Architecture of Bangladesh: Wikis

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Lalbagh Fort, the incomplete mughal palace is one of the most prominent architectural instances of Bangladesh

Architecture of Bangladesh refers to the architectural attributes and styles of Bangladesh[1]. The architecture of Bangladesh has a long history and is rooted in Bangladesh’s culture, religion and history[2]. It has evolved over centuries and assimilated influences from social, religious and exotic communities. The architecture of Bangladesh bears a remarkable impact on the lifestyle, tradition and cultural life of Bangladeshi people.

In modern context, Bangladeshi architecture has become more diversified comprising reflections of contemporary architectural attributes, aesthetic artistic and technologically advanced forms. Since the inception of Bangladesh, economical advancement has boosted the architecture from its traditional forms to contemporary context. With the growing urbanization and modernization, the architectural form is turning into modernity covering a wide range of its heritage and tradition[2]. The architecture of Bangladesh can provide fascinating insight into the history and lives of the Bangladeshi people.[3]

Contents

Ancient Age

The remains of the ancient archaeological sites bear ample testimony to the fact that the art of building was practiced in Bengal from very early period of her history.

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7th century

Material remains of temples, dated before the 7th century, could not be found in Bengal. Temples of the post-7th century period were built on a triratha plan. The temple wall was adorned with relief sculptures executed on stucco plaster. Two temples of the period were unearthed, one a panchayatana (five shrined) group at the site of Karnasuvarna (Fig.2) in Murshidabad district and another at Berachampa in the 24 Parganas district of West Bengal. Both have barely the foundations left. A comparable monument was the Visnu temple at Aphsad (Nawada district, Bihar). All later examples, with one exception of a very late date, belong to the nagara order. A cruciform plan and curvilinear Shikhara (towered roof) characterise them. Only one of the known temples is datable on epigraphic evidence. Therefore, the arrangement of Bengal temples in a chronological order has to be dependent on stylistic analysis. By its very nature, this chronological order has to be tentative and susceptible to modifications in the light of new discoveries.

Architectural features assign all extant temples of Bengal to a date not before the 9th century. Generally, they are single chambered structures with no plinth. A paved floor at the ground level takes the place of the plinth. The trabeate method was followed universally for their construction.

9th century

During the 9th century, the temple was built on a triratha plan. Its wall had a three- moulding vedibandha (dado). Of these three mouldings, one was a heavy torus whose recurrence did not take place in the succeeding ages. The one known example of this period, viz. the Ekteshvara Shiva temple at Ekteswar (Bankura district), is not preserved above the vedibandha in its original form. Its garbhagrha (sanctum chamber) is unique in Bengal temple architecture as it has a sunk well-floor where the deity is installed. Interestingly, neighboring Orissa has many parallels.

11th century

After a gap of about a century temples reappeared in the 11th century and they were found to be restricted to a region comprising the Chotanagpur plateau fringes in West Bengal. In them the former triratha plan was retained. The bada (perpendicular wall section) was divided into three vertical segments, viz. vedibandha, jangha (shin) and baranda (entablature).

During the latter half of the 11th century some architectural members were modified and several new ones were introduced. Thus a betel leaf boss recurred at regular intervals on the vedibandha, three slender pilasters appeared on the kanika of the jangha and the chandrashala on the sukanasa became very much stylized. The kanika of the shikhara was divided into three vertical bays. The bhumi-amalakas turned round in cross section. The navagraha (nine planets) panel was displayed on the door lintel.

Occasionally, the door-case was dispensed with and in consequence the door lintel had to be supported by a few courses of oversailing masonry. A corbelled arch, spanning the sidewalls of the door, sprang on the lintel. Here may be traced the origin of the later day practice of creating a second arch over a door opening with a corbelled-arch. The triple ceiling of the garbhagrha was another innovation of the period. The group displaying all or most of these features includes, besides others, the Sun temple (lost in the Panchet Dam on the Damodar) at Telkupi (Purulia district), Ambika temple (Figs. 4a and 4b) at Ambikanagar (Bankura district) and the Siddheshvara temple at Barakar (Burdwan district). The latter temple is generally given a 7th-8th century date ignoring its many late features

12th century

In the closing years of the 11th or more probably during the early part of the 12th century, the pancharatha plan for the temple was evolved. The general details of the pancharatha type cannot be ascertained as its only known example of the period, the Siddheshvara temple at Krosjuri (Purulia district) collapsed long ago, barely leaving patches of its vedibandha, on which a modern structure has been raised. From the remains of the temple structure and its scattered members, it may be assumed that the Siddheshvara in its original shape had a five moulding vedibandha, a doorcase with chiselled decoration in the 12th century art style of Khiching (Mayurbhanj district, Orissa), Ganga and Yamuna, the river goddesses, and doorkeepers flanking the doorway, a Jhampasingha (leaping lion) fixed into the facade of the shikhara and a kalasha (jar) finial on the mastaka.

