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Antisemitism · Jewish history

Antisemitism in the Arab world refers to discrimination against Jews. While Arabs are also a Semitic people, the modern meaning of the English term "antisemitism" refers exclusively to discrimination against Jews (see Antisemitism: Etymology and usage).

Arab antisemitism is believed to have expanded since the 19th century. Jews, like other minority groups within the Muslim world, were subject to various restrictions long before that (see Dhimmi). However, despite its restrictive nature, dhimmi status also afforded the "People of the Book" relative security against persecution and welfare most of the time — a protection that was missing for non-Christians in most of Europe until the institutionalization of equality under a secular idea of citizenship after the French Revolution - and allowed them to enjoy their respective religious laws and ways of life.

Antisemitism in the Arab world has increased greatly in modern times, for many reasons: the breakdown of the Ottoman Empire and traditional Islamic society; European influence, brought about by Western imperialism and Christian Arabs;[1] Nazi propaganda;[2] and the rise of Arab nationalism. In addition, there was resentment of disproportionate influence Jews had gained under colonialism, and of the Zionist movement. The rise of political Islam during the 1980s and afterwards provided a new mutation of Islamic anti-Semitism, which gave the hatred of Jews a religious component.[2]

For most of the past fourteen hundred years, according to Bernard Lewis, Arabs have not been antisemitic as the word is used in the West. In his view this is because, for the most part, Arabs are not Christians brought up on stories of Jewish deicide. In Islam, such stories are rejected by the Qur'an as a blasphemous absurdity. Since Muslims do not consider themselves as the "true Israel", they do not feel threatened by the survival of Jews. Because Islam did not retain the Old Testament, no clash of interpretations between the two faiths can therefore arise. There is, says Lewis, no Muslim theological dispute between their religious institutions and the Jews.[3]

While there were antisemitic incidents in the early twentieth century, antisemitism has certainly been heightened by the Arab-Israeli conflict. After the 1948 Arab-Israeli War, the Palestinian exodus, the creation of the state of Israel, Israeli victories during the wars of 1956 and 1967 served a severe shock to the Arabs.[4] The readiness of Arab regimes to scapegoat Jews for political purposes worsened the situation of the Jews and almost all emigrated (some voluntarily, others under threat). By the 1980s, according to Bernard Lewis, the volume of antisemitic literature published in the Arab world, and the authority of its sponsors, seemed to suggest that classical antisemitism had become an essential part of Arab intellectual life, considerably more than in late nineteenth- and early twentieth-century France, and to a degree that has been compared to Nazi Germany.[5 ]

In their 2008 report on contemporary Arab-Muslim antisemitism, the Israeli Intelligence and Terrorism Information Center dates the beginning of this phenomenon to the spread of classic European Christian antisemitism into the Arab world starting in the late 19th century.[6]


Medieval times

Jews, along with Christians and Zoroastrians, typically had the legal status of dhimmi (protected minority) in the lands conquered by Muslim Arabs, generally applied to non-Muslim minorities. Jews were generally seen as a religious group (not a separate race), thus being a part of the "Arab family".[7]

Dhimmi were subjected to a number of restrictions, the application and severity of which varied with time and place. Restrictions included residency in segregated quarters, obligation to wear distinctive clothing, public subservience to Muslims, prohibitions against proselytizing and against marrying Muslim women, and limited access to the legal system (the testimony of a Jew did not count if contradicted by that of a Muslim). Dhimmis had to pay a special poll tax (the "jizya"), which exempted them from military service, and also from payment of the Zakat alms tax required of Muslims. In return, dhimmis were granted limited rights including a degree of tolerance, community autonomy in personal matters, and protection from being killed outright. Jewish communities, like Christian ones, were typically constituted as semi-autonomous entities managed by their own laws and leadership, who carried the responsibility for the community towards the Muslim rulers.

