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Argentine Republic[1]
República Argentina  (Spanish)
Flag Coat of arms
MottoEn unión y libertad
"In Unity and Freedom"
AnthemHimno Nacional Argentino
Location of  Argentina  (Red)

The Argentine claims in Antarctica (overlapping the Chilean and British Antarctic claims) along with the Falkland Islands, South Georgia, and the South Sandwich Islands (claimed and administered by the United Kingdom) shown in light green.

Capital
(and largest city)
Buenos Aires
34°36′S 58°23′W / 34.6°S 58.383°W / -34.6; -58.383
Official language(s) Spanish
Ethnic groups  86.4% European (mostly Italian and Spanish), 8% Mestizo, 4% Arab and Jewish and East Asian, 1.6% Amerindian [2][3]
Demonym Argentine, Argentinian, Argentinean
Government Federal presidential republic
 -  President Cristina Fernández de Kirchner
 -  Vice President and Chairman of the Senate Julio Cobos
 -  Supreme Court President Ricardo Lorenzetti
Independence from Spain 
 -  May Revolution 25 May 1810 
 -  Declared 9 July 1816 
Area
 -  Total 2,766,890 km2 (8th)
1,068,302 sq mi 
 -  Water (%) 1.1
Population
 -  2009 estimate 40,134,425[4] (33rd)
 -  2001 census 36,260,130 
 -  Density 15/km2 (168th)
38/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2009 estimate
 -  Total $566.922 billion[5] (23rd)
 -  Per capita $14,125[5] (57th)
GDP (nominal) 2008 estimate
 -  Total $301.331 billion[5] (31st)
 -  Per capita $7,508[5] (66th)
Gini (2006) 49[6] (high
HDI (2007) 0.866[7] (high) (49th)
Currency Peso (ARS)
Time zone ART (UTC-3)
Drives on the right (trains ride on the left)
Internet TLD .ar
Calling code +54
Argentina, officially the Argentine Republic (Spanish: República Argentina, pronounced [reˈpuβlika aɾxenˈtina]), is the second largest country in South America, constituted as a federation of 23 provinces and an autonomous city, Buenos Aires. It is the eighth-largest country in the world by land area and the largest among Spanish-speaking nations, though Mexico, Colombia and Spain are more populous.
Argentina's continental area is between the Andes mountain range in the west and the Atlantic Ocean in the east. It borders Paraguay and Bolivia to the north, Brazil and Uruguay to the northeast, and Chile to the west and south. Argentina claims the British overseas territories of the Falkland Islands and South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands. It also claims a part of Antarctica, overlapping claims made by Chile and the United Kingdom, though all claims were suspended by the Antarctic Treaty of 1961. Argentina today is one of the G-20 major economies.

Contents

Etymology

The name is derived from the Latin argentum (silver), which comes from the Ancient Greek ἀργήντος (argēntos), gen. of ἀργήεις (argēeis), "white, shining".[8] Αργεντινός (argentinos) was an ancient Greek adjective meaning "silvery".[9] The first use of the name Argentina can be traced to the early 16th century voyages of the Spanish and Portuguese conquerors to the Río de la Plata ("Silver River").[citation needed]

History

Early history

The earliest evidence of humans in Argentina is in Patagonia (Piedra Museo, Santa Cruz) and dates from 11,000 BC (Huarpes, Diaguitas and Sanavirones, among others). The Inca Empire, under King Pachacutec, invaded and conquered present-day northwestern Argentina in 1480, integrating it into a region called Collasuyu; the Guaraní developed a culture based on yuca, sweet potato and yerba maté. The central and southern areas (Pampas and Patagonia) were dominated by nomadic cultures, the most populous among them being the Mapuches.[10]
European explorers arrived in 1516. Spain established the Viceroyalty of Peru in 1542 encompassing all its holdings in South America, and established a permanent colony at Buenos Aires in 1580 as part of the dependency of Río de la Plata. In 1776 this dependency was elevated to a viceroyalty which shifted trade from Lima to Buenos Aires.
José de San Martín, Liberator of Argentina, Chile and Perú
The area was largely a country of Spanish immigrants and their descendants, known as criollos, and others of native cultures and of descendants of African slaves, present in significant numbers. A third of Colonial-era settlers gathered in Buenos Aires and other cities, others living on the pampas as gauchos, for instance. Indigenous peoples inhabited much of the rest of Argentina. The British invaded twice between 1806 and 1807, as part of the Napoleonic Wars when Spain was an ally of France, but both invasions were repelled.
The Buenos Aires Cabildo, scene of the 1810 resolution that led to independence
On 25 May 1810, after the rumors of the Napoleonic overthrow of Ferdinand VII were confirmed, the citizens of Buenos Aires created the First Government Junta (May Revolution). Two nations emerged in the former viceroyalty: the United Provinces of South America (1810) and the Liga Federal (1815). Other provinces delayed the formation of a unified state because of differences between autonomist and centralist parties; Paraguay seceded, declaring independence in 1811.
Between 1814 and 1817, General José de San Martín led a military campaign aimed at making independence a reality. San Martín and his regiment crossed the Andes in 1817 to defeat royalist forces in Chile and Perú, thus securing independence. The Congress of Tucumán gathered on 9 July 1816 and finally issued a formal Declaration of Independence from Spain. The Liga Federal was crushed in 1820 by the combined forces of the United Provinces and Portuguese-ruled colonial Brazil, and its provinces were absorbed into the United Provinces of South America. Bolivia declared independence in 1825, and Uruguay was created in 1828 as a result of a truce following the Argentina-Brazil War. The controversial truce led to the rise of Buenos Aires provincial governor Juan Manuel de Rosas, who, as a federalist, exercised a reign of terror and kept the fragile confederation together.
The centralist Unitarios and the Federales maintained an internecine conflict until Rosas' 1852 overthrow after the Platine War, and to help prevent future struggle during the tenuous times that followed, a Constitution was promulgated in 1853. The constitution, drafted by legal scholar Juan Bautista Alberdi, was defended by Franciscan Friar Mamerto Esquiú and endured through difficult early years. National unity was reinforced when Paraguayan dictator López attacked Argentina and Brazil in 1865,[11] resulting in the War of the Triple Alliance, which left more than 300,000 dead and devastated Paraguay.[12]

Modern history

The Port of Buenos Aires (1900). Maritime trade led to accelerated development after 1875.
A wave of foreign investment and immigration from Europe after 1870 led to the development of modern agriculture and to a near-reinvention of Argentine society and the economy and the strengthening of a cohesive state. The rule of law was consolidated in large measure by Dalmacio Vélez Sársfield, whose 1860 Commercial Code and 1869 Civil Code laid the foundation for Argentina's statutory laws. General Julio Argentino Roca's military campaign in the 1870s established Argentine dominance over the southern Pampas and Patagonia, subdued the remaining indigenous peoples and left 1,300 indigenous dead.[13][14] Some contemporary sources indicate that it was campaign of genocide by the Argentine government.[15]
Hipólito Yrigoyen was an activist for universal (male) suffrage and was Argentina's first president so elected (1916)
Argentina increased in prosperity and prominence between 1880 and 1929, while emerging as one of the 10 richest countries in the world, benefiting from an agricultural export-led economy. Driven by immigration and decreasing mortality, the Argentine population grew fivefold and the economy by 15-fold.[16] Conservative interests dominated Argentine politics through non-democratic means until, in 1912, President Roque Sáenz Peña enacted universal male suffrage and the secret ballot.
This allowed their traditional rivals, the centrist Radical Civic Union, to win the country's first free elections in 1916. President Hipólito Yrigoyen enacted social and economic reforms and extended assistance to family farmers and small business; having been politically imposing and beset by the Great Depression, however, Yrigoyen was overthrown in 1930. This led to another decade of Conservative rule, whose economists turned to more protectionist policies and whose electoral policy was one of "patriotic fraud". The country was neutral during World War I and most of World War II, becoming an important source of foodstuffs for the Allied Nations.[16]
President Juan Perón (1946)
In 1946, General Juan Perón was elected president, creating a political movement referred to as "Peronism". His hugely popular wife, Evita, played a central political role until her death in 1952, mostly through the Eva Perón Foundation and the Peronist Women's Party.[17] During Perón's tenure, wages and working conditions improved appreciably, unionization was fostered, strategic industries and services were nationalized, and urban development was prioritized over the agrarian sector.[18]
Formerly stable prices and exchange rates were disrupted, however: the peso lost about 70% of its value from early 1948 to early 1950, and inflation reached 50% in 1951.[19] Foreign policy became more isolationist, straining U.S.-Argentine relations. Perón intensified censorship as well as repression: 110 publications were shuttered,[20] and numerous opposition figures were imprisoned and tortured.[21] Over time, he rid himself of many important and capable advisers, while promoting patronage. A violent coup, which bombarded the Casa Rosada and its surroundings killing many, deposed him in 1955. He fled into exile, eventually residing in Spain.
Arturo Frondizi (second from left) hosts U.S. President John F. Kennedy (1961)
Following an attempt to purge the Peronist influence and the banning of Peronists from political life, elections in 1958 brought Arturo Frondizi to office. Frondizi enjoyed some support from Perón's followers, and his policies encouraged investment to make the country self-sufficient in energy and industry, helping reverse a chronic trade deficit for Argentina. The military, however, frequently interfered on behalf of conservative interests and the results were mixed.[16] Frondizi was forced to resign in 1962. Arturo Illia, elected in 1963, enacted expansionist policies; but despite prosperity, his attempts to include Peronists in the political process resulted in the armed forces' retaking power in a quiet 1966 coup.
The policies of dictator Jorge Videla and economist José Alfredo Martínez de Hoz left a traumatic legacy
Though repressive, this new regime continued to encourage domestic development and invested record amounts into public works. The economy grew strongly, and income poverty declined to 7% by 1975, still a record low. Partly because of their repressiveness, however, political violence began to escalate and, from exile, Perón skillfully co-opted student and labor protests, which eventually resulted in the military regime's call for free elections in 1973 and his return from Spain.[10]
Taking office that year, Perón died in July 1974, leaving his third wife Isabel, the Vice President, to succeed him in office. Mrs. Perón had been chosen as a compromise among feuding Peronist factions who could agree on no other running mate; secretly, though, she was beholden to Perón's most fascist advisers. The resulting conflict between left and right-wing extremists led to mayhem and financial chaos and, in March 1976, a coup d'état removed her from office.
Leopoldo Galtieri's takeover of the Falkland Islands in 1982 cost Argentina lives and prestige
The self-styled National Reorganization Process intensified measures against armed groups on the far left such as People's Revolutionary Army and the Montoneros, which from 1970 had kidnapped and murdered people almost weekly.[22] Repression was quickly extended to the opposition in general, however, and during the "Dirty War" thousands of dissidents "disappeared". These abuses were aided and abetted by the CIA in Operation Condor, with many of the military leaders that took part in abuses trained in the U.S.-financed School of the Americas.[23]
This new dictatorship at first brought some stability and built numerous important public works; but their frequent wage freezes and deregulation of finance led to a sharp fall in living standards and record foreign debt.[16] Deindustrialization, the peso's collapse and crushing real interest rates, as well as unprecedented corruption, public revulsion in the face of alleged human rights abuses and, finally, the country's 1982 defeat by the British in the Falklands War discredited the military regime and led to free elections in 1983.
Raúl Alfonsín (left) greets supporters with his trademark salute (1983)
Raúl Alfonsín's government took steps to account for the "disappeared", established civilian control of the armed forces and consolidated democratic institutions. The members of the three military juntas were prosecuted and sentenced to life terms. The previous regime's foreign debt, however, left the Argentine economy saddled by the conditions imposed on it by both its private creditors and the IMF, and priority was given to servicing the foreign debt at the expense of public works and domestic credit. Alfonsín's failure to resolve worsening economic problems caused him to lose public confidence. Following a 1989 currency crisis that resulted in a sudden and ruinous 15-fold jump in prices, he left office five months early.[24]
Newly elected President Carlos Menem began pursuing privatizations and, after a second bout of hyperinflation in 1990, reached out to economist Domingo Cavallo, who imposed a peso-dollar fixed exchange rate in 1991 and adopted far-reaching market-based policies, dismantling protectionist barriers and business regulations, while accelerating privatizations. These reforms contributed to significant increases in investment and growth with stable prices through most of the 1990s; but the peso's fixed value could only be maintained by flooding the market with dollars, resulting in a renewed increase in the foreign debt. Towards 1998, moreover, a series of international financial crises and overvaluation of the pegged peso caused a gradual slide into economic crisis. The sense of stability and well being which had prevailed during the 1990s eroded quickly, and by the end of his term in 1999, these accumulating problems and reports of corruption had made Menem unpopular.[25]
Néstor Kirchner (second from right) hosts Raúl Alfonsín (right), the Brazilian President Lula da Silva and former Brazilian President José Sarney to commemorate 20 years of productive trade talks
President Fernando de la Rúa inherited diminished competitiveness in exports, as well as chronic fiscal deficits. The governing coalition developed rifts, and his returning Cavallo to the Economy Ministry was interpreted as a crisis move by speculators. The decision backfired and Cavallo was eventually forced to take measures to halt a wave of capital flight and to stem the imminent debt crisis (culminating in the freezing of bank accounts). A climate of popular discontent ensued, and on 20 December 2001 Argentina dove into its worst institutional and economic crisis since the 1890 Barings financial debacle. There were violent street protests, which clashed with police and resulted in several fatalities. The increasingly chaotic climate, amid riots accompanied by cries that "they should all go", finally resulted in the resignation of President de la Rúa.[26]
Cristina Fernández de Kirchner, president since December 2007
Three presidents followed in quick succession over two weeks, culminating in the appointment of interim President Eduardo Duhalde by the Legislative Assembly on 2 January 2002. Argentina defaulted on its international debt, and the peso's 11 year-old tie to the U.S. dollar was rescinded, causing a major depreciation of the peso and a spike in inflation. Duhalde, a Peronist with a center-left economic position, had to cope with a financial and socio-economic crisis, with unemployment as high as 25% by late 2002 and the lowest real wages in sixty years. The crisis accentuated the people's mistrust in politicians and institutions. Following a year racked by protest, the economy began to stabilize by late 2002, and restrictions on bank withdrawals were lifted in December.[27]
Benefiting from a devalued exchange rate the government implemented new policies based on re-industrialization, import substitution and increased exports and began seeing consistent fiscal and trade surpluses. Governor Néstor Kirchner, a social democratic Peronist, was elected president in May 2003 and during Kirchner's presidency Argentina restructured its defaulted debt with a steep discount (about 66%) on most bonds, paid off debts with the International Monetary Fund, renegotiated contracts with utilities and nationalized some previously privatized enterprises. Kirchner and his economists, notably Roberto Lavagna, also pursued a vigorous incomes policy and public works investment.[28]
Argentina has since been enjoying economic growth, though with high inflation, which according to the Economist was 15% in June 2009.[29] Néstor Kirchner forfeited the 2007 campaign in favor of his wife Senator Cristina Fernández de Kirchner. Winning by a landslide that October, she became the first woman elected President of Argentina and in a disputed result, Fabiana Ríos, a center-left (ARI) candidate in Tierra del Fuego Province became the first woman in Argentine history to be elected governor.
President Cristina Kirchner, despite carrying large majorities in Congress, saw controversial plans for higher agricultural export taxes defeated by Vice President Julio Cobos' surprise tie-breaking vote against them on 16 July 2008, following massive agrarian protests and lockouts from March to July. The global financial crisis has since prompted Mrs. Kirchner to step up her husband's policy of state intervention in troubled sectors of the economy.[30] A halt in growth and political missteps helped lead Kirchnerism and its allies to lose their absolute majority in Congress, following the 2009 mid-term elections.