Notwithstanding the emergence of the pancharatha plan, the construction of triratha temples was as popular as before, but several structural and decorative elements underwent radical transformation. For example, the vedibandha mouldings assumed such forms as to defy their formal classification. The central pilaster of the group of three pilasters on the kanika of the jangha had a multi-tiered capital on its dwarf shaft. The door opening had no doorcase. A corbelled arch springing from a very low level of the doorway spanned its sidewalls. As a result the earlier rectangular door opening became pentagonal. Inside, the garbhagrha was provided with more than two cells. All these characteristics are to be found in three late 12th century Jaina temples at Pakbirra (Purulia district)

13th century

Temples of the 13th century witnessed the elaboration of a few more details. For instance, the number of vedibandha mouldings was increased to six and at times even to seven. Five moulding vedibandhas, though not forgotten, were less frequent. In the baranda, the upper moulding rested on a number of out stepped string courses. The tall and slender shikhara was semi-perpendicular, with an abrupt inward bend near the summit. Henceforth its body was divided into not less than six bhumis. Late in the 13th century, the kanika of the shikhara was divided into four bays. In the garbhagrha, the oversailing masonry courses supporting the ceiling were scoop chamferred.

14th century

Temple building continued during the 14th century but with progressive decadence in architectural style. The hand that built them remained as skillful as before but the mind lost its inspiration. In the temples of this period could be noticed greater emphasis on the elongation of the building, quicker pace in the inward bend of the shikhara near its peak, casual and misunderstood treatment of the decorative designs and positioning of one more corbelled arch upon the one springing on the door lintel. The abandoned temple (Fig. 6) at Banda (Purulia district) is a typical example of this style. Temple architecture suffered further deterioration towards the end of the 14th century and in the 15th century.

15th century

Sixty Dome Mosqueis, the largest historical mosque in Bangladesh

Now the temples became exclusively Pancharatha. Sometimes the edges of the rathas were indented. Often a plain and shallow offset stood for the vedibandha. The pilasters disappeared from the jangha which at times was divided into two storeys- tala (lower) and upara (upper)- by a moulding course called bandhana (lit. that which binds). In most cases, the entablature was made of two mouldings, one wide and square and the other hoof-shaped with stepped out courses underneath. A recessed frieze above the entablature demarcated the bada (perpendicular wall section) from the shikhara. In a few instances a double cornice alone suggested the entablature. The shikhara maintained its imperceptible curvilinear contour but the inwardly bending turn of its upper end acquired a straight lined slant.

The late 15th century witnessed the introduction of the saptaratha plan for temples. The rathas were variegated by multiple facets. A striking contrast to the simplicity of the extant stone temples is offered by the restrained splendor of the few brick temples not yet lost. Decayed beyond redemption, they have lost much of their former glory but decorative embellishments of rare elegance have not totally gone from their stucco-plastered body. All the known brick temples of Bengal are of the nagara order. Their features date them from the 12th century, though the possibility, though doubtful, of a little earlier date of a temple at Kantabera (Purulia district) recently destroyed by floods cannot be ruled out

Medieval

Ruins of Sonargaon, Isa Khan's capital

Unlike European periodicity, the medieval period in Indian history is generally regarded to have started with the coming of the Muslims, particularly the conquest of Delhi towards the end of the twelfth century by the Ghorids of Afghanistan. Within a few years the Muslims reached Bengal and their rule, started by bakhtiyar khalji in around 1204 AD, brought about a change not only in the political sphere, but also in the social and cultural arena. The factors that had moulded the society and culture so long were, in general term, Hindu, and Indian, but now it was not only Indian Hindu but also Middle Eastern Muslim. With the coming of the Muslims - Arabs, Persians and Afghans - - change came in all spheres of life combining local and Muslim elements, and hence defined as 'Indo-Islamic' or 'lndo-Muslim'. What was seen in Bengal during this period was not only Indo-Muslim in general, but also local in particular, a style characterized by Hindu-Buddhist features of local origin in combination with Muslim elements

