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The Arabian Peninsula
The Arabian Peninsula (in Arabic: شبه الجزيرة العربية šibh al-jazīra al-ʻarabīya or جزيرة العرب jazīrat al-ʻArab), Arabia, Arabistan,[1] and the Arabian subcontinent[2] is a peninsula in Southwest Asia at the junction of Africa and Asia. The area is an important part of the Middle East and plays a critically important geopolitical role because of its vast reserves of oil and natural gas.

Contents

Geography

.The seas off the coast of the peninsula are, on the west the Red Sea and the Gulf of Aqaba, on the southeast the Arabian Sea (part of the Indian Ocean), and on the northeast, the Gulf of Oman, the Strait of Hormuz, and the Persian Gulf.^ Yemen had easy access to Mesopotamia and the Persian Gulf by way of the sea, as well as with Abyssinia.
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The peninsula and the Syrian Desert have no clear line of demarcation, but the commonly accepted boundary is the northern border of Saudi Arabia and Kuwait.[3] The most prominent feature of the peninsula is desert, but in the southwest there are mountain ranges which receive greater rainfall than the rest of the Arabian Peninsula.
Africa, Arabian subcontinent, and Eurasia
The Arabian Peninsula
The peninsula's constituent countries are Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, the United Arab Emirates (UAE), Yemen and Saudi Arabia.[4] The northern part of the peninsula is the Syrian Desert, which also includes northeastern Jordan, southeastern Syria, and western Iraq.[5] Some usage includes the entire subcontinent of Arabia.[6]
.Six countries of the list above, excluding Yemen, form the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC), mainly known as the Arab states of the Persian Gulf.^ Yemen had easy access to Mesopotamia and the Persian Gulf by way of the sea, as well as with Abyssinia.
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The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia covers the greater part of the peninsula. The majority of the population of the peninsula live in Saudi Arabia and in Yemen. The peninsula contains the world's largest reserves of oil. It is home to the Islamic holy cities of Mecca and Medina, both of which are in Saudi Arabia. The UAE and Saudi Arabia are economically the wealthiest in the region. Qatar, a small peninsula in the Persian Gulf on the larger peninsula, is home of the famous Arabic-language television station Al Jazeera and its English-language subsidiary Al Jazeera English. Kuwait, on the border with Iraq, was claimed as an Iraqi province and invaded by Saddam Hussein during the first Gulf War. It is also an important country strategically, forming one of the main staging grounds for coalition forces mounting the invasion of Iraq in 2003.

Population

.As of 2008, the estimated population of the Arabian Peninsula is 77,983,936.[7] In the Persian Gulf states there are many residents who are non-nationals: in Saudi Arabia it is 20% and in the United Arab Emirates it is 89%.^ These examples do not sit well with the traditional picture of the man who 'cleansed' the Arabian Peninsula of Jews and Christians.
  • The Exclusion of the Jews and Christians 3 February 2010 14:24 UTC debate.org.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ As we shall see, there is also evidence that the purported evacuation of the Christians from the Arabian Peninsula, especially Najran, bears uncanny resemblance to this historical reconstruction.
  • The Exclusion of the Jews and Christians 3 February 2010 14:24 UTC debate.org.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ A Qur'anic passage looks at the history of Bani Israil (note: not the Jews in Medina or the Arabian Peninsula) and states the following: .
  • The Exclusion of the Jews and Christians 3 February 2010 14:24 UTC debate.org.uk [Source type: Original source]

Landscape

Ras Aljinz, southeastern Arabia (Oman) also known as the 'Turtle Beach'
.Geologically, this region is perhaps more appropriately called the Arabian subcontinent because it lies on a tectonic plate of its own, the Arabian Plate, which has been moving incrementally away from northeast Africa (forming the Red Sea) and north into the Eurasian plate (forming the Zagros mountains).^ The Spirit is called Spirit because he breathes and is moved of the Father and rests in the Son.
  • The Exclusion of the Jews and Christians 3 February 2010 14:24 UTC debate.org.uk [Source type: Original source]

.The rocks exposed vary systematically across Arabia, with the oldest rocks exposed in the Arabian-Nubian Shield near the Red Sea, overlain by earlier sediments that become younger towards the Persian Gulf.^ Yemen had easy access to Mesopotamia and the Persian Gulf by way of the sea, as well as with Abyssinia.
  • The Exclusion of the Jews and Christians 3 February 2010 14:24 UTC debate.org.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ The fleet was provided by Byzantium and Abyssinia sent 70,000 of its troops by it across the Red Sea to Yaman.
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Perhaps the best-preserved ophiolite on Earth, the Semail ophiolite, lies exposed in the mountains of the UAE and northern Oman.
AR-Arabian Plate, velocities with respect to Africa in millimeters per year
The peninsula consists of:
  1. a central plateau, the Nejd, with fertile valleys and pastures used for the grazing of sheep and other livestock.
  2. a range of deserts: the Nefud in the north, which is stony; the Rub' Al-Khali or Great Arabian Desert in the south, with sand estimated to extend 600 ft. below the surface; between them, the Dahna.
  3. stretches of dry or marshy coastland with coral reefs on the Red Sea side (Tihamah).
  4. ranges of mountains, paralleling the Red Sea coast on the west (e.g., Asir province) but also at the southeastern end of the peninsula (Oman). .The mountains show a steady increase in altitude as they get nearer to Yemen, and the highest peaks and ranges are all located in Yemen.^ You replied that they were increasing, and in fact this is the way of true faith, till it is complete in all respects.
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    The highest, Jabal Al-Nabi Shu'ayb in Yemen, is 3666 m high.
Arabia has few lakes or permanent rivers. Most are drained by ephemeral watercourses called wadis, which are dry except during the rainy season. .Plentiful ancient aquifers exist beneath much of the peninsula, however, and where this water surfaces, oases form (e.g., Al-Hasa and Qatif, two of the worlds largest oases) and permit agriculture, especially palm trees, which allowed the peninsula to produce more dates than any other region in the world.^ Having watched the video again myself, it makes more sense than a "two handed" hand shake that didn't happen.
  • Ben Smith's Blog: White House: No bow to Saudi - POLITICO.com 19 September 2009 2:02 UTC www.politico.com [Source type: General]

