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.This article contains Arabic text, written from right to left in a cursive style with some letters joined. Without proper rendering support, you may see unjoined Arabic letters written left-to-right instead of right-to-left or other symbols instead of Arabic script.^ You may not see it as that.
  • Ben Smith's Blog: White House: No bow to Saudi - POLITICO.com 19 September 2009 2:02 UTC www.politico.com [Source type: General]

^ Allah only forbids you with regard to those who fight you for (your) Faith and drive you out of your homes and support (others) in driving you out from turning to them (for friendship and protection)...
  • The Exclusion of the Jews and Christians 3 February 2010 14:24 UTC debate.org.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ Wake up and realize that you have been played with the classic left/right paradigm of control.
  • Ben Smith's Blog: White House: No bow to Saudi - POLITICO.com 19 September 2009 2:02 UTC www.politico.com [Source type: General]

Arabic
العربية al-ʿarabīyah
al-ʿArabīyyah in written Arabic (Naskh script) Arabic albayancalligraphy.svg
Pronunciation /alˌʕaraˈbiːja/
Spoken in Primarily in the Arab states of the Middle East and North Africa;
liturgical language of Islam.
Total speakers Approx. 280 million native speakers[1] and 250 million non-native speakers[2]
Ranking 5 (native speakers, Ethnologue estimate)
Language family Afro-Asiatic
Writing system Arabic alphabet, Syriac alphabet (Garshuni), Bengali script [1] [2]
Official status
Official language in Official language of 25 countries, the third most after English and French[3]
Regulated by Algeria: Supreme Council of the Arabic language in Algeria
Egypt: Academy of the Arabic Language in Cairo
Iraq: Iraqi Academy of Sciences
Jordan: Jordan Academy of Arabic
Libya: Academy of the Arabic Language in Jamahiriya
Morocco: Academy of the Arabic Language in Rabat
Sudan: Academy of the Arabic Language in Khartum
Syria: Arab Academy of Damascus (the oldest)
Tunisia: Beit Al-Hikma Foundation
Language codes
ISO 639-1 ar
ISO 639-2 ara
ISO 639-3 ara – Arabic (generic)
(see varieties of Arabic for the individual codes)
Arabic Language.PNG
Map of majority Arabic speakers (green) and minority Arabic speakers (light green)



Arabic speaking world.svg
Distribution of Arabic as sole official language (green) and one of several official languages (blue)
.Arabic (العربية al-ʿarabīyah, (About this sound Arabic pronunciation ) or عربي ʿarabi) is a Central Semitic language, thus related to and classified alongside other Semitic languages such as Hebrew and the Neo-Aramaic languages.^ In his introduction to S. Al-Hashr, he notes that the Jewish tribes were not on good relations with each other: '...
  • The Exclusion of the Jews and Christians 3 February 2010 14:24 UTC debate.org.uk [Source type: Original source]

In terms of speakers, Arabic is the largest member of the Semitic language family. .It is spoken by more than 280 million[1] people as a first language, most of whom live in the Middle East and North Africa, and by 250 million[2] more as a second language.^ Most Americans do not believe that certain people are inherently better than others due to the family or class they were born into.
  • Ben Smith's Blog: White House: No bow to Saudi - POLITICO.com 19 September 2009 2:02 UTC www.politico.com [Source type: General]

^ So he's taking a step to improving relations with the Middle East, that's A BADDDD THING! No wonder progression is so slow when people care about something so stupid.
  • Ben Smith's Blog: White House: No bow to Saudi - POLITICO.com 19 September 2009 2:02 UTC www.politico.com [Source type: General]

Arabic has many different, geographically-distributed spoken varieties, some of which are mutually unintelligible.[4] Modern Standard Arabic is widely taught in schools, universities, and used in workplaces, government and the media.
.Modern Standard Arabic derives from Classical Arabic, the only surviving member of the Old North Arabian dialect group, attested in Pre-Islamic Arabic inscriptions dating back to the 4th century.^ Waraqa had been converted to Christianity in the Pre-Islamic Period and used to write Arabic and write of the Gospel in Arabic as much as Allah wished him to write.
  • The Exclusion of the Jews and Christians 3 February 2010 14:24 UTC debate.org.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ He had become a Christian in pre-Islamic days, wrote the Gospel in Arabic and Hebrew, and had become very old and blind.
  • The Exclusion of the Jews and Christians 3 February 2010 14:24 UTC debate.org.uk [Source type: Original source]

[5] Classical Arabic has also been a literary language and the liturgical language of Islam since its inception in the 7th century.
Arabic has lent many words to other languages of the Islamic world. During the Middle Ages, Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy. As a result, many European languages have also borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence is seen in Mediterranean languages, particularly Spanish, Portuguese, and Sicilian, owing to both the proximity of European and Arab civilizations and 700 years of Islamic rule in the Iberian peninsula (see Al-Andalus).
.Arabic has also borrowed words from many languages, including Hebrew, Persian and Syriac in early centuries, Turkish in medieval times and contemporary European languages in modern times.^ Anyhoo, that talking point about how we have a higher corporate tax rate relative to the Europeans has been debunked many times.
  • Ben Smith's Blog: White House: No bow to Saudi - POLITICO.com 19 September 2009 2:02 UTC www.politico.com [Source type: General]

Contents

Classical, Modern Standard, and colloquial Arabic

Arabic usually designates one of three main variants: Classical Arabic; Modern Standard Arabic; colloquial or dialectal Arabic.
.Classical Arabic (فصحى fuṣḥā) is the language found in the Qur'an and used from the period of Pre-Islamic Arabia to that of the Abbasid Caliphate.^ Waraqa was the son of her paternal uncle, i.e., her father's brother, who during the Pre-Islamic Period became a Christian and used to write the Arabic writing and used to write of the Gospels in Arabic as much as Allah wished him to write.
  • The Exclusion of the Jews and Christians 3 February 2010 14:24 UTC debate.org.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ Abu Salama said, "(Rijz) are the idols which the people of the Pre-Islamic period used to worship."
  • The Exclusion of the Jews and Christians 3 February 2010 14:24 UTC debate.org.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ Khadija then accompanied him to her cousin Waraqa bin Naufal bin Asad bin 'Abdul 'Uzza, who, during the Pre-Islamic Period became a Christian and used to write the writing with Hebrew letters.
  • The Exclusion of the Jews and Christians 3 February 2010 14:24 UTC debate.org.uk [Source type: Original source]

.Classical Arabic is considered normative; modern authors attempt to follow the syntactic and grammatical norms laid down by classical grammarians (such as Sibawayh), and use the vocabulary defined in classical dictionaries (such as the Lisān al-Arab).^ To kill such a large number is diametrically opposed to the Islamic sense of justice and to the basic principles laid down in the Qur'an - particularly the verse.
  • The Exclusion of the Jews and Christians 3 February 2010 14:24 UTC debate.org.uk [Source type: Original source]

Based on Classical Arabic, Modern Standard Arabic (فصحى fuṣḥā) is the literary language used in most current, printed Arabic publications, spoken by the Arabic media across North Africa and the Middle East, and understood by most educated Arabic speakers. "Literary Arabic" and "Standard Arabic" are less strictly defined terms that may refer to Modern Standard Arabic and/or Classical Arabic.
Colloquial or dialectal Arabic refers to the many national or regional varieties which constitute the everyday spoken language. Colloquial Arabic has many different regional variants; these sometimes differ enough to be mutually unintelligible and some linguists consider them distinct languages.[6] The varieties are typically unwritten. .They are often used in informal spoken media, such as soap operas and talk shows,[7] as well as occasionally in certain forms of written media, such as poetry and printed advertising.^ 'Ali replied, "No ...I don't think we have such knowledge, but we have the ability of understanding which Allah may endow a person with, so that he may understand the Qur'an, and we have what is written in this paper as well."
  • The Exclusion of the Jews and Christians 3 February 2010 14:24 UTC debate.org.uk [Source type: Original source]

The only variety of modern Arabic to have acquired official language status is Maltese, spoken in (predominately Roman Catholic) Malta and written with the Latin alphabet. It is descended from Classical Arabic through Siculo-Arabic and is not mutually intelligible with other varieties of Arabic. Most linguists list it as a separate language rather than as a dialect of Arabic.
The sociolinguistic situation of Arabic in modern times provides a prime example of the linguistic phenomenon of diglossia, which is the normal use of two separate varieties of the same language, usually in different social situations. In the case of Arabic, educated Arabs of any nationality can be assumed to speak both their local dialect and their school-taught Standard Arabic. When educated Arabs of different dialects engage in conversation (for example, a Moroccan speaking with a Lebanese), many speakers code-switch back and forth between the dialectal and standard varieties of the language, sometimes even within the same sentence. Arabic speakers often improve their familiarity with other dialects via music or film.
Like other languages, Modern Standard Arabic continues to evolve.[8] Many modern terms have entered into common usage, in some cases taken from other languages (for example, فيلم film) or coined from existing lexical resources (for example, هاتف hātif "telephone" < "caller"). Structural influence from foreign languages or from the colloquial varieties has also affected Modern Standard Arabic. .For example, texts in Modern Standard Arabic sometimes use the format "A, B, C, and D" when listing things, whereas Classical Arabic prefers "A and B and C and D",[citation needed] and subject-initial sentences may be more common in Modern Standard Arabic than in Classical Arabic.^ We may have more guns than any other nation...
  • Ben Smith's Blog: White House: No bow to Saudi - POLITICO.com 19 September 2009 2:02 UTC www.politico.com [Source type: General]

[8] For these reasons, Modern Standard Arabic is generally treated separately in non-Arab sources.