Geography

Topographic map of Argentina (including some territorial claims)
Sailboats on the Uruguay River
The total surface area (excluding the Antarctic claim) is 2,766,891.2 km2 (1,068,302.7 sq mi), of which 30,200 km2 (11,700 sq mi) (1.1%) is water. Argentina is about 3,900 km (2,400 mi) long from north to south, and 1,400 km (870 mi) from east to west (maximum values). There are four major regions: the fertile central plains of the Pampas, source of Argentina's agricultural wealth; the flat to rolling, oil-rich southern plateau of Patagonia including Tierra del Fuego; the subtropical northern flats of the Gran Chaco, and the rugged Andes mountain range along the western border with Chile.
The highest point above sea level is in Mendoza province at Cerro Aconcagua (6,962 m (22,841 ft)), also the highest point in the Southern[31] and Western Hemisphere.[32] The lowest point is Laguna del Carbón in Santa Cruz province, -105 m (−344 ft) below sea level.[33] This is also the lowest point in South America. The geographic center of the country is in south-central La Pampa province. The easternmost continental point is northeast of Bernardo de Irigoyen, Misiones,(26°15′S 53°38′W / 26.25°S 53.633°W / -26.25; -53.633 (Argentina's easternmost continental point)) the westernmost in the Mariano Moreno Range in Santa Cruz province.(49°33′S 73°35′W / 49.55°S 73.583°W / -49.55; -73.583 (Argentina's westernmost point)) The northernmost point is at the confluence of the Grande de San Juan and Mojinete rivers in Jujuy province,(21°46′S 66°13′W / 21.767°S 66.217°W / -21.767; -66.217 (Argentina's northernmost point)) and the southernmost is Cape San Pío in Tierra del Fuego. (55°03′S 66°31′W / 55.05°S 66.517°W / -55.05; -66.517 (Argentina's southernmost point))[34]
The major rivers are the Paraná (the largest), the Pilcomayo, Paraguay, Bermejo, Colorado, Río Negro, Salado and the Uruguay. The Paraná and the Uruguay join to form the Río de la Plata estuary, before reaching the Atlantic. Regionally important rivers are the Atuel and Mendoza in the homonymous province, the Chubut in Patagonia, the Río Grande in Jujuy and the San Francisco River in Salta.
There are several large lakes including Argentino and Viedma in Santa Cruz, Nahuel Huapi between Río Negro and Neuquén, Fagnano in Tierra del Fuego, and Colhué Huapi and Musters in Chubut. Lake Buenos Aires and O'Higgins/San Martín Lake are shared with Chile. Mar Chiquita, Córdoba, is the largest salt water lake in the country. There are numerous reservoirs created by dams. Argentina features various hot springs, such as Termas de Río Hondo with temperatures between 65°C and 89°C.[35]
The largest oil spill in fresh water was caused by a Shell Petroleum tanker in the Río de la Plata, off Magdalena, on January 15, 1999, polluting the environment, drinking water, and local wildlife.[36]
The 4,665 km (2,899 mi) long Atlantic coast[37] has been a popular local vacation area for over a century, and varies between areas of sand dunes and cliffs. The continental platform is unusually wide; this shallow area of the Atlantic is called the Argentine Sea. The waters are rich in fisheries and possibly hold important hydrocarbon energy resources. The two major ocean currents affecting the coast are the warm Brazil Current and the cold Falkland Current. Because of the unevenness of the coastal landmass, the two currents alternate in their influence on climate and do not allow temperatures to fall evenly with higher latitude. The southern coast of Tierra del Fuego forms the north shore of the Drake Passage.

Climate

The generally temperate climate ranges from subtropical in the north to subpolar in the far south. The north is characterized by very hot, humid summers with mild drier winters, and is subject to periodic droughts. Central Argentina has hot summers with thunderstorms (western Argentina produces some of the world's largest hail), and cool winters. The southern regions have warm summers and cold winters with heavy snowfall, especially in mountainous zones. Higher elevations at all latitudes experience cooler conditions.
The Andean range over Santa Cruz province
The hottest and coldest temperature extremes recorded in South America have occurred in Argentina. A record high temperature of 49.1 °C (120.4 °F), was recorded at Villa de María, Córdoba, on 2 January 1920. The lowest temperature recorded was −39 °C (−38 °F) at Valle de los Patos Superior, San Juan, on 17 July 1972.
Major wind currents include the cool Pampero Winds blowing on the flat plains of Patagonia and the Pampas; following the cold front, warm currents blow from the north in middle and late winter, creating mild conditions. The Zonda, a hot dry wind, affects west-central Argentina. Squeezed of all moisture during the 6,000 m (20,000 ft) descent from the Andes, Zonda winds can blow for hours with gusts up to 120 km/h (75 mph), fueling wildfires and causing damage; when the Zonda blows (June–November), snowstorms and blizzard (viento blanco) conditions usually affect higher elevations.
The Sudestada ("southeasterlies") could be considered similar to the Nor'easter, though snowfall is rare but not unprecedented. Both are associated with a deep winter low pressure system. The sudestada usually moderates cold temperatures but brings very heavy rains, rough seas and coastal flooding. It is most common in late autumn and winter along the central coast and in the Río de la Plata estuary.
The southern regions, particularly the far south, experience long periods of daylight from November to February (up to nineteen hours) and extended nights from May to August.
Panoramic view of Bristol Beach in the city of Mar del Plata in the low season

Demographics

Historical populations
Year Pop.  %±
1869 1,877,490
1895 4,044,911 115.4%
1914 7,903,662 95.4%
1947 15,893,811 101.1%
1960 20,013,793 25.9%
1970 23,364,431 16.7%
1980 27,947,446 19.6%
1991 32,615,528 16.7%
2001 36,260,130 11.2%
2009 (est.) 40,134,425 10.7%
In 2001 census [INDEC], Argentina had a population of 36,260,130 inhabitants, and the official population estimate for 2009 is of 40,134,425.[4] Argentina ranks third in South America in total population and 33rd globally. Population density is of 15 persons per square kilometer of land area, well below the world average of 50 persons. The population growth rate in 2008 was estimated to be 0.92% annually, with a birth rate of 16.32 live births per 1,000 inhabitants and a mortality rate of 7.54 deaths per 1,000 inhabitants. The net migration rate is zero immigrants per 1,000 inhabitants.[38]
The proportion of people under 15, at 24.6%, is somewhat below the world average (28%), and the cohort of people 65 and older is relatively high, at 10.8%. The percentage of senior citizens in Argentina has long been second only to Uruguay in Latin America and well above the world average, which is currently 7%.
Argentina's population has long had one of Latin America's lowest growth rates (recently, about one percent a year) and it also enjoys a comparatively low infant mortality rate. Strikingly, though, its birth rate is still nearly twice as high (2.3 children per woman) as that in Spain or Italy, despite comparable religiosity figures.[39][40] The median age is approximately 30 years and life expectancy at birth is of 76 years.
A crowd in Rosario reflects the importance of European immigration to Argentine ethnography and culture.

Ethnography

As with other areas of new settlement such as Canada, Australia and the United States, Argentina is considered a country of immigrants.[41] Most Argentines are descended from colonial-era settlers and of the 19th and 20th century immigrants from Europe, and 86.4% of Argentina's population self-identify as European descent[2] An estimated 8% of the population is mestizo, and a further 4% of Argentines are of Arab or East Asian heritage.[2] In the last national census, based on self-identification, 600,000 Argentines (1.6%) declared to be Amerindians[3] (see Demographics of Argentina for genetic studies).[42]
Following the arrival of the initial Spanish colonists, over 6.2 million Europeans emigrated to Argentina from the mid-19th to mid-20th centuries[43] Argentina was second only to the United States in the number of European immigrants received, and at the time, the national population doubled every two decades mostly as a result.[44]
The majority of these European immigrants came from Italy and Spain. Italian immigrants arrived mainly from the Piedmont, Veneto and Lombardy regions, initially, and later from Campania and Calabria;[45] up to 25 million Argentines have some degree of Italian descent, around 60% of the total population.[46] Spanish immigrants were mainly Galicians and Basques.[47][48] Smaller but significant numbers of immigrants came from France (notably Béarn and the Northern Basque Country), Germany and Switzerland, Denmark, Sweden, Ireland, Greece, Portugal, and the United Kingdom.[49]
Built in 1906 to welcome hundreds of newcomers daily, the Hotel de Inmigrantes is now a national museum.
Population pyramid for Argentina (2009)
Immigrant population Argentina (1869–1991)
Eastern Europeans were also numerous, and arrived from Russia, Ukraine, Lithuania and from Central Europe (particularly Poland, Hungary, Romania, Croatia and Slovenia).[50] Sizable numbers of immigrants also arrived from Balkan countries (Bulgaria and Montenegro).[51] There is a large Armenian community and the Chubut Valley has a significant population of Welsh descent.[52]
Small but growing numbers of people from East Asia have also settled in Argentina, mainly in Buenos Aires. The first Asian-Argentines were of Japanese descent, beginning as visitors who eventually settled in the country starting from 1886; officially steady immigration of Japanese began in 1912. Chinese and Koreans followed later. Today, Chinese are the fastest growing community, with 100,000 Chinese-born residing in the largest Argentine cities.[53][54][55]
The majority of Argentina's Jewish community are Ashkenazi Jews, while about 15–20% are Sephardic groups, primarily Syrian Jews. Argentina's Jewish community is the fifth largest in the world. Argentina is home to a large community from the Arab world, made up mostly of immigrants from Palestine, Syria, and Lebanon. Most are Christians of the Eastern Orthodox and Eastern Catholic (Maronite) Churches, with small Muslim and Jewish minorities. Many have gained prominent status in national business and politics, including former president Carlos Menem, the son of Syrian settlers from the province of La Rioja.
Although relatively few in number, English immigrants to Argentina have played a disproportionately large role in forming the modern state. Anglo-Argentines were traditionally often found in positions of influence in the railway, industrial and agricultural sectors. The historical English Argentine status was complicated by an erosion of their economic influence during Perón's nationalisation of many British-owned companies in the 1940s and, more recently, by the Falklands War in 1982.[49]
The officially recognized indigenous population in the country, according to the 2004–05 "Complementary Survey of Indigenous Peoples", stands at approximately 600,000 (around 1.4% of the total population), the most numerous of whom are the Mapuche people.[3]
According to David Levinson "Afro Argentines number about 50,000, nearly all of whom now live in Buenos Aires. Argentina did not import large numbers of slaves, and the Afro Argentine population today is descended from freed slaves and slaves who escaped to Argentina from Bolivia, Paraguay, and Brazil. As part of the Europeanization program of the late 1880’s, Afro Argentines were pushed off their land. African identity was defined as inferior, and warfare, disease, and intermarriage decimated the population. Although largely ignored and relegated to low-level jobs, the Afro Argentine community continues to function as a distinct community in Buenos Aires."[56]
Criticisms of the national census state that data has historically been collected using the category of national origin rather than race in Argentina, leading to undercounting Afro-Argentines and mestizos.[57] The 1887 Buenos Aires census was the last in which blacks were included as a separate category.[58]
Illegal immigration has been a recent factor in Argentine demographics. Most illegal immigrants come from Bolivia and Paraguay, countries which border Argentina to the north. Smaller numbers arrive from Peru, Ecuador and Romania.[59] The Argentine government estimates that 750,000 inhabitants lack official documents and has launched a program called Patria Grande ("Greater Homeland")[60] to encourage illegal immigrants to regularize their status; so far over 670,000 applications have been processed under the program.[61]

Religion

The 17th century Cathedral of Córdoba
The Constitution guarantees freedom of religion but also requires the government to support Roman Catholicism economically.[62] Until 1994 the President and Vice President had to be Roman Catholic, though there were no such restrictions on other government officials; indeed, since 1945, numerous Jews have held prominent posts. Catholic policy, however, remains influential in government and still helps shape a variety of legislation. In a study assessing nations' levels of religious regulation and persecution with scores ranging from 0–10 where 0 represented low levels of regulation or persecution, Argentina received a score of 1.4 on Government Regulation of Religion, 6.0 on Social Regulation of Religion, 6.9 on Government Favoritism of Religion and 6 on Religious Persecution.[63]
According to the World Christian Database, Argentines are 92.1% Christian, 3.1% agnostic, 1.9% Muslim, 1.3% Jewish, 0.9% atheist, and 0.9% Buddhist and other.[64] Argentine Christians are mostly Roman Catholic. Estimates for the number professing this faith vary from 70% of the population,[65] to as much as 90%,[66] though perhaps only 20% attend services regularly.[38] Evangelical churches have been gaining a foothold since the 1980s, and count approximately 9% of the total population amongst their followers.[67] Pentecostal churches and traditional Protestant denominations are present in most communities. Members of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, claiming over 330,000 (the seventh-largest congregation in the world), are also present.[68]
Argentina has the largest Jewish population in Latin America with about 230,000. The community numbered about 400,000 after World War II, but the appeal of Israel and economic and cultural pressures at home led many to leave; recent instability in Israel has resulted in a modest reversal of the trend since 2003.[66][69] Muslim Argentines number about 500,000–600,000, or approximately 1.5% of the population; 93% of them are Sunni.[66] Buenos Aires is home to one of the largest mosques in Latin America. A recent study found that approximately 11% of Argentines are non-religious, including those who believe in God, though not religion, agnostics (4%) and atheists (5%). Overall, 24% attended religious services regularly. Protestants were the only group in which a majority regularly attended services.[67]

Language

"Voseo" in a Buenos Aires billboard
The official language of Argentina is Spanish, usually called castellano (Castilian) by Argentines. A phonetic study conducted by the Laboratory for Sensory Investigations of CONICET and the University of Toronto showed that the accent of the inhabitants of Buenos Aires (known as porteños) is closer to the Neapolitan dialect of Italian than any other spoken language. Italian immigration and other European immigrations influenced Lunfardo, the slang spoken in the Río de la Plata region, permeating the vernacular vocabulary of other regions as well.
Argentines are the largest Spanish-speaking society that universally employs what is known as voseo (the use of the pronoun vos instead of (you), which occasions the use of alternate verb forms as well). The most prevalent dialect is Rioplatense, whose speakers are primarily located in the basin of the Río de la Plata. Elements of word use (not pronunciation per se) in Argentine voseo are also prevalent in Central American dialects; particularly in Nicaragua.
According to one survey, there are around 1.5 million Italian speakers (which makes it the second most spoken language in the country) and 1 million speakers of North Levantine Spoken Arabic.[70]
Standard German is spoken by between 400,000 and 500,000 Argentines of German ancestry,[70] making it the third or fourth most spoken language in Argentina.
Some indigenous communities have retained their original languages. Guaraní is spoken by some in the northeast, especially in Corrientes (where it enjoys official status) and Misiones. Quechua is spoken by some in the northwest and has a local variant in Santiago del Estero. Aymara is spoken by members of the Bolivian community who migrated to Argentina from Bolivia. In Patagonia there are several Welsh-speaking communities, with some 25,000 estimated second-language speakers.[70] More recent immigrants have brought Chinese and Korean, mostly to Buenos Aires. English, Brazilian Portuguese and French are also spoken. English is commonly taught at schools as a second language as are, to a lesser extent, Portuguese and French.[citation needed]