^ He also told Talhah, so the story goes, that the Prophet would leave the sacred precincts of Makkah and migrate to a land of black soil, water and palm trees...
  • The Exclusion of the Jews and Christians 3 February 2010 14:24 UTC debate.org.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ HOW BACKWARDS IS THAT? I am completely against socialized medicine EXCEPT I strongly believe that our veterans, more than any other Americans, should get the best health care in the world at the taxpayer's expense.
  • Ben Smith's Blog: White House: No bow to Saudi - POLITICO.com 19 September 2009 2:02 UTC www.politico.com [Source type: General]

In general, the climate is extremely hot and arid, although there are exceptions. Higher elevations are made temperate by their altitude, and the Arabian Sea coastline can receive surprisingly cool, humid breezes in summer due to cold upwelling offshore. The peninsula has no thick forests, although desert-adapted wildlife is present throughout the region.
.A plateau more than 2,500 feet high extends across much of the Arabian Peninsula.^ I'll tell you what embarasses me much more than what probably was no more than a simple mistake in protocol, the complete ignorance displayed in many of these comments.
  • Ben Smith's Blog: White House: No bow to Saudi - POLITICO.com 19 September 2009 2:02 UTC www.politico.com [Source type: General]

^ It is much more likely that they were Abyssinian-influenced Monophysites, rather than Chalcedonian Orthodox of Byzantium.
  • The Exclusion of the Jews and Christians 3 February 2010 14:24 UTC debate.org.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ After a description of the high position which Jesus occupies as a prophet, we have a repudiation of the dogma that he was Allah, or the son of Allah, or anything more than a man.
  • The Exclusion of the Jews and Christians 3 February 2010 14:24 UTC debate.org.uk [Source type: Original source]

.The plateau slopes eastwards from the massive, rifted escarpment along the coast of the Red Sea, to the shallow waters of the Persian Gulf.^ Yemen had easy access to Mesopotamia and the Persian Gulf by way of the sea, as well as with Abyssinia.
  • The Exclusion of the Jews and Christians 3 February 2010 14:24 UTC debate.org.uk [Source type: Original source]

The interior is characterised by cuestas and valleys, drained by a system of wadis. A crescent of sand and gravel deserts lies to the east.

Land and sea

.Most of the Arabian Peninsula is unsuited to settled agriculture, making irrigation and land reclamation projects essential.^ Smith argues that this demonstrates that Jews and Muslims were still enjoying both good relations and a common sanctuary (and thus a common 'holy land') outside the Arabian Peninsula: .
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The narrow coastal plain and isolated oases, amounting to less than 1% of the land area, are used to cultivate grains, coffee and exotic fruits. Goats, sheep, and camels are widespread throughout the region.
The fertile soils of Yemen have encouraged settlement of almost all of the land from sea level up to the mountains at 10,000 feet. In the higher reaches elaborate terraces have been constructed to facilitate crop cultivation.

History of the term

The Romans named three regions with the prefix "Arabia", encompassing a larger area than the current term "Arabian Peninsula":
  • Arabia Petraea: for the area that is today southern modern Syria, Jordan, the Sinai Peninsula and northwestern Saudi Arabia. .It was the only one that became a province, with Petra as its capital.
  • Arabia Deserta ("Desert Arabia"): signified the desert interior of the Arabian peninsula.^ Undoubtedly, one barrier to improved Christian-Muslim relations is the prohibition on the existence of free and public Christian worship, especially with respect to religious buildings, in the Arabian Peninsula.
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    As a name for the region, it remained popular into the 19th and 20th centuries, and was used in Charles M. Doughty's Travels in Arabia Deserta (1888).
  • Arabia Felix ("Fortunate Arabia"): was used by geographers to describe what is now modern-day Yemen, which enjoys more rainfall, is much greener than the rest of the peninsula and has long enjoyed much more productive fields.
The Arab inhabitants used a north-south division of Arabia: Al Sham-Al Yaman, or Arabia Deserta-Arabia Felix. Arabia Felix had originally been used for the whole peninsula, and at other times only for the southern region. Because its use became limited to the south, the whole peninsula was simply called Arabia. Arabia Deserta was the entire desert region extending north from Arabia Felix to Palmyra and the Euphrates, including all the area between Pelusium on the Nile and Babylon. This area was also called Arabia and not sharply distinguished from the peninsula.[8]
The Arabs and the Ottoman Empire considered the entire region where the Arabs lived 'the land of the Arabs' – bilad al-Arab (Arabia or Arabistan), and its major divisions were the bilad al-Sham (Syria), bilad al-Yaman (the Land of the southern Peninsula), and Bilad al-Iraq (the Land of the River Banks).[9] The Ottomans used the term Arabistan in a broad sense for the subcontinent itself starting from Cilicia, where the Euphrates river makes its descent into Syria, through Palestine, and on through the remainder of the Sinai and Arabian peninsulas[10]
.The provinces of Arabia were: Al Tih, the Sinai peninsula, Hedjaz, Asir, Yemen, Hadramaut, Mahra and Shilu, Oman, Hasa, Bahrian, Dahna, Nejd, Nufud, the Hammad, which included the deserts of Syria, Mesopotamia and Babylonia.^ For example, according to Bukhari Hadith 4.288, identifying the borders of the Arabian Peninsula, Yemen is included in its bounds.
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[11][12] hi

