cases inscriptions seem to be still in situ.

high. .Two of them, r o to r2 ft.^ Two of them, r o to r2 ft.

apart, still bear their horizontal lintel. .They are all without ornament.^ They are all without ornament .

.Palgrave compares them with the remains at Stonehenge and Karnak.^ Palgrave compares them with the remains at Stonehenge and Karnak .

.Doughty (Arabia Deserta, vol.^ Doughty ( Arabia Deserta, vol.

^ Doughty's Arabia Deserta; W. F. Hume, The Rift Valleys and Geology of Eastern Sinai (aondon, 1901).

ii.), travelling in northwest .Arabia, saw stones of granite in a row and " flagstones set edgewise " (though he does not regard these as religious), also " round heaps, perhaps barrows," and " dry-built round chambers," which may be ancient tombs.^ Arabia, saw stones of granite in a row and " flagstones set edgewise " (though he does not regard these as religious), also " round heaps, perhaps barrows," and " dry-built round chambers," which may be ancient tombs.

^ Yusuf Ali obviously draws lessons from the passage with respect to the behaviour of the Jews of Arabia, but does ascribe the setting of the passage to those Jews and their specific situation.
  • The Exclusion of the Jews and Christians 3 February 2010 14:24 UTC debate.org.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ Charles Doughty, the next Englishman to visit northern Arabia, though he covered little new ground, saw more of the desert life, and has described it more minutely and Doughty.

.J. T. Bent (Southern Arabia, pp.^ J. T. Bent ( Southern Arabia, pp.

24 ff.) explored one of several mounds in Bahrein. .It proved to be a tomb, and the remains in it are said to be Phoenician.^ It proved to be a tomb , and the remains in it are said to be Phoenician.

Castles and Walls

.In the south of Arabia, where an advanced civilization existed for centuries before the Christian era, the ruins of castles and city-walls are still in existence, and have been mentioned, though not examined carefully, by several travellers.^ A.D. Jewish-Christian influences were powerful in Arabia in the sixth century of the Christian era.
  • The Exclusion of the Jews and Christians 3 February 2010 14:24 UTC debate.org.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ In the south of Arabia, where an advanced civilization existed for centuries before the Christian era, the ruins of castles and city-walls are still in existence, and have been mentioned, though not examined carefully, by several travellers.

^ In the south of Arabia 'Ali succeeded in establishing his own governor in Yemen, though the government treasure was carried off to Mecca.

.In Yemen and Hadramut especially these ruins abound, and in some cases inscriptions seem to be still in situ. Great castles are often mentioned in early Arabian literature.^ Inscriptions are still found in some of these in the south.

^ Great castles are often mentioned in early Arabian literature.

^ In Yemen and Hadramut especially these ruins abound, and in some cases inscriptions seem to be still in situ.

.One in the neighbourhood of San'a was described as one of the wonders of the world by Qazwini (Athar ul-Bilad, p.^ One in the neighbourhood of San'a was described as one of the wonders of the world by Qazwini ( Athar ul-Bilad, p.

33, ed. .Wiistenfeld, Göttingen, 1847, cf.^ Wiistenfeld, Göttingen , 1847, cf.

.Journal of the German Oriental Society, vol.^ Journal of the German Oriental Society, vol.

^ I. Goldziher in the Journal of the German Oriental Society, vols.

7, pp. 472, 476, and for other castles vol. 10, pp. 20 ff.). .The ruins of the city of Ma'rib, the old Sabaean capital, have been visited by Arnaud, Halevy and Glaser, but call for further description, as Arnaud confined himself to a description of the dike (see below), while Halevy and Glaser were interested chiefly in the inscriptions.^ The ruins of the city of Ma'rib, the old Sabaean capital, have been visited by Arnaud, Halevy and Glaser, but call for further description, as Arnaud confined himself to a description of the dike (see below), while Halevy and Glaser were interested chiefly in the inscriptions.

^ Their capital was Ma'rib.

^ Arnaud, formerly in the Egyptian service, was the first to visit the southern Jauf and to report on the rock-cut inscriptions and ruins of Marib, though it was not till 1869 that a competent archaeologist, J. Halevy, was able to carry out any Jauf and complete exploration there.

Wells and Dikes

.From the earliest times the conservation of water has been one of the serious cares of the Arabs.^ From the earliest times the conservation of water has been one of the serious cares of the Arabs.

^ Of all these stories current at the time of Mahomet, the only ones of any value are the accounts of the " days of the Arabs," i.e.