Influence of Arabic on other languages

The influence of Arabic has been most important in Islamic countries. Arabic is a major source of vocabulary for languages such as Amharic, Baluchi, Bengali, Berber, Catalan, Cypriot Greek, Gujarati, Hindustani , Indonesian, Kurdish, Malay, Marathi, Pashto, Persian, Portuguese, Punjabi, Rohingya, Sindhi, Spanish, Swahili, Tagalog, Turkish and Urdu as well as other languages in countries where these languages are spoken. .For example, the Arabic word for book (/kitāb/) has been borrowed in all the languages listed, with the exception of Spanish, Catalan and Portuguese which use the Latin-derived words "libro","llibre" and "livro", respectively, and Tagalog which uses "aklat". In addition, English has quite a few Arabic loan words, some directly but most through the medium of other Mediterranean languages.^ Then the Prophet ordered them to do three things saying, 'Turn out all the pagans from the Arabian Peninsula, show respect to all foreign delegates by giving them gifts as I used to do.'"
  • The Exclusion of the Jews and Christians 3 February 2010 14:24 UTC debate.org.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ A Shi'ite narration, for example, holds that Muhammad's last words were on a completely different subject to any supposed intent to expel the People of the Book.
  • The Exclusion of the Jews and Christians 3 February 2010 14:24 UTC debate.org.uk [Source type: Original source]

.Other languages such as Maltese[9] and Kinubi derive from Arabic, rather than merely borrowing vocabulary or grammar rules.^ In other words, the command was absolute, rather than conditional, yet the reference to usury implies that the fate of the Najran Christians was indeed conditional.
  • The Exclusion of the Jews and Christians 3 February 2010 14:24 UTC debate.org.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ In other words, love of position and luxury, rather than genuine conviction, prevented the bishop from converting, as with Heraclius.
  • The Exclusion of the Jews and Christians 3 February 2010 14:24 UTC debate.org.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ In other words, the story is a legend, rather than an historical event.
  • The Exclusion of the Jews and Christians 3 February 2010 14:24 UTC debate.org.uk [Source type: Original source]

The terms borrowed range from religious terminology (like Berber taẓallit "prayer" < salat), academic terms (like Uyghur mentiq "logic"), economic items (like English sugar) to placeholders (like Spanish fulano "so-and-so") and everyday conjunctions (like Hindustani lekin "but", or Spanish hasta "until"). Most Berber varieties (such as Kabyle), along with Swahili, borrow some numbers from Arabic. Most Islamic religious terms are direct borrowings from Arabic, such as salat 'prayer' and imam 'prayer leader.' .In languages not directly in contact with the Arab world, Arabic loanwords are often transferred indirectly via other languages rather than being transferred directly from Arabic.^ In other words, love of position and luxury, rather than genuine conviction, prevented the bishop from converting, as with Heraclius.
  • The Exclusion of the Jews and Christians 3 February 2010 14:24 UTC debate.org.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ In other words, the command was absolute, rather than conditional, yet the reference to usury implies that the fate of the Najran Christians was indeed conditional.
  • The Exclusion of the Jews and Christians 3 February 2010 14:24 UTC debate.org.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ In other words, the story is a legend, rather than an historical event.
  • The Exclusion of the Jews and Christians 3 February 2010 14:24 UTC debate.org.uk [Source type: Original source]

For example, most Arabic loanwords in Hindustani entered through Persian, and many older Arabic loanwords in Hausa were borrowed from Kanuri. Some words in English and other European languages are derived from Arabic, often through other European languages, especially Spanish and Italian. Among them are commonly-used words like "sugar" (sukkar), "cotton" (quṭn) and "magazine" (maḫāzin). .English words more recognizably of Arabic origin include "algebra", "alcohol", "alchemy", "alkali", "zenith" and "nadir". Some words in common use, such as "intention" and "information", were originally calques of Arabic philosophical terms.^ Many nations possess such myths, seeing their origins often in some special divine act.
  • The Exclusion of the Jews and Christians 3 February 2010 14:24 UTC debate.org.uk [Source type: Original source]

Arabic words also made their way into several West African languages as Islam spread across the Sahara. .Variants of Arabic words such as kitaab (book) have spread to the languages of African groups who had no direct contact with Arab traders.^ Say: Allah directs (thus) About those who have No descendants or ascendants As heirs."
  • The Exclusion of the Jews and Christians 3 February 2010 14:24 UTC debate.org.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ The caravan passed the cell of a hermit monk called Bahira who usually paid such caravans no attention.
  • The Exclusion of the Jews and Christians 3 February 2010 14:24 UTC debate.org.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ Say: Allah directs (thus) About those who leave No descendants or ascendants as heirs..."
  • The Exclusion of the Jews and Christians 3 February 2010 14:24 UTC debate.org.uk [Source type: Original source]

[10]
Arabic was influenced by other languages as well. .The most important sources of borrowings into (pre-Islamic) Arabic are Aramaic, which used to be the principal, international language of communication throughout the ancient Near and Middle East, Ethiopic, and to a lesser degree Hebrew (mainly religious concepts).^ Waraqa was the son of her paternal uncle, i.e., her father's brother, who during the Pre-Islamic Period became a Christian and used to write the Arabic writing and used to write of the Gospels in Arabic as much as Allah wished him to write.
  • The Exclusion of the Jews and Christians 3 February 2010 14:24 UTC debate.org.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ Abu Salama said, "(Rijz) are the idols which the people of the Pre-Islamic period used to worship."
  • The Exclusion of the Jews and Christians 3 February 2010 14:24 UTC debate.org.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ Khadija then accompanied him to her cousin Waraqa bin Naufal bin Asad bin 'Abdul 'Uzza, who, during the Pre-Islamic Period became a Christian and used to write the writing with Hebrew letters.
  • The Exclusion of the Jews and Christians 3 February 2010 14:24 UTC debate.org.uk [Source type: Original source]

As Arabic occupied a position similar to Latin (in Europe) throughout the Islamic world many of the Arabic concepts in the field of science, philosophy, commerce etc., were often coined by non-native Arabic speakers, notably by Aramaic and Persian translators. .This process of using Arabic roots in notably Turkish and Persian, to translate foreign concepts continued right until the 18th and 19th century, when large swaths of Arab-inhabited lands were under Ottoman rule.^ Of course, it is quite likely by the ninth and tenth centuries, the number of Christians in central Arabia was indeed small, as the process observable elsewhere in Muslim-ruled lands would have prevailed gradual conversion to Islam.
  • The Exclusion of the Jews and Christians 3 February 2010 14:24 UTC debate.org.uk [Source type: Original source]

Arabic and Islam

Arabic is the language of the Qur'an. .Arabic is often associated with Islam, but it is also spoken by Arab Christians, Mizrahi Jews and Iraqi Mandaeans.^ If this occurred within Islam, we should not be surprised that the more substantial objections of Jews and especially Christians demanded similar and even more far-reaching historical reconstruction.
  • The Exclusion of the Jews and Christians 3 February 2010 14:24 UTC debate.org.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ Courbage, and Fargues, Christians and Jews under Islam, p.
  • The Exclusion of the Jews and Christians 3 February 2010 14:24 UTC debate.org.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ Two centuries later, the great chroniclers of Islam believed that the whole of Central Arabia was emptied of Christians and Jews in the wake of Umar's action.
  • The Exclusion of the Jews and Christians 3 February 2010 14:24 UTC debate.org.uk [Source type: Original source]

.Most of the world's Muslims do not speak Arabic as their native language but many can read the script and recite the words of religious texts.^ Of the six most famous collections of Hadith , those of al-Bukhari (died 870 A.D.) are considered by many Muslims as the most authoritative.
  • The Exclusion of the Jews and Christians 3 February 2010 14:24 UTC debate.org.uk [Source type: Original source]

Some Muslims consider the Arabic language to be "the language chosen by God to speak to mankind" and the original revealed language spoken by man from which all other languages were derived having been corrupted.[11] It is most notably understood by Muslims as being the lingua franca of the afterlife.[citation needed]

History

The earliest surviving texts in Proto-Arabic, or Ancient North Arabian, are the Hasaean inscriptions of eastern Saudi Arabia, from the 8th century BC, written not in the modern Arabic alphabet, nor in its Nabataean ancestor, but in variants of the epigraphic South Arabian musnad. .These are followed by 6th-century BC Lihyanite texts from southeastern Saudi Arabia and the Thamudic texts found throughout Arabia and the Sinai, and not actually connected with Thamud.^ Later Muslim commentators would then magnify the story to conceal what actually occurred to the People of the Book in Arabia in the ninth century.
  • The Exclusion of the Jews and Christians 3 February 2010 14:24 UTC debate.org.uk [Source type: Original source]

Later come the Safaitic inscriptions beginning in the 1st century BC, and the many Arabic personal names attested in Nabataean inscriptions (which are, however, written in Aramaic). From about the 2nd century BC, a few inscriptions from Qaryat al-Faw (near Sulayyil) reveal a dialect which is no longer considered "Proto-Arabic", but Pre-Classical Arabic. .By the fourth century AD, the Arab kingdoms of the Lakhmids in southern Iraq, the Ghassanids in southern Syria the Kindite Kingdom emerged in Central Arabia.^ Two centuries later, the great chroniclers of Islam believed that the whole of Central Arabia was emptied of Christians and Jews in the wake of Umar's action.
  • The Exclusion of the Jews and Christians 3 February 2010 14:24 UTC debate.org.uk [Source type: Original source]

.Their courts were responsible for some notable examples of pre-Islamic Arabic poetry, and for some of the few surviving pre-Islamic Arabic inscriptions in the Arabic alphabet.^ Waraqa had been converted to Christianity in the Pre-Islamic Period and used to write Arabic and write of the Gospel in Arabic as much as Allah wished him to write.
  • The Exclusion of the Jews and Christians 3 February 2010 14:24 UTC debate.org.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ He had become a Christian in pre-Islamic days, wrote the Gospel in Arabic and Hebrew, and had become very old and blind.
  • The Exclusion of the Jews and Christians 3 February 2010 14:24 UTC debate.org.uk [Source type: Original source]

[12]

Dialects and descendants

Colloquial Arabic is a collective term for the spoken varieties of Arabic used throughout the Arab world, which differ radically from the literary language. The main dialectal division is between the North African dialects and those of the Middle East, followed by that between sedentary dialects and the much more conservative Bedouin dialects. Speakers of some of these dialects are unable to converse with speakers of another dialect of Arabic. .In particular, while Middle Easterners can generally understand one another, they often have trouble understanding North Africans (although the converse is not true, in part due to the popularity of Middle Eastern—especially Egyptian—films and other media).^ Although all of them were revelation but they (the extra ones) are NOT a part of Quran.
  • The Exclusion of the Jews and Christians 3 February 2010 14:24 UTC debate.org.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ At the victory of Badr, they became so provoked that they began to trouble and harass the Muslims and their women in particular, who visited their shops.
  • The Exclusion of the Jews and Christians 3 February 2010 14:24 UTC debate.org.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ In the holy Prophet's time there were Jewish colonies settled here, but they were a source of constant trouble especially after Siege of Madinah.
  • The Exclusion of the Jews and Christians 3 February 2010 14:24 UTC debate.org.uk [Source type: Original source]

.One factor in the differentiation of the dialects is influence from the languages previously spoken in the areas, which have typically provided a significant number of new words, and have sometimes also influenced pronunciation or word order; however, a much more significant factor for most dialects is, as among Romance languages, retention (or change of meaning) of different classical forms.^ It is much more likely that they were Abyssinian-influenced Monophysites, rather than Chalcedonian Orthodox of Byzantium.
  • The Exclusion of the Jews and Christians 3 February 2010 14:24 UTC debate.org.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ Yusuf Ali - 'Allah's Truth is all one, and even in different forms men sincere in Religion recognise the oneness.
  • The Exclusion of the Jews and Christians 3 February 2010 14:24 UTC debate.org.uk [Source type: Original source]

.Thus Iraqi aku, Levantine fīh, and North African kayən all mean "there is", and all come from Classical Arabic forms (yakūn, fīhi, kā'in respectively), but now sound very different.^ Yusuf Ali - 'Allah's Truth is all one, and even in different forms men sincere in Religion recognise the oneness.
  • The Exclusion of the Jews and Christians 3 February 2010 14:24 UTC debate.org.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ Whenever there was a dispute among them, the Jews said to them: 'Now a prophet will be sent, his time is almost come.
  • The Exclusion of the Jews and Christians 3 February 2010 14:24 UTC debate.org.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ In fact all the Apostles come from noble families amongst their respective peoples.
  • The Exclusion of the Jews and Christians 3 February 2010 14:24 UTC debate.org.uk [Source type: Original source]