By medieval standards, conditions for Jews under Islam was generally more formalized and better than those of Jews in Christian lands, in part due to the sharing of minority status with Christians in these lands. There is evidence for this claim in that the status of Jews in lands with no Christian minority was usually worse than their status in lands with one. For example, there were numerous incidents of massacres and ethnic cleansing of Jews in North Africa,[8] especially in Morocco, Libya and Algeria where eventually Jews were forced to live in ghettos.[9] Decrees ordering the destruction of synagogues were enacted in the Middle Ages in Egypt, Syria, Iraq and Yemen.[10] At certain times in Yemen, Morocco and Baghdad, Jews were forced to convert to Islam or face death.[11]

The situation where Jews both enjoyed cultural and economic prosperity at times, but were widely persecuted at other times, was summarised by G.E. Von Grunebaum:

It would not be difficult to put together the names of a very sizable number of Jewish subjects or citizens of the Islamic area who have attained to high rank, to power, to great financial influence, to significant and recognized intellectual attainment; and the same could be done for Christians. But it would again not be difficult to compile a lengthy list of persecutions, arbitrary confiscations, attempted forced conversions, or pogroms.[12]

Views in Modernity

Some scholars hold that Arab antisemitism in the modern world arose in the nineteenth century, against the backdrop of conflicting Jewish and Arab nationalism, and was imported into the Arab world primarily by nationalistically minded Christian Arabs (and only subsequently was it "Islamized"), Mark Cohen states.[13] According to Bernard Lewis:

The volume of anti-Semitic books and articles published, the size and number of editions and impressions, the eminence and authority of those who write, publish and sponsor them, their place in school and college curricula, their role in the mass media, would all seem to suggest that classical anti-Semitism is an essential part of Arab intellectual life at the present time-almost as much as happened in Nazi Germany, and considerably more than in late nineteenth and early twentieth century France."[5 ]

Nineteenth century

The Damascus affair was an accusation of ritual murder and a blood libel against Jews in Damascus in 1840. On February 5, 1840, Franciscan Capuchin friar Father Thomas and his Greek servant were reported missing, never to be seen again. The Turkish governor and the French consul Ratti-Menton believed accusations of ritual murder and blood libel, as the alleged murder occurred before the Jewish Passover. An investigation was staged, and Solomon Negrin, a Jewish barber, confessed under torture and accused other Jews. Two other Jews died under torture, and one (Moses Abulafia) converted to Islam to escape torture. More arrests and atrocities followed, culminating in 63 Jewish children being held hostage and mob attacks on Jewish communities throughout the Middle East. International outrage led to Ibrahim Pasha in Egypt ordering an investigation. Negotiations in Alexandria eventually secured the unconditional release and recognition of innocence of the nine prisoners still remaining alive (out of thirteen). Later in Constantinople, Moses Montefiore (leader of the British Jewish community) persuaded Sultan Abdülmecid I to issue a firman (edict) intended to halt the spread of blood libel accusations in the Ottoman Empire:

"... and for the love we bear to our subjects, we cannot permit the Jewish nation, whose innocence for the crime alleged against them is evident, to be worried and tormented as a consequence of accusations which have not the least foundation in truth...".

Nevertheless, pogroms spread through the Middle East and North Africa: Aleppo (1850, 1875), Damascus (1840, 1848, 1890), Beirut (1862, 1874), Dayr al-Qamar (1847), Jaffa (1876), Jerusalem (1847, 1870 and 1895), Cairo (1844, 1890, 1901-02), Mansura (1877), Alexandria (1870, 1882, 1901-07), Port Said (1903, 1908), and Damanhur (1871, 1873, 1877, 1891).[14]

The Dreyfus affair of the late nineteenth century had consequences in the Arab world. Passionate outbursts of antisemitism in France were echoed in areas of French influence, especially Maronite Lebanon. The Muslim Arab press, however, was sympathetic to the falsely accused Captain Dreyfus, and criticized the persecution of Jews in France.[15]