History

Ancient history

Until comparatively recent times knowledge of the Arabian Peninsula was limited to that provided by ancient Greek and Roman writers and by early Arab geographers; much of this material was unreliable. In the 20th century however, archaeological exploration added considerable knowledge to the area.
In his book, The Real Eve, geneticist Stephen Oppenheimer claims based on mitochondrial evidence in conjunction with the contemporary environment (i.e. glaciation, sea levels) corresponding to these molecular clock timelines that the first humans to leave Africa crossed the virtually dry mouth of the Red Sea onto the Arabian peninsula. .They travelled along the coastline of the peninsula before crossing into Southern Asia.^ He came with a cloud above him shading him and when he approached the people he found they had gone before him into the shade of a tree.
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The old part of Sana'a, Yemen
The peninsula is one of the possible original homelands of the Proto-Semitic language ancestors of all the Semitic-speaking peoples in the region — the Akkadians, Arabs, Assyrians, Babylonians, Hebrews, etc. Linguistically, the peninsula was the cradle of the Arabic language (spread beyond the peninsula with the Islamic religion during the expansion of Islam beginning in the 7th century AD) and still maintains tiny populations of speakers of Semitic languages such as Mehri and Shehri, remnants of the language family that was spoken in earlier historical periods to the East of the kingdoms of Sheba and Hadramout which flourished in the southern part of the peninsula (modern-day Yemen and Oman).
Bernard Lewis mentions in his book The Arabs in History:
"According to this, Arabia was originally a land of great fertility and the first home of the Semitic peoples. Through the millennia it has been undergoing a process of steady desiccation, a drying up of wealth and waterways and a spread of the desert at the expense of the cultivable land. The declining productivity of the peninsula, together with the increase in the number of the inhabitants, led to a series of crises of overpopulation and consequently to a recurring cycle of invasions of the neighbouring countries by the Semitic peoples of the peninsula. It was these crises that carried the Assyrians, Aramaeans, Canaanites (including the Phoenicians and Hebrews), and finally the Arabs themselves into the Fertile Crescent."[13]
.The better-watered, higher portions of the extreme south-west portion of the Arabian Peninsula supported three early kingdoms.^ Then the Prophet ordered them to do three things saying, 'Turn out all the pagans from the Arabian Peninsula, show respect to all foreign delegates by giving them gifts as I used to do.'"
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The first, the Minaean, was centered in the interior of what is now Yemen, but probably embraced most of southern Arabia. Although dating is difficult, it is generally believed that the Minaean Kingdom existed from 1200 to 650 BC The second kingdom, the Sabaean (see Sheba), was founded around 930 BC and lasted until around 115 BC; it probably supplanted the Minaean Kingdom and occupied substantially the same territory. .The Sabaean capital and chief city, Ma’rib, probably flourished as did no other city of ancient Arabia, partly because of its controlling position on the caravan routes linking the seaports of the Mediterranean with the frankincense-growing region of the Hadhramaut and partly because a large nearby dam provided water for irrigation.^ Mooooommy was probably MIA and didn't tell you that because someone else did it first/too makes it right for you to do it.
  • Ben Smith's Blog: White House: No bow to Saudi - POLITICO.com 19 September 2009 2:02 UTC www.politico.com [Source type: General]