Different Dialects of Arabic in the Arab World
The major dialect groups are:
  • Egyptian Arabic, spoken by around 76 million in Egypt. It is one of the most understood varieties of Arabic, due in large part to the widespread distribution of Egyptian films and television shows throughout the Arabic speaking world. .Closely related varieties are also spoken in Sudan.
  • Gulf Arabic, spoken by around 34 million people in Arab states of the Persian Gulf and eastern Saudi Arabia.
  • Iraqi Arabic, spoken by about 29 million people in Iraq.^ So he's taking a step to improving relations with the Middle East, that's A BADDDD THING! No wonder progression is so slow when people care about something so stupid.
    • Ben Smith's Blog: White House: No bow to Saudi - POLITICO.com 19 September 2009 2:02 UTC www.politico.com [Source type: General]

    ^ He told Abu Talib about his dream that, "A caravan would come with a boy who would be commissioned by God for Prophecy among the Arab and would instruct them in Arabic".
    • The Exclusion of the Jews and Christians 3 February 2010 14:24 UTC debate.org.uk [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Were the Najran Christians still around we could settle the issue once for all, and possibly still could if Saudi Arabia allowed free archaeological access to investigate.
    • The Exclusion of the Jews and Christians 3 February 2010 14:24 UTC debate.org.uk [Source type: Original source]

    With significant differences between the Arabian-like dialects of the south and the more conservative dialects of the north. .Closely related varieties are also spoken in Iran, Syria, and Turkey.
  • North Mesopotamian Arabic, spoken by around 7 million people in northern Iraq, northern Syria and southern Turkey.
  • Levantine Arabic includes North Levantine Arabic, South Levantine Arabic, and Cypriot Arabic.^ Finding it impossible to stay in Makkah, he left the Hijaz and went as far as Mosul in the north of Iraq and from there southwest into Syria.
    • The Exclusion of the Jews and Christians 3 February 2010 14:24 UTC debate.org.uk [Source type: Original source]

    .It is spoken by almost 35 million people in Lebanon, Syria, Jordan, Palestine, Israel, Cyprus, and Turkey.^ They were merchants doing business in Sham (Syria, Palestine, Lebanon and Jordan), at the time when Allah's Apostle had truce with Abu Sufyan and Quraish infidels.
    • The Exclusion of the Jews and Christians 3 February 2010 14:24 UTC debate.org.uk [Source type: Original source]

    It is also called Mediterranean Arabic.
  • Maghrebi Arabic includes Moroccan Arabic, Algerian Arabic, Algerian Saharan Arabic, Tunisian Arabic, and Libyan Arabic, and is spoken by around 45 million North Africans in Morocco, Western Sahara, Algeria, Tunisia, Libya, Niger, and western Egypt; it is often difficult for speakers of Middle Eastern Arabic varieties to understand. The Berber influence in these dialects varies in degree.[13]
Other varieties include:

Sounds

.This article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters.^ Allah only forbids you with regard to those who fight you for (your) Faith and drive you out of your homes and support (others) in driving you out from turning to them (for friendship and protection)...
  • The Exclusion of the Jews and Christians 3 February 2010 14:24 UTC debate.org.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ The Jews who may follow us will have our support equally, without suppression, nor do we intend to combine [and turn] against them.
  • The Exclusion of the Jews and Christians 3 February 2010 14:24 UTC debate.org.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ I see that you are more deserving of it than others."
  • The Exclusion of the Jews and Christians 3 February 2010 14:24 UTC debate.org.uk [Source type: Original source]

The phonemes below reflect the pronunciation of Modern Standard Arabic. There are minor variations from country to country. Additionally, these dialects can vary from region to region within a country.

Vowels

Modern Standard Arabic has three vowels, with long and short forms of /a/, /i/, and /u/. There are also two diphthongs: /aj/ and /aw/.

Consonants

Standard Arabic consonant phonemes
  Labial Inter-
dental
Dental/Alveolar Post-
alveolar
Palatal Velar Uvular Pharyn-
geal
3
Glottal
plain emphatic plain emphatic
Nasal m     n              
Stop voiceless       t̪ˁ     k q   ʔ
voiced b     d̪ˁ ʒ~dʒ~ɡ1      
Fricative voiceless f θ   s ʃ   x~χ4 ħ h
voiced   ð ðˁ~zˁ z       ɣ~ʁ4 ʕ  
Approximant       l2     j w  
Trill       r              
See Arabic alphabet for explanations on the IPA phonetic symbols found in this chart.
  1. [dʒ] is pronounced [ɡ] by some speakers. This is especially characteristic of the Egyptian, Omani and some Yemeni dialects. .In many parts of North Africa and in the Levant, it is pronounced [ʒ].
  2. /l/ is pronounced [lˁ] only in /ʔalːaːh/, the name of God, q.e.^ According to this part the Prophet said to Mu'adh: "You have pronounced God's judgement upon them [as inspired] through Seven Veils."
    • The Exclusion of the Jews and Christians 3 February 2010 14:24 UTC debate.org.uk [Source type: Original source]

    Allah, when the word follows a, ā, u or ū (after i or ī it is unvelarized: bismi l–lāh /bismilːaːh/).
  3. In many varieties, /ħ, ʕ/ are actually epiglottal [ʜ, ʢ] (despite what is reported in many earlier works).
  4. /x/ and /ɣ/ are often post-velar though velar and uvular pronunciations are also possible.[15]
Arabic has consonants traditionally termed "emphatic" /tˁ, dˁ, sˁ, ðˁ/, which exhibit simultaneous pharyngealization [tˁ, dˁ, sˁ, ðˁ] as well as varying degrees of velarization [tˠ, dˠ, sˠ, ðˠ]. This simultaneous articulation is described as "Retracted Tongue Root" by phonologists.[16] In some transcription systems, emphasis is shown by capitalizing the letter, for example, /dˁ/ is written ‹D›; in others the letter is underlined or has a dot below it, for example, ‹ḍ›.
Vowels and consonants can be phonologically short or long. Long (geminate) consonants are normally written doubled in Latin transcription (i.e. bb, dd, etc.), reflecting the presence of the Arabic diacritic mark shaddah, which indicates doubled consonants. In actual pronunciation, doubled consonants are held twice as long as short consonants. This consonant lengthening is phonemically contrastive: qabala "he accepted" vs. qabbala "he kissed."

Syllable structure

Arabic has two kinds of syllables: open syllables (CV) and (CVV)—and closed syllables (CVC), (CVVC), and (CVCC), the latter two, which are (CVVC) and (CVCC) occurring only at the end of the sentence. Every syllable begins with a consonant. Syllables cannot begin with a vowel. .Arabic phonology recognizes the glottal stop as an independent consonant, so in cases where a word begins with a vowel sound, as the definite article "al", for example, the word is recognized in Arabic as beginning with the consonant [ʔ] (glottal stop).^ Biographies of Companions Salman al-Farsi This is a story of a seeker of Truth, the story of Salman the Persian, gleaned, to begin with, from his own words: ...
  • The Exclusion of the Jews and Christians 3 February 2010 14:24 UTC debate.org.uk [Source type: Original source]

When a word ends in a vowel and the following word begins with a glottal stop, then the glottal stop and the initial vowel of the word are in some cases elided, and the following consonant closes the final syllable of the preceding word, for example, baytu al-mudi:r "house (of) the director," which becomes [bajtulmudiːr].

Stress

Although word stress is not phonemically contrastive in Standard Arabic, it does bear a strong relationship to vowel length. The basic rules are:
.
  • Only one of the last three syllables may be stressed.
  • Given this restriction, the last "superheavy" syllable (containing a long vowel or ending in a consonant) is stressed.
  • If there is no such syllable, the pre-final syllable is stressed if it is 'heavy.'^ I think you may have been the only one there!!
    • Ben Smith's Blog: White House: No bow to Saudi - POLITICO.com 19 September 2009 2:02 UTC www.politico.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Allah is the third of three; when there is no God save the One God.'
    • The Exclusion of the Jews and Christians 3 February 2010 14:24 UTC debate.org.uk [Source type: Original source]

    ^ They take their priests and their anchorites to be their lords in derogation of Allah and (they take as their Lord) Christ the son of Mary; Yet they were commanded to worship but one Allah: there is no god but He.
    • The Exclusion of the Jews and Christians 3 February 2010 14:24 UTC debate.org.uk [Source type: Original source]

    Otherwise, the first allowable syllable is stressed.
  • In Standard Arabic, a final long vowel may not be stressed. (This restriction does not apply to the spoken dialects, where original final long vowels have been shortened and secondary final long vowels have arisen.)
.For example: ki-TAA-bun "book", KAA-ti-bun "writer", MAK-ta-bun "desk", ma-KAA-ti-bu "desks", mak-TA-ba-tun "library", KA-ta-buu (Modern Standard Arabic) "they wrote" = KA-ta-bu (dialect), ka-ta-BUU-hu (Modern Standard Arabic) "they wrote it" = ka-ta-BUU (dialect), ka-TA-ba-taa (Modern Standard Arabic) "they (dual, fem) wrote", ka-TAB-tu (Modern Standard Arabic) "I wrote" = ka-TABT (dialect).^ A modern Christian writer suggests that they were Nestorians.
  • The Exclusion of the Jews and Christians 3 February 2010 14:24 UTC debate.org.uk [Source type: Original source]

Doubled consonants count as two consonants: ma-JAL-la "magazine", ma-HALL "place".
Some dialects have different stress rules. .In the Cairo (Egyptian Arabic) dialect, for example, a heavy syllable may not carry stress more than two syllables from the end of a word, hence mad-RA-sa "school", qaa-HI-ra "Cairo". In the Arabic of Sana, stress is often retracted: BAY-tayn "two houses", MAA-sat-hum "their table", ma-KAA-tiib "desks", ZAA-rat-hiin "sometimes", mad-RA-sat-hum "their school". (In this dialect, only syllables with long vowels or diphthongs are considered heavy; in a two-syllable word, the final syllable can be stressed only if the preceding syllable is light; and in longer words, the final syllable cannot be stressed.^ MORE THAN JUST A BOW Obama's alleged non-bow may actually have been MORE THAN JUST A BOW. If you watch the video closely, Obama's left hand is at his side until nearly the end of the bow.
  • Ben Smith's Blog: White House: No bow to Saudi - POLITICO.com 19 September 2009 2:02 UTC www.politico.com [Source type: General]

^ Having watched the video again myself, it makes more sense than a "two handed" hand shake that didn't happen.
  • Ben Smith's Blog: White House: No bow to Saudi - POLITICO.com 19 September 2009 2:02 UTC www.politico.com [Source type: General]

