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Archduke Rainer Joseph
Spouse Princess Elisabeth of Savoy-Carignano
Issue
Maria Karolina
Adelaide, Queen of Sardinia
Leopold Ludwig
Ernst Karl
Sigismund Leopold
Rainer Ferdinand
Heinrich Anton
Maximilian Karl
Full name
Rainer Joseph Johann Michael Franz Hieronymus
House House of Habsburg-Lorraine
Father Leopold II, Holy Roman Emperor
Mother Maria Louisa of Spain
Born 30 September 1783(1783-09-30)
Pisa
Died 16 January 1853 (aged 69)
Bolzano

Rainer Joseph, Archduke of Austria, Prince Royal of Hungary and Bohemia (30 September 1783, Pisa – 16 January 1853, Bolzano) was a Viceroy of the Kingdom of Lombardy-Venetia from 1818 to 1848. He should not to be confused with his son, Rainer Ferdinand.

Contents

Family

Rainer was a son of Emperor Leopold II and Empress Maria Louisa, and was thus a younger brother of Emperor Franz I.

Life

Although Rainer suffered from a mild form of epilepsy, this did not visibly interfere with his military career.[1]

Rainer served as Viceroy of the Kingdom of Lombardy-Venetia from 1818 to 1848. The position made Rainer and his wife the head of the Austrian court at Milan; they also had a villa at Lake Como. The Italians resented him for collecting his revenues with so little benefit to them in return. This, and the lack of understanding between Rainer and Feldmarschall Graf Radetzky, were blamed for the disasters of the Italian Revolution of 1848.[2]

Marriage and children

He married at Prague on 28 May 1820 Princess Elisabeth of Savoy-Carignano (Paris 13 April 1800 - Bozen 25 December 1856). She was the sister of the Prince of Carignan, who would in 1831 become King of Sardinia as King Charles Albert. She was also a granddaughter of the late former Duke of the Baltic principality of Courland.

Children included:

  • Maria Karolina (6 February 1821) - (23 Jan 1844) - Unmarried, no issue
  • Adelheid (3 June 1822 - 20 January 1855) - Became Adelaide, Queen of Sardinia as wife of Victor Emmanuel II, from 1849 king of Sardinia.
  • Leopold Ludwig (6 June 1823 - 24 May 1898) - Oberkommandant der Marine ('High Commander of the Navy') from 1864 to 1868.
  • Ernst Karl (8 August 1824 - 4 April 1899), Feldmarschal-leutnant
  • Sigismund Leopold (7 January 1826 - 15 December 1891), Feldmarschal-leutnant
  • Rainer Ferdinand (11 January 1827 - 27 January 1913) - Austrian Minister President 1859-61;[3][4] his visit to the Hotel Greif in Wels is commemorated by a wall plaque there.
  • Heinrich Anton (9 May 1828 - 30 November 1891), Feldmarschal-leutnant
  • Maximilian Karl (16 January 1830 - 16 March 1839)
Monarchical Styles of
Archduke Rainer of Austria
Wappen Kaisertum Österreich 1815 (Klein).png
Reference style His Imperial and Royal Highness
Spoken style Your Imperial and Royal Highness
Alternative style Sir


The Revolution of 1848 forced Rainer and Elisabeth from the court at Milan; when the insurrection was quelled, Radetzky was named Rainer's successor as Viceroy. Although his children, except Adelheid, are buried in the Imperial Crypt in Vienna, he and his wife are buried at the Maria Himmelfahrtskirche in Bolzano.

Through his daughter Adelheid, Rainer is an ancestor of the entire royal family of Italy which reigned from 1861 to 1946.

Ancestry

Notes

  1. ^ George R. Marek, The Eagles Die. Franz Joseph, Elisabeth, and Their Austria, pp. 41-42. New York: Harper & Row, 1974. This mild form of epilepsy was also suffered by Archduke Karl and his son, Archduke Albrecht, both of whom were able military commanders.
  2. ^ Joan Haslip, The Crown of Mexico, pp. 22, 89, 109. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1971.
  3. ^ Robert A. Kann, A History of the Habsburg Empire 1526-1918, pp. 328, 331. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1974.
  4. ^ Alan Palmer, Twilight of the Habsburgs. The Life and Times of Emperor Francis Joseph, pp. 122-123. New York: Grove Press, 1994.
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