Urbanization

Population distributon
Argentina is highly urbanized,[71] with the ten largest metropolitan areas accounting for half of the population, and fewer than one in ten living in rural areas. About 3 million people live in Buenos Aires proper, and the Greater Buenos Aires metropolitan area totals around 13 million, making it one of the largest urban areas in the world.[72] The metropolitan areas of Córdoba and Rosario have around 1.3 million inhabitants each,[72] and six other cities (Mendoza, Tucumán, La Plata, Mar del Plata, Salta and Santa Fe)[72][73] have at least half a million people each.
The population is unequally distributed amongst the provinces, with about 60% living in the Pampa region (21% of the total area), including 15 million people in Buenos Aires Province and 3 million in each of the provinces of Córdoba and Santa Fe, and the city of Buenos Aires. Seven other provinces each have about one million people: Mendoza, Tucumán, Entre Ríos, Salta, Chaco, Corrientes and Misiones. Tucumán is the most densely populated (with 60 inhabitants/km², the only Argentine province more densely populated than the world average), while the southern province of Santa Cruz has less than 1 inhabitant/km².
Most European immigrants settled in the cities which offered jobs, education and other opportunities enabling them to enter the middle class. Many also settled in the growing small towns along the expanding railway system and since the 1930s many rural workers have moved to the big cities.[10] Urban areas reflect the influence of European immigration, and most of the larger ones feature boulevards and diagonal avenues inspired by the redevelopment of Paris. Argentine cities were originally built in a colonial Spanish grid style, centered around a plaza overlooked by a cathedral and important government buildings. Many still retain this general layout, known as a damero, meaning checkerboard, since it is based on a pattern of square blocks. The city of La Plata, designed at the end of the nineteenth century by Pedro Benoit, combines the checkerboard layout with added diagonal avenues at fixed intervals, and was the first in South America with electric street illumination.[74]

Economy

The Buenos Aires waterfront and three sectors leading the recent economic recovery: construction, foreign trade and tourism
Newbery Airfield connects the vast nation to its capital, and to neighbouring Uruguay. International flights operate through Ministro Pistarini Airport at Ezeiza.
Freight rail yard in Rosario. The nations' railways move 25 million metric tons of cargo annually.[76]
Argentina has abundant natural resources, a well-educated population, an export-oriented agricultural sector and a relatively diversified industrial base. Domestic instability and global trends, however, contributed to Argentina's decline from its noteworthy position as the world's 10th wealthiest nation per capita in 1913[77] to that of an upper-middle income economy. Though no consensus exists explaining this, systemic problems have included increasingly burdensome debt, uncertainty over the monetary system, excessive regulation, barriers to free trade, and a weak rule of law coupled with corruption and a bloated bureaucracy.[77] Even during its era of decline between 1930 and 1980, however, the Argentine economy created Latin America's largest proportional middle class;[16] but this segment of the population has suffered from a series of economic crises between 1981 and 2002, when the relative decline became absolute.
Argentina's economy started to slowly lose ground after 1930,[78] when it entered the Great Depression and recovered slowly, afterwards. Erratic policies helped lead to serious bouts of stagflation in the 1949–52 and 1959–63 cycles and the country lost its place among the world's prosperous nations, even as it continued to industrialize.[16] Following a promising decade, the economy further declined during the military dictatorship that lasted from 1976 to 1983 and for some time afterwards.[79] The dictatorship's chief economist, José Alfredo Martínez de Hoz, advanced a disorganized, corrupt, monetarist[80] financial liberalization that increased the debt burden and interrupted industrial development and upward social mobility; over 400,000 companies of all sizes went bankrupt by 1982[16] and economic decisions made from 1983 through 2001 failed to reverse the situation.
Record foreign debt interest payments, tax evasion and capital flight resulted in a balance of payments crisis that plagued Argentina with severe stagflation from 1975 to 1990. Attempting to remedy this, economist Domingo Cavallo pegged the peso to the U.S. dollar in 1991 and limited the growth in the money supply. His team then embarked on a path of trade liberalization, deregulation and privatization. Inflation dropped and GDP grew by one third in four years;[76] but external economic shocks and failures of the system diluted benefits, causing the economy to crumble slowly from 1995 until the collapse in 2001. That year and the next, the economy suffered its sharpest decline since 1930; by 2002, Argentina had defaulted on its debt, its GDP had shrunk, unemployment reached 25% and the peso had depreciated 70% after being devalued and floated.[76]
In 2003 expansionary policies and commodity exports triggered a rebound in GDP. This trend has been largely maintained, creating millions of jobs and encouraging internal consumption. The socio-economic situation has been steadily improving and the economy grew around 9% annually for five consecutive years between 2003 and 2007 and 7% in 2008. Inflation, however, though officially hovering around 9% since 2006, has been privately estimated at over 15%,[81] becoming a contentious issue again. The urban income poverty rate has dropped to 18% as of mid-2008, a third of the peak level observed in 2002, though still above the level prior to 1976.[82][83] Income distribution, having improved since 2002, is still considerably unequal.[84][85]
Argentina ranks 106th out of 179 countries in the Transparency International's Corruption Perceptions Index for 2009.[86] Reported problems include both government and private-sector corruption, the latter of which include money laundering, trafficking in narcotics and contraband, and tax evasion.[87] The country faces slowing economic growth in light of an international financial crisis. The Kirchner administration responded at the end of 2008 with a record US$32 billion public-works program for 2009–10 and a further US$4 billion in new tax cuts and subsidies.[88][89] Kirchner has also nationalized private pensions, which required growing subsidies to cover, in a move designed to shed a budgetary drain as well as to finance high government spending and debt obligations.[90][91]
Argentina has, after its neighbour Chile, the second-highest Human Development Index and GDP per capita in purchasing power parity in Latin America. Argentina is one of the G-20 major economies, with the world's 31th largest nominal GDP, and the 23rd largest by purchasing power. The country is classified as upper-middle income or a secondary emerging market by the World Bank.

Government

The Casa Rosada, seat of the Executive branch
The Argentine National Congress, Buenos Aires
The Supreme Court of Argentina
The Argentine Constitution of 1853 mandates a separation of powers into executive, legislative, and judicial branches at the national and provincial level. The political framework is a federal representative democratic republic, in which the President is both head of state and head of government, complemented by a pluriform multi-party system.
Executive power resides in the President and the Cabinet. The President and Vice President are directly elected to four-year terms and are limited to two terms. Cabinet ministers are appointed by the President and are not subject to legislative ratification. The current President is Cristina Fernández de Kirchner, with Julio Cobos as Vice President.
Legislative power is vested in the bicameral National Congress, comprising a 72-member Senate and a 257-member Chamber of Deputies. Senators serve six-year terms, with one-third standing for re-election every two years. Members of the Chamber of Deputies are elected to four-year terms by a proportional representation system, with half of the members standing for re-election every two years. A third of the candidates presented by the parties must be women.
The judiciary is independent of the executive and the legislature. The Supreme Court has seven members appointed by the President in consultation with the Senate. The judges of all the other courts are appointed by the Council of Magistrates of the Nation, a secretariat composed of representatives of judges, lawyers, the Congress and the executive.
Though declared the capital in 1853, Buenos Aires did not become the official Capital until 1880. There have been moves to relocate the administrative centre elsewhere. During the presidency of Raúl Alfonsín, a law was passed to transfer the federal capital to Viedma, Río Negro. Studies were underway when economic problems halted the project in 1989. Though the law was never formally repealed, it is now treated as a relic.
Argentina is divided into twenty-three provinces (provincias; singular provincia) and one Autonomous City. Buenos Aires Province is divided into 134 partidos, while the remaining Provinces are divided into 376 departments (departamentos). Departments and Partidos are further subdivided into municipalities or districts. With the exception of Buenos Aires Province, the nation's provinces have chosen in recent years to enter into treaties with other provinces, forming four federated regions aimed at fostering economic integration and development: Center Region, Patagonic Region, New Cuyo Region and the Argentine Greater North Region..

Provinces of Argentina and Autonomous City of Buenos Aires


a Not a Province. Autonomous City and seat of National Government.
b Tierra del Fuego Province includes the Argentine claims over Antarctica, the Falkland Islands and South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands
Tierra del Fuego Santa Cruz Chubut Rio Negro Neuquen La Pampa Buenos Aires Ciudad Autonoma de Buenos Aires Santa Fe Cordoba San Luis Mendoza San Juan La Rioja Catamarca Salta Jujuy Tucuman Santiago del Estero Chaco Formosa Corrientes Misiones Entre Rios Falkland Islands Antartida Argentina
Map of the provinces of Argentina. Note that areas in orange are disputed: the Falkland Islands and South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands are under British effective control; and claims to Antarctica are regulated by the Antarctic Treaty, and overlap claims by the United Kingdom and Chile.

Foreign policy

Argentina is a full member of the Mercosur block together with Brazil, Paraguay, Uruguay and Venezuela; and five associate members: Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador and Peru. From 2006 Argentina has emphasized Mercosur (Mercosul in Brazil) , which has some supranational legislative functions, as its first international priority; by contrast, during the 1990s, it relied more heavily on its relationship with the United States. Argentina is a founding signatory and permanent consulting member of the Antarctic Treaty System and the Antarctic Treaty Secretariat is based in Buenos Aires.[92]
Argentina has long claimed sovereignty over the Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas), the South Shetland Islands, the South Sandwich Islands and almost 1 million km² in Antarctica, between the 25°W and the 74°W meridians and the 60°S parallel, overlapping British claims. Since 1904, a scientific post has been maintained in Antarctica by mutual agreement. While Argentina has employed threats and force to pursue its claims against Chile in the Beagle channel and Laguna del Desierto, against Britain in Antarctica[93] and the Falklands, as well as against illegal trawlers, this is the exception rather than the rule in Argentine international relations.
Argentina was the only Latin American country to participate in the 1991 Gulf War under the United Nations mandate. It was also the only Latin American country involved in every phase of Operation Uphold Democracy in Haiti.[citation needed] Argentina has contributed worldwide to peacekeeping operations, including those in El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, Guatemala, the Ecuador-Peru dispute, Western Sahara, Angola, Kuwait, Cyprus, Croatia, Kosovo, Bosnia and Timor Leste. In recognition of its contributions to international security, U.S. President Bill Clinton designated Argentina as a major non-NATO ally in January 1998. It was last elected as a member of the UN Security Council in 2005. The United Nations White Helmets, a bulwark of peacekeeping and humanitarian aid efforts, were first deployed in 1994 following an Argentine initiative.[94]

Military

Libertador Building (Ministry of Defense and Army Headquarters) and the museum ship ARA Sarmiento, a sail frigate.
The armed forces of Argentina comprise an army, navy and air force, and number about 70,000 active duty personnel, one third fewer than levels before the return to democracy in 1983.[95] The President is commander-in-chief of the armed forces, with the Defense Ministry exercising day-to-day control. There are also two other forces; the Naval Prefecture (which patrols Argentine territorial waters) and the National Gendarmerie (which patrols the border regions); both arms are controlled by the Interior Ministry but maintain liaison with the Defense Ministry. The minimum age for enlistment in the armed forces is 18 years and there is no obligatory military service.
Historically, Argentina's military has been one of the best equipped in the region (for example, developing its own jet fighters as early as the 1950s);[96] but recently it has faced sharper expenditure cutbacks than most other Latin American armed forces. Real military expenditures declined steadily after 1981 and though there have been recent increases, the defense budget is now around US$3 billion.[97] The armed forces are currently participating in major peacekeeping operations in Haiti and Cyprus.

Transportation

Motorway in Buenos Aires (Av. General Paz)
Buenos Aires Light rail
Argentina's transport infrastructure is relatively advanced.[98] There are over 230,000 km (144,000 mi) of roads (not including private rural roads) of which 72,000 km (45,000 mi) are paved[99] and 1,575 km (980 mi) are expressways,[100] many of which are privatized tollways. Having doubled in length in recent years, multilane expressways now connect several major cities with more under construction.[101] Expressways are, however, currently inadequate to deal with local traffic, as 9.5 million motor vehicles are registered nationally as of 2009 (240 per 1000 population).[102]
A cargo ship in front of the Rosario-Victoria Bridge
The railway network has a total length of 34,059 km (21,170 mi).[103] After decades of declining service and inadequate maintenance, most intercity passenger services shut down in 1992 when the rail company was privatized, and thousands of kilometers of track (excluding the above total) are now in disuse. Metropolitan rail services in and around Buenos Aires remained in great demand, however, owing in part to their easy access to the Buenos Aires subway, and intercity rail services are currently being reactivated along numerous lines.
Inaugurated in 1913, the Buenos Aires Metro was the first subway system built in Latin America and the Southern Hemisphere.[104] It is no longer the most extensive in South America; but, its 52.3 km (32.5 mi) of track carry nearly a million passengers daily.[76]
Argentina has around 11,000 km (6,835 mi) of navigable waterways, and these carry more cargo than do the country's renown freight railways.[105] This includes an extensive network of canals, though Argentina is blessed with ample natural waterways, as well; the most significant among these being the Río de la Plata, Paraná, Uruguay, Río Negro and Paraguay rivers.
Aerolineas Argentinas is the country's main airline, providing both extensive domestic and international service. Austral Lineas Aereas is Aerolineas Argentinas' subsidiary, with a route system that covers almost all of the country. LADE is a military-run airline that flies extensive domestic services.

Flora

The ceibo is the national flower of Argentina
Subtropical plants dominate the Gran Chaco in the north, with the Dalbergia genus of trees well represented by Brazilian Rosewood and the quebracho tree; also predominant are white and black algarrobo trees (prosopis alba and prosopis nigra). Savannah-like areas exist in the drier regions nearer the Andes. Aquatic plants thrive in the wetlands of Argentina. In central Argentina the humid pampas are a true tallgrass prairie ecosystem. The original pampa had virtually no trees; some imported species like the American sycamore or eucalyptus are present along roads or in towns and country estates (estancias). The only tree-like plant native to the pampa is the evergreen Ombú. The surface soils of the pampa are a deep black color, primarily mollisols, known commonly as humus. This makes the region one of the most agriculturally productive on Earth; however, this is also responsible for decimating much of the original ecosystem, to make way for commercial agriculture. The western pampas receive less rainfall, this dry pampa is a plain of short grasses or steppe.[106]
Most of Patagonia lies within the rain shadow of the Andes, so the flora, shrubby bushes and plants, is suited to dry conditions. The soil is hard and rocky, making large-scale farming impossible except along river valleys. Coniferous forests in far western Patagonia and on the island of Tierra del Fuego, include alerce, ciprés de la cordillera, ciprés de las guaitecas, huililahuán, lleuque, mañío hembra and pehuén, while broadleaf trees include several species of Nothofagus such as coihue, lenga and ñire. Other introduced trees present in forestry plantations include spruce, cypress and pine. Common plants are the copihue and colihue.[107]
In Cuyo, semiarid thorny bushes and other xerophile plants abound. Along the many rivers grasses and trees grow in significant numbers. The area presents optimal conditions for the large scale growth of grape vines. In northwest Argentina there are many species of cactus. No vegetation grows in the highest elevations (above 4,000 m (13,000 ft)) because of the extreme altitude.