^ The differences that seem to separate Arab Americans from non-Arabs can be much smaller than the variations that at times differentiate them from one another.
  • 100 questions about arab americans leaving in the US 10 February 2010 11:32 UTC allied-media.com [Source type: Original source]

.All over the country wells are to be found, and the masonry of some of them is undoubtedly ancient.^ All over the country wells are to be found, and the masonry of some of them is undoubtedly ancient.

^ Haplogroup frequency differentiation is also found when all the Arabian Peninsula countries were taken into account (p < 0.01).
  • BioMed Central | Full text | Mitochondrial DNA structure in the Arabian Peninsula 3 February 2010 14:24 UTC www.biomedcentral.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Mitochondrial DNA structure in the Arabian Peninsula 3 February 2010 14:24 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

.Inscriptions are still found in some of these in the south.^ Inscriptions are still found in some of these in the south.

^ The so-called invasion by Amir ibn As was assisted by some Copts, who found the Muslims more tolerant than the Byzantines, and of these some turned to Islam.
  • ARAB SLAVE TRADE - The history of Arab Slavery in Africa 10 February 2010 11:32 UTC www.africanholocaust.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Some twenty-five kings are known from the inscriptions; of these twenty are known to be related to one another.

.The famous well Zemzem at Mecca is said to belong to the early times, when the eastern traffic passed from the south to the north-west of Arabia through the Hejaz, and to have been rediscovered shortly before the time of Mahomet.^ I am grateful to Ms. Mattera for inviting me, and enjoyed time with the children ," said Arabia who added that he was impressed by the accomplishments of students under Ms. Mattera's leadership.

^ The second most sacred city of Islam after Mecca, Al-Madinah (also referred to as Medinah or Medina) is located in western Saudi Arabia's Hejaz Province, about 215 miles north of Makkah.
  • Saudi Arabia Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Saudi Arabia 10 January 2010 11:20 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ ASIR Region in Saudi Arabia along the Red Sea, bordered on the north by Hejaz and the south by Yemen.
  • Arabia 2 February 2010 13:31 UTC my.raex.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Among the most famous remains of Ma'rib are those of a great dike reminding one of the restored tanks familiar to visitors at Aden.^ Of the six most famous collections of Hadith , those of al-Bukhari (died 870 A.D.) are considered by many Muslims as the most authoritative.
  • The Exclusion of the Jews and Christians 3 February 2010 14:24 UTC debate.org.uk [Source type: Original source]

.These remains were first described by Arnaud (Journal asiatique, January 1874, with plan).^ These remains were first described by Arnaud ( Journal asiatique, January 1874, with plan).

.Their importance was afterwards emphasized by Glaser's publication of two long inscriptions concerning their restoration in the 5th and 6th centuries A.D. (" Zwei Inschriften uber den Dammbruch von Marib," in the Mitteilungen der Vorderasiatischen Gesellschaft, Berlin, 1897).^ Their importance was afterwards emphasized by Glaser's publication of two long inscriptions concerning their restoration in the 5th and 6th centuries A.D. (" Zwei Inschriften uber den Dammbruch von Marib," in the Mitteilungen der Vorderasiatischen Gesellschaft, Berlin , 1897).

.Another dike about 150 yds.^ Another dike about 150 yds.

long was seen by .W. B. Harris at Hirran in Yemen.^ W. B. Harris at Hirran in Yemen.

.Above it was a series of three tanks (A Journey through the Yemen, p.^ Above it was a series of three tanks ( A Journey through the Yemen, p.

^ W. B. Harris, Journey through Yemen (Edinburgh, 1893); J. R. Wellsted, Travels in Arabia (aondon, 1838); Capt.

279, aondon, 1893).

Stones and Bronzes

.The 19th century has brought to the museums of Europe (especially to aondon, Paris, Berlin and Vienna) a number of inscriptions in the languages of Minea and Saba, and a few in those of Hadramut and Katabania (Qattabania).^ The 19th century has brought to the museums of Europe (especially to aondon, Paris, Berlin and Vienna) a number of inscriptions in the languages of Minea and Saba, and a few in those of Hadramut and Katabania (Qattabania).

^ Seals , Weights and Coins== The Vienna Museum possesses a small number of seals and gems.

^ Others were purchased by G. Schlumberger in Constantinople ; others have been brought to Europe by Glaser, and are now in the Vienna Museum.

.These inscriptions are generally on limestone or marble or on tablets of bronze, and vary from a few inches to some feet in length and height.^ These inscriptions are generally on limestone or marble or on tablets of bronze , and vary from a few inches to some feet in length and height.