^ For there to be more than one God, or "degrees of divinity" are both contradictions which cannot be defended, either by divine revelation or by logical thinking.
  • The Exclusion of the Jews and Christians 3 February 2010 14:24 UTC debate.org.uk [Source type: Original source]

)

Dialectal variations

.In some dialects, there may be more or fewer phonemes than those listed in the chart above.^ We may have more guns than any other nation...
  • Ben Smith's Blog: White House: No bow to Saudi - POLITICO.com 19 September 2009 2:02 UTC www.politico.com [Source type: General]

^ An examination of the table, listing some narrations pertinent to Khaybar demonstrates that there is no agreement between the traditions with regard to the permanence of the Jewish presence there.
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^ There is, indeed, more than a mere similarity.
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For example, non-Arabic [v] is used in the Maghrebi dialects as well in the written language mostly for foreign names. Semitic [p] became [f] extremely early on in Arabic before it was written down; a few modern Arabic dialects, such as Iraqi (influenced by Persian and Turkish) distinguish between [p] and [b].
Interdental fricatives ([θ] and [ð]) are rendered as stops [t] and [d] in some dialects (such as Egyptian, Levantine, and much of the Maghreb); some of these dialects render them as [s] and [z] in "learned" words from the Standard language. Early in the expansion of Arabic, the separate emphatic phonemes [dˁ] and [ðˁ] coallesced into a single phoneme, becoming one or the other. Predictably, dialects without interdental fricatives use [dˁ] exclusively, while dialects with such fricatives use [ðˁ]. Again, in "learned" words from the Standard language, [ðˁ] is rendered as [zˁ] (in Egypt & the Levant) or [dˁ] (in North Africa) in dialects without interdental fricatives.
Another key distinguishing mark of Arabic dialects is how they render the original velar and uvular stops /q/, /dʒ/ (Proto-Semitic /ɡ/), and /k/:
  • ق /q/ retains its original pronunciation in widely scattered regions such as Yemen, Morocco, and urban areas of the Maghreb. It is pronounced as a glottal stop [ʔ] in several prestige dialects, such as those spoken in Cairo, Beirut and Damascus. But it is rendered as a voiced velar stop [ɡ] in Gulf Arabic, Iraqi Arabic, Upper Egypt, much of the Maghreb, and less urban parts of the Levant (e.g. Jordan). Some traditionally Christian villages in rural areas of the Levant render the sound as [k], as do Shia Bahrainis. In some Gulf dialects, it is palatalized to [dʒ] or [ʒ]. It is pronounced as a voiced uvular constrictive [ʁ] in Sudanese Arabic. .Many dialects with a modified pronunciation for /q/ maintain the [q] pronunciation in certain words (often with religious or educational overtones) borrowed from the Classical language.
  • ج /d͡ʒ/ retains its pronunciation in Iraq and much of the Arabian Peninsula, but is pronounced [ɡ] in most of North Egypt and parts of Yemen, [ʒ] in Morocco and the Levant, and [j] in some words in much of Gulf Arabic.
  • ك /k/ usually retains its original pronunciation, but is palatalized to [tʃ] in many words in Palestine, Iraq and much of the Arabian Peninsula.^ It is not impossible that if the bishop restricted his oversight to the Monophysite Christians of the Arabian Peninsula, he may have had some sort of political arrangement with the Byzantine ruler [ 60 ].
    • The Exclusion of the Jews and Christians 3 February 2010 14:24 UTC debate.org.uk [Source type: Original source]

    ^ For example, according to Bukhari Hadith 4.288, identifying the borders of the Arabian Peninsula, Yemen is included in its bounds.
    • The Exclusion of the Jews and Christians 3 February 2010 14:24 UTC debate.org.uk [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Undoubtedly, one barrier to improved Christian-Muslim relations is the prohibition on the existence of free and public Christian worship, especially with respect to religious buildings, in the Arabian Peninsula.
    • The Exclusion of the Jews and Christians 3 February 2010 14:24 UTC debate.org.uk [Source type: Original source]

    Often a distinction is made between the suffixes /-ak/ (you, masc.) and /-ik/ (you, fem.), which become [-ak] and [-itʃ], respectively. In Sana Arabic, /-ik/ is pronounced [-iʃ].

Grammar

Visualization of Arabic grammar from the Quranic Arabic Corpus
Compared with other Semitic language systems, Classical Arabic is distinguished by, "its almost (too perfect) algebraic-looking grammar, i.e. root pattern and morphology."[17] Nouns in Literary Arabic have three grammatical cases (nominative, accusative, and genitive [also used when the noun is governed by a preposition]); three numbers (singular, dual and plural); two genders (masculine and feminine); and three "states" (indefinite, definite, and construct). The cases of singular nouns (other than those that end in long ā) are indicated by suffixed short vowels (/-u/ for nominative, /-a/ for accusative, /-i/ for genitive). The feminine singular is often marked by /-at/, which is reduced to /-ah/ or /-a/ before a pause. Plural is indicated either through endings (the sound plural) or internal modification (the broken plural). Definite nouns include all proper nouns, all nouns in "construct state" and all nouns which are prefixed by the definite article /al-/. .Indefinite singular nouns (other than those that end in long ā) add a final /-n/ to the case-marking vowels, giving /-un/, /-an/ or /-in/ (which is also referred to as nunation or tanwīn).^ In other words, the command was absolute, rather than conditional, yet the reference to usury implies that the fate of the Najran Christians was indeed conditional.
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.Verbs in Literary Arabic are marked for person (first, second, or third), gender, and number.^ God, the Son is the second Person begotten of the only Father, the Spirit is the third hypostasis who proceeds from the only Father whom He has as the cause of his own eternal existence.
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They are conjugated in two major paradigms (termed perfective and imperfective, or past and non-past); two voices (active and passive); and five moods in the imperfective (indicative, imperative, subjunctive, jussive and energetic). There are also two participles (active and passive) and a verbal noun, but no infinitive. .As indicated by the differing terms for the two tense systems, there is some disagreement over whether the distinction between the two systems should be most accurately characterized as tense, aspect or a combination of the two.^ An examination of the table, listing some narrations pertinent to Khaybar demonstrates that there is no agreement between the traditions with regard to the permanence of the Jewish presence there.
  • The Exclusion of the Jews and Christians 3 February 2010 14:24 UTC debate.org.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ This story should be updated to show that the Presidential aid was absolutely lying in saying there was a "two handed" hand shake.
  • Ben Smith's Blog: White House: No bow to Saudi - POLITICO.com 19 September 2009 2:02 UTC www.politico.com [Source type: General]

^ There is also uncertainty as the fate of Zaynab, some narrations indicating she was executed, others implying she was left alive.
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The perfective aspect is constructed using fused suffixes that combine person, number and gender in a single morpheme, while the imperfective aspect is constructed using a combination of prefixes (primarily encoding person) and suffixes (primarily encoding gender and number). The moods other than imperative are primarily marked by suffixes (/u/ for indicative, /a/ for subjunctive, no ending for jussive, /an/ for energetic). The imperative has the endings of the jussive but lacks any prefixes. The passive is marked through internal vowel changes. .Plural forms for the verb are only used when the subject is not mentioned, or precedes it, and the feminine singular is used for all non-human plurals.^ In the Trinity there is none that precedes and none that follows; none that is elder and none that is younger, none that is ruler and none that is subject; the Three are One, in all things equal (Jn.
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Adjectives in Literary Arabic are marked for case, number, gender and state, as for nouns. .However, the plural of all non-human nouns is always combined with a singular feminine adjective, which takes the /-ah/ or /-at/ suffix.^ He readily enough recognized the Prophet ....and said while taking his hand: "This is the master of all humans.
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Pronouns in Literary Arabic are marked for person, number and gender. There are two varieties, independent pronouns and enclitics. Enclitic pronouns are attached to the end of a verb, noun or preposition and indicate verbal and prepositional objects or possession of nouns. .The first-person singular pronoun has a different enclitic form used for verbs (/-ni/) and for nouns or prepositions (/-ī/ after consonants, /-ya/ after vowels).^ The use of the first person plural for God, and of Jesus being made a 'sign' is found in Surah 23 Al-Muminun 50 'And We made the son of Mary and his mother as a Sign'.
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.Nouns, verbs, pronouns and adjectives agree with each other in all respects.^ After all, this is the mutual accusation Sunnis and Shi'ites hurl against each other in regard to both Hadith and Sira, especially with respect to the succession to Muhammad.
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However, non-human plural nouns are grammatically considered to be feminine singular. Furthermore, a verb in a verb-initial sentence is marked as singular regardless of its semantic number when the subject of the verb is explicitly mentioned as a noun. Numerals between three and ten show "chiasmic" agreement, in that grammatically masculine numerals have feminine marking and vice versa.
.The spoken dialects have lost the case distinctions and make only limited use of the dual (it occurs only on nouns and its use is no longer required in all circumstances).^ Personally I lost all respect for our President the day he said that he was going to make Veterans pay for their own health insurance AFTER he said he was going to GIVE us all health insurance.
  • Ben Smith's Blog: White House: No bow to Saudi - POLITICO.com 19 September 2009 2:02 UTC www.politico.com [Source type: General]

^ Not only did he bow - but when he bowed he shook King Abdulla's hand with only one hand and the King had his hand extended for a hand shake first or the President may have bowed with no handshake at all.
  • Ben Smith's Blog: White House: No bow to Saudi - POLITICO.com 19 September 2009 2:02 UTC www.politico.com [Source type: General]

They have lost the mood distinctions other than imperative, but many have since gained new moods through the use of prefixes (most often /bi-/ for indicative vs. unmarked subjunctive). They have also mostly lost the indefinite "nunation" and the internal passive. Modern Standard Arabic maintains the grammatical distinctions of Literary Arabic except that the energetic mood is almost never used; in addition, Modern Standard Arabic sometimes drop the final short vowels that indicate case and mood.
As in many other Semitic languages, Arabic verb formation is based on a (usually) triconsonantal root, which is not a word in itself but contains the semantic core. The consonants k-t-b, for example, indicate write, q-r-ʾ indicate read, ʾ-k-l indicate eat, etc. Words are formed by supplying the root with a vowel structure and with affixes. (Traditionally, Arabic grammarians have used the root f-ʿ-l, do, as a template to discuss word formation.) From any particular root, up to fifteen different verbs can be formed, each with its own template; these are referred to by Western scholars as "form I", "form II", and so on through "form XV". These forms, and their associated participles and verbal nouns, are the primary means of forming vocabulary in Arabic. Forms XI to XV are incidental.

