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Arbovirus infection
Classification and external resources
MeSH D001102

Arbovirus is a shortened name given to viruses that are transmitted by arthropods, or arthropod-borne viruses [1].

Some Arboviruses are able to cause emergent disease. Arthropods are able to transmit the virus upon biting allowing the virus to enter the bloodstream which can cause viraemia.

The majority of the Arboviruses are spherical in shape although a few are rod shaped. They are 17-150 nm in diameter and most have an RNA genome (the single exception is African Swine Fever virus, which has a DNA genome). These viruses do not normally infect humans but if they do, they usually cause a mild infection such as a fever or a rash. Others however are epidemic and can cause serious infections such as meningitis and encephalitis that can be fatal.

There are ways of preventing these infections from occurring such as using mosquito repellents and getting rid of the breeding grounds that mosquitoes use. Insecticides can also be used. People can also reduce the risk of getting bitten by the mosquito by wearing protective clothing.

The immune system plays a role in defense against the infections. Arboviruses usually stimulate interferon. Antibodies are made and these can prevent viraemia from occurring. The cell mediated immunity is also important.

Arbovirus infections can be diagnosed by employing standardized laboratory techniques such as ELISA, complement fixation, and polymerase chain reaction.

Common Arboviruses
Disease Type Vector Virus Family Virus Names
Viral Encephalitis mosquito Flavivirus West Nile, St. Louis, Japanese encephalitis
Viral Encephalitis mosquito Togavirus (alphavirus) East, West, and Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis
Viral Encephalitis mosquito Bunyavirus La Crosse, James Town Canyon
Viral Encephalitis tick Flavivirus Powassan
Fevers/Viral Hemorrhagic Fever mosquito Flavivirus Dengue, Yellow Fever
Fevers/Viral Hemorrhagic Fever tick Bunyavirus Crimean Congo Hemorrhagic Fever
Fevers/Viral Hemorrhagic Fever tick Reovirus Colorado Fever

List of arboviruses of medical importance

References

  1. ^ "CDC Information on Arboviral Encephalitides". http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/dvbid/arbor/arbdet.htm. Retrieved 2007-02-07. 
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Arbovirus infection
Classification and external resources
MeSH D001102
Arbovirus
Virus classification
Group: Group VI (ssRNA-RT)
Family: [[]]
Genus: [[]]
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Arbovirus is a term used to refer to a group of viruses that are transmitted by arthropod vectors. The word arbovirus is an acronym (ARthropod-BOrne viruses).[1] Some arboviruses are able to cause emergent disease.

Contents

History

Transmission

Arthropod vectors transmit the virus upon biting, allowing the virus to enter the circulatory system. Intracellular self-replication of the virus eventually results in viremia.

Structure and genome

The majority of the arboviruses are spherical in shape although a few are rod-shaped. They are 17-150 nm in diameter and most have an RNA genome (the single exception is African swine fever virus, which has a DNA genome).

Signs and symptoms

Many arboviruses (such as African Swine Fever virus) do not normally infect humans or if so, cause only mild and transient infections characterized by fever, headache and rash. Others of this group however can cause epidemic disease and severe infections such as fulminant meningitis, encephalitis, meningoencephalitis, or viral hemorrhagic fever that can be fatal.

Immune response to infection

The immune system plays a role in defense against the infections. Arboviruses usually stimulate the production of interferons and antibodies, which help to diminish the extent of viremia. Cell-mediated immunity is also important.

Diagnosis

Definitive diagnosis of arbovirus infections is typically made in a laboratory by employing some combination of blood tests, particularly immunologic, serologic and/or virologic techniques such as ELISA, complement fixation, and polymerase chain reaction.

Prevention

Vector control measures, especially mosquito control, are essential to reducing the transmission of disease by arboviruses. Habitat control involves draining swamps and removal of other pools of stagnant water (such as old tires, large outdoor potted plants, empty cans, etc.) that often serve as breeding grounds for mosquitoes. Insecticides can be applied in rural and urban areas, inside houses and other buildings or in outdoor environments. They are often quite effective for controlling arthropod populations, though use of some of these chemicals is controversial, and some organophosphates and organochlorides (such as DDT) have been banned in many countries. Infertile male mosquitoes have been introduced in some areas in order to reduce the breeding rate of relevant mosquito species. Larvicides are also used worldwide in mosquito abatement programs. Temefos is a common mosquito larvicide.[2]

People can also reduce the risk of getting bitten by arthropods by employing personal protective measures such as sleeping under mosquito nets, wearing protective clothing, applying insect repellents such as permethrin and DEET to clothing and exposed skin, and (where possible) avoiding areas known to harbor high arthropod populations.

Vaccination

Treatment

Epidemiology

List of common arboviruses

Common arboviruses include:

Family Genera Species (of high economic/epidemiologic importance) Vectors Diseases caused
Asfarviridae Asfivirus African swine fever virus tick viral encephalitis, viral hemorrhagic fever
Bunyaviridae Phlebovirus Rift Valley fever virus mosquito (Aedes spp., Culex spp.) viral encephalitis, viral hemorrhagic fever
Bunyaviridae Phlebovirus Pappataci fever, Toscana virus Phlebotomus spp. fever
Bunyaviridae Orthobunyavirus California encephalitis virus mosquito viral encephalitis
Bunyaviridae Nairovirus Crimean–Congo hemorrhagic fever virus tick viral hemorrhagic fever
Flaviviridae Flavivirus Louping ill virus, Powassan virus, Tick-borne encephalitis virus tick (Ixodes spp.) viral encephalitis
Flaviviridae Flavivirus Dengue virus, Murray Valley encephalitis virus, Yellow fever virus mosquito viral encephalitis, viral hemorrhagic fever
Flaviviridae Flavivirus Japanese encephalitis virus, St. Louis encephalitis virus, West Nile virus mosquito viral encephalitis
Reoviridae Coltivirus Colorado tick fever virus tick viral hemorrhagic fever
Reoviridae Orbivirus African horse sickness virus, Bluetongue disease virus, Epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus Ceratopogonidae (Culicoides spp.) viral encephalitis
Togaviridae Alphavirus Chikungunya virus, Eastern equine encephalitis virus, O'nyong'nyong virus, Ross River virus, Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus, Western equine encephalitis virus mosquito viral encephalitis

See also

References

  1. ^ "CDC Information on Arboviral Encephalitides". http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/dvbid/arbor/arbdet.htm. Retrieved 2007-02-07. 
  2. ^ Walsh, Julia A., and Kenneth S. Warren. 1980. Selective primary health care: An interim strategy for disease control in developing countries. Social Science & Medicine. Part C: Medical Economics 14 (2):149

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