^ Besides these there are gravestones, stelae with human heads, fragments of limestone, architectural designs as well as bronze castings of camels, horses, mice, serpents, &c.

^ The government generally respected this inviolability; however, there were some cases in which the government infringed on these rights, notably religious police raids on private residences.
  • Saudi Arabia 28 January 2010 0:48 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

.In some cases the originals have been brought to Europe, in other cases only squeezes of the inscriptions.^ In some cases the originals have been brought to Europe, in other cases only squeezes of the inscriptions.

^ In other words, our middle case is that the post-2005 Saudi Net Export Fuel Gauge is only 80% full, after only three years.
  • The Oil Drum | Saudi Arabia's Crude Oil Production Peaked in 2005 10 January 2010 11:20 UTC www.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Others were purchased by G. Schlumberger in Constantinople ; others have been brought to Europe by Glaser, and are now in the Vienna Museum.

The characters employed are apparently derived from the Phoenician (cf. aidzbarski's Ephemeris, vol. i. pp. 109 ff.). .The languages employed have been the subject of much study (cf.^ The languages employed have been the subject of much study (cf.

^ Subjects offered: English and Foreign Languages Philosophy and Religious Thought Tamil and Dravidian Languages Sanskrit and other Indian Languages Persian, Arabic Historical Studies .
  • Summer Near Eastern Language Instruction (off campus) 15 September 2009 20:52 UTC www2.gsu.edu [Source type: Academic]

F. Hommel's Siid-arabische Chrestomathie, Munich, 1893), but the archaeological value of these remains has not been so fully treated. .Very many of them are votive inscriptions and contain little more than the names of gods and princes or private men.^ Otherwise one might conjecture that all this feigned outrage is little more than a distraction to divert our attention from what's really important.
  • Ben Smith's Blog: White House: No bow to Saudi - POLITICO.com 19 September 2009 2:02 UTC www.politico.com [Source type: General]

^ In my experience, many people view cars as nothing more than tools to accomplish a task, rather than embodiments of freedom.
  • The Oil Drum | Saudi Arabia's Crude Oil Production Peaked in 2005 10 January 2010 11:20 UTC www.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I'll tell you what embarasses me much more than what probably was no more than a simple mistake in protocol, the complete ignorance displayed in many of these comments.
  • Ben Smith's Blog: White House: No bow to Saudi - POLITICO.com 19 September 2009 2:02 UTC www.politico.com [Source type: General]

.A few are historical, but being (with few and late exceptions) undated, have given rise to much controversy among scholars.^ Except for a few major cities and oases, the harsh climate historically prevented much settlement of the Arabian Peninsula.
  • Comparative Criminology | Asia - Saudi Arabia 10 January 2010 11:20 UTC www-rohan.sdsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Their range seems to be from about Boo B.C. (or i 50o B.C. according to E. Glaser) to the 6th century A.D. Few are still in situ, the majority having been taken from their original positions and built into houses, mosques or wells of more recent date.^ Their range seems to be from about Boo B.C. (or i 50o B.C. according to E. Glaser) to the 6th century A.D. Few are still in situ, the majority having been taken from their original positions and built into houses, mosques or wells of more recent date.

^ It is always amazing to listen to Goebbel's last radio address in april 45, still waffling about the 'Endsieg', few days before he shot himself.
  • The Oil Drum | Saudi Arabia's Crude Oil Reserves Propaganda 28 January 2010 0:48 UTC www.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Additional analysis of diagnostic positions allowed the unequivocal assortment of the majority (96%) of the haplotypes into subhaplogroups [see Additional file 1 ].
  • BioMed Central | Full text | Mitochondrial DNA structure in the Arabian Peninsula 3 February 2010 14:24 UTC www.biomedcentral.com [Source type: Academic]

.Among these remains are altars, and bases for statues of gods or for golden images of animals dedicated to gods.^ Among these remains are altars, and bases for statues of gods or for golden images of animals dedicated to gods.

.The earlier stones are devoid of ornamentation, but the later stones and bronzes are sometimes ornamented with designs of leaves, flowers, ox-heads, men and women.^ The earlier stones are devoid of ornamentation, but the later stones and bronzes are sometimes ornamented with designs of leaves, flowers, ox -heads, men and women.

^ Besides these there are gravestones, stelae with human heads, fragments of limestone, architectural designs as well as bronze castings of camels, horses, mice, serpents, &c.

^ The Prophet allowed them to leave and the tribe - men, women and children - left unharmed.
  • The Exclusion of the Jews and Christians 3 February 2010 14:24 UTC debate.org.uk [Source type: Original source]

.Some bear figures of the conventionalized sacred tree with worshippers, similar to Babylonian designs.^ Some bear figures of the conventionalized sacred tree with worshippers, similar to Babylonian designs.