Sultanate Period

Dakhil Darwaza

Muslim Architecture in Bengal started with Bakhtiyar's conquests. He is reported in Minhaj's Tabaqat to have built 'mosques, madrasahs and khanqahs'[4] </ref>. But little is known, and there are only some hypotheses possible, about their forms and characteristics. From the evidence of other countries, and later examples derived from this land, it can be surmised that they used local ready-made materials available from the spoils of war. In the countries of West Asia, for example, Muslims had used abandoned churches and temples whenever necessary as mosques immediately after their conquests. But in India and in Bengal this was not possible because of the architectural character of the temples, primarily their size and orientation which rendered them unsuitable for conversion. The monuments that survive today of the independent periods are all seen in their metropolises or divisional headquarters, signifying that architecture was then a subject of royal patronage.

Mosques dominate the religious categories of buildings. They are of two kinds viz., Friday Jami Mosques and Waqtiya Mosques. The identifying marks of the Jami Mosques are their larger dimensions and the addition of the royal gallery or maqsura in general as an upper floor to the north-west inner corner to maintain the security of the ruler or his representative. The absence of the royal gallery in the Khalifatabad (present day Bagerhat) Jami Mosque, the second largest mosque after Adina, may be attributed due to the existence of a postern on the northern side of the central mihrab, used occasionally, by earlier rulers to enter the maqsura encircling the mihrab[5]

The above characteristics of the buildings gave the Sultanate architecture in Bengal a distinct look, different from other medieval architecture in India or elsewhere, and have created a style which may aptly be described as the independent Bengal style. The style prevailed in the fourteenth, fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, and continued unabated even in subsequent centuries, particularly in temple-making, despite the inroad of Mughal building art, which from the seventeenth century became the order and the accepted mode.

Mughal Period

Mughal architecture in Bengal was different from Sultanate architecture. It was not an independent or national style, but rather a provincial version of the imperial Mughal architecture erected in the centres at Agra, Fathpur-Sikri, Delhi or Lahore. In the Sultanate period, the rulers, as has been said above, were drawn from various races such as Turks, Arabs, Abyssinians and Afghans, who initially worked nominally as governors of the Delhi sultans, but subsequently threw off their allegiance by declaring independence and establishing independent dynastic rules. With independence, they cut off all connections with Delhi, thereby introducing a new independent system in all spheres of life, including architecture, based on earlier Muslim traditions and local culture. One important feature of the period was that not only did the Mughals erect buildings of their own choice then but Hindus also erected temples, a large number of which still are extant in the country. Not that temples were not erected during the rule of the independent sultans, some of whom are known to have been extremely secular. But it must be presumed that time have eventually consumed them. The nature of the buildings, small and vertical in form, the climate with heavy rains during a major part of the year, the nature of patronisation, war, and vandalism must have been responsible for their rarity. During the rule of the Mughals, the patronisation of zamindars, both Muslim and Hindu alike, along with the time factor, must have contributed to the survival of Hindu temple buildings.

Kantanagar temple

Certainly the Kantanagar and Govinda Temples contain some of the finest examples of terracotta ornamentation of the late period of the art. The Mughal monuments in Bengal, as has already been pointed out, are miniatures of the imperial Mughal buildings of northern India. But they differ in material and ornamentation techniques. They retained brick as the core material, like the Sultanate monuments. But for the face of the structures, instead of the terracotta decoration of the Sultanate period and the opus sectile and pietra-dura of the imperial Mughals, the walls are now plastered over and mostly bare except in cases where plaster panellings in small niches are seen. The central doorways are now invariably larger than the side ones, and in most cases are little advanced to give the shape of a half-domed iwan. The domes, stilted and bulbous in shape, are to be distinguished from those of the Sultanate period, and are built on round pendentives instead of corbelled ones.

