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Arad
—  Municipality  —
Arad City Hall

Flag

Coat of arms
Arad is located in Romania
Arad
Location of Arad, Romania
Coordinates: 46°10′N 21°19′E / 46.167°N 21.317°E / 46.167; 21.317
Country  Romania
County Arad County
Status Municipality
Government
 - Mayor Gheorghe Falcă (Democratic Liberal Party)
Area
 - Total 46.18 km2 (17.8 sq mi)
Population (2002)
 - Total 172,827
 - Density 3,742/km2 (9,691.7/sq mi)
Time zone EET (UTC+2)
 - Summer (DST) EEST (UTC+3)
Website http://www.primariaarad.ro
Arad at dusk
Strada Unirii (Union Street)
Căluş dancer from Arad, early 20th century.

Arad (Romanian pronunciation: [aˈrad]; Hungarian: Arad; Serbian: Арад Arad) is the capital city of Arad County, in western Romania, in the historical region of Crişana, on the river Mureş.

An important industrial center and transportation hub, Arad is also the seat of a Romanian Orthodox archbishop and features two universities, a Romanian Orthodox theological seminary, a training school for teachers, and a music conservatory. The city has a population of approximately 175,000, making it one of the ten largest cities in Romania. Arad is the second largest and most important city in the western part of the country following nearby Timişoara.

Contents

Population

According to the 2002 census, the municipality of Arad was home to 172,827 inhabitants. However, during the last years, a constant in-coming flow of population from the other regions of Romania has been noticed. The ethnic breakdown of the city was as follows: 142,968 Romanians (82.72%); 22,492 Hungarians (13.01%); 3,004 Roma (1.74%); 2,247 Germans (1.31%); and 2,116 of other nationalities (1.22%).

The principal religious groups were the Romanian Orthodox (72.7%), Roman Catholic (12.1%), Baptist (4.5%), Pentecostal (4.4%), Reformed (3.1%), and Greek-Catholic (1.1%) churches.

History

Arad was first mentioned in documents in the 11th century. The Mongol invasion of the Kingdom of Hungary in 1241 showed the importance of the fortifications on this place, to which were added in the second half of the 13th century more stone fortresses at Soimos (Solymos), Şiria (Világos), and Dezna (Dézna). The Ottoman Empire conquered the region from Hungary in 1551 and kept it until the Peace of Karlowitz of 1699. Arad or Varad became an eyalet center, which comprised the sanjaks of Varad (Arad), Logoş, Kacaş, Beşlek and Yanova from 1660 till 1697, when it was captured by Austrians during Ottoman-Habsburg wars (1683-1699). After 1699, the city was ruled by the Habsburg Monarchy. According to 1720 data, the population of the city was composed of 177 Romanian families, 162 Serbian, and 35 Hungarian.[1]

The new fortress was built between 1763 and 1783. Although it was small, it proved formidable having played a great role in the Hungarian struggle for independence in 1849. The city possesses a museum containing relics of this war of independence.

Bravely defended by the Austrian general Berger until the end of July 1849, it was captured by the Hungarian rebels, who made it their headquarters during the latter part of the Hungarian Revolution of 1848. It was from Arad that Lajos Kossuth issued his famous proclamation (11 August 1849), and where he handed over the supreme military and civil power to Artúr Görgey.

The fortress was recaptured shortly after the surrender at Világos (now Şiria, Romania), with the surrender of Görgey to the Russians. It became an ammunition depot.

Thirteen rebel generals were executed there on 6 October 1849, by order of the Austrian general Julius Jacob von Haynau. These men are known collectively as the 13 Martyrs of Arad, and since then Arad is considered the "Hungarian Golgotha". One of the public squares contains a martyrs' monument, erected in their memory. It consists of a colossal figure of Hungary, with four allegorical groups, and medallions of the executed generals.

Arad enjoyed a great economic development. In 1834 it was declared a "free royal town" by Emperor Francis I of Austria.

Aradu Nou / Újarad ("New Arad"), situated on the opposite bank of the Mureş/Maros, is a suburb of Arad, to which it is connected by a bridge. It was founded during the Turkish wars of the 17th century. The works erected by the Turks for the capture of the fortress of Arad formed the nucleus of the new settlement.