Growth in the twentieth century

Antisemitism in the Arab world increased in the twentieth century, as anti-Semitic propaganda and blood libels were imported from Europe and as resentment against Zionist efforts in British Mandate of Palestine spread. British troops stationed in Palestine arrived fresh from deployment in the Russian civil war, fighting alongside the genocidal antisemitic White Movement. The British forces are credited with introducing the Protocols of the Elders of Zion to Palestine. In March 1921, Musa Khazem El Husseini, Mayor of Jerusalem, told Winston Churchill "The Jews have been amongst the most active advocates of destruction in many lands... It is well known that the disintegration of Russia was wholly or in great part brought about by the Jews, and a large proportion of the defeat of Germany and Austria must also be put at their door."[16]

Matthias Küntzel has suggested that the decisive transfer of Jewish Conspiracy theory took place between 1937 and 1945 under the impact of Nazi propaganda targeted at the Arab world.[17] According to Kuntzel, the Nazi Arabic radio service had a staff of 80 and broadcast everyday in Arabic, stressing the similarities between Islam and Nazism and supported by the activities of the Mufti of Jerusalem, Haj Amin al-Husayni (who broadcast pro-Nazi propaganda from Berlin). The Nazi regime also provided funding to the Egyptian Moslem Brotherhood, which began calling for boycotts of Jewish businesses in 1936.

Bernard Lewis also describes Nazi influence in the Arab world, including its impact on Michel Aflaq, founder of the Ba'ath movement (which later dominated Syria and Iraq).

After the promulgation of the Nuremberg Laws, Hitler received telegrams of congratulation from all over the Arab and Muslim world, especially from Morocco and Palestine, where the Nazi propaganda had been most active... ... Before long political parties of the Nazi and Fascist type began to appear, complete with paramilitary youth organizations, colored shirts, strict discipline and more or less charismatic leaders.[18]

While anti-Semitism was certainly heightened by the Arab-Israeli conflict, there were pogroms against Jews prior to the foundation of Israel, including Nazi-inspired pogroms in Algeria in the 1930s, and attacks on the Jews in Iraq and Libya in the 1940s (see Farhud). George Gruen attributes the increased animosity towards Jews in the Arab world to several factors, including: the breakdown of the Ottoman Empire and traditional Islamic society; domination by Western colonial powers under which Jews gained a disproportionately large role in the commercial, professional, and administrative life of the region; the rise of Arab nationalism, whose proponents sought the wealth and positions of local Jews through government channels; resentment over Jewish nationalism and the Zionist movement; and the readiness of unpopular regimes to scapegoat local Jews for political purposes.[19]

After the 1948 Arab-Israeli War, the Palestinian exodus, the creation of the state of Israel, and the independence of Arab countries from European control, conditions for Jews in the Arab world deteriorated. Over the next few decades, almost all would flee the Arab world, some willingly, and some under threat (see Jewish exodus from Arab lands). In 1945 there were between 758,000 and 866,000 Jews (see table below) living in communities throughout the Arab world. Today, there are fewer than 8,000. In some Arab states, such as Libya (which was once around 3% Jewish), the Jewish community no longer exists; in other Arab countries, only a few hundred Jews remain.

Modern examples

Arab League

On December 2, 1945, the newly formed Arab League Council declared a formal boycott against Jewish products. "Jewish products and manufactured goods shall be considered undesirable to the Arab countries." All Arab "institutions, organizations, merchants, commission agents and individuals" were called upon "to refuse to deal in, distribute, or consume Zionist products or manufactured goods." [20] The boycott began to wane only in the 1970s.