Fauna

The hornero is one of the national emblems of Argentina
Many species live in the subtropical north. Big cats like the jaguar, cougar, and ocelot; primates (howler monkey); large reptiles (crocodiles), Argentine Black and White Tegu and a species of caiman. Other animals include the tapir, peccary, capybara, bush dog, raccoon and various species of turtle and tortoise. There are a wide variety of birds, notably hummingbirds, flamingos, toucans and swallows.
The central grasslands are populated by the giant anteater, armadillo, pampas cat, maned wolf, mara, cavias and the rhea (ñandú), a flightless bird. Hawks, falcons, herons and tinamous (perdiz, Argentine "false partridges") inhabit the region. There are also pampas deer and pampas foxes. Some of these species extend into Patagonia.
The puma inhabits the northeast of the country
The western mountains are home to different animals. These include the llama, guanaco, vicuña, among the most recognizable species of South America. Also in this region are the fox, viscacha, Andean Mountain Cat, kodkod and the largest flying bird in the New World, the Andean Condor.
Southern Argentina is home to the cougar, huemul, pudú (the world's smallest deer), and introduced, non-native wild boar.[107] The coast of Patagonia is rich in animal life: elephant seals, fur seals, sea lions and species of penguin. The far south is populated by cormorants.
The territorial waters of Argentina have abundant ocean life; mammals such as dolphins, orcas, and whales like the southern right whale, a major tourist draw for naturalists. Sea fish include sardines, Argentine hakes, dolphinfish, salmon, and sharks; also present are squid and spider crab (centolla) in Tierra del Fuego. Rivers and streams in Argentina have many species of trout and the South American dorado fish. Outstanding snake species inhabiting Argentina include boa constrictors and the very venomous yarará pit viper and South American rattle snake. The Hornero was elected the National Bird after a survey in 1928.[108]

Culture

Café de los Angelitos, a meeting point for musical and literary talent, like many Argentine coffee houses
Argentine culture has significant European influences. Buenos Aires, its cultural capital, is largely characterized by both the prevalence of people of European descent, and of conscious imitation of European styles in architecture.[109] The other big influence is the gauchos and their traditional country lifestyle of self-reliance. Finally, indigenous American traditions (like yerba mate infusions) have been absorbed into the general cultural milieu.

Literature

When I think of what I've lost, I ask "who know themselves better than the blind?" – for every thought becomes a tool.[110]
Jorge Luis Borges
Argentina has a rich literary history, as well as one of the region's most active publishing industries. Argentine writers have figured prminently in Latin American literature since becoming a fully united entity in the 1850s, with a strong constitution and a defined nation-building plan. The struggle between the Federalists (who favored a loose confederation of provinces based on rural conservatism) and the Unitarians (pro-liberalism and advocates of a strong central government that would encourage European immigration), set the tone for Argentine literature of the time.[111]
The ideological divide between gaucho epic Martín Fierro by José Hernández, and Facundo[112] by Domingo Faustino Sarmiento, is a great example. Hernández, a federalist, was opposed to the centralizing, modernizing and Europeanizing tendencies. Sarmiento wrote in support of immigration as the only way to save Argentina from becoming subject to the rule of a small number of dictatorial caudillo families, arguing such immigrants would make Argentina more modern and open to Western European influences and therefore a more prosperous society.[113]
Argentine literature of that period was fiercely nationalist. It was followed by the modernist movement, which emerged in France in the late nineteenth century, and this period in turn was followed by vanguardism, with Ricardo Güiraldes as an important reference. Jorge Luis Borges, its most acclaimed writer, found new ways of looking at the modern world in metaphor and philosophical debate and his influence has extended to writers all over the globe. Borges is most famous for his works in short stories such as Ficciones and The Aleph.
Some of the nation's notable writers, poets and intellectuals include: Juan Bautista Alberdi, Roberto Arlt, Enrique Banchs, Adolfo Bioy Casares, Silvina Bullrich, Eugenio Cambaceres, Julio Cortázar, Esteban Echeverría, Leopoldo Lugones, Eduardo Mallea, Ezequiel Martínez Estrada, Tomás Eloy Martínez, Victoria Ocampo, Manuel Puig, Ernesto Sabato, Osvaldo Soriano, Alfonsina Storni and María Elena Walsh. Caricaturists have also contributed prominently to antional culture, including Alberto Breccia, Dante Quinterno, Oski, Francisco Solano López, Horacio Altuna, Guillermo Mordillo, Roberto Fontanarrosa, whose grotesque characters captured life's absurdities with quick-witted commentary, and Quino, known for the soup-hating Mafalda and her comic strip gang of childhood friends.

Film and theatre

The Gran Rex Cinema, Buenos Aires
The Teatro Colón, Buenos Aires
Argentina is a major producer of motion pictures, and the local film industry produces around 80 full-length titles annually.[109][114] The world's first animated feature films were made and released in Argentina, by cartoonist Quirino Cristiani, in 1917 and 1918.[115] Argentine cinema enjoyed a 'golden age' in the 1930s through the 1950s with scores of productions, many now considered classics of Spanish-language film. The industry produced actors who became the first movie stars of Argentine cinema, often tango performers such as Libertad Lamarque, Floren Delbene, Tito Lusiardo, Tita Merello, Roberto Escalada and Hugo del Carril.
More recent films from the "New Wave" of cinema since the 1980s have achieved worldwide recognition, such as The Official Story (Best foreign film oscar in 1986), Nine Queens, Man Facing Southeast, A Place in the World, Son of the Bride, The Motorcycle Diaries, Blessed by Fire, and The Secret in Their Eyes, which won the 2009 Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film. Although rarely rivaling Hollywood productions in popularity, local films are released weekly and widely followed in Argentina and internationally. A number of local films, many of which are low-budget productions, have earned prizes in cinema festivals (such as Cannes), and are promoted by events such as the Mar del Plata Film Festival and the Buenos Aires International Festival of Independent Cinema.
The per capita number of screens is one of the highest in Latin America, and viewing per capita is the highest in the region.[111] A new generation of Argentine directors has caught the attention of critics worldwide.[116] Cinema is an important facet of local culture, as well as a popular pastime, and levels of cinema attendance are comparable to those of European countries.[105] Argentine composers Luis Enrique Bacalov, Gustavo Santaolalla and Eugenio Zanetti have been honored with Academy Award for Best Original Score nods. Lalo Schifrin has received numerous Grammys and is best known for the Mission:Impossible theme.
Buenos Aires is one of the great capitals of theater.[111] The Teatro Colón is a national landmark for opera and classical performances; built at the end of the 19th century, its acoustics are considered the best in the world,[109] and is currently undergoing a major refurbishment in order to preserve its outstanding sound characteristics, the French-romantic style, the impressive Golden Room (a minor auditorium targeted to Chamber Music performances) and the museum at the entrance. With its theatre scene of national and international caliber, Corrientes Avenue is synonymous with the art. It is thought of as 'the street that never sleeps' and sometimes referred to as the Broadway of Buenos Aires.[117] Many great careers in acting, music, and film have begun in its many theaters. The Teatro General San Martín is one of the most prestigious along Corrientes Avenue and the Teatro Nacional Cervantes functions as the national stage theater of Argentina. The El Círculo in Rosario, Independencia in Mendoza and Libertador in Córdoba are also prominent. Griselda Gambaro, Copi, Roberto Cossa, Marco Denevi, Carlos Gorostiza, and Alberto Vaccarezza are a few of the more prominent Argentine playwrights. Julio Bocca, Jorge Donn, José Neglia and Norma Fontenla are some of the great ballet dancers of the modern era.

Architecture, painting and sculpture

Second Empire and Neoclassical architecture in downtown Buenos Aires
Font of the Nereids (1903) by Lola Mora, a student of Auguste Rodin's
Numerous Argentine architects have enriched their own country's cityscapes and, in recent decades, those around the world. Juan Antonio Buschiazzo helped popularize Beaux-Arts architecture and Francisco Gianotti combined Art Nouveau with Italianate styles, each adding flair to Argentine cities during the early 20th century. Francisco Salamone and Viktor Sulĉiĉ left an Art Deco legacy, and Alejandro Bustillo created a prolific body of Rationalist architecture. Clorindo Testa introduced Brutalist architecture locally and César Pelli's and Patricio Pouchulu's Futurist creations have graced cities, worldwide. Pelli's 1980s throwbacks to the Art Deco glory of the 1920s, in particular, made him one of the world's most prestigious architects.
One of the most influential Argentine figures in fine arts was Xul Solar, whose surrealist work used watercolors as readily as unorthodox painting media; he also "invented" two imaginary languages. The works of Cándido López (in Naïve art style), Ernesto de la Cárcova and Eduardo Sívori (realism), Fernando Fader (impressionism), Pío Collivadino and Cesáreo Bernaldo de Quirós (post-impressionist), Emilio Pettoruti (cubist), Antonio Berni (neo-figurative), Gyula Košice (constructivism), Eduardo Mac Entyre (Generative art), Guillermo Kuitca (abstract), and Roberto Aizenberg (Surrealism) are a few of the best-known Argentine painters.
Others include Benito Quinquela Martín, a quintessential 'port' painter for whom the working class and immigrant-bound La Boca neighborhood, in particular, was excellently suited. A similar environment inspired Adolfo Bellocq, whose lithographs have been influential since the 1920s. Evocative monuments ny Realist sculptors Erminio Blotta, Lola Mora and Rogelio Yrurtia became the part of the national landscape and today, Lucio Fontana and León Ferrari are acclaimed sculptors and conceptual artists. Ciruelo is a world-famous fantasy artist and sculptor, and Marta Minujín is an innovative Conceptual artist.

Food and drink

Mate (an herbal beverage) in a traditional gourd
Besides many of the pasta, sausage and dessert dishes common to continental Europe, Argentines enjoy a wide variety of indigenous creations, which include empanadas (a stuffed pastry), locro (a mixture of corn, beans, meat, bacon, onion, and gourd), humitas and yerba mate, all originally indigenous Amerindian staples, the latter considered Argentina's national beverage. Other popular items include chorizo (a spicy sausage), facturas (Viennese-style pastry) and Dulce de Leche, a sort of milk caramel jam.
An asado with sliced provolone
The Argentine barbecue, asado as well as a parrillada, includes various types of meats, among them chorizo, sweetbread, chitterlings, and morcilla (blood sausage). Thin sandwiches, sandwiches de miga, are also popular. Argentines have the highest consumption of red meat in the world.[118]
The Argentine wine industry, long among the largest outside Europe, has benefited from growing investment since 1992; in 2007, 60% of foreign investment worldwide in viticulture was destined to Argentina.[119] The country is the fifth most important wine producer in the world,[105] with the annual per capita consumption of wine among the highest. Malbec grape, a discardable varietal in France (country of origin), has found in the Province of Mendoza an ideal environment to successfully develop and turn itself into the world's best Malbec.[119] Mendoza accounts for 70% of the country's total wine production. "Wine tourism" is important in Mendoza province, with the impressive landscape of the Cordillera de Los Andes and the highest peak in the Americas, Mount Aconcagua, 6,952 m (22,808 ft) high, providing a very desirable destination for international tourism.

Sports

Argentine player Ignacio Corleto about to score against France in the 2007 Rugby World Cup
The official national sport of Argentina is pato,[120] played with a six-handle ball on horseback, but the most popular sport is association football.[121] The national football team has won 25 major international titles[122] including two FIFA World Cups, two Olympic gold medals and fourteen Copa Américas.[123] Over one thousand Argentine players play abroad, the majority of them in European football leagues.[124] There are 331,811 registered football players,[125] with increasing numbers of girls and women, who have organized their own national championships since 1991 and were South American champions in 2006.
The Argentine Football Association (AFA) was formed in 1893 and is the eighth oldest national football association in the world. The 1891 league tournament in Argentina was the third in football history, after England and the Netherlands. The AFA today counts 3,377 football clubs,[125] including 20 in the Premier Division. Since the AFA went professional in 1931, fifteen teams have won national tournament titles, including River Plate with 33 and Boca Juniors with 24.[126] Over the last twenty years, futsal and beach soccer have become increasingly popular. The Argentine beach football team was one of four competitors in the first international championship for the sport, in Miami, in 1993.[127]
Basketball is the second most popular sport; a number of basketball players play in the U.S. National Basketball Association and European leagues including Manu Ginóbili, Andrés Nocioni, Carlos Delfino, Luis Scola and Fabricio Oberto. The men's national basketball team won Olympic gold in the 2004 Olympics and the bronze medal in 2008. Argentina is currently ranked first by the International Basketball Federation. Argentina has an important rugby union football team, "Los Pumas", with many of its players playing in Europe. Argentina beat host nation France twice in the 2007 Rugby World Cup, placing them third in the competition. The Pumas are currently sixth in the official world rankings. Other popular sports include field hockey (particularly amongst women), tennis, auto racing, boxing, volleyball, polo and golf.
Carlos Gardel, still the standard among Tango vocalists

Music

Tango, the music and lyrics (often sung in a form of slang called lunfardo), is Argentina's musical symbol. The Milonga dance was a predecessor, slowly evolving into modern tango. By the 1930s, tango had changed from a dance-focused music to one of lyric and poetry, with singers such as Carlos Gardel, Hugo del Carril, Roberto Goyeneche, Raúl Lavié, Tita Merello and Edmundo Rivero. The golden age of tango (1930 to mid-1950s) mirrored that of Jazz and Swing in the United States, featuring large orchestral groups too, like the bands of Osvaldo Pugliese, Anibal Troilo, Francisco Canaro, Julio de Caro and Juan D'Arienzo. Incorporating acoustic music and later, synthesizers into the genre after 1955, bandoneon virtuoso Astor Piazzolla popularized "new tango" creating a more subtle, intellectual and listener-oriented trend. Today tango enjoys worldwide popularity; ever-evolving, neo-tango is a global phenomenon with renown groups like Tanghetto, Bajofondo and the Gotan Project.
Progressive rock musician
Charly García
Argentine rock, called rock nacional, is the most popular music among youth. Arguably the most listened form of Spanish-language rock, its influence and success internationally owes to a rich, uninterrupted development. Bands such as Soda Stereo or Sumo, and composers like Charly García, Luis Alberto Spinetta, and Fito Páez are referents of national culture. Mid-1960s Buenos Aires and Rosario were cradles of the music and by 1970, Argentine rock was well-established among middle class youth (see Almendra, Sui Generis, Pappo, Crucis). Seru Giran bridged the gap into the 1980s, when Argentine bands became popular across Latin America and elsewhere (Enanitos Verdes, Fabulosos Cadillacs, Virus, Andrés Calamaro). There are many sub-genres: underground, pop-oriented and some associated with the working class (La Renga, Attaque 77, Divididos, Hermética, V8 and Los Redonditos). Current popular bands include: Babasonicos, Rata Blanca, Horcas, Attaque 77, Bersuit, Los Piojos, Intoxicados, Catupecu Machu, Carajo and Miranda!.
Mercedes Sosa, the grande dame of Argentine folk music
European classical music is well represented in Argentina. Buenos Aires is home to the world-renowned Colón Theater. Classical musicians, such as Martha Argerich, Eduardo Alonso-Crespo, Daniel Barenboim, Eduardo Delgado and Alberto Lysy, and classical composers such as Juan José Castro and Alberto Ginastera are internationally acclaimed. All major cities in Argentina have impressive theaters or opera houses, and provincial or city orchestras. Some cities have annual events and important classical music festivals like Semana Musical Llao Llao in San Carlos de Bariloche and the multitudinous Amadeus in Buenos Aires.
Argentine folk music is uniquely vast. Beyond dozens of regional dances, a national folk style emerged in the 1930s. Perón's Argentina would give rise to Nueva Canción, as artists began expressing in their music objections to political themes. Atahualpa Yupanqui, the greatest Argentine folk musician, and Mercedes Sosa would be defining figures in shaping Nueva Canción, gaining worldwide popularity in the process. The style found a huge reception in Chile, where it took off in the 1970s and went on to influence the entirety of Latin American music.[128] Today, Chango Spasiuk and Soledad Pastorutti have brought folk back to younger generations. Leon Gieco's folk-rock bridged the gap between Argentine folklore and Argentine rock, introducing both styles to millions overseas in successive tours.