Bengal architecture of the medieval period, comprising Sultanate and Mughal building art, although in broad outline defined as a part of Indo-Muslim architecture attained in quality and character an identity distinct from that of other regions of the subcontinent. This distinctiveness has given it a special place in history indicative of an art what reflects a separate national outlook.[6]

Colonial Period

By the middle of the 18th century the British east India company had established a dominant influence in Bengal, audaciously initiating an unauthorized extension of Fort William, its stronghold in Calcutta, located just 200 km. south of Murshidabad, the provincial capital from where the nawab ruled. Throughout the 1760s Murshidabad remained Bengal's richest and most populous city. When Warren Hastings transferred the diwani offices from Murshidabad to Calcutta in 1773, it emerged as the capital of British India, and remained so until 1912. This section is a survey of the architecture of Bengal from 1765 until the independence of India in 1947 through selected landmark buildings built by both British and local patrons. As the local gentry started to learn English, and emulate the sartorial styles and manners of the new rulers, religious buildings that they sponsored like mosques, temples and tombs, which were firmly grounded in styles that had developed over the past several centuries, became influenced by European forms and techniques of construction. Predictably, the new styles were most dramatically reflected in the palaces of the affluent. On the other hand, British architecture, as seen in churches, mansions, and official buildings, although rooted in European styles which arrived slightly late in India, were adapted to suit the climate of Bengal. The absence or abundance of local forms in British architecture depended on the desired image that the rulers wished to project. The British never seem to have settled on a definitive Imperial style, but constantly searched for suitable ones as perceptions of their own role in India changed.

The building of new shrines and the enlargement of old ones associated with the Shia affiliation of the nawabs emphasize how the official celebration of religious events became more important as the East India Company took over political functions. European features seem to have been reserved mostly for official architecture. In Dhaka, which had been the capital of the Mughal province before its shift to Murshidabad in 1704, mosques continued to be built in the Mughal tradition with only a few European features found in the articulation of the arches and doorways. The typical Mughal mosque was either a single-domed square structure, or a rectangular one of single-aisle and three or five-bays, where the exterior plastered surface was articulated with panels with blind niches, domes on a high drum, engaged slender corner towers and merlon decoration. The Husaini Dalan or Imambara in Bakshi Bazar, Dhaka, is the only extant religious edifice in the city which has entirely retained its 19th century features.

The decline of Mughal power in Delhi gave rise to a new class of officials in the provinces, the bulk of whom specially in the revenue department, were Hindus. As in mosques the traditional material of construction was brick, and only occasionally stones. Although the buildings were of a remarkable variety of design, shape, and size, their styles were generally defined by the method of roofing, mostly rooted in the indigenous architectural tradition of Bengal with forms derived from the village hut built of wood, bamboo and reed. In the 19th century, temple building peaked during the first half and declined markedly during the second. Compared to the 18th, the buildings are smaller, have less terracotta decoration, and register no improvement in quality. The decline in temple building is perhaps a reflection of the increasing westernization of the wealthy middle classes, who flocked to the new capital and adopted European styles in dress and education. A taste for the European is reflected not only in the neo-classical urban and country houses of the rich, but also in the details that were copied in temples; spired temple forms appear as a direct influence of contemporary church architecture. By the middle of the century, terracotta sculpture was replaced by cheaper stucco work, and although the traditional styles continued feebly into the twentieth century, the adoption of concrete and steel dealt a death blow to brick and terracotta tradition.

When Calcutta achieved the status of capital a new Fort William, overlooking the River Hooghly was completed at the cost of two million pounds after clearing and draining the jungle and marshy areas of Govindapur, one of the three villages which made up Calcutta. Public buildings remained outside the walls of the Fort, beyond the Maidan, the huge open space that provided an unrestricted flow of air. Most of the important public buildings like the New Court House, Supreme Court, Council House, Mint, and the old Government House (which was replaced later by the new one of Lord Wellesley) were built in the Esplanade area, and the city grew according to European ideas of planning; vistas terminated in prominent public buildings. Traditional Mughal forms such as arches and domes, believed to have entered the Islamic world from the west, were most favored. The Curzon Hall in Dhaka is an example of the Indo-Saracenic style at its best. However, the seeds of dissent had been sown, and soon a national movement was to start which culminated in the independence of India in 1947.

Antecedent to Independence

Star Mosque, built in the first half of the 19th century is noted for its star-studded design

The Partition of British India in 1947 was a step towards nationhood for Bangladesh; it also marks the beginning of a new phase of its architecture. Break of cultural continuity and absence of architects created a void in post-colonial architecture in Bangladesh. Though modernism was born in the twenties in Europe, modern architecture in Bangladesh was almost unknown till the mid-fifties. It was only in the late 1960s that architects started making their presence felt.