^ No doubt, as Trimingham accepts, Umar did indeed remove some Christians from Najran for some reason, and probably did the same to some Jews, as Arafat suggests.
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The Sabaean Kingdom was widely referred to as Saba, and it has been suggested that the Queen of Sheba mentioned in the Bible and the Quran, who visited King Solomon of Israel in Jerusalem in the 10th century BC, was Sabaean. Both the Bible and the Quran mention that under Soloman's rule the Kingdom of Israel included territories on the peninsula east of the Jordan river. .The Islamic view of Solomon holds that those territories reached as far south as Yemen.^ The Christians, however, were the majority in the conquered territories, and their objections to Qur'anic Christology were more far-reaching and dangerous.
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The Himyarites followed the Sabaeans as the leaders in southern Arabia; the Himyarite Kingdom lasted from around 115 BC to around AD 525. In 24 BC the Roman emperor Augustus sent the prefect of Egypt, Aelius Gallus, against the Himyarites, but his army of 10,000, which was unsuccessful, returned to Egypt. The Himyarites prospered in the frankincense, myrrh, and spice trade until the Romans began to open the sea routes through the Red Sea.
During the Roman period the peninsula was divided by three districts: Arabia Felix, Arabia Deserta, and Arabia Petraea. .The latter included the Sinai Peninsula, which is no longer considered part of the modern Arabian Peninsula.^ For example, according to Bukhari Hadith 4.288, identifying the borders of the Arabian Peninsula, Yemen is included in its bounds.
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Sabaean inscription addressed to the moon-god Almaqah, mentioning five South Arabian gods, two reigning sovereigns and two governors, 7th century BC.
.In the 3rd century, The East African Christian Kingdom of Aksum began interfering in South Arabian affairs, controlling at times the western Tihama region among other areas.^ If this is the case, the ahadith that claim that all Jews were 'cleansed' from the region at the time of 'Umar are historically inaccurate, and represent a politically motivated innovation centuries later.
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.The Kingdom of Aksum at its height extended its territory in Arabia across most of Yemen and southern and western Saudi Arabia before being eventually driven out by the Persians.^ Look how high the Saudi king raises his hand to greet B.O. - then see B.O.'s left hand never being extended.
  • Ben Smith's Blog: White House: No bow to Saudi - POLITICO.com 19 September 2009 2:02 UTC www.politico.com [Source type: General]

There is evidence of a Sabaean inscription about the alliance between the Himyarite king Shamir Yuhahmid and Aksum under King `DBH in the first quarter of the 3rd century AD. They had been living alongside the Sabaeans who lived across the Red Sea from them for many centuries:
"Shamir of Dhu-Raydan and Himyar had called in the help of the clans of Habashat for against the kings of Saba; but Ilmuqah granted... the submission of Shamir of Dhu-Raydan and the clans of Habashat."[14]</ historical importance of Siraf to ancient trade is only now being realised. Discovered there in past archaeological excavations are ivory objects from east Africa, pieces of stone from India, and lapis from Afghanistan. Sirif dates back to the Parthian era.[15] There is a lost city in The Empty Quarter known as Iram of the Pillars and Thamud. It is estimated that it lasted from around 3000 BC to the first century AD.

Medieval history

Age of the Caliphs      Expansion under Muhammad, 622–632/A.H. 1–11      Expansion during the Rashidun Caliphate, 632–661/A.H. 11–40      Expansion during the Umayyad Caliphate, 661–750/A.H. 40–129
The seventh century saw the introduction of Islam in the Arabian Peninsula. .The Islamic prophet Muhammad established a new unified polity in the Arabian peninsula which under the subsequent Rashidun and Umayyad Caliphates saw a century of rapid expansion of Arab power well beyond the Arabian peninsula in the form of a vast Muslim Arab Empire with an area of influence that stretched from northwest India, across Central Asia, the Middle East, North Africa, southern Italy, and the Iberian Peninsula, to the Pyrenees.^ Then the Prophet ordered them to do three things saying, 'Turn out all the pagans from the Arabian Peninsula, show respect to all foreign delegates by giving them gifts as I used to do.'"
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^ According to a Muslim biography of Muhammad ibn Maslamah, the cause of the conflict was a rash, reckless military challenge to the prophet: .
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^ One of the most telling arguments against the authenticity of the narrations of expulsion is the failure of the first caliph, Abu Bakr, to implement the supposed command of the Prophet to exile the People of the Book from the Arabian Peninsula.
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.Muhammad began preaching Islam at Mecca before migrating to Medina, from where he united the tribes of Arabia into a singular Arab Muslim religious polity.^ This would be especially true of the Jews near Mecca and Medina which had only lately been transformed into the leading shrines of Islam in place of Jerusalem.
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^ S. 2:191 has reference to the pagans at Mecca who had caused the migration of the Muslims through persecution.
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^ Similarly, Abu Rafi, a leading Jew of the Banu Nadir, was assassinated on the orders by Muhammad for conspiring against the Prophet after the expulsion of the tribe from Medina.
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.With Muhammad's death in 632 AD, disagreement broke out over who would succeed him as leader of the Muslim community.^ Muhammad ibn al-Ashath mentioned that to Umar ibn al-Khattab and said to him, "Who inherits from her?"
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^ The latter invited him to pray on the premises, but the Caliph declined, on the grounds that later Muslims would transform the Church into a mosque.
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^ He would take provisions with him and stay there for several days, then would return to Hadrat Khadijah who would again provide for him for a few more days.
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.Umar ibn al-Khattab, a prominent companion of Muhammad, nominated Abu Bakr, who was Muhammad's intimate friend and collaborator.^ Muhammad ibn al-Ashath mentioned that to Umar ibn al-Khattab and said to him, "Who inherits from her?"
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^ Sahih Al-Bukhari Hadith 3.531 Narrated by Ibn Umar Umar expelled the Jews and the Christians from Hijaz.
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^ I told my companions that the question of Ibn-Abi-Kabsha) (the Prophet Muhammad) has become so prominent that even the King of Bani Al-Asfar (Byzantine) is afraid of him.
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.Others added their support and Abu Bakr was made the first caliph.^ Allah will insist (on Abu Bakr becoming a Caliph) and the believers will prevent (anyone else from claiming the Caliphate)," or "...Allah will prevent (anyone else from claiming the Caliphate) and the believers will insist (on Abu Bakr becoming the Caliph)."
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^ One of the most telling arguments against the authenticity of the narrations of expulsion is the failure of the first caliph, Abu Bakr, to implement the supposed command of the Prophet to exile the People of the Book from the Arabian Peninsula.
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^ To a lesser extent this remains true, at least for Sunnis, with regard to Abu Bakr, the first Caliph.
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.This choice was disputed by some of Muhammad's companions, who held that Ali ibn Abi Talib, his cousin and son-in-law, had been designated his successor.^ I told my companions that the question of Ibn-Abi-Kabsha) (the Prophet Muhammad) has become so prominent that even the King of Bani Al-Asfar (Byzantine) is afraid of him.
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^ When Muhammad the Messenger of God rose up inviting people to Islam, his son Said was in the forefront of those who believed in the oneness of God and who affirmed their faith in the prophethood of Muhammad...
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^ Muhammad ibn al-Ashath mentioned that to Umar ibn al-Khattab and said to him, "Who inherits from her?"
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Abu Bakr's immediate task was to avenge a recent defeat by Byzantine (or Eastern Roman Empire) forces, although he first had to put down a rebellion by Arab tribes in an episode known as the Ridda wars, or "Wars of Apostasy".[16]
.His death in 634 resulted in the succession of Umar as the caliph, followed by Uthman ibn al-Affan and Ali ibn Abi Talib.^ Sahih Al-Bukhari Hadith 3.531 Narrated by Ibn Umar Umar expelled the Jews and the Christians from Hijaz.
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^ Muhammad ibn al-Ashath mentioned that to Umar ibn al-Khattab and said to him, "Who inherits from her?"
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^ Malik said, "Umar ibn al-Khattab expelled the Jews from Najran (a Jewish settlement in the Yemen) and Fadak (a Jewish settlement thirty miles from Madina).
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.These four are known as al-khulafā' ar-rāshidūn ("Rightly Guided Caliphs").^ Since he was one of the Khulafah Rashidun, the Rightly-Guided caliphs, and as Muhammad's immediate successor, his religious policy sheds great light on the historicity or otherwise of the event.
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Under them, the territory under Muslim rule expanded deeply into Persian and Byzantine territories.[17]

