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In the sequence of North American pre-Columbian cultural stages first proposed by Gordon Willey and Philip Phillips in 1958[1], the Archaic stage or "Meso-Indian period"[2] was the second period of human occupation in the Americas, from around 8000 B.C. to 1000 B.C. although as its ending is defined by the adoption of sedentary farming, this date can vary "significantly across the Americas".

The Archaic stage is characterized by subsistence economies supported through the exploitation of nuts, seeds and shellfish. Numerous local variations have been identified. The period has been subdivided by region and then time. For-instance, the Archaic Southwest tradition is subdivided into the Dieguito-Pinto, Oshara, Cochise and Chihuahua cultures.[3]


The Archaic period followed the Lithic stage and was superseded by the Formative stage.[4]

  1. The Lithic stage
  2. The Archaic stage
  3. The Formative stage
  4. The Classic stage
  5. The Post-Classic stage

See also

References

  1. ^ Willey, Gordon R. (1989). "Gordon Willey". in Glyn Edmund Daniel and Christopher Chippindale (eds.). The Pastmasters: Eleven Modern Pioneers of Archaeology: V. Gordon Childe, Stuart Piggott, Charles Phillips, Christopher Hawkes, Seton Lloyd, Robert J. Braidwood, Gordon R. Willey, C.J. Becker, Sigfried J. De Laet, J. Desmond Clark, D.J. Mulvaney. New York: Thames & Hudson. ISBN 0-500-05051-1. OCLC 19750309.  
  2. ^ Gordon R. Willey and Philip Phillips (1957). Method and Theory in American Archaeology. University of Chicago Press. ISBN 978-0-226-89888-9.
  3. ^ "Archaic Period, Southeast Archaeological Center". http://www.cr.nps.gov/seac/outline/03-archaic/index.htm. Retrieved 2004-11-28.  
  4. ^ "Method and Theory in American Archaeology" (Digitised online by Questia Media). Gordon Willey and Philip Phillips. University of Chicago. 1958. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=6136197. Retrieved 2009-11-20.  
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