^ The gems of onyx , carnelian and agate are later and bear various figures, and in some cases Arabic inscriptions.

^ These are designations for Christian churches that share some similarities, but that have different histories.
  • 100 questions about arab americans leaving in the US 10 February 2010 11:32 UTC allied-media.com [Source type: Original source]

.Besides these there are gravestones, stelae with human heads, fragments of limestone, architectural designs as well as bronze castings of camels, horses, mice, serpents, &c.^ Besides these there are gravestones, stelae with human heads, fragments of limestone, architectural designs as well as bronze castings of camels, horses, mice, serpents, &c.

^ The earlier stones are devoid of ornamentation, but the later stones and bronzes are sometimes ornamented with designs of leaves, flowers, ox -heads, men and women.

^ The Arabian camel belongs to the one-humped species, though there are many varieties differing in appearance as much as the thoroughbred race- horse from the English cart -horse.

(cf. .D. H. Miller's Siidarabische Alterthiimer im Kunsthistorischen Museum, Vienna, 1899, with plates).^ D. H. Miller's Siidarabische Alterthiimer im Kunsthistorischen Museum, Vienna , 1899, with plates).

.==Seals, Weights and Coins== The Vienna Museum possesses a small number of seals and gems.^ Seals , Weights and Coins== The Vienna Museum possesses a small number of seals and gems.

^ A number of coins have been brought to the British Museum from Aden, San'a and Ma'rib.

.The seals are inscribed with Sabaean writing and are of bronze, copper, silver and stone.^ The seals are inscribed with Sabaean writing and are of bronze, copper, silver and stone.

.The gems of onyx, carnelian and agate are later and bear various figures, and in some cases Arabic inscriptions.^ The gems of onyx , carnelian and agate are later and bear various figures, and in some cases Arabic inscriptions.

^ These inscriptions are generally on limestone or marble or on tablets of bronze , and vary from a few inches to some feet in length and height.

^ In Yemen and Hadramut especially these ruins abound, and in some cases inscriptions seem to be still in situ.

.One or two weights are also in existence.^ One or two weights are also in existence.

.A number of coins have been brought to the British Museum from Aden, San'a and Ma'rib.^ A number of coins have been brought to the British Museum from Aden, San'a and Ma'rib.

^ Seals , Weights and Coins== The Vienna Museum possesses a small number of seals and gems.

^ Among the most famous remains of Ma'rib are those of a great dike reminding one of the restored tanks familiar to visitors at Aden.

.Others were purchased by G. Schlumberger in Constantinople; others have been brought to Europe by Glaser, and are now in the Vienna Museum.^ Others were purchased by G. Schlumberger in Constantinople ; others have been brought to Europe by Glaser, and are now in the Vienna Museum.

^ The 19th century has brought to the museums of Europe (especially to aondon, Paris, Berlin and Vienna) a number of inscriptions in the languages of Minea and Saba, and a few in those of Hadramut and Katabania (Qattabania).

^ In some cases the originals have been brought to Europe, in other cases only squeezes of the inscriptions.

.These are imitations of Greek models, while the inscriptions are in Sabaean characters (cf.^ These are imitations of Greek models, while the inscriptions are in Sabaean characters (cf.

.B. V. Head, in the Numismatic Chronicle, 1878, pp.^ B. V. Head, in the Numismatic Chronicle, 1878, pp.

.273-284; G. Schlumberger, ae Tresor de San' a, Paris, 1880; D. H. Muller, op.^ G. Schlumberger, ae Tresor de San' a, Paris, 1880; D. H. Muller, op.

cit.
pp. 65 ff. and plates).
.For the problem of Arabic antiquities in Rhodesia see Rhodesia and Zimbabwe.^ For the problem of Arabic antiquities in Rhodesia see Rhodesia and Zimbabwe.

(G. W. T.) History Introduction. - .Arabia is a land of Semites, and is supposed by some scholars to have been the original home of the Semitic peoples.^ Arabia is a land of Semites, and is supposed by some scholars to have been the original home of the Semitic peoples.

^ Instead of returning home, Mr. Arabia went upstairs to his office, where he caught up on some work.

Although this cannot be said to be proved, the studies, linguistic and archaeological, of Semitic scholars have shown it to be probable. .The dispersion from Arabia is easy to imagine.^ The dispersion from Arabia is easy to imagine.