Writing system

An example of a text written in Arabic calligraphy.
The Arabic alphabet derives from the Aramaic script through Nabatean, to which it bears a loose resemblance like that of Coptic or Cyrillic script to Greek script. .Traditionally, there were several differences between the Western (North African) and Middle Eastern version of the alphabet—in particular, the fa and qaf had a dot underneath and a single dot above respectively in the Maghreb, and the order of the letters was slightly different (at least when they were used as numerals).^ It is noteworthy that there are several versions of the text.
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^ Then the Prophet ordered them to do three things saying, 'Turn out all the pagans from the Arabian Peninsula, show respect to all foreign delegates by giving them gifts as I used to do.'"
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^ So Allah's Apostle excused him, for the Prophet and his companions used to forgive the pagans and the people of Scripture as Allah had ordered them, and they used to put up with their mischief with patience.
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However, the old Maghrebi variant has been abandoned except for calligraphic purposes in the Maghreb itself, and remains in use mainly in the Quranic schools (zaouias) of West Africa. .Arabic, like all other Semitic languages (except for the Latin-written Maltese, and the languages with the Ge'ez script), is written from right to left.^ First of all, slow motion reveals Obamas left hand is across his waist as he is grasping the saudi hand with his right hand (no two handed shake) .
  • Ben Smith's Blog: White House: No bow to Saudi - POLITICO.com 19 September 2009 2:02 UTC www.politico.com [Source type: General]

There are several styles of script, notably Naskh which is used in print and by computers, and Ruq'ah which is commonly used in handwriting.[18]

Calligraphy

.After Khalil ibn Ahmad al Farahidi finally fixed the Arabic script around 786, many styles were developed, both for the writing down of the Qur'an and other books, and for inscriptions on monuments as decoration.^ Sahih Al-Bukhari Hadith 8.747 Narrated by Ali We have no Book to recite except the Book of Allah (Qur'an) and this paper.
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^ How can he be leaning over to grab his hands if the king and the other people around him are looking down at his head.
  • Ben Smith's Blog: White House: No bow to Saudi - POLITICO.com 19 September 2009 2:02 UTC www.politico.com [Source type: General]

^ It is then that both the Qur'an and the Hadith receive their final redactions, and only thereafter that Sira literature emerges in its final redaction.
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Arabic calligraphy has not fallen out of use as calligraphy has in the Western world, and is still considered by Arabs as a major art form; calligraphers are held in great esteem. .Being cursive by nature, unlike the Latin alphabet, Arabic script is used to write down a verse of the Qur'an, a Hadith, or simply a proverb, in a spectacular composition.^ How the Muslims would know this is not revealed, still less is it clear how someone writing generations after the event would be aware of it in the absence of any reference in the Qur'an or Hadith .
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^ To kill such a large number is diametrically opposed to the Islamic sense of justice and to the basic principles laid down in the Qur'an - particularly the verse.
  • The Exclusion of the Jews and Christians 3 February 2010 14:24 UTC debate.org.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ Waraqa had been converted to Christianity in the Pre-Islamic Period and used to write Arabic and write of the Gospel in Arabic as much as Allah wished him to write.
  • The Exclusion of the Jews and Christians 3 February 2010 14:24 UTC debate.org.uk [Source type: Original source]

The composition is often abstract, but sometimes the writing is shaped into an actual form such as that of an animal. One of the current masters of the genre is Hassan Massoudy

Transliteration

There are a number of different standards of Arabic transliteration: methods of accurately and efficiently representing Arabic with the Latin alphabet. There are multiple conflicting motivations for transliteration. .Scholarly systems are intended to accurately and unambiguously represent the phonemes of Arabic, generally making the phonetics more explicit than the original word in the Arabic alphabet.^ Having watched the video again myself, it makes more sense than a "two handed" hand shake that didn't happen.
  • Ben Smith's Blog: White House: No bow to Saudi - POLITICO.com 19 September 2009 2:02 UTC www.politico.com [Source type: General]

These systems are heavily reliant on diacritical marks such as "š" for the sound equivalently written sh in English. .In some cases, the sh or kh sounds can be represented by italicizing or underlining them – that way, they can be distinguished from separate s and h sounds or k and h sounds, respectively.^ You replied that they were increasing, and in fact this is the way of true faith, till it is complete in all respects.
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(Compare gashouse to gash.) At first sight, this may be difficult to recognize. .Less scientific systems often use digraphs (like sh and kh), which are usually more simple to read, but sacrifice the definiteness of the scientific systems.^ This question is more likely to be the anachronistic reading of a later anti-Trinitarian Muslim polemic than any genuine query.
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.Such systems may be intended to help readers who are neither Arabic speakers nor linguists to intuitively pronounce Arabic names and phrases.^ The Jews who may follow us will have our support equally, without suppression, nor do we intend to combine [and turn] against them.
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An example of such a system is the Bahá'í orthography. .A third type of transliteration seeks to represent an equivalent of the Arabic spelling with Latin letters, for use by Arabic speakers when Arabic writing is not available (for example, when using an ASCII communication device).^ Waraqa had been converted to Christianity in the Pre-Islamic Period and used to write Arabic and write of the Gospel in Arabic as much as Allah wished him to write.
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An example is the system used by the US military, Standard Arabic Technical Transliteration System or SATTS, which represents each Arabic letter with a unique symbol in the ASCII range to provide a one-to-one mapping from Arabic to ASCII and back. This system, while facilitating typing on English keyboards, presents its own ambiguities and disadvantages. .During the last few decades and especially since the 1990s, Western-invented text communication technologies have become prevalent in the Arab world, such as personal computers, the World Wide Web, email, Bulletin board systems, IRC, instant messaging and mobile phone text messaging.^ The opinion that this verse was the last revelation is not sound according to many scholars, since it was revealed during the last pilgrimage of the Prophet.
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^ World Wide Web at http://homepages.haqq.com.au/salam/misc/qurayza.html , 1999.
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Most of these technologies originally had the ability to communicate using the Latin alphabet only, and some of them still do not have the Arabic alphabet as an optional feature. As a result, Arabic speaking users communicated in these technologies by transliterating the Arabic text using the Latin script, sometimes known as IM Arabic.
.To handle those Arabic letters that cannot be accurately represented using the Latin script, numerals and other characters were appropriated.^ It was based on freedom, hard work, responsibility, self-reliance, faith in God, family, and taking care of those who cannot take care of themselves--among other virtues.
  • Ben Smith's Blog: White House: No bow to Saudi - POLITICO.com 19 September 2009 2:02 UTC www.politico.com [Source type: General]

For example, the numeral "3" may be used to represent the Arabic letter "ع", ayn. There is no universal name for this type of transliteration, but some have named it Arabic Chat Alphabet. Other systems of transliteration exist, such as using dots or capitalization to represent the "emphatic" counterparts of certain consonants. For instance, using capitalization, the letter "د", or daal, may be represented by d. Its emphatic counterpart, "ض", may be written as D.

Numerals

In most of present-day North Africa, the Western Arabic numerals (0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9) are used. However in Egypt and Arabic-speaking countries to the east of it, the Eastern Arabic numerals (٠.١.٢.٣.٤.٥.٦.٧.٨.٩) are in use. When representing a number in Arabic, the lowest-valued position is placed on the right, so the order of positions is the same as in left-to-right scripts. Sequences of digits such as telephone numbers are read from left to right, but numbers are spoken in the traditional Arabic fashion, with units and tens reversed from the modern English usage. For example, 24 is said "four and twenty", and 1975 is said "one thousand and nine hundred and five and seventy."

Language-standards regulators

Academy of the Arabic Language is the name of a number of language-regulation bodies formed in Arab countries. The most active are in Damascus and Cairo. They review language development, monitor new words and approve inclusion of new words into their published standard dictionaries. They also publish old and historical Arabic manuscripts.

Studying Arabic

.Because the Quran is written in Arabic and all Islamic terms are in Arabic, millions of Muslims (both Arab and non-Arab) study the language.^ The Quran states that all Muslims must follow the Truth Jesus brought.
  • Ben Smith's Blog: White House: No bow to Saudi - POLITICO.com 19 September 2009 2:02 UTC www.politico.com [Source type: General]

Arabic has been taught worldwide in many elementary and secondary schools, especially Muslim schools. Universities around the world have classes that teach Arabic as part of their foreign languages, Middle Eastern studies, and religious studies courses. Arabic language schools exist to assist students in learning Arabic outside of the academic world. Many Arabic language schools are located in the Arab world and other Muslim countries. Software and books with tapes are also important part of Arabic learning, as many of Arabic learners may live in places where there are no academic or Arabic language school classes available. Radio series of Arabic language classes are also provided from some radio stations. A number of websites on the Internet provide online classes for all levels as a means of distance education.

Examples

English Arabic Romanization (ALA-LC) IPA
English الْإِنْكِليزيَّة
or الْإِنْجِليزيَّة
al-injlīzīyah /alinʒliːziːjah/
Yes نَعَمْ naʿam /naʕam/
No لا /laː/
Hello مَرْحَباً marḥaban /marħaban/
Welcome أَهْلاً ahlan /ahlan/
Goodbye مَعَ السَّلامَةِ maʿa as-salāmah /maʕ assalaːmah/
Please مِنْ فَضْلِك min faḍlik /min ˈfadˁlik/
Thanks شُكْرًا shukran /ʃukran/
Excuse me عَفْوًا ʿafwan /ʕafwan/
I'm sorry آسِف āsif /ʔaːsif/
What's your name? ما اسمُكَ؟ maa ismuk? /masmuk/
How much? كَم؟ kam? /kam/
I don't understand. لا أَفْهَمُ lā afham /laː ʔafham/
I don't speak Arabic. لا أَتَكَلَّمُ الْعَرَبيَّةَ lā atakallamu al-ʿarabīyah /laː ʔatakallam ulʕarabiːja/
I don't know. لا أَعْرِفُ lā aʿrif /laː ʔaʕrif/
I'm hungry. أنا جائِعٌ anā jāʾiʿun /ʔanaː dʒaʔiʕun/
Orange بُرْتُقالي burtuqāli /burtuqaːliː/
Black أَسْوَد aswad /ʔaswad/
One واحِد wāḥid /waːħid/
Two إِثْنان ithnān /iθnaːn/
Three ثَلاثَة thalāthah /θalaːθah/
Four أَرْبَعَة arbaʿah /ʔarbaʕah/
Five خَمْسَة khamsah /xamsah/
Six سِتَّة sittah /sitah/
Seven سَبْعَة saba'ah /sabʕah/
Eight ثَمانِيَّة thamaniah /θamaniːjah/
Nine تِسْعَة tis'aah /tisʕah/
Ten عَشَرَة asharah /ʕaʃarah/