Egyptian Muslim Brotherhood leader Mohammed Mahdi Akef has denounced what he called "the myth of the Holocaust" in defending Iranian president Mahmoud Ahmadinejad's denial of it.[21]

The Egyptian government-run newspaper, Al-Akhbar, on April 29, 2002 published an editorial denying the Holocaust as a fraud. The next paragraph decries the failure of the Holocaust to eliminate all of the Jews:

With regard to the fraud of the Holocaust… Many French studies have proven that this is no more than a fabrication, a lie, and a fraud!! That is, it is a 'scenario' the plot of which was carefully tailored, using several faked photos completely unconnected to the truth. Yes, it is a film, no more and no less. Hitler himself, whom they accuse of Nazism, is in my eyes no more than a modest 'pupil' in the world of murder and bloodshed. He is completely innocent of the charge of frying them in the hell of his false Holocaust!! The entire matter, as many French and British scientists and researchers have proven, is nothing more than a huge Israeli plot aimed at extorting the German government in particular and the European countries in general. But I, personally and in light of this imaginary tale, complain to Hitler, even saying to him from the bottom of my heart, 'If only you had done it, brother, if only it had really happened, so that the world could sigh in relief [without] their evil and sin.'[22]

Cartoons appearing in the daily Al-Wafd in 2003 depict Jews as Satanic figures with hooked noses and equates them with Nazis.

In an article in October 2000 columnist Adel Hammoda alleged in the state-owned Egyptian newspaper al-Ahram that Jews made Matza from the blood of (non-Jewish) children.[23]. Mohammed Salmawy, editor of Al-Ahram Hebdo, "defended the use of old European myths like the blood libel" in his newspapers.[24]


Jordan does not allow entry to Jews with visible signs of Judaism or even with personal religious items in their possession. The Jordanian ambassador to Israel replied to a complaint by a religious Jew denied entry that security concerns required that travelers entering the Hashemite Kingdom not do so with prayer shawls (Tallit) and phylacteries (Tefillin).[25] Jordanian authorities state that the policy is in order to ensure the Jewish tourists safety.[26]

In July 2009, six Breslov Hasidim were deported after attempting entry into Jordan in order to visit the tomb of Aaron / Sheikh Harun on Mount Hor, near Petra, because of an alert from the Ministry of Tourism. The group had taken a ferry from Sinai, Egypt because they understood that Jordanian authourities were making it hard for visible Jews to enter from Israel. The Israeli Ministry of Foreign Affairs is aware of the issue. [27]

Saudi Arabia

A Saudi government website initially stated that Jews would not be granted tourist visas to enter the country.[28][29] It has since removed this statement, and apologized for posting "erroneous information". Members of religions other than Islam, including Jews, are not permitted to practice their religion publicly in Saudi Arabia; according to the U.S. State Department,[30] religious freedom "does not exist" in Saudi Arabia. Islam is the official religion of Saudi Arabia, and the tenets of that religion are enforced by law.

Saudi Arabian media often attacks Jews in books, news articles, at their Mosques[31] and with what some describe as antisemitic satire.[32] Saudi Arabian government officials and state religious leaders often promote the idea that Jews are conspiring to take over the entire world; as proof of their claims they publish and frequently cite The Protocols of the Elders of Zion as factual.[33][34]

One Saudi Arabian government newspaper suggested that hatred of all Jews is justifiable. "Why are they (the Jews) hated by all the people which hosted them, such as Iraq and Egypt thousands years ago, and Germany, Spain, France and the UK, up to the days they gained of power over the capital and the press, in order to rewrite the history?"[35]

Saudi textbooks vilify Jews (and Christians and non-Wahabi Muslims): according to The Washington Post, Saudi textbooks claimed by them to have been sanitized of anti-Semitism still call Jews apes (and Christians swine); demand that students avoid and not befriend Jews; claim that Jews worship the devil; and encourage Muslims to engage in Jihad to vanquish Jews.[36]


Former Ku Klux Klan leader David Duke visited Syria in November 2005 and made a speech which was broadcast live on Syrian television. [37]

In 1984 Syrian Defense Minister Mustafa Tlass published a book called The Matzah of Zion, which claimed that Jews had killed Christian children in Damascus to make Matzas (see Damascus affair). His book inspired the Egyptian TV series Horseman Without a Horse (see below) and a spinoff, The Diaspora, which led to Hezbollah's al-Manar being banned in Europe for broadcasting it.