Holidays

Though holidays of many faiths are respected, public holidays usually include most Catholic holidays. Historic holidays include the celebration of the May Revolution (25 May), the Independence Day (9 July), National Flag Day (20 June) and the death of José de San Martín (17 August).
The extended family gathers on Christmas Eve at around 9 p.m. for dinner, music, and often dancing. Candies are served just before midnight, when the fireworks begin. They also open gifts from Papá Noel (Father Christmas or "Santa Claus"). New Year's Day is also marked with fireworks. Other widely observed holidays include Good Friday, Easter, Labor Day (1 May) and Sovereignty Day (formerly Malvinas Day, 2 April).

Education

After independence Argentina constructed a national public education system in comparison to other nations, placing the country high up in the global rankings of literacy. Today the country has a literacy rate of 97%, and three in eight adults over age 20 have completed secondary school studies or higher.[82]
The ubiquitous white uniform of Argentine school children is a national symbol of learning
School attendance is compulsory between the ages of 5 and 17. The Argentine school system consists of a primary or lower school level lasting six or seven years, and a secondary or high school level lasting between five to six years. In the 1990s, the system was split into different types of high school instruction, called Educacion Secundaria and the Polimodal. Some provinces adopted the Polimodal while others did not. A project in the executive branch to repeal this measure and return to a more traditional secondary level system was approved in 2006.[129] President Domingo Faustino Sarmiento is overwhelmingly credited in pushing and implementing a free, modern education system in Argentina. The 1918 university reform shaped the current tripartite representation of most public universities.
Education is funded by tax payers at all levels except for the majority of graduate studies. There are many private school institutions in the primary, secondary and university levels. Around 11.4 million people were enrolled in formal education of some kind in 2006, including 1.5 million in the nation's 85 universities.[82]
Public education in Argentina is tuition-free from the primary to the university levels. Though literacy was nearly universal as early as 1947,[82] the majority of Argentine youth had little access to education beyond the compulsory seven years of grade school during the first half of the 20th century; since then, when the tuition-free system was extended to the secondary and university levels, demand for these facilities has often outstripped budgets (particularly since the 1970s).[130] Consequently, public education is now widely found wanting and in decline; this has helped private education flourish, though it has also caused a marked inequity between those who can afford it (usually the middle and upper classes) and the rest of society, as private schools often have no scholarship systems in place. Roughly one in four primary and secondary students and one in six university students attend private institutions.[82][130]
There are thirty-eight public universities across the country,[131] as well as numerous private ones. The University of Buenos Aires, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Universidad Nacional de Rosario, and the National Technological University are among the most important. Public universities faced cutbacks in spending during the 1980s and 1990s, which led to a decline in overall quality.
However, in the last years education received increased interest from the government and in the year 2009 the inversion in education has been the largest in history, thus reflecting the improvements in infrastructure of universities and schools all around the country.

Health care

The University of Buenos Aires School of Medicine, alma mater to many of the country's 3,000 medical graduates, annually.[132]
Health care is provided through a combination of employer and labor union-sponsored plans (Obras Sociales), government insurance plans, public hospitals and clinics and through private health insurance plans. Government efforts to improve public health can be traced to Spanish Viceroy Juan José de Vértiz's first Medical Tribunal of 1780.[133] Following independence, medical schools were established at the University of Buenos Aires (1822) and the National University of Córdoba (1877). The training of doctors and nurses at these and other schools enabled the rapid development of health care cooperatives, which during the presidency of Juan Perón became publicly subsidized Obras Sociales. Today, these number over 300 (of which 200 are related to labor unions) and provide health care for half the population; the national INSSJP (popularly known as PAMI) covers nearly all of the five million senior citizens.[134]
Perón's Minister of Health, Ramón Carrillo, borrowed from German Chancellor Otto von Bismarck's support for employer or guild-sponsored plans and the British National Health Service. He advanced the widespread use of Obras Sociales, a form of health insurance cooperative, accompanied by the construction of over 4,000 public clinics and hospitals.[134][135] These (totaling 8,000) serve the roughly 40% of Argentines who belong to neither an Obra Social nor to one of 280 private health insurance companies.[136] Private health insurance, which was first made available in 1932 by Alejandro Schvarzer, covers 1.1 million households (about 10% of the population) and collects average monthly premiums of about US$100 (though larger families often pay US$300). This system operates nearly 10,000 clinics and 18,000 beds.[136][137]
Health care costs amount to almost 10% of GDP and have been growing in pace with the proportion of Argentines over 65 (7% in 1970). Public and private spending have historically split this about evenly: public funds are mainly spent through Obras, which in turn, refer patients needing hospitalization to private and public clinics; private funds are spent evenly between private insurers' coverage and out-of-pocket expenses.[138][139]
There are more than 153,000 hospital beds, 121,000 physicians and 37,000 dentists (ratios comparable to developed nations).[137][140] The relatively high access to medical care has historically resulted in mortality patterns and trends similar to developed nations': from 1953 to 2005, deaths from cardiovascular disease increased from 20% to 23% of the total, those from tumors from 14% to 20%, respiratory problems from 7% to 14%, digestive maladies (non-infectious) from 7% to 11%, strokes a steady 7%, injuries a steady 6% and infectious diseases, 4%. Causes related to senility led to many of the rest. Infant deaths have fallen from 19% of all deaths in 1953 to 3% in 2005.[137][141]
The availability of health care has reduced infant mortality from 70 per 1000 live births in 1948[142] to 12.5 in 2008[137] and raised life expectancy at birth from 60 years to 76.[142] Though these figures compare favorably with global averages, they fall short of levels in developed nations and in 2006, Argentina ranked fourth in Latin America.[140]

Science and technology

Dr. Luis Federico Leloir (left) and his staff toast his 1970 Nobel Prize in Chemistry
Argentina has contributed many distinguished doctors, scientists and inventors to the world, including three Nobel Prize laureates in sciences. Argentines have been responsible for major breakthroughs in world medicine; their research has led to significant advances in wound-healing therapies and in the treatment of heart disease and several forms of cancer. Domingo Liotta designed and developed the first artificial heart successfully implanted in a human being in 1969. René Favaloro developed the techniques and performed the world's first ever coronary bypass surgery and Francisco de Pedro invented a more reliable artificial cardiac pacemaker.
Bernardo Houssay, the first Latin American awarded with a Nobel Prize in the Sciences, discovered the role of pituitary hormones in regulating glucose in animals; César Milstein did extensive research in antibodies; Luis Leloir discovered how organisms store energy converting glucose into glycogen and the compounds which are fundamental in metabolizing carbohydrates. Dr. Luis Agote devised the first safe method of blood transfusion, Enrique Finochietto designed operating table tools such as the surgical scissors that bear his name ("Finochietto scissors") and a surgical rib-spreader.[143] They have likewise contributed to bioscience in efforts like the Human Genome Project, where Argentine scientists have successfully mapped the genome of a living being, a world first.[144][145]
Dr. Luis Agote (second from right) overseeing the first safe and effective blood transfusion (1914)
Argentina's nuclear program is highly advanced, having resulted in a research reactor in 1957 and Latin America's first on-line commercial reactor in 1974. Argentina developed its nuclear program without being overly dependent on foreign technology. Nuclear facilities with Argentine technology have been built in Peru, Algeria, Australia and Egypt. In 1983, the country admitted having the capability of producing weapon-grade uranium, a major step needed to assemble nuclear weapons; since then, however, Argentina has pledged to use nuclear power only for peaceful purposes.[146]
In other areas, Juan Vucetich, a Croatian immigrant, was the father of modern fingerprinting (dactiloscopy).[147] Raúl Pateras Pescara demonstrated the world's first flight of a helicopter, Hungarian-Argentine László Bíró mass-produced the first modern ball point pens and Eduardo Taurozzi developed the pendular combustion engine.[148] Juan Maldacena, an Argentine-American scientist, is a leading figure in string theory. An Argentine satellite, the PEHUENSAT-1[149] was successfully launched on 10 January 2007 using the Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV). The Pierre Auger Observatory near Malargüe, Mendoza, is the world's foremost cosmic ray observatory.[150]

Communications and media

Print

The funeral of Eva Perón, as covered by Clarín
Public television, Buenos Aires. On the air since 1951, Argentine TV broadcasting was the first in Latin America.
The print media industry is highly developed and independent of the government, with more than two hundred newspapers. The major national newspapers are from Buenos Aires, including the centrist Clarín, the best-selling daily in Latin America and the second most-widely circulated in the Spanish-speaking world.[151] Other nationally circulated papers are La Nación (center-right, published since 1870), Página/12 (left-wing), Ámbito Financiero (business conservative), Olé (sports) and Crónica (populist).
Two foreign language newspapers enjoy a relatively high circulation: the Argentinisches Tageblatt in German and the Buenos Aires Herald, published since 1876. Major regional papers include La Voz del Interior (Córdoba), Río Negro (General Roca), Los Andes (Mendoza), La Capital (Rosario), El Tribuno (Salta) and La Gaceta (Tucuman). The most circulated newsmagazine is Noticias.[152] The Argentine publishing industry ranks with Spain's and Mexico's as the most important in the Spanish-speaking world, and includes the largest bookstore chain in Latin America, El Ateneo.

Radio and television

Argentina was a pioneering nation in radio broadcasting: at 9 pm on 27 August 1920, Sociedad Radio Argentina announced: "We now bring to your homes a live performance of Richard Wagner's Parsifal opera from the Coliseo Theater]in downtown Buenos Aires"; only about twenty homes in the city had a receiver to tune in. The world's first radio station was the only one in the country until 1922, when Radio Cultura went on the air; by 1925, there were twelve stations in Buenos Aires and ten in other cities. The 1930s were the "golden age" of radio in Argentina, with live variety, news, soap opera and sport shows.[153]
There are currently 260 AM broadcasting and 1150 FM broadcasting radio stations in Argentina.[154] Radio remains an important medium in Argentina. Music and youth variety programs dominate FM formats; news, debate, and sports are AM radio's primary broadcasts. Amateur radio is widespread in the country. Radio still serves a vital service of information, entertainment and even life saving in the most remote communities.
The Argentine television industry is large and diverse, widely viewed in Latin America, and its productions seen around the world. Many local programs are broadcast by networks in other countries, and others have their rights purchased by foreign producers for adaptations in their own markets. Argentina has five major networks. All provincial capitals and other large cities have at least one local station. Argentines enjoy the highest availability of cable and satellite television in Latin America, similar to percentages in North America.[155] Many cable networks operate from Argentina and serve the Spanish-speaking world, including Utilísima Satelital, TyC Sports, Fox Sports en Español (with the United States and México), MTV Argentina, Cosmopolitan TV and the news network Todo Noticias.

International rankings

Organization Survey Ranking
Institute for Economics and Peace [5] Global Peace Index[156] 66 out of 144
Columbia and Yale Universities Environmental Performance Index 38 out of 149
The Economist Worldwide Quality-of-life Index, 2005 40 out of 111
Fund for Peace Failed States Index (inverted ranking) 151 out of 177
Heritage Foundation/The Wall Street Journal Index of Economic Freedom 107 out of 157
International Living Quality-of-life Index, 2008 13 out of 192
Reporters Without Borders Worldwide Press Freedom Index 47 out of 175
Transparency International Corruption Perceptions Index 106 out of 180
New Economics Foundation Happy Planet Index 15 out of 143
United Nations Development Programme Human Development Index 49 out of 180