See also

Notes

  1. ^ a b Procházka, 2006.
  2. ^ a b Ethnologue (1999)
  3. ^ Wright, 2001, p. 492.
  4. ^ "Arabic language." Encyclopaedia Britannica. 2009. Encyclopaedia Britannica Online. Retrieved on 29 July 2009.
  5. ^ Versteegh, 1997, p. 33.
  6. ^ "Arabic Language." Microsoft Encarta Online Encyclopedia 2009. Retrieved on 29 July 2009.
  7. ^ Orville Boyd Jenkins (18 March 2000). "Population Analysis of the Arabic Languages". http://strategyleader.org/articles/arabicpercent.html. 
  8. ^ a b Kaye, 1991.
  9. ^ Maltese language – Britannica Online Encyclopedia
  10. ^ Gregersen, 1977, p. 237.
  11. ^ http://www.alislam.org/topics/arabic/
  12. ^ A History of the Arabic Language
  13. ^ Kaplan and Baldauf, 2007, p. 48. See also Bateson, 2003, pp. 96–103 and Berber: Linguistic "Substratum" of North African Arabic by Ernest N. McCarus.
  14. ^ MED Magazine
  15. ^ Watson (2002:18)
  16. ^ e.g. Thelwall (2003:52)
  17. ^ Hetzron, 1997, p. 229.
  18. ^ Hanna, 1972, p. 2

References

  • Bateson, Mary Catherine (2003). Arabic Language Handbook. Georgetown University Press. 
  • Gregersen, Edgar A. (1977). Language in Africa. CRC Press. ISBN 0677043805. 
  • Grigore, George (2007). L'arabe parlé à Mardin. Monographie d'un parler arabe périphérique. Bucharest: Editura Universitatii din Bucuresti. ISBN 9789737372499. .http://www.arc-news.com/read.php?lang=en&id_articol=1059. 
  • Hanna, Sami A.; Greis, Naguib (1972).^ See the documentary "The Obama Deception" for details: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eAaQNACwaLw .
    • Ben Smith's Blog: White House: No bow to Saudi - POLITICO.com 19 September 2009 2:02 UTC www.politico.com [Source type: General]

    Writing Arabic: A Linguistic Approach, from Sounds to Script. Brill Archive. 
  • Hetzron, Robert (1997). The Semitic languages (Illustrated ed.). Taylor & Francis. ISBN 0415057671, 9780415057677. 
  • Haywood; Nahmad (1965). A new Arabic grammar. London: Lund Humphries. ISBN 085331585X. 
  • Kaplan, Robert B.; Baldauf, Richard B. (2007). Language Planning and Policy in Africa. Multilingual Matters. 
  • Kaye, Alan S. (1991). "The Hamzat al-Waṣl in Contemporary Modern Standard Arabic". Journal of the American Oriental Society (American Oriental Society) 111 (3): 572–574. doi:10.2307/604273. http://www.jstor.org/stable/604273. 
  • Lane, Edward William (1893). Arabic English Lexicon (2003 reprint ed.). New Delhi: Asian Educational Services. ISBN 8120601076. http://www.studyquran.co.uk/LLhome.htm. 
  • Mumisa, Michael (2003). Introducing Arabic. Goodword Books. 
  • Procházka, S. (2006). ""Arabic"". Encyclopedia of Language and Linguistics (2nd ed.). 
  • Thelwall, Robin (2003). "Arabic". Handbook of the International Phonetic Association a guide to the use of the international phonetic alphabet. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge. ISBN 0-521-63751-1. 
  • Steingass, F. (1993). Arabic-English Dictionary. Asian Educational Services. 
  • Traini, R.. Vocabolario di arabo. Rome: I.P.O.. 
  • Versteegh, Kees (1997). The Arabic Language. Edinburgh University Press. 
  • Vaglieri, Laura Veccia. Grammatica teorico-pratica della lingua araba. Rome: I.P.O.. 
  • Watson, Janet (2002). The Phonology and Morphology of Arabic. New York: Oxford University Press. 
  • Wehr, Hans (1952). Arabisches Wörterbuch für die Schriftsprache der Gegenwart: Arabisch-Deutsch (1985 reprint (English) ed.). Harassowitz. ISBN 3447019980. 
  • Wright, John W. (2001). The New York Times Almanac 2002. Routledge. ISBN 1579583482. 

External links

Arabic language edition of Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Travel guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010
(Redirected to Arabic phrasebook article)

From Wikitravel

The following phrasebook deals with Modern Standard Arabic. See the Lebanese Arabic phrasebook, Jordanian Arabic phrasebook or the Egyptian Arabic phrasebook for Arabic dialects relating to those regions/countries.
Arabic is the fourth most widely-spoken language in the world. It is spoken in many popular destinations in North Africa and the Middle East. There are many regional dialects, but a standard Arabic language is maintained due to religious needs and region-wide media.
Arabic is written from right to left. It has its own alphabet, different from the Roman alphabet used for English.
For communication purposes while traveling and using this guide, it is very important to note that Arabic is divided into Classical Arabic (mostly used in print) and Colloquial Arabic. Colloquial Arabic is further subdivided into regional colloquial accents, the main regions being the Levant, Persian Gulf States, Egypt, and North Africa. These regional colloquial accents sometimes differ enough to be mutually incomprehensible.
The pronunciation guide below uses Classical Arabic and Levantine Colloquial Arabic.

Pronunciation guide

TBD
Arabic pronunciation varies widely from place to place, almost to the extent of making it unintellilgible even for native Arabic speakers.
Standard Arabic will be understood by most educated people, as it is what they hear frequently on TV, mostly news.
As a general rule:
  • 'a' tends to be like that of 'hat'
  • 'aa' is a longer version of 'a'
  • 'b' as in English
  • 't' as in English
  • 'th' as in English 'thin'
  • 'dh' as in English 'them'
  • 'j' as in 'jam' in Iraq and Saudi Arabia, 's' as in 'measure' in the Levant (Lebanon, Palestine, etc.), and 'g' as in 'give' in Egypt and the rest of North Africa.
  • 'H' is a pharyngeal fricative sound at the back of the throat (though not like clearing it). It sounds like you are about to whisper the word 'hello'.
  • 'kh' as in Scots 'loch' or German 'mach'
  • 'd' as in English
  • 'r' a tapped sound like Spanish 'pero', but trilled like Spanish 'perro' when doubled.
  • 'z' as in English
  • 's' as in English
  • 'sh' as in English
  • 'S' like 's' but with the back of the throat constricted. Makes 'a' further back in the throat, 'i' into 'e' and 'u' into 'o'.
  • 'D' like 'd' but with the back of the throat constricted. Same vowel changes as 'S'
  • 'T' like 'D' but sometimes equivalent to 't'
  • 'Z' varies: sometimes like 'D', but equivalent to 'th', but other times equivalent to 'z'.
  • 'h' as in English
  • 'q' like 'k' but further back in the throat and is often pronounced like '?'
  • 'k' as in English
  • 'l' as in English
  • 'm' as in English
  • 'f' as in English
  • 'n' as in English
  • '?' as in Cockney 'bottle' ('bole). A glottal stop.
  • '9' not always pronounced butb is essential in Standard Arabic. A voiced version of 'H'.
  • 'gh' a fricative sound at the back of the throat or 'kh' while using the voice box.

Phrase list

Some phrases in this phrasebook still need to be translated. If you know anything about this language, you can help by plunging forward and translating a phrase.
Hello (informal
مرحبا. marHaban <info>
Peace be with you. (formal
السلام عليكم as-salaamu `alaikum
How are you? 
كيف حالك؟
Kayfa Haaluka/Kayfa Haalak? male singular
Kayfa Haaluki/Kayfa Haalik? female singular
Kayfa Haalukum plural (depends on the number and gender spoken to)
Please. 
من فضلك. min faDluka/faDlak male min faDluki/faDlik female
Thank you [very much]. 
شكرا shukran [jaziilan].
Yes. 
نعم na`am /
No. 
لا. laa
Maybe. 
ممكن mumkin.
Excuse me. 
إسمحلي ismaHli
the 'i' at the beginning is swallowed
Good morning. 
صباح الخير sabaH al-khair
Good evening. 
مساء الخير masa' al-khair
good 
جيد jayyid.
very good 
جيد جدا jayyid jiddan.
Never mind. 
ليس مهم mish Muhim.
None, nothing, nobody. 
ما في Maa fii.
Hello. (informal
سلام salaam.
Fine, thank you. 
بخير ,شكرا bi-khair Shukran
What is your name? 
ما اسمك sho ismak?
Ma Ismuka/sho Ismak? to a male
Ma Ismuki/sho Ismik? to a female
My name is ______ . 
اسمي ana Ismi _______
Nice to meet you. 
تشرفنا tasharafna lit. "You honor us"
You're welcome. 
عفوا `afwan
Excuse me. (getting attention
لو سمحت lau samaHt
Excuse me. (begging pardon
انا اسفه / انا اسف
Ana Aasif (male)
Ana Aasifah (female)
I'm sorry. 
انا اسفه / انا اسف
Ana Aasif male
Ana Aasifah female
Goodbye 
مع السلامة ma`a as-salaamah
Goodbye (informal
سلام salaam
I can't speak name of language [well]. 
لا اتكلم __ جيدا Laa atakallam "name of language" [jayyidan]
Do you speak English? 
Do you speak English? هل تتكلم الانجليزية Hal tatakallam al-ingliziyyah?
Is there someone here who speaks English? 
هل هنا اي شخص يتكلم الانجليزية؟ Hal hunaa ayy shakhS yatakallam al-ingliziyya?
Help! 
مساعدة Musaa`adah! OR النجدة an-najda!
Look out! 
انتبه intabih
Good night. 
تصبح على الخير tiSbaH `alal-khair
Good night (in response) : وانت من اهل الخير wa anta min ahl al-khair
I don't understand. 
لا افهم laa afham
Where is the toilet? 
اين الحمام؟ Ayn al-Hammaam?
Leave me alone. 
Leave me alone. (اتركني (M) OR اتركيني (F))
Utrukni (M)- Utrukiini (F)
Don't touch me! 
Don't touch me! (Ma tilmisni) or (Ma t'arrabsh)
I'll call the police. 
I'll call the police. (Sa Unadi al-Police)
Police! 
Police! (شرطة)
Shurta!
Stop! Thief! 
Stop! Thief! (Qif! Harami!)
I need your help. 
I need your help. (احتاج مساعدة لو سمحت)
Ahtaj musaa`ada lau simaHt
It's an emergency. 
It's an emergency.For medical emergency:Is'aff (إسعاف),for other emergencies:Taware' (طوارئ)
I'm lost. 
I'm lost. (تايه)
Ana taayah (M) taayahah (F)
I lost my bag. 
I lost my bag. (لقد فقدت حقيبتى)
Laqad faqadtu Haqiibati
I lost my wallet. 
I lost my wallet. (لقد فقدت محفظتى)
Laqad faqadtu mahafaZati
I'm sick. 
I'm sick. (انا مريض (M) OR انا مريضة (F))
Ana mariiD (m) Or Ana mariiDah (f)
I've been injured. 
I've been injured. إنني مصاب(Innani Musabun)
I need a doctor. 
I need a doctor. (احتاج دكتر)
AHtaaj duktur.
Can I use your phone? 
Can I use your phone? (هل ممكن استعمل التلفون؟
Hindo-Arabic numerals
٠ 
0
١ 
1
٢ 
2
٣ 
3
٤ 
4
٥ 
5
٦ 
6
٧ 
7
٨ 
8
٩ 
9
صفر Sifr
واحد waaHid
إثنان ithnaan
ثلاثة thalaatha
اربعة arba`a
خمسة khamsa
ستة sitta
سبعة sab`a
ثمانية thamaaniya
تسعة tis`a
10 
عشرة `ashara
11 
احد عشر aHad `ashar
12 
اثنا عشر ithnaa `ashar
13 
ثلاثة عشر thalaathata `ashar
14 
اربعة عشر arba`ata `ashar
15 
خمسة عشر khamsata `ashar
16 
ستة عشر sittata `ashar
17 
سبعة عشر sab`ata `ashar
18 
ثمانية عشر thamaaniyata `ashar
19 
تسعة عشر tis'ata `ashar
20 
عشرون ishruun
21 
واحد وعشرون waaHid wa-`ashruun
22 
اثنان وعشرون ithnaan wa-`ashruun
23 
ثلاثة وعشرون thalaatha wa-`ashruun
30 
ثلاثون thalathuun
40 
اربعون arba`uun
50 
خمسون khamsuun
60 
ستون sittuun
70 
سبعون sab`uun
80 
ثمانون thamanuun
90 
تسعون tis`uun
100 
مئة mi'a
200 
مئتين mitayn
300 
ثلاث مئة thalaath mi'a
1000 
الف alf (as in The Thousand and One Nights - الف ليلة وليلة Alf Layla wa Layla)
2000 
الفين alfayn
1,000,000 
المليون al-milyuun
1,000,000,000 
البليون al-bilyuun
1,000,000,000,000 
التريليون at-triilyuun
number _____ (train, bus, etc.
رقم / Raqm (...)
half 
نصف niSf
less 
اقل aqal
more 
اكثر akthar

