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Encyclopedia

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

An arborist examining a Japanese Hemlock at Hoyt Arboretum in Portland, Oregon.
A tree surgeon using a chainsaw to fell a eucalyptus tree in a park at Kallista, Victoria.

Arboriculture (pronounced /ˈɑrbərɨkʌltʃər/) is the cultivation and management of trees within the landscape. This includes the study of how trees grow and respond to cultural practices and the environment, as well as application of cultural techniques such as selection, planting, care, surgery and removal.

The main focus of arboriculture is amenity trees; such trees are maintained primarily for landscape purposes for the benefit of human beings. Amenity trees are usually in gardens, parks or urban settings, and arboriculture involves aspects of plant health, pest and pathogen control, risk management, and aesthetic considerations. Trees offer cultural and natural heritage benefits beyond production of wood products; for this reason, arboriculture needs to be distinguished from forestry, which is the commercial production and use of timber and other forest products from plantations and forests.

See also

External links

References

  • Harris, Richard W. (1983). Arboriculture: Care of Trees, Shrubs, and Vines in the Landscape. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey 07632: Prentice-Hall, Inc.. pp. 2–3. ISBN 0-13-043935-5.  
  • "arboriculture". Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary, Eleventh Edition. Merriam-Webster.  
  • "arboriculture". Encyclopædia Britannica Online. 2007.  
  • "arboriculture". The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition Online. Houghton Mifflin Company. 2000.  
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Study guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikiversity

Arboriculture is the cultivation, maintenance, and management of woody stemmed perennial plants; primarily trees.

Contents

Introduction to arboriculture

Arboriculture is the applied science of managing persistent, woody plants individually or in the context of the plants and environmental features of the immediate surround (as contrasted to forestry, for example, or orchard agriculture). A working knowledge of arboriculture involves an understanding of the biology of trees, vines and shrubs, and a skill set of how to go about achieving goals associated with their growth, health, risks, and benefits. While the focus of study is principally on the tree, a working knowledge of trees requires an introduction to the fields of study which cover the environments in which trees thrive, or fail to thrive. As well as the system of classification of species, and the evolutionary ecology of trees, their pests, and their allies. Along with a good measure of practical instruction on management methods, practices, practical concerns, and professional codes of conduct.

While it is convenient for the present to use the term "tree" when referring to the focus of the study of arboriculture, it should be pointed out early that grouping plants into the categories of tree, shrub, vine, or bush is a matter of common usage and convenience regarding the shape and size of plants. Grouping together by form plants which may be entirely unrelated. In fact, the leguminous trees such as the locust tree, the golden-chain tree, and redbud(Robinia, Laburnum, Cercis) are botanically more closely related to clover or to sweet peas than they are to pine trees, or even maples.

Arboriculture is the branch of environmental horticulture concerned with woody stemmed perennial plants, whether upright or prostrate, having a single stout trunk or a multitude of small vines, deciduous or evergreen, broad-leaved or having needles. Or even among the grasses, the bamboos; and related to lillys, Joshua trees.

Tree taxonomy and evolution

The tree form is a classic example of parallel evolution, having evolved separately in unrelated plant families.

Diversity of plants considered trees

Ordered groups of related trees

Introduction to vascular plant anatomy and physiology

The structure of trees and the functioning of biological processes within them differs among the wide diversity of plants considered to be woody stemmed perennials. They all have in common the most basic biological functions of vascular plants.

Tree ecology

Introduction to ecology: interactions in living communities

Predation

Interference

Competition
Allelopathy

Parasitism

Commensalism

Symbiosis

Ecological succession

"r versus K selection" among species

Pioneer communities

Intermediate communities

Climax communities

Introduction to woodland ecology

Introduction to botany and the evolution of woodlands

Introduction to soil science

Introduction to animal habitats, feeding, and effects: Insects, arachnids, amphibians, reptiles, birds, mammals

Introduction to mycology: fungal diseases, symbiotes, and decay organisms

(Sidebar: Lichens)

Evapotranspiration: water flow through the soil, plant, atmosphere continuum

Water availability in soil: the range between flood conditions and the permanent wilting point