See also

References

Notes

  1. ^ Article 35 of the "Constitution". http://www.argentina.gov.ar/argentina/portal/documentos/constitucion_ingles.pdf.  gives equal recognition to "United Provinces of the River Plate", "Argentine Republic" and "Argentine Confederation" and authorizes the use of "Argentine Nation" in the making and enactment of laws
  2. ^ a b c Ben Cahoon. "Argentina". World Statesmen.org. http://www.worldstatesmen.org/Argentina.html. 
  3. ^ a b c "Encuesta Complementaria de Pueblos Indígenas 2004–2005". National Institute of Statistics and Census of Argentina. http://www.indec.gov.ar/webcenso/ECPI/index_ecpi.asp.  (Spanish)
  4. ^ a b "Proyecciones provinciales de población por sexo y grupos de edad 2001–2015". Gustavo Pérez. INDEC. http://www.indec.mecon.ar/nuevaweb/cuadros/2/proyecciones_provinciales_vol31.pdf. Retrieved 2008-06-24. 
  5. ^ a b c d "Argentina". International Monetary Fund. http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/weo/2009/02/weodata/weorept.aspx?sy=2006&ey=2009&scsm=1&ssd=1&sort=country&ds=.&br=1&c=213&s=NGDPD%2CNGDPDPC%2CPPPGDP%2CPPPPC%2CLP&grp=0&a=&pr.x=10&pr.y=18. Retrieved 2009-10-01. 
  6. ^ "Distribution of family income – Gini index". The World Factbook. CIA. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/fields/2172.html. Retrieved 2009-09-01. 
  7. ^ Human Development Report 2009. The United Nations. Retrieved 5 October 2009.
  8. ^ Liddell, Henry George; Scott, Robert (1940). A Greek-English Lexicon. Oxford: Clarendon Press. ISBN 0198642261. http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/ptext?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.04.0057%3Aentry%3D%2314776. Retrieved 2009-09-01. 
  9. ^ Liddell, Henry George; Scott, Robert (1940). A Greek-English Lexicon. Oxford: Clarendon Press. ISBN 0198642261. http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/ptext?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.04.0057%3Aentry%3D%2314768. Retrieved 2009-09-01. 
  10. ^ a b c Rock, David. Argentina, 1516–1982. University of California Press, 1987.
  11. ^ U.S. Library of Congress, "Country Studies: The War of the Triple Alliance".
  12. ^ Scheina, Robert L (2003). The age of the caudillo, 1791–1899. Latin America’s wars. 1. Washington, D.C.: Brassey's, Inc. p. xiv. ISBN 1574884492. http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=o-OVsN5SwPIC&printsec=frontcover&dq=Latin+America%27s+Wars:+The+age+of+the+caudillo,+1791-1899&as_brr=0&client=firefox-a#v=onepage&q=&f=false. Retrieved 2009-09-02. 
  13. ^ Carlos A. Floria and César A. García Belsunce, 1971. Historia de los Argentinos I and II; ISBN 84-599-5081-6.
  14. ^ Argentina Desert War 1879–1880
  15. ^ Jens Andermann. "Argentine Literature and the 'Conquest of the Desert', 1872–1896". Birkbeck, University of London. http://www.bbk.ac.uk/llc/subjects/span_lat_amer/span_lat_amer_staff/ja. Retrieved 2009-09-02. 
  16. ^ a b c d e f g Lewis, Paul. The Crisis of Argentine Capitalism. Univ. of North Carolina Press, 1990.
  17. ^ Barnes, John. Evita, First Lady: A Biography of Eva Perón. New York: Grove Press, 1978.
  18. ^ Todo Argentina: Perón (Spanish)
  19. ^ INDEC (precios)
  20. ^ Foster et al (1998), Culture and Customs of Argentina, Greenwood, p. 62, ISBN 9780313303197, http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=iZ-rJyz2pSsC&pg=PA62 
  21. ^ Feitlowitz, Marguerite. A Lexicon of Terror: Argentina and the Legacies of Torture. Oxford University Press, 2002.
  22. ^ Nancy Scheper-Hughes. Child Survival: Anthropological Perspectives on the Treatment and Maltreatment of Children. 
  23. ^ Andersen, Martin. Dossier Secreto. Westview Press, 1993.
  24. ^ Todo Argentina: Alfonsín (Spanish)
  25. ^ Todo Argentina: Menem (Spanish)
  26. ^ Todo Argentina: de la Rúa (Spanish)
  27. ^ Todo Argentina: Duhalde (Spanish)
  28. ^ Todo Argentina: Kirchner (Spanish)
  29. ^ "Argentina's mid term election: A chance to change course". 18 June 2009. http://www.economist.com/opinion/displaystory.cfm?story_id=E1_TPRGNVNT. Retrieved 24 January 2010.  (subscription required)
  30. ^ Crítica (Spanish)
  31. ^ Mountains of the Earth The Highest Mountain Peak on Each Continent
  32. ^ Aconcagua, the highest in the Western Hemisphere s
  33. ^ Depressions The Lowest Surface Point on Each Continent
  34. ^ "Argentine topography, hydrography, and climate" (in Spanish). Chamber of Deputies of Santa Cruz province. http://www.hcdsc.gov.ar/biblioteca/ISES/geografiaargentina.asp. 
  35. ^ About Termas de Río Hondo.
  36. ^ Magdalena oil spill
  37. ^ "Global Argentina". National Law Center for Inter-American Free Trade. 1997. http://www.natlaw.com/pubs/sparcs1.htm. 
  38. ^ a b "Argentina". The World Factbook. CIA. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ar.html. Retrieved 2009-09-01. 
  39. ^ PRB
  40. ^ UN Demographic Yearbook, 2007.
  41. ^ "About Argentina". Government of Argentina. http://www.argentina.gov.ar/argentina/portal/paginas.dhtml?pagina=1669. Retrieved 2009-09-01. 
  42. ^ Clarín
  43. ^ Yale: Immigration History
  44. ^ CELS – Informe 1998
  45. ^ Federaciones Regionales
  46. ^ Travel for good: Argentina
  47. ^ Historical references
  48. ^ Monografías
  49. ^ a b New York Times: A bit of Britain in Argentina
  50. ^ "Inmigración a la Argentina: Daguerrotipistas y fotógrafos" – Monografías.com (Spanish)
  51. ^ Montenegrinos Argentinos
  52. ^ "Y Wladfa – The Welsh in Patagonia". BBC. http://www.bbc.co.uk/dna/h2g2/A1163503. Retrieved 2009-09-01. 
  53. ^ [1] Peopledaily 2008
  54. ^ Maldonado-Salcedo, Melissa (2007), "From South Korea to Argentina – Argentina in South Koreans", Imagining Global Asia 1, http://www.imaginingglobalasia.org/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=175&Itemid=71, retrieved 2008-10-25 
  55. ^ Sánchez, Nora (2008-08-31), "Una multitud celebró como en Japón", Clarín, http://www.clarin.com/diario/2008/08/31/um/m-01750328.htm, retrieved 2010-01-04 
  56. ^ Ethnic groups worldwide: a ready reference handbook
  57. ^ Racial Discrimination in Argentina
  58. ^ Blacks in Argentina – officially a few, but maybe a million
  59. ^ "El varieté de la calle Florida" (Editorial) – Clarín (Spanish)
  60. ^ Patria Grande
  61. ^ Alientan la mudanza de extranjeros hacia el interior – Sociedad – Perfil.com
  62. ^ "Constitution of the Argentine Nation". Government of Argentina. http://www.argentina.gov.ar/argentina/portal/documentos/constitucion_ingles.pdf. Retrieved 2009-09-03.  See Article I, Chapter I, sections 2 and 14. As of 2010 the state pays the bishops' salary which is calculated as 80% of a judge's salary.
  63. ^ Argentina: Religious Freedom Profile at the Association of Religion Data Archives Brian J Grim and Roger Finke. "International Religion Indexes: Government Regulation, Government Favoritism, and Social Regulation of Religion." Interdisciplinary Journal of Research on Religion. 2 (2006) Article 1:www.religjournal.com
  64. ^ Argentina: Adherents Profile at the Association of Religion Data Archives World Christian Database
  65. ^ Marita Carballo. Valores culturales al cambio del milenio (ISBN 950–794–064–2). Cited in La Nación, 8 May 2005
  66. ^ a b c "Argentina". International Religious Freedom Report. U.S. Department of State. 2006. http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/irf/2006/71446.htm. Retrieved 2009-09-01. 
  67. ^ a b Encuesta CONICET sobre creencias
  68. ^ Number of Mormons in Argentina
  69. ^ Clarín
  70. ^ a b c Lewis, M. Paul, ed (2009). "Languages of Argentina". Ethnologue: Languages of the World. Dallas: SIL International. http://www.ethnologue.com/show_country.asp?name=AR. Retrieved 2009-09-01. 
  71. ^ "Field listing – Urbanization". The World Factbook. CIA. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/fields/2212.html?countryName=Argentina&countryCode=ar&regionCode=sa&#ar. Retrieved 2009-09-03. 
  72. ^ a b c "Major Cities". Government of Argentina. http://www.argentina.gov.ar/argentina/portal/paginas.dhtml?pagina=1484. Retrieved 2009-09-03. 
  73. ^ "Ubicacion". Directorate-General of Tourism, Municipality of the City of Salta. http://turismo.municipalidad-salta.gov.ar:8081/ubicacion.aspx. Retrieved 2009-09-03.  (Spanish)
  74. ^ – EDELAP – 120 años de alumbrado público
  75. ^ "3218.0 - Instituto Nacional de Estadistica y Censos, Argentina, 2006-07". INDEC. 2008-03-31. http://www.indec.mecon.gov.ar/nuevaweb/cuadros/4/EPHcont_1trim08.pdf. Retrieved 2008-06-06. 
  76. ^ a b c d Política Económica – Página Principal
  77. ^ a b Argentina's Economic Crisis: An "Absence of Capitalism"
  78. ^ Political Economic History And Regional Economic Development In Argentina
  79. ^ Argentina – Economic development
  80. ^ Keith B. Griffin, Alternative strategies for economic development Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Development Centre, St. Martin's Press, NY, 1989, p. 59.
  81. ^ Inflación verdadera
  82. ^ a b c d e INDEC Household Survey
  83. ^ "Argentina Country Brief" World Bank
  84. ^ International Monetary Fund. Economic Prospects and Policy IssuesPDF (567 KB)
  85. ^ InfoBAE, 20 September 2006. Para los bancos la Argentina seguirá creciendo en 2006
  86. ^ http://www.transparency.org/policy_research/surveys_indices/cpi/2009/cpi_2009_table
  87. ^ Heritage Foundation
  88. ^ TELAM
  89. ^ Clarín
  90. ^ Clarín
  91. ^ "Cristina's looking-glass world". The Economist. October 23rd 2008. http://www.economist.com/displaystory.cfm?story_id=12474636. 
  92. ^ Antarctic Treaty Secretariat
  93. ^ See Relaciones bilaterales sin diálogo, 1945–1965buques de la Armada Argentina llevaron a cabo maniobras en las aguas adyacentes a las Islas Malvinas realizaron desembarcos en distintas islas de las "Dependencias" … incidentes menores entre los presentes en el Puerto Melchior … en la Bahía Esperanza y la Argentina anunció una progresiva ocupación de esa región.…
  94. ^ White Helmets Commission
  95. ^ NationMaster – Argentine Military statistics
  96. ^ Pulqui: Argentina's Jet Adventure IPMStockholm.org
  97. ^ MECON: National budget
  98. ^ Infrastructure. Argentina. National Economies Encyclopedia
  99. ^ http://www.adefa.com.ar/anuario_2007/fscommand/complementary_data.pdf
  100. ^ http://www.grupopayne.com.ar/archivo/01/0112/011211/institucionales/institucionales.html
  101. ^ La república digital. "Se dará inicio a las obras de la Autopista Mesopotámica". http://www.larepublicadigital.com.ar/spip.php?article3058. Retrieved 14 February 2008. 
  102. ^ DNRPA
  103. ^ Argentina.gov.ar
  104. ^ Buenos Aires Transport Subway
  105. ^ a b c Encyclopedia Britannica, Book of the Year (various issues): statistical appendix.
  106. ^ WWF
  107. ^ a b [2] Animals in Argentina
  108. ^ [3] Info about Hornero
  109. ^ a b c Luongo, Michael. Frommer's Argentina. Wiley Publishing, 2007.
  110. ^ Borges, Jorge Luis. Siete Noches. Obras Completas, vol. III. Buenos Aires: Emecé, 1994.
  111. ^ a b c Wilson, Jason. Cultural Guide to the City of Buenos Aires'. Oxford, England: Signal Books, 1999.
  112. ^ e-libro.net. Free digital books. FacundoPDF (638 KB)
  113. ^ Levene, Ricardo. A history of Argentina. University of Noerth Carolina Press, 1937.
  114. ^ Cine Nacional
  115. ^ [http://www.awn.com/mag/issue1.4/articles/bendazzi1.4.html Giannalberto Bendazzi: Quirino Cristiani, The Untold Story of Argentina's Pioneer Animator]
  116. ^ About Gavin Esler's Argentina diary news.bbc.co.uk 3 April 2006.
  117. ^ Adams, Fiona. (2001). Culture Shock Argentina. Portland, OR: Graphic Arts Center Publishing Company. ISBN 1-55868-529-4. 
  118. ^ Choices Article – Modern Beef Production in Brazil and Argentina
  119. ^ a b AWPro
  120. ^ "Pato, Argentina's national sport". Argentina.ar. http://www.en.argentina.ar/_en/sports/C480-pato-argentinas-national-sport.php. Retrieved 2009-09-01. 
  121. ^ "Argentine sport". Argentina.ar. http://www.en.argentina.ar/_en/sports/C777-argentine-sport.php. Retrieved 2009-09-01. 
  122. ^ "Argentina". Fédération Internationale de Football Association. http://www.fifa.com/associations/association=arg/ranking/gender=m/index.html. Retrieved 2009-09-01. 
  123. ^ "Brazil is the Champion of America". South American Football Confederation. http://www.conmebol.com/articulos_ver.jsp?id=61156&slangab=E. Retrieved 2009-09-01. 
  124. ^ "Argentine soccer players exported abroad". Argentina.ar. http://www.en.argentina.ar/_en/sports/C1069-argentine-soccer-players-exported-abroad.php. Retrieved 2009-09-01. 
  125. ^ a b "Argentina: country information". Fédération Internationale de Football Association. http://www.fifa.com/associations/association=arg/countryInfo.html. Retrieved 2009-09-01. 
  126. ^ "Primera División – Campeones". Argentine Football Association. http://www.afa.org.ar/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=1599:primera-division-campeones&catid=110:torneos-superiores&Itemid=78. Retrieved 2009-09-01. 
  127. ^ "History (of beach soccer)". Fédération Internationale de Football Association. http://www.fifa.com/beachsoccerworldcup/destination/history/index.html. Retrieved 2009-09-01. As of October 2009, Argentina has earned the right to play the 2010 World Cup in South Africa for which it joins Nigeria, Korea Republic and Greece for qualifying in group B.
  128. ^ Music: 'El Derecho de vivir en paz' from http://www.msu.edu/~chapmanb/jara/enueva.html
  129. ^ La Iglesia salió a defender la ley de Educación que el Gobierno quiere modificar Clarin.com 20 July 2006 (Spanish)
  130. ^ a b Illiteracy
  131. ^ Argentine Higher Education Official Site
  132. ^ AMA
  133. ^ UBA School of Medicine
  134. ^ a b IADB
  135. ^ Biografía de Ramón Carrillo
  136. ^ a b Coopsalud
  137. ^ a b c d DEIS
  138. ^ Argentina: From Insolvency to Growth. World Bank Press, 1993.
  139. ^ Situación de la Salud
  140. ^ a b UNData
  141. ^ UN Demographic Yearbook. 1957.
  142. ^ a b UN Demographic Yearbook. Historical Statistics. 1997.
  143. ^ Enrique Finochietto
  144. ^ Science and Education in Argentina
  145. ^ [4]
  146. ^ Argentina Non-Proliferation
  147. ^ Julia Rodríguez, Columbia University. The Argentine Fingerprint System.
  148. ^ Argentine Talent Without Frontiers
  149. ^ PEHUENSAT-1
  150. ^ Pierre Auger Observatory
  151. ^ News
  152. ^ Editorial Perfíl
  153. ^ Radio With a Past in Argentina Don Moore
  154. ^ Mi Buenos Aires Querido
  155. ^ Homes with Cable TV in Latin America Trends in Latin American networking
  156. ^ "Vision of Humanity". Vision of Humanity. http://www.visionofhumanity.org/gpi/home.php. Retrieved 2010-02-04. 

External links



Travel guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikitravel

South America : Argentina
Location
noframe
Flag
Image:ar-flag.png
Quick Facts
Capital Buenos Aires
Government Federal presidential republic
Currency Argentine peso (ARS)
Area 2,766,890 km2
Population 39,921,833 (July 2006 est.)
Language Spanish
Religion Roman Catholic 92%, Protestant 2%, Jewish 2%, other 4%
Electricity 230V/50Hz (European plug)
Calling Code +54
Internet TLD .ar
Time Zone UTC -3
.Argentina, [1], (officially Argentine Republic; Spanish "Republica Argentina") is a large, elongated country in the southern part of South America, neighbouring countries being Bolivia, Brazil, and Paraguay to the north, Uruguay to the north east and Chile to the west.^ The country borders Chile to the west, Bolivia to the north, Paraguay to the northeast, and Brazil, Uruguay, and the Atlantic Ocean to the East.
  • Culture of Argentina - History and ethnic relations, Urbanism, architecture, and the use of space 10 September 2009 21:43 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ ARGENTINA, or the Argentine Republic (officially, Republica Argentina ), a country occupying the greater part of the southern extremity of South America .

^ The Argentine Republic is located at the southernmost part of South America.
  • Culture of Argentina - History and ethnic relations, Urbanism, architecture, and the use of space 10 September 2009 21:43 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In the east Argentina has a long South Atlantic Ocean coastline.^ Los Pintin al Rescate (The Pintins to the Rescue) Franco Bittolo The Pintins are a family of penguins who live near the Atlantic Ocean on the coast of Argentina.

^ Crossing the Straits the line should follow the meridian of 68° 44', south to Beagle Channel, and thence east to the Atlantic, giving Argentina the eastern part of the Tierra del Fuego and Staten Island .

Understand

.Argentina is the second-largest country in South America, and the eighth-largest in the world.^ Argentina is the eighth largest country in the world.
  • Culture of Argentina - History and ethnic relations, Urbanism, architecture, and the use of space 10 September 2009 21:43 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Introduction to Argentina Argentina is a vast land: even without the titanic wedge of Antarctica that the authorities like to include in the national territory, it ranks as one of the world's largest countries.

^ Argentina is the world's eighth largest nation by area, with 2.75 million square kilometres, though with a population of just under 39 million – one-third of whom live in the capital Buenos Aires – it is one of the least densely populated of the ten biggest countries.