Transportation

Directions

Go 
ذهب dhahaba shery
Stop 
Waqf
Turn left 
لف يسار Lif Yassar
Turn right 
لف يمين Lif Yameen
straight ahead 
على طول Ala Tool (Egyptian) or illal amaama الى الامام; dughri (Jordan); quduman (general)
slowly 
Shway Shway
Wait of Stay 
انتظر (intadhir)
Show me. 
ارني (areni)
here 
هنا huna
there 
هناك hunak
before 
qabla
after 
بعد ba'da
now 
الأن al-aan
from 
من min
to or at (a place
الى ilah
Wait one minute. 
intadhir Wahad dakeeka.
انا ana
you (m) 
انتَ anta
you (f) 
انتِ anti
he 
هو huwa
she 
هي hiya
we 
نحن naHnu
you (two people) 
انتما antuma
you (m/mixed) 
انتم antum
you (f) 
انتن antunna
they (two people) 
هما huma
they (m/mixed) 
هم hum
they (f) 
هن hunna
Who? 
من man
What? 
ما ma/madha
When? 
ay mata
Where? 
اين ayn
Why? 
لماذ li-madha
How much? 
بكم biKam
How much is this? 
بكم هذا biKam Hadha
Where are you from? 
من اين انت min ayn anta
Understand? 
Maf Hoom
Do you speak English? 
هل تتكلم الإنجليزية؟ hal tatakallam al-ingliziya?
What is this?
ma haadha?
I want 
Oreed
I don't want 
La Oreed لا أريد
I have 
لي lii / ladeya لدي / andee عندي
I don't have 
leis andee ليس عندي
I don't understand 
Ana ma fehim أنا ما فاهم / ana laa afham أنا لا أفهم / Ana mesh fahem أنا مش فاهم
I work at the _____. 
Ana bashtaghel fi _____أنا باشتغل في / a'mal fi _____ _____أعمل في
I don't speak Arabic
لا اتكلم العربية laa atkallam al-arabiya / Ma bihki arabi ما باحكي عربي / Ma batkalemsh arabi ماباتكلمش عربي
money 
فلوس fuluus
coffee 
قهوة qahwa pronounced ah-way in Syrian Arabic
sugar 
سكر sukr
salt 
ملح milH
car 
سيارة sayyaara
hotel 
فندق funduq / اوتيل ooteel
water 
ماء maa'
tea 
شاي shay'
milk 
حليب Haliib
work 
شغل shughl
airplane 
طائرة Taa'irah
street 
شارع shaari`
now 
الآن (al-'aana)
later 
بعدين (ba`adayn)
before 
قبل (qabla)
morning 
صباح (SabaaH)
afternoon 
بعد ظهر (ba'ada Zuhur)
evening 
مساء (masaa')
night 
ليلة (laylah)

Clock time

one o'clock AM 
one o'clock AM (sa'ati waHad)
two o'clock AM 
two o'clock AM (sa'ati ithnayn)
noon 
noon (ZuHur)
one o'clock PM 
one o'clock PM (...)
two o'clock PM 
two o'clock PM (...)
midnight 
midnight (muntasf al-laylah)

Duration

_____ minute(s) 
_____ (دقيقة (دقائق (daqiiqah (daqaa'iq) )
_____ hour(s) 
_____ hour(s)(...)
_____ day(s) 
_____ يوم (أيام (yom (ayaam))
_____ week(s) 
_____ week(s) (usbuu`)
_____ month(s) 
_____ month(s) (shahr)
_____ year(s) 
_____ سنة (سنوات(sanah (sanooaat))

Days

today 
البوم (al-yawm(a))
yesterday 
امس (ams(i))
tomorrow 
غداً (ghadan)
this week 
الاسبوع (al-'usbu`)
last week 
اسبوع الماضي (usbu`(u) 'l-maaDi)
next week 
اسبوع القادم (usbu`(u) 'l-qaadim)

Days of the week

Sunday 
يوم الأحد ((yawm) al'aHad)
Monday 
يوم الاثنين ((yawm) al-ithnayn)
Tuesday 
يوم الثلاثاء ((yawm) ath-thulaatha)
Wednesday 
يوم الأربعاء ((yawm) al'arbi`a')
Thursday 
يوم الخميس ((yawm) al-khamiis)
Friday 
يوم الجمعة ((yawm) al-jum`a...)
Saturday 
يوم السبت ((yawm) as-sabt)

Months

January 
كانون الثاني (Kanoon al thani)
February 
February (.shbat شباط..)
March 
March (...آذار Aathar)
April 
April (..Nissan نيسان.)
May 
May (...أيار Ayyar)
June 
حزيران (Hzayraan)
July 
تموز (Tammouz)
August 
اّب (Ab)
September 
ايلول (Ayloul)
October 
تشرن الأول (Tishreen al awwal)
November 
تشرن الثاني (Tishreen al thani)
December 
كانون الأول (Kanoon al awwal)

Writing time and date

Give some examples how to write clock times and dates if it differs from English.
black 
اسود (Aswad)
white 
ابيض (Abyadh)
gray 
رمادي (Ramaadii)
red 
احمر (AHmar)
blue 
ازرق (Azraq)
yellow 
اصفر (Asfar)
green 
اخضر (Akhdhar)
orange 
برتقالي (Burtuqaali)
purple 
ارجوان (Urjuwaan)
brown 
اسمر (Asmar)

Transportation

Bus and train

How much is a ticket to _____? 
adash tazkara ila ____?
One ticket to _____, please. 
Tazkara wahida ila ___ law samaht
Where does this train/bus go? 
Hazal qitar/bus biyruh ila wayn?
Where is the train/bus to _____? 
Wein el-qitar/el-bus ila ___?
Does this train/bus stop in _____? 
hal biwa'ef hazal qitar/bus fi__ ?
When does the train/bus for _____ leave? 
emta btatla el-qitar/el-bus ila ___?
When will this train/bus arrive in _____? 
'emta byusil hazal qitar/bus fi___?

Directions

How do I get to _____ ? 
How do I get to _____ ? (Keef bawsal la __)
...the train station? 
...the train station? (mahatet il qitar?)
...the bus station? 
...the bus station? (mawqif il bassat?)
...the airport? 
...المطار (al-matar?)
...downtown? 
...downtown? (il balad?)
...the youth hostel? 
...the youth hostel? (...)
...the _____ hotel? 
...the _____ hotel? (otel?)
...the American/Canadian/Australian/British consulate? 
...the American/Canadian/Australian/British consulate? (safara)
Where are there a lot of... 
Where are there a lot of... (Wein fi kteer...)
...hotels? 
...hotels? (otelat)
...restaurants? 
...restaurants? (mata'em)
...bars? 
...bars? (bars)
...sites to see? 
...sites to see? (amaken seyaheyeh?)
Can you show me on the map? 
Can you show me on the map? (momken tfarjeeni khareeta?)
street 
شارع (shar'iah)
Turn left. 
لف يسار (lif yasaar)
Turn right. 
لف يمين (lif yameen)
left 
يسار (yasaar)
right 
يمين (yameen)
straight ahead 
على طول(ala tul)
towards the _____ 
towards the _____ (bijehet il)
past the _____ 
past the _____ (baed il)
before the _____ 
before the _____ (abel il)
Watch for the _____. 
Watch for the _____. (intibeh la)
intersection 
intersection (taqato)
north 
شمال (shamaal)
south 
جنوب(janoob)
east 
شرق(sharq)
west 
غرب(gharb)
uphill 
uphill (talaa)
downhill 
downhill (nazleh)