For a personal account of the discrimination and physical attacks experienced by Jews in Tunisia see the Jewish-Arab anti-colonialist writer Albert Memmi's account:[38]

At each crisis, with every incident of the slightest importance, the mob would go wild, setting fire to Jewish shops. This even happened during the Yom Kippur War. Tunisia's President, Habib Bourguiba, has in all probability never been hostile to the Jews, but there was always that notorious "delay", which meant that the police arrived on the scene only after the shops had been pillaged and burnt. Is it any wonder that the exodus to France and Israel continued and even increased?

Palestinian Authority

The Hamas, an offshoot of the Egyptian Moslem Brotherhood, has a foundational statement of principles, or "covenant" which claims that the French revolution, the Russian revolution, colonialism and both world wars were created by the Zionists. It also claims the Freemasons and Rotary clubs are Zionist fronts and refers to the Protocols of the Elders of Zion.[39] Claims that Jews and Freemasons were behind the French Revolution originated in Germany in the mid-19th century.[40]

Mahmoud Abbas, leader of the PLO, published a Ph.D. thesis (at Moscow University) in 1982, called The Secret Connection between the Nazis and the Leaders of the Zionist Movement.[41][42] His doctoral thesis later became a book, The Other Side: the Secret Relationship Between Nazism and Zionism, which, following his appointment as Palestinian Prime Minister in 2003, was heavily criticized as an example of Holocaust denial. In his book, Abbas wrote:

"It seems that the interest of the Zionist movement, however, is to inflate this figure [of Holocaust deaths] so that their gains will be greater. This led them to emphasize this figure [six million] in order to gain the solidarity of international public opinion with Zionism. Many scholars have debated the figure of six million and reached stunning conclusions—fixing the number of Jewish victims at only a few hundred thousand." [43][44][45]

Arab newspapers

Many Arab newspapers, such as Al-Hayat Al-Jadidah, the Palestinian Authority's official newspaper, often write that "the Jews" control all the world's governments, and that "the Jews" plan genocide on all the Arabs in the West Bank. Others write less sensational stories, and state that Jews have too much of an influence in the United States government. Often the leaders of other nations are said to be controlled by Jews.

Articles in many official Arab government newspapers claim that The Protocols of the Elders of Zion, reflects actual facts, and thus points to an international Jewish conspiracy to take over the world.

"Netanyahu's Plan completely matches the foundations of the greater Zionist plan which is organized according to specific stages that were determined when the The Protocols of the Elders of Zion was composed and when Herzl along with Weizmann traveled around the world in order to determine the appropriate location for the implementation of this conspiracy," (official Palestinian Authority newspaper, Al-Hayat Al-Jadidah, November 30, 1997).
"The Jews seek to conquer the world...We must expose the Zionist-Colonialist plot and its goals, which destroy not only our people but the entire world" (PA Minister of Agriculture, Abdel Jawad Saleh, quoted in Al-Hayat Al-Jadidah, November 6, 1997)[46]

Hizbullah's Al-Manar TV channel

Hizbullah's Al-Manar TV channel has often been accused of airing antisemitic broadcasts, blaming the Jews for a Zionist conspiracy against the Arab world, and often airing excerpts from the Protocols of the Elders of Zion, which the Encyclopædia Britannica describes as a "fraudulent document that served as a pretext and rationale for anti-Semitism in the early 20th century."

Al-Manar recently aired a drama series, called The Diaspora, which is based on historical anti-Semitic allegations. BBC reporters who watched the series said that:

Correspondents who have viewed The Diaspora note that it quotes extensively from the Protocols of the Elders of Zion, a notorious 19th-century publication used by the Nazis among others to fuel race hatred.[47]

In another incident, an Al-Manar commentator recently referred to "Zionist attempts to transmit AIDS to Arab countries". Al-Manar officials deny broadcasting anti-Semitic incitement and state that their position is anti-Israeli, not anti-Semitic.