.The highest and the lowest points of South America are also located in Argentina: At 6,960m, Cerro Aconcagua is the tallest mountain in the Americas while Salinas Chicas, at 40m below sea level, is the lowest point in South America.^ ARGENTINA, or the Argentine Republic (officially, Republica Argentina ), a country occupying the greater part of the southern extremity of South America .

^ From this point it ascends the San Juan south and west to the Cerro de Granadas, and thence south-west to Cerro Incahuasi and Cerro Zapalegui on the Chilean frontier.

^ Destinations :: South America :: Argentina :: Introduction :: Introduction to Argentina .

.At the southern tip of Argentina there are several routes between the South Atlantic and the South Pacific Oceans including the Strait of Magellan, the Beagle Channel, and the Drake Passage as an alternative sailing around Cape Horn in the open ocean between South America and Antarctica.^ Los Pintin al Rescate (The Pintins to the Rescue) Franco Bittolo The Pintins are a family of penguins who live near the Atlantic Ocean on the coast of Argentina.

^ Crossing the Straits the line should follow the meridian of 68° 44', south to Beagle Channel, and thence east to the Atlantic, giving Argentina the eastern part of the Tierra del Fuego and Staten Island .

^ ARGENTINA, or the Argentine Republic (officially, Republica Argentina ), a country occupying the greater part of the southern extremity of South America .

.The name Argentina derives from argentum, the Latin word for silver, which is what early Spanish explorers sought when they first reached the region in the sixteenth century.^ (A. J. L.) History The first Europeans who visited the river Plate were a party of Spanish explorers in search of a south-west passage to the East Indies .

Climate

.Buenos Aires and the Pampas are temperate; cold in the winter, hot and humid in the summer.^ Felicidades Lucho Bender Christmas Eve is anything but merry on a hot and humid night in Buenos Aires when everything seems to be going wrong.

^ Evidence of this is to be found in the altitudes of the stations on the Buenos Aires and Pacific railway running a little north of west across the pampas to Mendoza.

The deserts of Cuyo, which can reach temperatures of 50°C, are extremely hot and dry in the summer and moderately cold and dry in the winter. .Spring and fall often exhibit rapid temperature reversals; several days of extremely hot weather may be followed by several days of cold weather, then back to extremely hot.^ It is followed by a cold south wind which often lowers the temperature 25°.

^ The north wind usually terminates with a thunderstorm or with a pampero , a cold south-west wind from the Andes which blows with great violence, causes a fall in temperature of 15° to 20°, and is most frequent from June to November - the southern winter and spring.

The Andes are cool in the summer and very cold in the winter, varying according to altitude.
Patagonia is cool in the summer and cold in the winter. Extreme temperature shifts within a single day are even more common here; pack a variety of clothes and dress in layers.
.Don't forget that seasons are reversed from those of the Northern Hemisphere.^ The temperature and rainfall are governed by conditions different from those in corresponding latitudes of the northern hemisphere ..

Terrain

.The central region of Argentina is the rich plain known as La Pampa.^ The gauchos were horsemen who tended cattle in the central plains region of Argentina.
  • Culture of Argentina - History and ethnic relations, Urbanism, architecture, and the use of space 10 September 2009 21:43 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The flora of Argentina should be studied according to natural zones corresponding to the physical divisions of the country - the rich tropical and sub-tropical regions of the north, the treeless pampas of the centre, the desert steppes of the south, and the arid plateaus of the north-west.

There is jungle in the extreme northeast. The southern half of Argentina is dominated by the flat to rolling plateau of Patagonia. The western border with Chile is along the rugged Andes mountains, including the Aconcagua, the highest mountain outside the Himalayas. The western Cuyo regions at the base of the Andes are mostly rocky desert with some poisinous frock trees.

History

.Following independence from Spain in 1816, Argentina experienced periods of internal political conflict between conservatives and liberals.^ While independence from Spain was achieved in 1816, Argentina did not become a unified nation until 1880.
  • Culture of Argentina - History and ethnic relations, Urbanism, architecture, and the use of space 10 September 2009 21:43 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A sanguinary struggle between the party of independence and the adherents of Spain spread over the whole country, and was carried on with varying fortune.

.In the first decade of the 20th century, Argentina became the richest nation in Latin America, its wealth symbolized by the opulence of its capital city.^ In comparison to other Latin American nations, Argentina's income distribution has been fairly equitable throughout most of the twentieth century.
  • Culture of Argentina - History and ethnic relations, Urbanism, architecture, and the use of space 10 September 2009 21:43 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Besides Latin American immigration, immigrants from Eastern Europe, Africa, and Asia were also arriving in Argentina in the late twentieth century.
  • Culture of Argentina - History and ethnic relations, Urbanism, architecture, and the use of space 10 September 2009 21:43 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In Argentina the word creole often has a different connotation than in the rest of Latin America.
  • Culture of Argentina - History and ethnic relations, Urbanism, architecture, and the use of space 10 September 2009 21:43 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.European immigrants flowed into Argentina, particularly from Italy; by 1914 nearly 6 million people had come to the country.^ Every year, Argentina has an international book fair, with an attendance of more than one million people.
  • Culture of Argentina - History and ethnic relations, Urbanism, architecture, and the use of space 10 September 2009 21:43 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Architecture in major cities reflects the influence of immigrants as well as Argentina's semicolonial relationship to some European nations.
  • Culture of Argentina - History and ethnic relations, Urbanism, architecture, and the use of space 10 September 2009 21:43 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

After World War II, a long period of Peronist rule in subsequent governments was followed by a military junta that took power in 1976.
.Democracy returned in 1983 after the abortive attempt to wrest the Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas) from United Kingdom sovereignty.^ With the return to democracy in 1983, the military budget has significantly been reduced and the armed forces did not escape pressure to privatize which affected other government sectors.
  • Culture of Argentina - History and ethnic relations, Urbanism, architecture, and the use of space 10 September 2009 21:43 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

A painful economic collapse at the turn of the 21st century devalued the Argentine peso by a factor of three and ushered in a series of weak, short-lived governments along with social and economic instability. .As of 2006, the country has stabilized under President Nestor Kirchner, and the economy has begun to recover.^ In 2003 voters elected President Nestor Kirchner in free and fair multiparty elections; on October 23, 2005, national legislative elections were held.
  • Argentina 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Home » Under Secretary for Democracy and Global Affairs » Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor » Releases » Human Rights » 2006 Country Reports on Human Rights Practices » Western Hemisphere » Argentina .
  • Argentina 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

Electricity

Argentine electricity is officially 220V, 50Hz. Adapters and transformers for North American equipment are readily available.
The best way to use imported electrical equipment in Argentina is to purchase an adapter once there. .These are available in the Florida shopping area in Buenos Aires for around US$2, or less in hardware stores outside the city center.^ The urban constructs of a national culture are centered in the city of Buenos Aires.
  • Culture of Argentina - History and ethnic relations, Urbanism, architecture, and the use of space 10 September 2009 21:43 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Of these colleges four are in Buenos Aires, one in each province, and one in Concepcion del Uruguay.

^ DAIA's representatives emphasized the good work of the government of the City of Buenos Aires in removing offensive graffiti from walls shortly after DAIA provided a list with the locations of the offensive graffiti.
  • Argentina 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

Buildings use a mix of European and Australian plug fittings. However, the live and neutral pins in the Australian fittings are reversed so as to prevent cheap imports into Australia. Therefore an Australian adapter may be incompatible. The IRAM-2073, which are physically identical to the Australian AS-3112 standard (two blades in a V-shape, with or without a third blade for ground).
European standard CEE-7/7 "Schukostecker" or "Schuko" outlets and the non-grounded, but compatible, European CEE-7/16 "Europlug" outlets may still be found in some older buildings. U.S. and Canadian travelers may want to pack adapters for these outlets as well.
Many sockets have no earth pin. .Laptop adapters should have little problem with this for short term use.^ It is little wonder that, in these circumstances, the choice of a successor to Pellegrini, whose term of office expired in 1892, should have been felt to possess peculiar importance.

Some Argentine sockets accept North American plugs, particularly ones on power strips. Beware - this does not mean that these sockets deliver 110 volts. Make sure that your equipment can handle 220 volts! .Simply changing the shape of the plug with a US$2 adapter will not allow 110 volt equipment to operate on 220 volt Argentinian current, unless the device is specifically designed to work on both 110 and 220 volts, irreperable damage and even fire can result.^ He currently specializes in typographic design, and lives and works in Córdoba, Argentina.
  • Argentinian typography 11 September 2009 1:13 UTC cg.scs.carleton.ca [Source type: General]

^ Currently, she works on a history of Mexican Graphic Design and researches type design for indigenous Latin-American languages.
  • Argentinian typography 11 September 2009 1:13 UTC cg.scs.carleton.ca [Source type: General]

^ A magnificent Argentinian type site under the direction of Rubén Fontana, Natalia Fernández and Pavlo Fontana that showcases most of the Latin type designers and their work.
  • Argentinian typography 11 September 2009 1:13 UTC cg.scs.carleton.ca [Source type: General]

.Most laptop power adapters and many portable electronics chargers are designed to work on dual voltage; check the specifications for your equipment to be sure.^ A magnificent Argentinian type site under the direction of Rubén Fontana, Natalia Fernández and Pavlo Fontana that showcases most of the Latin type designers and their work.
  • Argentinian typography 11 September 2009 1:13 UTC cg.scs.carleton.ca [Source type: General]

If your equipment cannot accept 220 volt current, you can purchase a '220 to 110' volt transformer for approximately US$6 in most Argentinian electronics shops. This is much heavier and bulkier than a small adapter.
Argentina regions
Argentina regions
Andean Northwest
Chaco
Cuyo
Mesopotamia
Pampas
Patagonia
Tierra del Fuego
The Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas), a United Kingdom Overseas Territory, are claimed by Argentina .

Cities

The largest cities are:
.
  • Buenos Aires or "Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires", usually called Capital Federal to distinguish it from the province of Buenos Aires.
  • Córdoba, second largest.
  • Rosario, third largest city.
  • Mendoza, fourth largest, well known for its extensive and high quality wine production.
  • La Plata, capital of the most important province, and known as "the perfect city" for its tracing (see map).
  • San Miguel de Tucuman, The largest city in the northwest.^ Argentinian illustrator from La Plata, Buenos Aires.
    • Argentinian typography 11 September 2009 1:13 UTC cg.scs.carleton.ca [Source type: General]

    ^ On September 19, a court convicted former commissioner general of the Buenos Aires Province police Miguel Etchecolatz and sentenced him to life for the extrajudicial killing, torture, and kidnapping of six individuals during the military dictatorship.
    • Argentina 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

    ^ DAIA's representatives emphasized the good work of the government of the City of Buenos Aires in removing offensive graffiti from walls shortly after DAIA provided a list with the locations of the offensive graffiti.
    • Argentina 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

    And sixth largest city in Argentina.
  • San Juan, the tenth largest city, capital of the province of San Juan, and a center of quality wine production.
Many ski centers operate in the Andes during the winter; Las Leñas and San Carlos de Bariloche are particularly well-known.
There are two important nature preserves around Puerto Madryn, Punta Tombo, and Peninsula Valdes where one can see guanacos, rheas, penguins, sea lions, birds, and whales at certain times of the year.
The wine regions of Mendoza and Salta are also very popular tourist destinations.

Get in

.The passport holders of the countries listed below do not need a visa to enter Argentina when the purpose of the visit is "tourism": Andorra, Australia,* Austria, Barbados, Belgium, Bolivia, Brazil, Bulgaria, Canada,* Czech Republic, Chile, Cyprus, Colombia, Costa Rica, Croatia, Denmark, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Hong Kong, Hungary, Ireland, Iceland, Israel, Italy, Japan, Republic of Korea, Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Macedonia, Malta, Mexico, Monaco, Nicaragua, Norway, Netherlands, New Zealand, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russia (from 1 July 2009), Saint Kitts and Nevis, San Marino, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Saint Lucia, Serbia, Singapore, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, South Africa, Sweden, Switzerland, Thailand, Trinidad and Tobago, Turkey, United Kingdom, United States of America,* Uruguay, Vatican City and Venezuela.^ Saint Kitts Nevis visa .
  • Argentina Visa : Application, Requirements. Apply for Argentine Visas Online. 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC argentina.visahq.com [Source type: General]

^ At ATypI 2009 in Mexico City, she speaks on Colonial Typography for Native Languages of Latin America (XVI-XIX Century) .
  • Argentinian typography 11 September 2009 1:13 UTC cg.scs.carleton.ca [Source type: General]

^ Argentina tourist visa is not required for citizens of United States for a stay up to 90 days.
  • Argentina Visa : Application, Requirements. Apply for Argentine Visas Online. 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC argentina.visahq.com [Source type: General]

.
  • However, travelers arriving at Ezeiza international airport from Australia, Canada, or the United States after 28 December 2009 must pay a "reciprocity fee" of up to US $131, good for the remaining life of the passport.^ Argentina tourist visa is not required for citizens of United States for a stay up to 90 days.
    • Argentina Visa : Application, Requirements. Apply for Argentine Visas Online. 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC argentina.visahq.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Argentina official visa fees for citizens of United States .
    • Argentina Visa : Application, Requirements. Apply for Argentine Visas Online. 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC argentina.visahq.com [Source type: General]

    ^ We recommend that you have at least two free pages in Visas section of your passport before any international travel.
    • Argentina Visa : Application, Requirements. Apply for Argentine Visas Online. 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC argentina.visahq.com [Source type: General]

    See the Immigration Department [2] for details.

By plane

.Aerolíneas Argentinas [3] and LAN Argentina [4] offer connections between Buenos Aires' international airport Ezeiza and many cities throughout South America, as well as North America, Europe, Australia and New Zealand.^ The steamships under the national flag are almost wholly engaged in the traffic between Buenos Aires and Montevideo, the river traffic, and port services.

^ W. I. Buchanan, United States minister at Buenos Aires , serving as arbitrator, reached a decision on the Atacama line north of 26° 52' 45" S. lat., which was a compromise though it gave the greater part of the territory to Argentina.

^ DAIA's representatives emphasized the good work of the government of the City of Buenos Aires in removing offensive graffiti from walls shortly after DAIA provided a list with the locations of the offensive graffiti.
  • Argentina 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

.Qantas [5] now offers direct flights from Sydney to Buenos Aires.^ Under the direction of this committee, the association known elected, and in order to provide against the predominance of Buenos Aires, it was determined that Sante Fe should be the place of session .

^ Buenos Aires-based mussic professor who offers free music fonts such as FarHat (2005, free).
  • Argentinian typography 11 September 2009 1:13 UTC cg.scs.carleton.ca [Source type: General]

^ Electric power generated by steam is now commonly used in Buenos Aires and other large cities for driving light machinery.

.If you plan on visiting Buenos Aires you will fly into Ministro Pistarini International Airport (IATA: EZE ICAO: SAEZ); if you're traveling to another location in Argentina you may have to travel from Ezeiza to the Aeroparque Jorge Newbery (IATA: AEP ICAO: SABE), the domestic airport in Buenos Aires.^ DAIA's representatives emphasized the good work of the government of the City of Buenos Aires in removing offensive graffiti from walls shortly after DAIA provided a list with the locations of the offensive graffiti.
  • Argentina 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ In October 1900 Dr Manuel Campos Salles, president of Brazil, paid a visit to Buenos Aires, and was received with great demonstrations of friendliness.

^ Communications.-The development of railways in Argentina, which dates from 1857 when the construction of the Buenos Aires Western was begun, was at first slow and hesitating, but after 1880 it went forward rapidly.

