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Encyclopedia

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Ararat may refer to:

  • Ararat (Armenian: Արարատ), a common first name for Armenian males (pronounced Ararad in Western Armenian)
  • Ararat / Araratian, a common family name for Armenians (pronounced Ararad, Araradian in Western Armenian)
  • In history
    • variant name of the Iron Age kingdom of Urartu
    • Republic of Ararat, a breakaway Kurdish state, 1927 to 1931
    • Culture of Ararat, homogenizing influence of Ararat on many distant nations greatly influenced by the cultural heritage of the Kingdom of Ararat
  • Media
    • Ararad Daily Newspaper, Armenian language newspaper in Lebanon
    • Ararat: A Searchlight on Armenia, journal published in London (19th century)
    • Ararat Quarterly, international quarterly of literature, history and culture published in New York, NY
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Travel guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikitravel

There is more than one place called Ararat:

Armenia

Australia

Turkey

  • Mount Ararat - Turkey's highest mountain and where Noah's Ark is believed to stranded.
This article is a disambiguation page. If you arrived here by following a link from another page you can help by correcting it, so that it points to the appropriate disambiguated page.

1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

ARARAT (Armen. Massis, Turk. Egri Dagh, i.e. " Painful Mountain," Pers. Koh-i-Nuh, i.e. " Mountain of Noah,"), the name given to the culminating point of the Armenian plateau which rises to a height of 17,000 ft. above the sea. The massif of Ararat rises on the north and east out of the alluvial plain of the Aras, here from 2 500 ft. to 3000 ft. above the sea, and on the south-west sinks into the plateau of Bayezid, about 4500 ft. It is thus isolated on all sides but the north-west, where a col about 6900 ft. high connects it with a long ridge of volcanic mountains. Out of the massif rise two peaks, "their bases confluent at a height of 8800 ft., their summits about 7 m. apart." The higher, Great Ararat, is "a huge broad-shouldered mass, more of a dome than a cone"; the lower, Little Ararat, 12,840 ft. on which the territories of the tsar, the sultan, and the shah meet, is "an elegant cone or pyramid, rising with steep, smooth, regular sides into a comparatively sharp peak" (Bryce). On the north and west the slopes of Great Ararat are covered with glittering fields of unbroken neve. The only true glacier is on the northeast side, at the bottom of a large chasm which runs into the heart of the mountain. The great height of the snow-line, 14,000 ft., is due to the small rainfall and the upward rush of dry air from the plain of the Araxes. The middle zone of Ararat, 5000-11,500 ft., is covered with good pasture, the upper and lower zones are for the most part sterile. Whether the tradition which makes Ararat the resting-place of Noah's Ark is of any historical value or not, there is at least poetical fitness in the hypothesis, inasmuch as this mountain is about equally distant from the Black Sea and the Caspian, from the Mediterranean and the Persian Gulf. Another tradition - accepted by the Kurds, Syrians and Nestorians - fixes on Mount Judi, in the south of Armenia, on the left bank of the Tigris, near Jezire, as the Ark's resting-place. There so-called genuine relics of the ark were exhibited, and a monastery and mosque of commemoration were built; but the monastery was destroyed by lightning in 776 A.D., and the tradition has declined in credit. Round Mount Ararat, however, gather many traditions connected with the Deluge. The garden of Eden is placed in the valley of the Araxes; Marand is the burial-place of Noah's wife; at Arghuri, a village near the great chasm, was the spot where Noah planted the first vineyard, and here were shown Noah's vine and the monastery of St James, until village and monastery were overwhelmed by a fall of rock, ice and snow, shaken down by an earthquake in 1840. According to the Babylonian account, the resting-place of the Ark was "on the Mountain of Nizir," which some writers have identified with Mount Rowanduz, and others with Mount Elburz, near Teheran.

From the Armenian plateau, Ararat rises in a graceful isolated cone far into the region of perennial snow. It was long believed by the Armenian monks that no one was permitted to reach the "secret top" of Ararat with its sacred remains, but on the 27th of September 1829, Dr. Johann Jacob Parrot (1792-1840) of Dorpat, a German in the employment of Russia, set foot on the "dome of eternal ice." Ararat has since been ascended by S. Aftonomov (1834 and 1843); M. Wagner and W. H. Abich (1845); J. Chodzko, N. W. Chanykov, P. H. Moritz and a party of Cossacks in the service of the Russian government (1850); Stuart (1856); Monteith (1856); D. W. Freshfield (1868); James Bryce (1876); A. V. Markov (1888); P. Pashtukhov and H. B. Lynch (1893). Mr Freshfield thus described the mountain: - "It stands perfectly isolated from all the other ranges, with the still more perfect cone of Little Ararat (a typical volcano) at its side. Seen thus early in the season (May), with at least 9000 ft. of snow on its slopes, from a distance and height well calculated to permit the eye to take in its true proportions, we agreed that no single mountain we know presented such a magnificent and impressive appearance as the Armenian Giant." There are a number of glaciers in the upper portion, and the climate of the whole district is very severe. The greater part of the mountain is destitute of trees, but the lower Ararat is clothed with birches. The fauna and flora are both comparatively meagre.