Construction works picked up momentum during the 1960s, but in the backdrop of ignorance and indifference towards modern architecture, the adopted styles were not sensitive enough to the context. Despite some outstanding exceptions, the so-called PWD buildings dominated this period. The earlier buildings were bland, faceless, impersonal and institutionalized, no attempt was made to relate them to the context. During this period, the country had to face growing Bengali nationalism, which also sought architectural expression. The Dhaka University Library and Art College represent isolated efforts to integrate contemporary western thoughts in architecture[7]. The influence of the modern-day Master Architect Le Corbusier is clearly visible in the design of both these complexes in cubic form, open ground plan, free columns, non-load bearing partition walls, concrete structures, flat roofs, ramps and louvers. In 1964 the pioneer Bengali architect, Muzharul Islam formed Vastukalabid[8], the first local consulting firm. Soon it became a formidable presence in the architectural scene in Bangladesh by designing several noteworthy buildings in the next half a decade.

Teacher Student Center (TSC) at Dhaka University

Among these were two new universities at Chittagong and Savar, NIPA Building [now part of the Business Studies Faculty of Dhaka University], Krisi Bhavan at Motijheel (1965), five Polytechnic Institutes in five district towns (with American Architect Stanley Tigermann), etc.

The setting up of the first architecture faculty at the East Pakistan University of Engineering and Technology, under the guidance and assistance of the Texas A & M University and led by Prof. Richard Vrooman, was a significant event. It gave directions to the future development of architecture in Bangladesh. Doxiadis Associates, led by the famous Greek architect-town planner-philosopher, designed several institutional complexes sponsored by the Ford Foundation. Doxiadis's projects, like Comilla BARD, College of Home Economics, IER and TSC of Dhaka University, express climatic adaptability and functional versatility in the design of groups of buildings of multiple functions in the same campus, and stress their inter-relationships.

Post Independence Architecture

National Assembly Building was designed by architect Louis I. Kahn and is one of the largest legislative complexes in the world

After the emergence of Bangladesh as an independent sovereign nation in 1971, the issue of reiterating and establishing the national identity of a predominantly rural-based agrarian society took new dimensions. Architects then had to face the focus on the pressing needs of reconstruction and building rather than search for identity. The last quarter of the century, however, has opened up a new horizon of architectural development. Both in terms of types and volume, there was presented a tremendous opportunity for local architects. It provided them with greater freedom of expression and scope for higher level of intellectual exercise than before. The development of a national architecture in the present context means the blending of those forms that have been identified as Bengali, unique and intrinsic to this region, with the building needs and problems which, while intrinsic to the nation, are shared by other Third World or developing countries. Built from 1961-1982 by American architect Louis I. Kahn, National Assembly Building has been named as one of the seven architectural wonders of the world by the The Globe and Mail[9]. The Aga Khan Foundation also awarded it[10].

SAARC fountain at Kawran bazar in Dhaka

With respect to planning and organization of formal, family and service spaces, contemporary urban residences are not very different from rural houses, except that these have undergone a process of transformation and consolidation caused by urban dynamics and economics. However, modern residences have become more sensual than ever. There has been considerable progress in the varieties of building materials available in the post-Independence period. Complex constructions have increased due to the advent of new technology, building services and aids, materials and forms. Many finish materials like marble tiles and aluminum sections are now locally produced, are easily available at moderate price, and hence used abundantly. o serve an affluent client group, expensive but quality finish materials like stone, fabrics and fixtures are now heavily imported. In some cases this has resulted in bizarre and lavish interiors and exteriors in both residential and commercial buildings.

Modern Architectures

National Martyrs' Memorial at Savar, a tribute to the martyrs of the Bangladesh Liberation War

In recent years, some expatriate architects have designed buildings that recall several established architectural notions of the past. The Islamic Institute of Technology in Gazipur by the Turkish architect Doruk Pamir is a project where Islamic sensitivity has found expression; at the same time it is sympathetic to the local context. On the other hand, the US Chancery Building by the Boston firm of Kallman, McKinnel and Woods attempted to re-establish age-old Indian sensitivity through elemental pastiche and surface fenestration. Typical sub-continental elements have been used, but not in ways used in Indian architecture to tone down the scale of massive buildings to human proportions. In the urban housing sector, proliferation of high-rise apartments, more particularly since the mid-1980s in Dhaka, is noticeable. Architects are now faced with a challenge. To provide an expression compatible to the local history and culture, while filling up the urban skyline with concrete jungles is a challenging job. Only a concerted effort by professionals and policy makers can pave the way for this emerging powerful form to provide a definite and desirable addition to the physical character of the urban areas of Bangladesh.