Capillary action and it's relation to soil texture, soil structure, compaction, and humus

Osmotic potential: the salt index in the soil as contrasted with the concentration of dissolved solids inside the root membrane

The movement of fluids within the vascular tissues

Photosynthesis, respiration, and the retention or loss of moisture through stoma in leaves

Nutrient cycling

Advanced topics in tree ecology

Soil microbial ecology in the rhizosphere

Soil chemistry

Soil pH
Cation exchange capacity
Oxidation state: oxidizing, aerobic, hypoxic and anaerobic conditions

Phytotoxic environmental contaminants: soil, water, and air pollutants

Special topics relating to urban soils and urban trees

Epiphytes, cavity dwellers, and effects of tree age distribution on habitat

Arboreal ecology in climax communities

Trees and the global ecosystem

Advanced topics in the anatomy and physiology of woody perennials

Tree physics

Tree mechanics: structural integrity and failure analysis

Wind loads and shear forces

Wind-sail forces
Windward and lee exposures, prevailing winds, wind eddies

Wave energy in trees

Harmonic resonance: energy intensification
Aharmonic energy dissipation, as related to canopy complexity

Electromagnetic potential and discharge

Lightning

Power distribution wires

Fluid dynamics

Erosion

Flooding

Soil liquification

Mass wasting: landslides

Gravity: leaning trees, falling objects, crushing forces

The role of trees and their management in the human environment

Principles of risk management

Evaluating tree hazards and benefits

Legal issues involving trees

Amenity value of trees

Protecting trees during construction operations

Planning for tree growth, longevity, safety, maximization of benefits, and minimization of liabilities

Landscape design, installation, and renovation

Choosing plants to be planted: matching species and cultivar to design goals, micro-environment, and long term planning

Recommended procedures for planting trees, vines and shrubs

Common errors to avoid

Transplanting established trees, vines and shrubs

Plant health care

Optimizing conditions for thriving

Diagnostic procedures for failure to thrive or decline in health

Physical or chemical injuries

Nutrient deficiency testing

Soil testing

Pest infestations

Infectious pathogens

Identifying and separating primary causes of plant health decline from secondary infections and infestations, and separating causes from signs and symptoms

Integrated pest management

Fertilization goals and procedures

Unintended consequences of chemical applications

Decision making for tree health care in the context of human and environmental health concerns

Pruning woody stemmed perennial plants

Pruning young plants

Pruning mature plants

Large tree trimming or removal

Tree care industry operations and safety

First aid

Wikibooks-logo-en.svg Wikibooks has a book on the topic of First Aid.

Grounds person duties

Tree climbing and pruning

Electricity supply lines

Chainsaws

First aid requirements

Please refer to page 35 of the Approved Code of Practice for Safety and Health in Tree Work - Part 1: Arboriculture http://www.osh.govt.nz/order/catalogue/pdf/arborcode.pdf

  1. All arboriculture operations must have at least 1 person with current first aid certification from either St Johns, Red Cross or other recognised (OSH) first aid training provider.
  2. A fully stocked first aid kit must be at every work site
  3. First aid kits will be stored so as to ensure the contents are protected against contamination by dust, heat, moisture or any other element.
  4. Specific environments and situations may require additional first aid items for which an inspector's advise should be sort.
  5. In the event of an accident a seriously injured person shall not be moved, but made comfortable, until qualified medical advice is available.
  6. At a minimum, a first aid kit for up to 10 will contain:
* Individually wrapped triangular bandages x 2
* Individually wrapped roller bandages x 2
* Individually wrapped sterile dressings (non-adhesive) x 5
* Individually wrapped sterile eye pads with attachment x 4
* Individually wrapped sterile adhesive dressings x 5
* Individually wrapped sterile wound dressings (non-medicated) (a) medium x 1 (b) large x 2
* Safety pins x 6
* Disposable gloves x 2 pairs
* Card listing local emergency numbers
* List of minimum contents of kit
* Basic first aid notes (e.g. St John, Red Cross)
* Hepatitis B/Aids notice on first aid box
* Resusci-aid mask
* If tap water is not available, sterile water or sterile normal saline in disposable containers, each holding at least 300mls, shall be kept near the first aid box.