Both Great and Little Ararat consist entirely of volcanic rocks, chiefly andesites and pyroxene andesites, with some obsidian. No crater now exists at the summit of either, but well-formed parasitic cones occur upon their flanks. There are no certain historic records of any eruption. The earthquake and fall of rock which destroyed the village of Arghuri in 1840 may have been caused by a volcanic explosion, but the evidence is unsatisfactory.

The name of Ararat also applies to the Assyrian Urardhu, the country in which the Ark rested after the Deluge (Gen. viii. 4), and to which the murderers of Sennacherib fled (2 Kings xix. 37; Isaiah xxxvii. 38). The name Urardhu, originally that of a principality which included Mount Ararat and the plain of the Araxes, is given in Assyrian inscriptions from the 9th century B. C. downwards to a kingdom that at one time included the greater part of the later Armenia. The native name of the kingdom was Biainas, and its capital was Dhuspas, now Van. The first king, Sarduris I. (c. 833 B.C.), subdued the country of the Upper Euphrates and Tigris. His inscriptions are written in cuneiform, in Assyrian, whilst those of his successors are in cuneiform, in their own language, which is neither Aryan nor Semitic. The kings of Biainas extended their kingdom eastward and westward, and defeated the Assyrians and Hittites. But Sarduris II. was overthrown by Tiglath Pileser III. (743 B.C.), and driven north of the Araxes, where he made Armavir, Armauria, his capital. Interesting specimens of Biainian art have been found on the site of the palace of Rusas II., near Van. Shortly after 645 B.C. the kingdom fell, possibly conquered by Cyaxares, and a way was thus opened for the immigration of the Aryan Armenians. The name Ararat is unknown to the Armenians of the present day. The limits of the Biblical Ararat are not known, but they must have included the lofty Armenian plateau which overlooks the plain of the Araxes on the north, and that of Mesopotamia on the south. It is only natural that the highest and most striking mountain in the district should have been regarded as that upon which the Ark rested, and that the old name of the country should have been transferred to it.

See also H. B. Lynch, Armenia (1901); Sayce, "Cuneiform Inscriptions of Lake Van," in Journal of Royal Asiatic Society, vols. xiv., xx. and xxvi.; Maspero, Histoire ancienne des peuples de l'Orient classique, tome iii., Les Empires (Paris, 1899); J. Bryce, Transcaucasia and Ararat (4th ed., 1896); D. W. Freshficld, Travels in the Central Caucasus and Bashan (1869); Parrot, Reise zum Ararat (1834); Wagner, Reise nach dem Ararat (1848); Abich, Die Besteigung des Ararat (1849); articles "Ararat," in Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible, and the Encyclopaedia Biblica. (C. W. W.)


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Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

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Contents

English

Etymology

Ararat, as seen from Yerevan, Armenia.

Biblical Hebrew אררט (Tiberian Ǎrārāṭ), in Genesis 8:4. Corresponds to Assyrian Urarṭu, the name of the Eastern Anatolian plateau which in Classical Antiquity became known as Ἀρμενία (Armenia) (in Hecataeus of Miletus, ca. 476 BC).

Pronunciation

  • IPA: /ˈærəˌræt/

Proper noun

Singular
Ararat

Plural
-

Ararat

  1. Mount Ararat, the tallest peak of Turkey, and of the entire Armenian Highland. In Armenian antiquity known as Masis, it became associated with the Biblical "Mountains of Ararat" (Genesis 8:4) at some point during the Middle Ages.
  2. One of the ten provinces of the Republic of Armenia.
  3. A town in the said province.
  4. A male given name.

Translations

Related terms

  • Ararat plain
  • Lesser Ararat

Bible wiki

Up to date as of January 23, 2010

From BibleWiki

Meaning: sacred land or high land

The name of a country on one of the mountains of which the ark rested after the Flood subsided (Gen 8:4). The "mountains" mentioned were probably the Kurdish range of South Armenia. In 2Kg 19:37, Isa 37:38, the word is rendered "Armenia" in the Authorized Version, but in the Revised Version, "Land of Ararat."

In Jer 51:27, the name denotes the central or southern portion of Armenia. It is, however, generally applied to a high and almost inaccessible mountain which rises majestically from the plain of the Araxes. It has two conical peaks, about 7 miles apart, the one 14,300 feet and the other 10,300 feet above the level of the plain. Three thousand feet of the summit of the higher of these peaks is covered with perpetual snow. It is called Kuh-i-nuh, i.e., "Noah's mountain", by the Persians. This part of Armenia was inhabited by a people who spoke a language unlike any other now known, though it may have been related to the modern Georgian. About B.C. 900 they borrowed the cuneiform characters of Nineveh, and from this time we have inscriptions of a line of kings who at times contended with Assyria. At the close of the seventh century B.C. the kingdom of Ararat came to an end, and the country was occupied by a people who are ancestors of the Armenians of the present day.

This entry includes text from Easton's Bible Dictionary, 1897.

what mentions this? (please help by turning references to this page into wiki links)

This article needs to be merged with ARARAT (Jewish Encyclopedia).

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