Modern history

.The provincial Ottoman Army for Arabia (Arabistan Ordusu) was headquartered in Syria, which included Lebanon, Palestine, and the Transjordan region.^ They were merchants doing business in Sham (Syria, Palestine, Lebanon and Jordan), at the time when Allah's Apostle had truce with Abu Sufyan and Quraish infidels.
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It was put in charge of Syria, Cilicia, Iraq, and the remainder of the Arabian Peninsula.[18][19] It is important to point out that the Ottomans never had any control over central Arabia also known as The Najd region, Oman, or Yemen.
The Damascus Protocol of 1914 provides an illustration of the regional relationships. .Arabs living in one of the existing districts of the Arabian peninsula, the Emirate of Hejaz, asked for a British guarantee of independence on behalf of 'the whole Arab nation'. Their proposal included all Arab lands south of a line roughly corresponding to the northern frontiers of present-day Syria and Iraq.^ Two deens shall not co-exist in the land of the Arabs.'"
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^ Then the Prophet ordered them to do three things saying, 'Turn out all the pagans from the Arabian Peninsula, show respect to all foreign delegates by giving them gifts as I used to do.'"
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^ But let's say this once again (doesn't look like you read all posts); the Arab nation is bragging about the very idea that obama was..
  • Ben Smith's Blog: White House: No bow to Saudi - POLITICO.com 19 September 2009 2:02 UTC www.politico.com [Source type: General]

.They envisioned a new Arab state, or confederation of states, adjoining the southern Arabian Peninsula.^ A Qur'anic passage looks at the history of Bani Israil (note: not the Jews in Medina or the Arabian Peninsula) and states the following: .
  • The Exclusion of the Jews and Christians 3 February 2010 14:24 UTC debate.org.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ They were much impressed on hearing this passage of the Qur'an explaining the true position of Christ, and they entered into tributary relations with the new Muslim State.
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^ As manifold as the different dogma of the Christians of the Arab peninsula might have been, they exercised a great influence upon their Arab Muslims there....
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It would have comprised Ciliciaİskenderun and Mersin, Iraq, Syria, Lebanon, Jordan, and Palestine.[20]
In the modern era, the term bilad al-Yaman came to refer specifically to the southwestern parts of the peninsula. Arab geographers started to refer to the whole peninsula as 'jazirat al-Arab', or the peninsula of the Arabs.[21]
Borders of the Ottoman Empire (1683)

Late Ottoman rule and the Hejaz Railway

In the beginning of the 20th century, the Ottomans embarked on an ambitious project: the construction of a railway connecting Istanbul, the capital of the Ottoman Empire and the seat of the Islamic Caliphate, and Hejaz with its holiest shrines of Islam which are the yearly pilgrimage destination of the Hajj. .Another important goal was to improve the economic and political integration of the distant Arabian provinces into the Ottoman state, and to facilitate the transportation of military troops in case of need.^ Haykal states that after the political/military collapse of the Jewish tribes, Jews began to return to Medina and resume their ordinary occupations.
  • The Exclusion of the Jews and Christians 3 February 2010 14:24 UTC debate.org.uk [Source type: Original source]