.The migration into Babylonia was simple, as there are no natural boundaries to separate it from north-east Arabia, and similar migrations have taken place in historic times.^ The migration into Babylonia was simple, as there are no natural boundaries to separate it from north-east Arabia, and similar migrations have taken place in historic times.

^ Hundreds of thousands of low-skilled workers and skilled workers from regions of the developing world migrate to Saudi Arabia, sometimes only for a short period of time, to work.
  • Saudi_Arabia calling cards and Saudi_Arabia International phone cards 10 January 2010 11:20 UTC www.aloarabs.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I think that the onset of the final North Ghawar decline, probably in 2006, is to Saudi Arabia as the onset of the final East Texas decline was to Texas, in 1973.
  • The Oil Drum | Saudi Arabia's Crude Oil Production Peaked in 2005 10 January 2010 11:20 UTC www.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.That of the Aramaeans at an early period is likewise free from any natural hindrance.^ That of the Aramaeans at an early period is likewise free from any natural hindrance.

.The connexion with Palestine has always been close; and the Abyssinian settlement is probably as late as the beginning of the Christian era.^ The connexion with Palestine has always been close; and the Abyssinian settlement is probably as late as the beginning of the Christian era.

.Of these migrations, however, history knows nothing, nor are they expressed in literature.^ Of these migrations, however, history knows nothing, nor are they expressed in literature.

^ However, as a reality check, we all know that in the late 80's all the OPEC countries increased their oil reserves so they could sell more.
  • The Oil Drum | Saudi Arabia's Crude Oil Reserves Propaganda 28 January 2010 0:48 UTC www.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ While, however, these measures were in early use, they were not systematically analysed or their rules enunciated until the time of Khalil ibn Ahmad in the 8th century.

.Arabian literature has its own version of prehistoric times, but it is entirely legendary and apocryphal.^ Arabian literature has its own version of prehistoric times, but it is entirely legendary and apocryphal.

.It was, and still is, the custom of Arabian historians to begin with the creation of the world and tell the history from then to the time of which they are writing.^ It was, and still is, the custom of Arabian historians to begin with the creation of the world and tell the history from then to the time of which they are writing.

^ If I wasn't somewhat hopeful that we could make a difference I wouldn't still write here, but I have to spend my time doing what I feel is most important and am most interested in.
  • The Oil Drum | Saudi Arabia's Crude Oil Production Peaked in 2005 10 January 2010 11:20 UTC www.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The classical accounts of the invasion of Aelius Gallus in 26 B.C. threw little light on the state of Arabia at the time, still less on its past history.

.Consequently even the more sober histories contain a mass of fables about early days.^ Consequently even the more sober histories contain a mass of fables about early days.

^ "He also said the difference between his estimates and others were his assumptions that KSA would find about 4MB/day more production between now and 2022."
  • The Oil Drum | Saudi Arabia's Crude Oil Production Peaked in 2005 10 January 2010 11:20 UTC www.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He also said the difference between his estimates and others were his assumptions that KSA would find about 4MB/day more production between now and 2022.
  • The Oil Drum | Saudi Arabia's Crude Oil Production Peaked in 2005 10 January 2010 11:20 UTC www.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Many of these, taken in part from Jewish and Christian sources, find a place in the Koran.^ Many of these, taken in part from Jewish and Christian sources, find a place in the Koran .

^ There were also many Christian and Jewish Arab tribes and well as other indigenous Arabs that continued their tradition of slaving.
  • ARAB SLAVE TRADE - The history of Arab Slavery in Africa 10 February 2010 11:32 UTC www.africanholocaust.net [Source type: Original source]

^ All Jewish slaves have these restrictions placed upon them: .
  • ARAB SLAVE TRADE - The history of Arab Slavery in Africa 10 February 2010 11:32 UTC www.africanholocaust.net [Source type: Original source]

.Of all these stories current at the time of Mahomet, the only ones of any value are the accounts of the " days of the Arabs," i.e. accounts of some famous inter-tribal battles in Arabia.^ Of all these stories current at the time of Mahomet, the only ones of any value are the accounts of the " days of the Arabs," i.e.

^ Hundreds of thousands of low-skilled workers and skilled workers from regions of the developing world migrate to Saudi Arabia, sometimes only for a short period of time, to work.
  • Saudi_Arabia calling cards and Saudi_Arabia International phone cards 10 January 2010 11:20 UTC www.aloarabs.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In any case, as Hubbert pointed out some time ago, a one third increase in estimated Lower 48 URR only postponed the projected Lower 48 peak by five years, from 1966 to 1971.
  • The Oil Drum | Saudi Arabia's Crude Oil Production Peaked in 2005