Taxi

Taxi! 
Taxi! (taxi!) Sayyara
Take me to _____, please. 
Take me to _____, please. (khodni ila)
How much does it cost to get to _____? 
How much does it cost to
get to _____? (adeish?)
Take me there, please. 
Take me there, please. (khodni ala __)
Do you have any rooms available? 
Do you have any rooms available? (Endkom ghoraf(alternatively- owad) edafeyeh?)
How much is a room for one person/two people? 
How much is a room for one person/two people? (Adeish il ghorfeh li shakhs/shakhsein?)
Does the room come with... 
Does the room come with... (Il ghorfeh bteeji ma...)
...bedsheets? 
...bedsheets? (sharashef?)
...a bathroom? 
...a bathroom? (hammam?)
...a telephone? 
...a telephone? (tele-phown?)
...a TV? 
...a TV? (televis-yon?)
May I see the room first? 
May I see the room first? (Baqdar ashoof il ghorfeh abel?)
Do you have anything quieter? 
Do you have anything quieter? (Fi eshi ah-da?.)
...bigger? 
...bigger? (akbar?)
...cleaner? 
...cleaner? (andaf?)
...cheaper? 
...cheaper? (arkhas?)
OK, I'll take it. 
OK, I'll take it. (OK, bakhodha)
I will stay for _____ night(s). 
I will stay for _____ night(s). (Rah aba'a kaman ___ yom)
Can you suggest another hotel? 
Can you suggest another hotel? (')
Do you have a safe? 
Do you have a safe? (fi khazneh?)
...lockers? 
...lockers? (...)
Is breakfast/supper included? 
Is breakfast/supper included? (')
What time is breakfast/supper? 
What time is breakfast/supper? (ay sei-a il ftoor/asha?)
Please clean my room. 
Please clean my room. (momken tanadef il ghorfeh)
Can you wake me at sds_____? | Can you wake me at _____? (momken tfaye'ni al __ )
I want to check out. 
I want to check out. (beddi ashoofha)
Do you accept American/Australian/Canadian dollars? 
Do you accept American/Australian/Canadian dollars? (Hal taqbal bi noqood Amreekeyah/Ostoraleyah/Canadeyah?)
Do you accept British pounds? 
Do you accept British pounds? (Hal Taqbal bi Jenehat Biritaneyeh?)
Do you accept credit cards? 
Do you accept credit cards? (')
Can you change money for me? 
Can you change money for me? (Momken tsarefli masari?)
Where can I get money changed? 
Where can I get money changed? (Wein badar asaref masari?)
Can you change a traveler's check for me? 
Can you change a traveler's check for me? (...)
Where can I get a traveler's check changed? 
Where can I get a traveler's check changed? (...)
What is the exchange rate? 
What is the exchange rate? (...)
Where is an automatic teller machine (ATM)? 
Where is an automatic teller machine (ATM)? (Wein fi ATM?)
A table for one person/two people, please. 
A table for one person/two people, please. (Tawlah la wahed/tenein)
Can I look at the menu, please? 
Can I look at the menu, please? (Momken ashoof il menu?)
Can I look in the kitchen? 
Can I look in the kitchen? (Mumken ashuf il matbakh?)
Is there a house specialty? 
Is there a house specialty? (...)
Is there a local specialty? 
Is there a local specialty? (...)
I'm a vegetarian. 
I'm a vegetarian. (Ana nabati)
I don't eat pork. 
I don't eat pork. (Ma bakol lahem khanzeer)
I don't eat beef. 
I don't eat beef. (Ma bakol lahmeh)
I only eat Halal food. 
I only eat Halal food. (Bas bakol akel hallal)
Can you make it "lite", please? (less oil/butter/lard
Can you make it "lite", please? (khaleeha khafeefeh)
fixed-price meal 
fixed-price meal (...)
à la carte 
à la carte (à la carte)
breakfast 
breakfast (ftoor) al iftar
lunch 
lunch (...) al ghada
tea (meal
tea (...) shay'
supper 
supper (...) al isha'
I want _____. 
._____أريد (ooreed)
I want a dish containing _____. 
I want a dish containing _____. (...)
chicken 
دجاج (dajaj)
beef 
بقر (baqar)
fish 
سمك (samak)
ham 
ham (khanzeer)
sausage 
sausage (...)
cheese 
جبنة (jubneh)
eggs 
بيض (baid)
salad 
salad (...) salata
(fresh) vegetables 
(fresh) vegetables (...) (fresh) khudrawat
(fresh) fruit 
(fresh) fruit (fawakeh) (fresh) fawakat
bread 
bread (...) ayish OR khubz
toast 
toast (...)
noodles 
noodles (makarona)
rice 
أرز ( 'roz)
beans 
beans (fool) fasoliyya
May I have a glass of _____? 
May I have a glass of _____? (Momken Kaset___)
May I have a cup of _____? 
May I have a cup of _____? (Momken finjan ___)
May I have a bottle of _____? 
May I have a bottle of _____? (...)
coffee 
coffee (qahweh) kah'wa
tea (drink) 
شاي ( shay' )
juice 
عصير (Aseer)
(bubbly) water 
water (may)
water 
ماء ( maa' )
beer 
بيرة (beerah)
red/white wine 
red/white wine (nabeed ahmar/abyad)
May I have some _____? 
May I have some _____? (momken ___?)
salt 
ملح (malh)
black pepper 
فلفل أسود(filfil aswad)
butter 
زبدة (zibdeh)
Excuse me, waiter? (getting attention of server)
Excuse me, waiter? (...)garcoon
I'm finished. 
I'm finished. (khalast ) galaste
It was delicious. 
It was delicious. (Zaki) Al-akl mazboot!
Please clear the plates. 
Please clear the plates. (...)
The check, please. 
The check, please. (...)Leh'seb min fadlak
Do you serve alcohol? 
Do you serve alcohol? (fi kohool?)
Is there table service? 
Is there table service? (...)
A beer/two beers, please. 
A beer/two beers, please. (beerah)
A glass of red/white wine, please. 
A glass of red/white wine, please. (kaset nbeed)
A pint, please. 
A pint, please. (...)
A bottle, please. 
A bottle, please. (aneeneh)
_____ (hard liquor) and _____ (mixer), please. 
_____ and _____, please. (...)
whiskey 
whiskey (...)
fei sim likes to drink vodka 
vodka (...)
rum 
rum (...)
water 
ماء ( maa' )
club soda 
club soda (soda)
tonic water 
tonic water (...)
orange juice 
orange juice (aseer bortoqal)
Coke (soda
Coke (cola)
Do you have any bar snacks? 
Do you have any bar snacks? (...)
One more, please. 
One more, please. (kaman wahed)
Another round, please. 
Another round, please. (kaman wahed)
When is closing time? 
When is closing time? (emta bitsakro?)
Do you have this in my size? 
Do you have this in my size? (Fi maqas?)
How much is this? 
بكم هذا؟ (bikam hatha)
That's too expensive. 
That's too expensive. (...) "ghali katheer!"
Would you take _____? 
Would you take _____? (...)
expensive 
غالي (ghali)
cheap 
رخيص(rakhees)
I can't afford it. 
I can't afford it. (...)
I don't want it. 
I don't want it. (ma beddi)
You're cheating me. 
You're cheating me. (harami)
I'm not interested. 
I'm not interested. (lust muhtam)
OK, I'll take it. 
OK, I'll take it. (ok)
Can I have a bag? 
Can I have a bag? (oreedo kees)
Do you ship (overseas)? 
Do you ship (overseas)? (...)
I need... 
I need... (...) Ahtaj
...toothpaste. 
...toothpaste. (ma'ajoon asnan)
...a toothbrush. 
...a toothbrush. (forshaat asnan)
...tampons. 
...tampons. (always)
...soap. 
...soap. (saboon)
...shampoo. 
...shampoo. (shamboo)
...pain reliever. (e.g., aspirin or ibuprofen
...pain reliever. (mussakin)
...cold medicine. 
...cold medicine. (dawa rash-h)
...stomach medicine. 
...stomach medicine. (dawa baten)
...a razor. 
...a razor. (shafra)
...an umbrella. 
...an umbrella. (shamseyeh)
...sunblock lotion. 
...sunblock lotion. (...)
...a postcard. 
...بطاقة بريدية (bitaqa bareedia)
...postage stamps. 
...postage stamps. (tawabe' bareed)
...batteries. 
...batteries. (batareyat)
...writing paper. 
...ورق للكتبة (waraq lil-kitaba)
...a pen. 
...قلم (qalam)
...English-language books. 
...كتب إنجليزية (kutub ingliziya)
...English-language magazines. 
... مجلات انكليزية English-language magazines. (majalat engiliziya)
...an English-language newspaper. 
...جرائد إنجليزية(jara'id ingliziya)
...an English-English dictionary. 
...an English-English dictionary. (qamoos ingilizi-ingilizi)
I want to rent a car. 
I want to rent a car. (beddi astajer sayarah)
Can I get insurance? 
Can I get insurance? (fi tameen?)
stop (on a street sign
stop (qif)
one way 
one way (')
yield 
yield (...)
no parking 
no parking (...)
speed limit 
speed limit (...)
gas (petrol) station 
gas station (mahatet banzeen)
petrol 
petrol (..)
diesel 
diesel (...)
I haven't done anything wrong. 
I haven't done anything wrong. (Ma emelet eshi ghalat)
It was a misunderstanding. 
It was a misunderstanding. (kan so' tafahom )
Where are you taking me? 
Where are you taking me? (wein akhedni?)
Am I under arrest? 
Am I under arrest? (ana motaqaleh?)
I am an American/Australian/British/Canadian citizen. 
I am an American/Australian/British/Canadian citizen. (Ana American/...)
I want to talk to the American/Australian/British/Canadian embassy/consulate. 
I need to talk to the American/Australian/British/Canadian embassy/consulate. (...)
I want to talk to a lawyer. 
I want to talk to a lawyer. (beddi ahki ma mohami)
Can I just pay a fine now? 
Can I just pay a fine now? (ba2dar adfa?)

Study guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010
(Redirected to Topic:Arabic article)

From Wikiversity

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Welcome to the Arabic Department at Wikiversity, part of the Center for Foreign Language Learning and the School of Language and Literature.
The Arabic language (اللغة العربية al-luġah al-ʿarabiyyah), or simply Arabic (عربي ʿarabī), is the largest member of the Semitic branch of the Afro-Asiatic language family (classification: South Central Semitic) and is closely related to Hebrew and Aramaic. It is spoken throughout the Arab world and is widely studied and known throughout the Islamic world. Classical Arabic has been a literary language since at least the 6th century and is the liturgical language of Islam. Because of its liturgical role, Arabic has lent many words to other Islamic languages, akin to the role Latin has in Western European languages. During the Middle Ages Arabic was also a major vehicle of culture, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy, with the result that many European languages have also borrowed numerous words from it. The Arabic script is written from right to left.
If you are interested in the Arabic Department, sign up at the Arabic stream

Contents

Learning Projects

See: Learning Projects and the Wikiversity:Learning model.
Learning materials and learning projects are located in the main Wikiversity namespace. Simply make a link to the name of the learning project (learning projects are independent pages in the main namespace) and start writing! We suggest the use of the learning project template (use "subst:Learning project boilerplate" on the new page, inside the double curved brackets {{}}).
Learning materials and learning projects can be used by multiple departments. Cooperate with other departments that use the same learning resource.
  • ...
Remember, Wikiversity has adopted the "learning by doing" model for education. Lessons should center on learning activities for Wikiversity participants. We learn by doing.
Select a descriptive name for each learning project.

Streams

Current

Courses currently being offered by the Arabic Department:
Other projects:
  • ...

Planned

  • ...

Tasks

  1. Incorporate Wikibooks materials into the Arabic Department.
  2. Start an Arabic project/course.

Language References

Vocabulary

  • See the lists at the Arabic on Wikibooks.

Verb conjugation

Typing Arabic

Department news

  • November 10, 2006 - Department founded!

Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

Contents

English

Wikipedia-logo.png
Wikipedia has an article on:

Alternative forms

Pronunciation

Adjective

Arabic (not comparable)
Positive
Arabic
  1. Of, from, or pertaining to Arab countries or cultural behaviour (see also Arab as an adjective).

Translations

Proper noun

Singular
Arabic
Plural
-
Arabic
  1. A major Semitic language originating from the Arabian peninsula, and now spoken natively (in various spoken dialects, all sharing a single highly conservative standardized literary form) throughout large sections of the Middle East and North Africa.
  2. The Aramaic-derived alphabet used to write the Arabic, Persian, Pashto, Urdu, and Uyghur languages, among others.

Derived terms

Translations

See also

Wikibooks
Wikibooks has more about this subject:

External links


Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 04, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Arabic language, which are similar to those in the above article.








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