The Hejaz Railway was a narrow gauge railway (1050 mm) that ran from Damascus to Medina, through the Hejaz region of Arabia. .It was a part of the Ottoman railway network and was built in order to extend the previously existing line between Istanbul and Damascus (which began from the Haydarpaşa Terminal) all the way to the holy city of Mecca (eventually being able to reach only Medina due to the interruption of the construction works caused by the outbreak of World War I).^ The city of Yathrib, two hundred miles north of Mecca was at that time experiencing civil conflict between two rival tribes, the Aws and the Khazraj.
  • The Exclusion of the Jews and Christians 3 February 2010 14:24 UTC debate.org.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ This would be especially true of the Jews near Mecca and Medina which had only lately been transformed into the leading shrines of Islam in place of Jerusalem.
  • The Exclusion of the Jews and Christians 3 February 2010 14:24 UTC debate.org.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ THe people who work for a living (read Republican) or you Democrats who sit around all day thinking up ways to take and redistribute what I produce.
  • Ben Smith's Blog: White House: No bow to Saudi - POLITICO.com 19 September 2009 2:02 UTC www.politico.com [Source type: General]

The railway was started in 1900 at the behest of the Ottoman Sultan Abdul Hamid II and was built largely by the Turks, with German advice and support. A public subscription was opened throughout the Islamic world to fund the construction. The railway was to be a waqf, an inalienable religious endowment or charitable trust.[22]

The Arab Revolt and the unification of Saudi Arabia also known as The Third Saudi State

The major developments of the early 20th century were the Arab Revolt during World War I and the subsequent collapse and partitioning of the Ottoman Empire. The Arab Revolt (1916–1918) was initiated by the Sherif Hussein ibn Ali with the aim of securing independence from the ruling Ottoman Empire and creating a single unified Arab state spanning from Aleppo in Syria to Aden in Yemen. During World War I, the Sharif Hussein entered into an alliance with the United Kingdom and France against the Ottomans in June 1916.
.These events were followed by the unification of Saudi Arabia ( also known as the third Saudi State) under King Abdulaziz Ibn Saud.^ It doesn't matter if the king of Saudi Arabia is Muslim.
  • Ben Smith's Blog: White House: No bow to Saudi - POLITICO.com 19 September 2009 2:02 UTC www.politico.com [Source type: General]

^ I would much rather see the photos of George Bush holding hands with the King of Saudi Arabia again looking like he was going to kiss him.
  • Ben Smith's Blog: White House: No bow to Saudi - POLITICO.com 19 September 2009 2:02 UTC www.politico.com [Source type: General]

In 1902 Ibn Saud had captured Riyadh. .Continuing his conquests, Abdul Aziz subdued Al-Hasa, the rest of Nejd, and the Hejaz between 1913 and 1926, defeating the Sherif Hussein ibn Ali, and founded the modern state of Saudi Arabia.^ Sahih Al-Bukhari Hadith 6.537 Narrated by Abdul Aziz bin Rufai Shaddad bin Ma'qil and I entered upon Ibn 'Abbas.
  • The Exclusion of the Jews and Christians 3 February 2010 14:24 UTC debate.org.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ Najran, states that a place near Kufa called al-Nadjraniyya was founded for the Najran Christians.
  • The Exclusion of the Jews and Christians 3 February 2010 14:24 UTC debate.org.uk [Source type: Original source]

.Ibn Saud was not the first Saudi ruler to control much of Arabia.^ The fact that the Qur'an fails to mention this event in detail is surprising, since it effectively sealed Muhammad's control of much of Arabia, and crushed 'the Jewish threat' forever.
  • The Exclusion of the Jews and Christians 3 February 2010 14:24 UTC debate.org.uk [Source type: Original source]

.The house of Saud had been ruling parts of Arabia since the 17th century AD. Two Saudi states were formed and controlled much of Arabia before Ibn Saud was even born.^ Maryam) in the Qur'an, whereas Moses was born much before Jesus.
  • The Exclusion of the Jews and Christians 3 February 2010 14:24 UTC debate.org.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ I have been around and worked with people in DC even before your butt was born.
  • Ben Smith's Blog: White House: No bow to Saudi - POLITICO.com 19 September 2009 2:02 UTC www.politico.com [Source type: General]

^ I would much rather see the photos of George Bush holding hands with the King of Saudi Arabia again looking like he was going to kiss him.
  • Ben Smith's Blog: White House: No bow to Saudi - POLITICO.com 19 September 2009 2:02 UTC www.politico.com [Source type: General]

Ibn Saud however, established the third Saudi state.

Oil reserves

The second major development has been the discovery of vast reserves of oil in the 1930s. Its production brought great wealth to all countries of the region, with the exception of Yemen.
The oil boom in Kuwait converted Kuwait City from a small city to a financial hub.

Arab–Israeli conflict

The adoption of the United Nations Partition Plan for Palestine led to armed conflict between the Arab and Jewish communities of Palestine . Arabs have rejected the Partition Plan eventually lost the war and 78% of the Mandatory Palestine land except for what called West bank, and Gaza . That led to a series of conflicts between the newly established State of Israel and many of the Arab States of the peninsula, starting with the 1948 Arab–Israeli War.