NB. Where aborists work alone, a belt attached first aid kit will contain the following minimum requirements:

* Individually wrapped crepe or roller bandage x 2
* Individually wrapped large sterile wound dressings x 2


Types of injuries

ID Danger

  • Live power
  • Chainsaw still running
  • Hangers

Response

  • Is victim conscious

Personal protective equipment

Codes of practice

PDF for print of the New Zealand Code of Practice for Safety and Health in Tree Work - Part 1: Arboriculture

Chainsaw operation

Safety features of chainsaws
Chainsaw maintenance
Starting Methods
Hazards relating chainsaw use

(not to use above shoulder... not on stock piled logs..)

Transporting a chainsaw and fuel

Safe storage
Refueling

Responsibilities of an employer

New Zealand Health and Safety in Employment Act

Use of agrichemicals

Maintain hand tools

Advanced felling techniques

Amenity

Brush chipper and stump grinder


Go to the School of Agriculture

1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

ARBORICULTURE (Lat. arbor, a tree), the science and art of tree-cultivation. The culture of those plants which supply the food of man or nourish the domestic animals must have exclusively occupied his attention for many ages; whilst the timber employed in houses, ships and machines, or for fuel, was found in the native woods. Hence, though the culture of fruittrees, and occasionally of ornamental trees and shrubs, was practised by the Egyptians, Greeks and Romans, the cultivation of timber-trees on a large scale only took place in modern times. In the days of Charlemagne, the greater part of France and Germany was covered with immense forests; and one of the benefits conferred on France by that prince was the rooting up of portions of these forests throughout the country, and substituting orchards or vineyards. Artificial plantations appear to have been formed in Germany sooner than in any other country, apparently as early as the 15th century. In Britain planting was begun, though sparingly, a century later. After the extensive transfers of property on the seizure of the church lands by Henry VIII., much timber was sold by the new owners, and the quantity thus thrown into the market so lowered its price, as Hollingshed informs us, that the builders of cottages, who had formerly employed willow and other cheap and common woods, now built them of the best oak. The demand for timber constantly increased, and the need of an extended surface of arable land arising at the same time, the natural forests became greatly circumscribed, till at last timber began to be imported, and the proprietors of land to think, first of protecting their native woods, afterwards of enclosing waste ground and allowing it to become covered with self-sown seedlings, and ultimately of sowing acorns and mast in such enclosures, or of filling them with young plants collected in the woods - a practice which exists in Sussex and other parts of England even now. Planting, however, was not general in England till the beginning of the 17th century, when the introduction of trees was facilitated by the interchange of plants by means of botanic gardens, which, in that century, were first established in different countries. Evelyn's Sylva, the first edition of which appeared in 1664, rendered an extremely important service to arboriculture; and there is no doubt that the ornamental plantations in which England surpasses all other countries are in some measure the result of his enthusiasm. In consequence of a scarcity of timber for naval purposes, and the increased expense during the Napoleonic war of obtaining foreign supplies, planting received a great stimulus in Britain in the early part of the 19th century. After the peace of 1815 the rage for planting with a view to profit subsided; but there was a growing taste for the introduction of trees and shrubs from foreign countries, and for their cultivation for ornament and use. The profusion of trees and shrubs planted around suburban villas and country mansions, as well as in town squares and public parks, shows how much arboriculture is an object of pleasure to the people. While isolated trees and old hedgerows are disappearing before steam cultivation, the advantages of shelter from wellarranged plantations are more fully appreciated; and more attention is paid to the principles of forest conservancy both at home and abroad. In all thickly peopled countries the forests have long ceased to supply the necessities of the inhabitants by natural reproduction; and it has become needful to form plantations either by government or by private enterprise, for the growth of timber, and in some cases for climatic amelioration. This subject is, however, dealt with more fully under Forests And Forestry; and the separate articles on the various sorts of tree may be consulted for details as to each.


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