Due to protests by the CRIF umbrella group of French Jews regarding allegations of anti-Semitic content, French Prime Minister Jean-Pierre Raffarin called for a ban on Al-Manar broadcasting in France on December 2, 2004; just two weeks after al-Manar was authorised to continue broadcasting in Europe by France's media watchdog agency.[48]

On December 13, 2004, France's highest administrative court banned Hizbullah's Al-Manar TV station on the grounds that it consistently incites racial hatred and antisemitism.[49]

"Horseman Without a Horse"

In 2001-2002, Arab Radio and Television produced a 30-part television miniseries entitled "Horseman Without a Horse", which contains dramatizations of The Protocols of the Elders of Zion.[50] The United States and Israel criticized Egypt for airing the program, which includes racist falsehoods that have a history of being used "as a pretext for persecuting Jews."[51]

See also


  1. ^ Lewis (1986), pg. 132
  2. ^ a b Yadlin, Rifka. "Antisemitism." The Continuum Political Encyclopedia of the Middle East. Ed. Avraham Sela. New York: Continuum, 2002. p. 52
  3. ^ Lewis (1986), pg. 117-8
  4. ^ Lewis (1986), pg. 204
  5. ^ a b Lewis, Bernard. Semites and Antisemites, New York/London: Norton, 1986, p. 256.
  6. ^ "Contemporary Arab-Muslim anti-Semitism, its Significance and Implications", Intelligence and Terrorism Information Center at the Israel Intelligence Heritage & Commemoration Center (IICC), April 17, 2008.
  7. ^ Lewis (1999), pg. 131
  8. ^ The Forgotten Refugees
  9. ^ Roumani, Maurice. The Case of the Jews from Arab Countries: A Neglected Issue, 1977, pp. 26-27.
  10. ^ The Treatment of Jews in Arab/Islamic Countries
  11. ^ Bat Ye'or, The Dhimmi, 1985, p.61
  12. ^ G.E. Von Grunebaum, Eastern Jewry Under Islam, 1971, p.369.
  13. ^ The Oxford Handbook of Jewish Studies, p.208
  14. ^ Yossef Bodansky. "Islamic Anti-Semitism as a Political Instrument" Co-Produced by The Ariel Center for Policy Research and The Freeman Center for Strategic Studies, 1999. ISBN 0967139104, ISBN 978-0967139104, see also The Encyclopedia of world history By Peter N. Stearns, William Leonard Langer page 527 published 2001
  15. ^ Lewis (1986), pg. 133
  16. ^ quoted in Morris, Benny, Righteous Victims, Knopf, 1999, p. 99.
  17. ^ Küntzel, Matthias, "National Socialism and Anti-Semitism in the Arab World", Jewish Political Studies Review 17:1-2 (Spring 2005).
  18. ^ Lewis, Bernard. Semites and Anti-Semites: An Inquiry into Conflict and Prejudice. New York: W.W. Norton, 1999. ISBN 978-0-393-31839-5, p. 148
  19. ^ Gruen, George E. "The Other Refugees: Jews of the Arab World", (Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs).
  20. ^ Bard, Mitchell."The Arab Boycott" (JVL)
  21. ^ "Egyptian Islamists deny Holocaust", BBC News Online, December 23, 2005.
  22. ^ Columnist for Egyptian Government Daily to Hitler:'If Only You Had Done It, Brother' (MEMRI bulletin No.375. May 3, 2002
  23. ^ Al-Ahram (Egypt), October 28, 2000
  24. ^ Clark, Kate (August 10, 2003). "Interpreting Egypt's anti-semitic cartoons", BBC News Online.
  25. ^ "Jordan denies entry to Israeli with Jewish prayer items". HaAretz (Tel Aviv). July 10, 2009.  
  26. ^ "Israeli tourists asked to hand over Jewish paraphernalia". eTurboNews. Aug 13, 2008. Retrieved July 23, 2009.  