Civil war in Yemen

.The North Yemen Civil War was fought in North Yemen between royalists of the Mutawakkilite Kingdom of Yemen and factions of the Yemen Arab Republic from 1962 to 1970. The war began with a coup d'etat carried out by the republican leader, Abdullah as-Sallal, which dethroned the newly crowned Imam Al-Badr and declare Yemen a republic under his presidency.^ Now, had the Imam al-Awza'i accepted the story of the slaughter of Banu Qurayza, he would have treated it as a precedent, and would not have come out with an argument against Authority, represented in 'Abdullah b.
  • The Exclusion of the Jews and Christians 3 February 2010 14:24 UTC debate.org.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ The city of Yathrib, two hundred miles north of Mecca was at that time experiencing civil conflict between two rival tribes, the Aws and the Khazraj.
  • The Exclusion of the Jews and Christians 3 February 2010 14:24 UTC debate.org.uk [Source type: Original source]

The Imam escaped to the Saudi Arabian border and rallied popular support.
The royalist side received support from Saudi Arabia, while the republicans were supported by Egypt and the Soviet Union. Both foreign irregular and conventional forces were also involved. .The Egyptian President, Gamal Abdel Nasser, supported the republicans with as many as 70,000 troops.^ The fleet was provided by Byzantium and Abyssinia sent 70,000 of its troops by it across the Red Sea to Yaman.
  • The Exclusion of the Jews and Christians 3 February 2010 14:24 UTC debate.org.uk [Source type: Original source]

Despite several military moves and peace conferences, the war sank into a stalemate. Egypt's commitment to the war is considered to have been detrimental to its performance in the Six-Day War of June 1967, after which Nasser found it increasingly difficult to maintain his army's involvement and began to pull his forces out of Yemen.
.By 1970, King Faisal of Saudi Arabia recognized the republic and a truce was signed.^ I would much rather see the photos of George Bush holding hands with the King of Saudi Arabia again looking like he was going to kiss him.
  • Ben Smith's Blog: White House: No bow to Saudi - POLITICO.com 19 September 2009 2:02 UTC www.politico.com [Source type: General]

^ It doesn't matter if the king of Saudi Arabia is Muslim.
  • Ben Smith's Blog: White House: No bow to Saudi - POLITICO.com 19 September 2009 2:02 UTC www.politico.com [Source type: General]

Egyptian military historians refer to the war in Yemen as their Vietnam.[23]

Kuwait and the Persian Gulf War

USAF aircraft fly over Kuwaiti oil fires, set by the retreating Iraqi army during Operation Desert Storm in 1991.
The British proposed a treaty with the Ottoman Empire in 1913 to establish Kuwait as an autonomous kaza. It was a district of the vilayet of Basra. The treaty was never ratified due to the outbreak of World War I. In 1990 Iraq made claims upon Kuwaiti territory, and insisted that the borders had never been properly delimited by the British in 1951.[24]
The invasion of Kuwait by Iraq forces, led to the 1990–91 Persian Gulf War. .Egypt, Syria and Saudi Arabia joined a multinational coalition that opposed Iraq.^ To return to Watt's comments about the consequence of Muslim conquest of Iraq, Syria and Egypt with their 'better-educated Christians', he notes that 'From this period onwards Islam and Christianity have been rivals...'
  • The Exclusion of the Jews and Christians 3 February 2010 14:24 UTC debate.org.uk [Source type: Original source]

Displays of support for Iraq by Jordan and the Palestinians resulted in strained relations between many of the Arab states. After the war, a so-called "Damascus Declaration" formalized an alliance for future joint Arab defensive actions between Egypt, Syria, and the GCC states.[25]

Transport and industry

The extraction and refining of oil and gas are the major industrial activities in the Arabian Peninsula. The region also has an active construction sector, with many cities reflecting the wealth generated by the oil industry. The service sector is dominated by financial and technical institutions, which, like the construction sector, mainly serve the oil industry. .Traditional handicrafts such as carpet-weaving are found in rural areas.^ A small amount of such texts can be found in some traditions in Usul al-Kafi and else.
  • The Exclusion of the Jews and Christians 3 February 2010 14:24 UTC debate.org.uk [Source type: Original source]