Hotel Radisson in Dhaka

There are now more than 557 developers in Dhaka alone[11]. Owing to the keen contest in the market, most developers are now turning to architects for more attractive, functional and competitive designs, and the sector has become the breeding ground for many prolific architects.

Since the post-colonial decade, the lavish bungalow for high government officials started to shrink in plot size and get taller in number of floors. 'Flats' promoted with unabated zeal were considered representing 'twentieth century modernity' but were devoid of hierarchy of space, community feeling or sense of belonging. These segregated people, and created both physical and social barriers; monotony replaced uniformity amidst diversity - the forte of traditional architecture.

Buildings for government use and institutional buildings have always been built in Bangladesh, but they have changed substantially in form and content in recent years. With Independence, government architecture gradually began to wear a democratic face, and became more accessible to the general mass. The gradual shift from a superfluous formal approach towards more functional and rational architecture and judicious use of space has contributed to the development of contemporary architecture. A conscious attempt to create a congenial atmosphere by manipulating light, color and finish can be identified in these buildings. There is a tendency towards organizing office spaces according to an open plan, which encourages interpersonal contact and a homogeneous work-flow, rather than the stereotyped double-loaded corridor pattern. Government offices are now being designed by private firms as well as government architects which often result in departures from inherited norms. Government offices are now to be seen in rural areas and thus architecture has to some extent been carried close to the masses. Moreover, more context and site sensitive designs are evident now, and an emphasis on form in terms of both three-dimensional massing and detailing. Some buildings have shown considerable sensitivity to the surrounding landscape. Architects are increasingly showing an awareness of the buildings' role in the environment and the community. The BARC complex, Sarak Bhavan, DPHE Building, are all marked and positive deviations from conventional office building designs.

Hotel Westin at Gulshan in Dhaka

The demand for multi-level constructions due to scarcity of land makes the application of new technology inevitable. The innate qualities of exposed building materials is understood and exploited in many buildings. The range of finish materials has been widened to include various surface finishes and use of colours, interior designs, wood panelling, marble cladding, wall fabrics; surface finish has also become very popular. Architects have started to design higher buildings as the demand for more commercial spaces is ever increasing with the emergence and growth of the nation. Growing economic activities in the country is symbolised by the rising commercial towers in metropolitan areas. In these modern high-rise blocks too, architect's skill confronts the needs and limitations of the indigenous architecture and national identity. The architectural expression of commercial buildings was decadent, dominated by superficial visual elements without exploring or exploiting their potential. In this milieu, however, some good buildings were designed, though these are rare. Perceptible changes in content and context of new buildings made them responsive to new concepts, technology, materials and quality workmanship.

In the post-Independence period, several mosques and a few churches were designed, the latter by foreign architects. Mosques designed by architects follow the established sub-continental model distinguished by adherence to strong axis, openness and clarity, albeit with numerous formal manifestations. The BUET Mosque exemplifies all the characteristics of an architecturally ideal mosque recalled on a smaller scale.

Bashundhara City, the largest shopping mall in South Asia has one of the most modern architectural form in Bangladesh

To rejuvenate and capture the spirit of Bengali nationalism, formal monumental and civic buildings like memorials, museums, libraries, hospitals, and institutions are now being designed and built in an increasing number in independent Bangladesh, although these are often devoid of good architectural qualities. Among these Jatiyo Smriti Soudho (National Memorial) at Savar stands out and is of a quality with its skilful abstraction of theme blended with the landscape and its ideal scale, it is a work which can compare with the best work done internationally. Most architectural conservation activities in Bangladesh have been in fact preservation of historical buildings. A handful of projects were completed by government initiatives as more of an accomplishment of isolated initiatives than implementation under a policy framework. Architectural education has been elaborated in Bangladesh which is resulting in the development of architectures in the country. Institute of Architects Bangladesh, a professional institution of architects is promoting and developing the profession of architecture in Bangladesh[12].

Exposed to the material and technology of the present world, challenged by the task of solving complex problems of the contemporary society, seized with an atmosphere of austerity, and standing on a great heritage of the past, contemporary architects in Bangladesh, in their search for identity, are awakening to the need to capture Bengali sensitivity in their works.

See also

Architecture of Bengal

References

External links


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