  27. ^ Mendel, Arieh (July 21, 2009). "חסידי ברסלב גורשו מירדן: "הם מאוד מאוכזבים"". HaAretz.  (Hebrew)
  28. ^ Official Saudi Arabia Tourism Website: No Jews Allowed. "Jewish People" May Not Receive Travel Visas Required To Travel Into The Kingdom by Congressman Anthony D. Weiner (D-Queens & Brooklyn) February 26, 2004
  29. ^ "Jews barred in Saudi tourist drive", BBC News Online, February 27, 2004.
  30. ^ United States Commission on International Religious Freedom. Countries of Particular Concern. Saudi Arabia
  31. ^ 'Friday Sermons in Saudi Mosques: Review and Analysis', September 26, 2002 (MEMRI)
  32. ^ 'Antisemitic Satire on a Saudi TV Channel (MBC)', April 19, 2007 (VIDEO) (
  33. ^ CMIP report: The Jews in World History according to the Saudi textbooks. The Danger of World Jewry, by Abdullah al-Tall, pp. 140–141 (Arabic). Hadith and Islamic Culture, Grade 10, (2001) pp. 103–104.
  34. ^ 2006 Saudi Arabia's Curriculum of Intolerance, Report by Center for Religious Freedom of Freedom House. 2006
  35. ^ Turki 'Abdallah as-Sudayri (April 15, 2002). "All of History is against them". Al-Riyadh, (Saudi government daily).
  36. ^ Shea, Nina (May 21, 2006). "This is a Saudi textbook. (After the intolerance was removed.)", The Washington Post, p. B01.
  37. ^ David Duke website.
  38. ^ Memmi, Albert."Who is an Arab Jew?", February 1975.
  39. ^ Hamas Covenant 1988 articles 22 and 32.
  40. ^ Cohn, Norman. Warrant for Genocide, The Myth of the Jewish World Conspiracy and the Protocols of the Elders of Zion, chapter 1.
  41. ^ Malone, Brynn. Was Abu Mazen a Holocaust Denier?, History News Network.
  42. ^ Yehoshua, Yael (April 29, 2003). Abu Mazen: A Political Profile. Zionism and Holocaust Denial (MEMRI)
  43. ^ Medoff, Dr. Rafael. "A Holocaust-Denier as Prime Minister of 'Palestine'?" (The David S. Wyman Institute for Holocaust Studies).
  44. ^ Gross, Tom. Abu Mazen and the Holocaust
  45. ^ Itamar, Marcus PA Holocaust Denial (Palestinian Media Watch).
  46. ^ Palestinian Authority Anti-Semitism Since the Hebron Accord (Jewish Virtual Library)
  47. ^ "France offers 'hate TV' reprieve", BBC News Online, August 20, 2004.
  48. ^ Usher, Sebastian (December 3, 2004) ."French seek 'anti-Semitic' TV ban", BBC News Online.
  49. ^ "France pulls plug on Arab network", BBC News Online, December 14, 2004.
  50. ^ "MEMRI: Special Dispatch Series No. 309." MEMRI: The Middle East Media Research Institute. December 7, 2001.
  51. ^ "Egypt criticised for 'anti-Semitic' film", BBC News Online, November 1, 2002.


  • Lewis, Bernard (1984). The Jews of Islam. Princeton: Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-00807-8
  • Lewis, Bernard (1999). Semites and anti-Semites. ISBN 0393318397
  • Gerber, Jane S. (1986). "Anti-Semitism and the Muslim World". In History and Hate: The Dimensions of Anti-Semitism, ed. David Berger. Jewish Publications Society. ISBN 0-8276-0267-7
  • Laqueur, Walter. The Changing Face of Antisemitism: From Ancient Times To The Present Day. Oxford University Press. 2006. ISBN 0-19-530429-2
  • Poliakov, Leon (1997). "Anti-Semitism". Encyclopedia Judaica (CD-ROM Edition Version 1.0). Ed. Cecil Roth. Keter Publishing House. ISBN 965-07-0665-8
  • Segev, Tom. One Palestine, Complete: Jews and Arabs Under the British Mandate. Trans. Haim Watzman. New York: Henry Holt and Company, 2001.

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