See also

References

  1. ^ see page 61 of Merriam-Webster's Geographical Dictionary, 3rd Edition, entry for Arabian Peninsula
  2. ^ Quaternary Deserts and Climatic Change, A. S. Alsharhan, IGCP Project 349, page 279
  3. ^ Arabia in Encyclopedia Britannica
  4. ^ "Arabia". Britannica Online Encyclopedia. http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/31551/Arabia. Retrieved 2009-02-26. 
  5. ^ "Syrian Desert". encarta. http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761572123/Syrian_Desert.html. Retrieved 2009-02-26. 
  6. ^ see for example the USGS Map Showing Oil and Gas Fields and Geological Provinces of the Arabian Peninsula
  7. ^ "The World Fact book". Central Intelligence Agency. 2007-08-07. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/index.html. Retrieved 2008-08-12. 
  8. ^ See Pilgrimage and Holy Space in Late Antique Egypt, David Frankfurter, BRILL, 1998, ISBN 9004111271, page 163
  9. ^ A House of Many Mansions: The History of Lebanon Reconsidered, By Kamal Suleiman Salibi, Published by University of California Press, 1988, ISBN 0520071964, pages 60–61
  10. ^ .see for example Palestine: The Reality, Joseph Mary Nagle Jeffries, Published by Longmans, Green and co., 1939, Page 4]
  11. ^ see Review of Reviews and World's Work: An International Magazine, Albert Shaw ed., The Review of Reviews Corporation, 1919, page 408
  12. ^ New International Encyclopedia, 2nd Edition, Dodd, Mead, Co., 1914 page 795
  13. ^ Bernard Lewis (2002), The Arabs in History, Oxford University Press, USA; 6New Ed edition, page 17
  14. ^ Stuart Munro-Hay. Aksum: A Civilization of Late Antiquity. Edinburgh: University Press. 1991. pp. 66.
  15. ^ "Foreign Experts Talk of Siraf History". Cultural Heritage News Agency. http://www.chnpress.com/news/?Section=2&id=5935. Retrieved 2006-12-11. 
  16. ^ See:
    • Holt (1977a), p.57
    • Hourani (2003), p.22
    • Lapidus (2002), p.32
    • Madelung (1996), p.43
    • Tabatabaei (1979), p.30–50
  17. ^ See
    • Holt (1977a), p.74
    • L. Gardet; J. Jomier. "Islam". Encyclopaedia of Islam Online. 
  18. ^ see History of the Ottoman Empire and Modern Turkey, Stanford J. Shaw, Ezel Kural Shaw, Cambridge University Press, 1977, ISBN 0521291666, page 85
  19. ^ The Politics of Interventionism in Ottoman Lebanon, 1830–1861, by Caesar E. Farah, explains that Mount Lebanon was in the jurisdiction of the Arabistan Army, and that its headquarters was briefly moved to Beirut.
  20. ^ As cited by R, John and S. Hadawi's, Palestine Diary, pp. 30–31, the 'Damascus Protocol' stated: "The recognition by Great Britain of the independence of the Arab countries lying within the following frontiers: North: The Line Mersin_Adana to parallel 37N. and thence along the line Birejek-Urga-Mardin-Kidiat-Jazirat (Ibn 'Unear)-Amadia to the Persian frontier; East: The Persian frontier down to the Persian Gulf; South: The Indian Ocean (with the exclusion of Aden, whose status was to be maintained). West: The Red Sea and the Mediterranean Sea back to Mersin. The abolition of all exceptional privileges granted to foreigners under the capitulations. The conclusion of a defensive alliance between Great Britain and the future independent Arab State. The grant of economic preference to Great Britain." see King Husain and the Kingdom of Hejaz, By Randall Baker, Oleander Press, 1979, ISBN 0900891483, pages 64–65
  21. ^ A House of Many Mansions: The History of Lebanon Reconsidered, By Kamal Suleiman Salibi, Published by University of California Press, 1988, ISBN 0520071964, pages 60–61
  22. ^ King Hussein And The Kingdom of Hejaz, Randall Baker, Oleander Press 1979, ISBN 0900891483, page 18
  23. ^ Aboul-Enein, Youssef (2004-01-01). "The Egyptian-Yemen War: Egyptian perspectives on Guerrilla warfare". Infantry Magazine (Jan–Feb, 2004). http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0IAV/is_1_93/ai_n6123802. Retrieved October 3, 2008. 
  24. ^ see Richard Schofield, Kuwait and Iraq: Historical Claims and Territorial. Disputes, London: Royal Institute of International Affairs 1991, ISBN 0905031350 and The Kuwait Crisis: Basic Documents, By E. Lauterpacht, C. J. Greenwood, Marc Weller, Published by Cambridge University Press, 1991, ISBN 0521463084
  25. ^ Egypt's Bid for Arab Leadership: Implications for U.S. Policy, By Gregory L. Aftandilian, Published by Council on Foreign Relations, 1993, ISBN 087609146X, pages 6–8
  • Global Nomads – Multi-media website documenting the current perspective of living in a diverse Oil Company Expatriate Community.

External links


Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

English

Proper noun

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  1. A peninsula in the Middle East, bordered on by Iraq and Jordan to the north, the Persian Gulf to the northeast, the Red Sea to the southwest and the Indian Ocean to the southeast.^ Yemen had easy access to Mesopotamia and the Persian Gulf by way of the sea, as well as with Abyssinia.
    • The Exclusion of the Jews and Christians 3 February 2010 14:24 UTC debate.org.uk [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Finding it impossible to stay in Makkah, he left the Hijaz and went as far as Mosul in the north of Iraq and from there southwest into Syria.
    • The Exclusion of the Jews and Christians 3 February 2010 14:24 UTC debate.org.uk [Source type: Original source]

    It consists mainly of Saudi Arabia.

Translations


Simple English

Arabia is a peninsula in Southwest Asia at the junction of Africa and Asia. It lies east of Ethiopia and northern Somalia; south of Israel, the disputed Palestinian territories, and Jordan; and southwest of Iran.

The coastal limits of Arabia comprise: on the southwest the Red Sea and Gulf of Aqaba; on the southeast the Arabian Sea; and on the northeast the Gulf of Oman and the Persian Gulf.

Arabia includes the countries of:

The peninsula is part of the Middle East, but that usually means the Arabian Peninsula with the Levant and Mesopotamia. The word "Arabia" often refers only to Saudi Arabia.

The country of Saudi Arabia covers almost all of Arabia. The majority of the population of the peninsula live in Saudi Arabia and Yemen.


Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 04, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Arabic language, which are similar to those in the above article.








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