In 1910, the town had 63,166 inhabitants: 46,085 (73%) Hungarians, 10,279 (16.2%) Romanians, 4,365 (7%) Germans.[2]

Chronology

  • 1028 - First time the area was mentioned
  • 1078 - 1081 - The first mention of the town
  • 1131 - Arad is mentioned in The Painted chronicle from Vienna
  • 1551 - 1697 - The town was occupied and administered by the Ottoman Empire
  • 1702 - The furriers' guild was registered - the oldest one
  • 1715 - Camil Hofflich, a minorite monk, set up the first school - German language
  • 1765 - 1783 - A new fortress was build, in Vauban style
  • 1812 - The foundation of Preparandia - the first Romanian pedagogy school in Transylvania
  • 1817 - Hirschl Theatre was built - the first stone theatre in the country
  • 1833 - The sixth European Music School was set up in Arad, after Paris, Prague, Brussels, Vienna, and London - Arader Musik Conservatorium/Aradi Zenede
  • 1834 – Arad obtained the "free royal town" statute
  • 6 October 1849 - 13 generals of the Hungarian revolutionary army executed
  • 1890 - The founding of The Philharmonic Society'
  • 15 August 1899 - The first official football game was held
  • 10 April 1913 – Arad - Podgoria, the first electrical railway in Eastern Europe and the eighth in the world was built in Arad
  • 1918 - Arad becomes the headquarters of The Romanian National Central Council and a non-official capital of Transylvania
    • May 13-15 - Iuliu Maniu expresses the decision of separation from Hungary and the union of Transylvania with Romania
  • 1937 – Arad was the most important economic centre in Transylvania and occupied the fourth position in Romania
  • 1989 – Arad was the second town in Romania to rise against communism
  • 1999 - The Arad Industrial Zone was inaugurated

Economy

With a rich industrial and commercial tradition, Arad is one of the most prosperous towns in Romania. Thanks to numerous investments, Arad has a booming economy.

The main industries are: freight and passenger railcars, clothing and textiles, food industry, furniture and furniture accessories, equipment for the car industry, electric components, meters, and shoes.

Neighborhoods

  1. Aradul Nou
  2. Aurel Vlaicu
  3. Micalaca
  4. Grădişte
  5. Alfa
  6. Confectii
  7. Functionarilor
  8. Centru
  9. Gai
  10. Sânnicolaul Mic
  11. Colonia
  12. Subcetate

Transport

Arad is the most important trans-European road and rail transportation junction point in western Romania, included in the 4th Pan-European Corridor linking Western Europe to South-Eastern European and Middle Eastern countries. The city has an extensive light rail network and a few bus lines. Arad International Airport, with a cargo terminal, is situated 4 km from downtown Arad.

Employees by occupation

  • Industry - 41.5%
  • Commerce - 13.75%
  • Transport and telecommunications - 9.27%
  • Construction - 7.92%
  • Education - 5.99%
  • Health and social services - 5.14%
  • Utilities - 3.16%
  • Public administration - 2.28%
  • Agriculture - 1.97%
  • Credit and insurance institutions - 1.70%

Some tourist attractions

Architectural monuments

Classic Theatre "Ioan Slavici"

Historic buildings

  • The House with Cannon Balls, built in 1800. Its name derives from the fights between 1848 and 1849. Seventeen cannon balls are incorporated in its walls.
  • The High Teacher Training School (Clădirea Preparandiei), the first school for Romanian-language teachers from Transylvania, 1812
  • The House with the Padlock, built in 1815
  • The Old Theatre (Hirschl), built by Jacob Hirschl in 1817, the oldest stone theatre in Romania
  • Water Tower, built in 1896, medieval dungeon architectural style
  • The Old Custom House, built in 1907, used as a customs point for goods entering the Arad markets

Monuments

  • The Statue of St. John of Nepomuk, raised in 1729, baroque sculpture
  • The monument of the Holy Trinity, raised in 1746 to commemorate the plague that swept the town in 1738-1740
"The Red Church", the Lutheran Church in Arad
  • Reconciliation Park
    • The Statue of Liberty, raised in 1890 by György Zala in the memory of the heroes of the Hungarian revolutionary army
    • The Arch of Triumph, raised in 2004 by Ioan Bolborea in memory of the heroes of the 1848 - 1849 Romanian Revolution (fighting against the Hungarians)
  • Martyrs' Cross, raised in 1936, in memory of the priests martyred between November 1918 and spring 1919
  • The Bust of Vasile Goldiş (1862 – 1934) * The Bust of Moise Nicoară (1784 – 1861)

Religious tourism

  • The "St. Peter and Paul" Serbian Church, raised in 1698-1702, early Baroque architecture
  • "St. Simon" Monastery , raised in 1762, Baroque architecture
  • "St. Anthony of Padua" Cathedral (Roman Catholic). The Order of Minorite Monks raised this cathedral in 1904, in a renaissance architecture style
  • The "Birth of Saint John the Baptist" Cathedral (Romanian Orthodox), raised in 1862-1865, Baroque architecture, architect Antoniu Czigler. The mural painter, Anastase Damian, started his work in 1957 and finished it one year later
Catholic cathedral St. Anthony of Padua
  • The Red Church (Evangelical-Lutheran), built in 1906, Neo-gothic architecture
  • The Neolog Synagogue, built in 1834, Greek, Tuscan architectural style

The Bodrog Monastery built in 1111

Recreational tourism

  • Neptun Swimming Place, known in Romanian as "Strandul Neptune", one of the most beautiful places of amusement of this kind in Romania
  • The Mureş Embankment
  • The Grove
  • The Ceala Forest with Măltăreţ Lake and Mureş Isle
  • The Vladimirescu Forest
  • Ghioroc Lake
  • Miniş - Măderat Vineyard, situated about 30 km east of Arad

Culture and education

Schools

Arad has two universities, the private Vasile Goldiş University of the West, founded in 1990, and the public Aurel Vlaicu University, founded in 1991. Also the "Spiru Haret" long-distance studies University has a branch in Arad.

There are about two dozen high schools, some of the more famous being the Moise Nicoară college, the Pedagogical High School, Dimitrie Tichindeal, Elena Ghiba-Birta college, the Economics College, the Technical College for Constructions and Environmental Protection, and the Vasile Goldiş theoretical lyceum. High schools in minority languages include the Hungarian Csiky Gergely school group and the German "A.M. Guttenbrunn" [1] theoretical lyceum.

Cultural life

  • Arad State Theater, hosting an annual Classical Theater Festival
  • Philharmonic orchestra
  • Puppet theater

Museums and exhibitions

  • Arad Museum Complex
    • History Department
    • Natural Sciences Department
    • Art Department
  • Vasile Goldiş Memorial Museum
  • Doina and Baruţu Arghezi Art Collection
  • Delta Gallery, with three major events of Arad artistic life: The International Biennial Drawing Saloon, The Biennial Small Sculpture Saloon, The Annual Art Saloon.
  • Alfa Gallery
  • Clio Gallery
  • Water Tower Gallery
  • Takács Gallery
  • Carola's Gallery
  • Expo Arad, The Exhibition Centre of the Chamber of Commerce, Industry and Agriculture of the County of Arad.
Arad town hall square

International relations

Twin towns — Sister cities

Arad is twinned with:

Partner cities

Sports

The UTA Arad (formerly ITA) football team was founded in 1946 and has won six Romanian championships and two Romanian Cups. As of the 2009-10 season, it plays in the second national league. The team is the most successful team from Romania that is not based in Bucharest, after Steaua and Dinamo it is the 3rd more successful modern team in the country and 4th counting Venus Bucharest, a team from the Inter-War period. The teams most notable performance on international stage is the elimination from the European Champions Cup of Ernst Happels Feyenoord in 1970-71 season when the Dutch team were defending European champions and later won the Intercontinental Cup.

In basketball, the women's ICIM and the men's West Petrom teams have national prominence, their record including some recent national championship wins (ICIM in 1998 through 2001, West Petrom in 2001 and 2002).

In men's water polo, Astra Arad also plays in the first division.

The men rugby team Contor Group Arad plays in the National Rugby League, reached the playoff final in 2006.

World Champion and Olympic medalist in gymnastics, Emilia Eberle was born in Arad.

Notes

  1. ^ Dr Dušan J. Popović, Srbi u Vojvodini, knjiga 2, Novi Sad, 1990, page 326.
  2. ^ Atlas and Gazetteer of Historic Hungary 1914, Talma Kiadó

References

External links


Simple English

Arad
—  Municipality  —
Arad city Hall
File:Bandera d'Arad (Romania).svg
Flag
File:Coa Arad
Coat of arms
Coordinates: 46°10′N 21°19′E / 46.167°N 21.317°E / 46.167; 21.317
Country
County Arad County
Status Municipality
Government
 - Mayor Gheorghe Falcă (Democratic Party)
Area
 - Total 46.18 km2 (17.8 sq mi)
Population (2006)
 - Total 191,473
Time zone EET (UTC+2)
 - Summer (DST) EEST (UTC+3)
Website http://www.primariaarad.ro

Arad (pronunciation in Romanian: /a'rad/; Hungarian: Arad; Serbian: Арад, Arad) is the capital city of Arad County, in the western part of Romania, in Crişana, Ardeal. It is found on the Mureş River.

Twinnings

Sister cities

Partner cities








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