.One problem is that the airports are located on opposite sides of the city, so some time has to be factored when travelling from one airport to the other.^ The The national government and the twelve provinces forming the Cordoba League, were ranged on one side; the city and province of Buenos Aires and the province of Corrientes on the other.

There are cheap shuttle buses which take you there in about an hour, but travel time varies greatly depending on traffic. There are few flights (mostly to Río Gallegos and Ushuaia), which leaves early in the morning from Ezeiza International Airport. .All the other domestic flights (and also to Uruguay and Paraguay) leaves from Aeroparque Jorge Newbery.^ Many travelled from the interior of Argentina, while others arrived from Chile, Colombia, Cuba, Honduras, Mexico, Paraguay, Uruguay and other Latin American countries.
  • Argentinian typography 11 September 2009 1:13 UTC cg.scs.carleton.ca [Source type: General]

Be sure you are in the right airport!
You should be able to ride a motorcoach or hire a service taxi from one of the booths after you clear customs. .The fixed rate for a taxi from Ezeiza international airport to Buenos Aires is 74 pesos, the rate from the Jorge Newbery domestic airport to town is 23 pesos.^ The new town received from Garay the name of Ciudad de la Santissira Trinidad , while its port retained the old appellation of Santa Maria de Buenos Aires.

^ As a sequel to this step, in 1884 the town of La Plata was declared to be the capital of the province of Buenos Aires, and the provincial administration was moved to that place.

^ Tango: Our Dance Jorge Zanada The sensuality and stylized rituals popular with the residents of Buenos Aires are part of the complex art form called the tango.

(prices 04/05/07)
  • Ezeiza International Airport (EZE): (011) 5480-6111
If visiting another city there are a number of airports located throughout the country. Many find it far easier to travel to a neighboring country and then take a short distance hop to the smaller airport. All major cities in Argentina and major tourist destinations like Perito Moreno and Iguazu Falls have airports nearby. There are several national airlines, with different levels of service. In general flying gets you everywhere quickly and cheaply (relatively).
Passengers leaving Ezeiza Airport must pay a "departure tax" of US$29 (US$ 8 to Uruguay and domestic flights) after check-in, on top of any boarding taxes already paid. Argentine pesos or US dollars are accepted.

By train

There are currently no international services to Argentina. .A connection between Chile and Argentina is under construction.^ The feeling of enmity between Chile and Argentina was indeed anything but extinct.

By bus

International coaches run from all the neighbouring countries.
  • Retiro Bus Terminal: (011) 4310-0700
Retiro is enormous, more like an airport than the typical bus terminal. For long distance buses it is advisable to buy a ticket several days in advance of your trip. Be sure to arrive about 45 minutes before your departure and always ask at an information counter if your gate number is the same as printed on your ticket. You will be given a range of possible gate numbers (for example 17-27). Watch your belongings carefully at Retiro as it is always very crowded.

By boat

.Regular hydrofoils routes link Buenos Aires with Montevideo and Colonia in Uruguay.^ Of these colleges four are in Buenos Aires, one in each province, and one in Concepcion del Uruguay.

^ The steamships under the national flag are almost wholly engaged in the traffic between Buenos Aires and Montevideo, the river traffic, and port services.

The company Buquebus [6] has both a slow (3 hours) and rapid (1 hour) ferry service that departs several times a day to Colonia. Ferries depart from the downtown Buenos Aires neighborhood Puerto Madero. There are two companies (Cacciola [7] and Líneas Delta [8]) that link the city of Tigre with Carmelo and Nueva Palmira in Uruguay, respectively. .Trains [9] to Tigre depart from Retiro (one of Buenos Aires' main train stations) every ten minutes.^ Of these colleges four are in Buenos Aires, one in each province, and one in Concepcion del Uruguay.

^ The government reported that the number of detainees in police stations in Buenos Aires Province decreased significantly, from 7,506 in 2002 to 4,400 at year's end.
  • Argentina 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Saturday Juan Villegas The lives of six young people intersect one Saturday in a desolate part of Buenos Aires.

The trip costs 1.1 pesos and takes 50 minutes.
.To a lesser extent, Grimaldi Freighters [10] run freighers which carry up to 12 passengers from Hamburg, London, Antwerp, Le Havre, and Bilbao to Buenos Aires every 9 days.^ On the 25th of May 1810 a great armed assembly met at Buenos Aires and a provisional junta was formed to supersede the authority of the viceroy and carry on the government.

^ While working at the Buenos Aires Central Station one day, the youngster falls in love with a teenage prostitute who is working against her will for the local mob.

^ He runs Fontanadiseno in Buenos Aires, and wrote "Pensamiento Tipográfico" (2003).
  • Argentinian typography 11 September 2009 1:13 UTC cg.scs.carleton.ca [Source type: General]

.They also carry cars and you drive your car on and off - unlike other freighter services.^ This combination bag and stick-blanket is the perfect solution to carry sticks and then to organize them and keep them off the wet grass during your game.
  • ARGENTINA POLO - Polo equipment at the best price - polo sticks, polosaddles, polo bridles, polo helmets, polo whips, polo mallets. 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC argentinapolo.com [Source type: General]

^ It is great if you story your helmet in a bag with boots and other gear.
  • ARGENTINA POLO - Polo equipment at the best price - polo sticks, polosaddles, polo bridles, polo helmets, polo whips, polo mallets. 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC argentinapolo.com [Source type: General]

^ POLO PLAQUE Design your own club shield to present to other polo clubs when you visit.
  • ARGENTINA POLO - Polo equipment at the best price - polo sticks, polosaddles, polo bridles, polo helmets, polo whips, polo mallets. 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC argentinapolo.com [Source type: General]

More information can be found on the website.

Get around

By train

.In recent years the government has promoted the re-establishment of long distance passenger trains, although most lines still operate at a low frequency (one or two departures weekly).^ The two most frequented by ocean-going vessels are Buenos Aires and Ensenada (La Plata).

^ Some victims qualified for federal government assistance, but most provincial officials were not trained to identify or help victims of trafficking specifically.
  • Argentina 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

The rail network is very limited, and intercity buses offer better service and faster rides. Train fares are very cheap - often only a quarter of the bus fare.
.Local travel in the Buenos Aires province is both by bus and by local trains, with fast trains being the quickest way to get through the traffic around the Capital Federal.^ Of these colleges four are in Buenos Aires, one in each province, and one in Concepcion del Uruguay.

^ The steamships under the national flag are almost wholly engaged in the traffic between Buenos Aires and Montevideo, the river traffic, and port services.

^ He summoned all the provincial governors at San Nicolas in the province of Buenos Aires, and on the 31st of May they pro claimed a new constitution, with Urquiza.

.The three largest train terminals in Buenos Aires are Retiro, Constitucion and Once.^ The struggle for supremacy between Buenos Aires and the provinces had, however, to be fought out, and hostilities once more broke out in 1861.

^ A scene of west of the province of Buenos Aires and the valley of p y intense enthusiasm followed, and Buenos Aires was en fete for the following three days.

.Retiro is actually three train stations alongside each other with the main long distance bus (or "micro") terminal being situated next to the furthest of the train terminals (from the City center).^ Injuries to tendons come from three main reasons: field, training track, Ferrier, but also from the mallet, the ball, slipping on the field, or improper riding.
  • ARGENTINA POLO - Polo equipment at the best price - polo sticks, polosaddles, polo bridles, polo helmets, polo whips, polo mallets. 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC argentinapolo.com [Source type: General]

One of the major long distance train operators is Ferrobaires [11]. See also Satélite Ferroviario [12] for up-to-date information on trains and services (in Spanish). Ferrocentral departs from Buenos Aires weekly to Tucumán and twice per week to Córdoba.
An amazing train ride is the Tren a las nubes (Train to the Clouds) in the northwestern province of Salta, but some people may get altitude sickness. This service, that was previously suspended, has been restored starting from August 2008.

By plane

.Domestic flights are available within Argentina, but tickets are pricey, and most domestic flights pass through Buenos Aires' domestic airport Aeroparque Jorge Newbery.^ Communications.-The development of railways in Argentina, which dates from 1857 when the construction of the Buenos Aires Western was begun, was at first slow and hesitating, but after 1880 it went forward rapidly.

^ The two most frequented by ocean-going vessels are Buenos Aires and Ensenada (La Plata).

^ Tango: Our Dance Jorge Zanada The sensuality and stylized rituals popular with the residents of Buenos Aires are part of the complex art form called the tango.

.The main carriers are Aerolíneas Argentinas [13] and LAN Argentina [14].^ The total school population of Argentina in 1900 (6 to 14 years) was 994,089, of which 45% attended school, and 13% of those not attending were able to read and write.

Aerolíneas Argentinas' subsidiary Austral, which shares its parents fleet, and tickets of the two can be booked at the same office.
If you fly on your international trip to Argentina with Aerolíneas you always get discounts on domestic flights. Sometimes you even get free flights with your international ticket but keep in mind that you pay it with your international ticket.

By bus

Argentina boasts an outstanding short and long-distance bus network. .Since regional train service is limited and plane tickets are more expensive, bus travel is the most common way to travel from city to city within Argentina.^ In 1553 an expedition from Peru made their way through the mountain region and founded the city of Santiago del Estero, that of Tucuman in 1565, and that of Cordoba in 1573.

^ Travel Passports Visas Travel Information Emergency Services Foreign Per Diem Rates More...
  • Argentina 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

.In Buenos Aires, a city bus is called a colectivo while a long distance, city-to-city bus is called a micro; usage varies somewhat in provincial areas.^ From late September to early October, there was a widespread, two week long protest by prisoners in Buenos Aires provincial penitentiaries demanding, among other things, an accelerated trial process and a revision of pretrial detention statutes.
  • Argentina 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ DAIA's representatives emphasized the good work of the government of the City of Buenos Aires in removing offensive graffiti from walls shortly after DAIA provided a list with the locations of the offensive graffiti.
  • Argentina 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Provincial governments and the city government of Buenos Aires are responsible for labor law enforcement.
  • Argentina 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

.The hub of this network is definitely Buenos Aires' Terminal de Omnibus de Retiro; it has up to 2,000 bus arrivals and departures per day, and multiple companies serve most destinations.^ Buenos Aires de Diseño .
  • Argentinian typography 11 September 2009 1:13 UTC cg.scs.carleton.ca [Source type: General]

^ The consequences of this catastrophe were felt far and wide, and in the spring of 1891 both the Banco Nacional and the Banco de la provincia de Buenos Aires were unable to meet their obligations.

^ He has worked mainly in design for television, and was Director de Arte at "Multimedios América" in Buenos Aires for about ten years.
  • Argentinian typography 11 September 2009 1:13 UTC cg.scs.carleton.ca [Source type: General]

.Buses arrive and depart from a total of 75 platforms, and in order to buy your ticket you will have to choose between about 200 ticket booths situated on the upper level of the terminal.^ CLICK TO ORDER WE START WHEN WE RECEIVE YOUR PAYMENT PLEASE EMAIL ANYTIME TO CHECK YOUR ORDER THANK YOU -- TOM .
  • ARGENTINA POLO - Polo equipment at the best price - polo sticks, polosaddles, polo bridles, polo helmets, polo whips, polo mallets. 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC argentinapolo.com [Source type: General]

^ SEND US AN EMAIL AND WE WILL SEND YOU A QUOTE WE START WHEN WE RECEIVE YOUR PAYMENT THANK YOU ORDER & PAYMENT INFORMATION .
  • ARGENTINA POLO - Polo equipment at the best price - polo sticks, polosaddles, polo bridles, polo helmets, polo whips, polo mallets. 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC argentinapolo.com [Source type: General]

The more expensive buses generally offer high-quality service, and for distances longer than 200km, it is common to have food served on board. There is generally a good amount of legroom, and many buses have seats that recline horizontally into beds (camas) making them a lot like traveling business class on a plane. The best category with completely reclining seats is normally called cama suite, but other names such as tutto leto or salon real are also in use. Somewhat cheaper seats only recline partially (semi-camas), or not at all (servicio comun). Every service belongs to one of five official comfort classes with minimum requirements that are prescribed by law in order to facilitate comparisons. The better buses will provide everything you need, while for the lower categories it may be a good idea to take drinks and food with you, as well as toilet paper and ear plugs.
.More information on bus companies and schedules is available at the webpage of the Terminal de Retiro [15] in Buenos Aires.^ Buenos Aires de Diseño .
  • Argentinian typography 11 September 2009 1:13 UTC cg.scs.carleton.ca [Source type: General]

^ In 1984, he become Profesor Nacional de Artes Plásticas in Buenos Aires.
  • Argentinian typography 11 September 2009 1:13 UTC cg.scs.carleton.ca [Source type: General]

^ The new town received from Garay the name of Ciudad de la Santissira Trinidad , while its port retained the old appellation of Santa Maria de Buenos Aires.

.A second bus terminal in Buenos Aires is situated in the neighborhood Liniers, but it is smaller and less accessible than the one in Retiro.^ Of these colleges four are in Buenos Aires, one in each province, and one in Concepcion del Uruguay.

^ Saturday Juan Villegas The lives of six young people intersect one Saturday in a desolate part of Buenos Aires.

^ The second settlement made by his expedition at Buenos Aires was even less successful and long-lived than the first.

By car

Car rental is readily available throughout Argentina, though it is a bit expensive compared to other forms of transportation. Traveling by car allows visiting locations which are hard to reach by public transportation. Patagonia, in the South of Argentina, is popular among tourists due to the breathtaking views across many miles of open land.
Argentina generally recognizes valid drivers' licenses from foreign jurisdictions. Drivers must be over 21. The rental companies will charge the renters card $6000 to be used in the event of an accident. They cancel this charge when the car is returned. On the rutas, in the provinces bordering other countries, the police frequently stop cars at controles policiales ("police checkpoints") to check insurance and registration papers and drivers' licenses. .They do not stop all cars, though; when you come to a control policial, drive slowly and you will usually be waved through without stopping.^ All three come away with something similar to what they hoped for, but none of their journeys assumes a straight and simple line.

Near provincial borders, these controles may also involve inspection of the trunk for contraband and a mandatory two peso fee for "disinfection" or "de-insectifying" the car's underside by driving it over a mechanical sprayer that either sprays water or does nothing. .The police have been known to set up roadblocks and demand bribes for passage, particularly around the city of Buenos Aires.^ Buenos Aires was blockaded by the combined English and French fleets, September 1845, which landed a force to open the passage up the Parana to Paraguay, which had been declared closed to foreigners by Rosas.

^ Under the direction of this committee, the association known elected, and in order to provide against the predominance of Buenos Aires, it was determined that Sante Fe should be the place of session .

^ The The national government and the twelve provinces forming the Cordoba League, were ranged on one side; the city and province of Buenos Aires and the province of Corrientes on the other.

Traffic regulations in Argentina are generally the same as in the U.S. or Europe, but are often ignored by the locals. Be aware that the driving style in Argentina is much more aggressive and chaotic. Pay attention at night.
Maximum speed: 60 km/h in the city, 40 km/h on side roads and 100 km/h to 120 km/h on roads outside the city as well as on highways. There are frequent speed controls. However speed limits and lane markings, for example, are universally ignored, and running red lights is common. Most drivers treat stop signs, octagonal red signs reading PARE, as though they were "yield" signs, though some drivers ignore them completely. .Within cities surrounding Buenos Aires it is proper to honk at an impending intersection and the one who honks first has right of way.^ Of these colleges four are in Buenos Aires, one in each province, and one in Concepcion del Uruguay.

^ Saturday Juan Villegas The lives of six young people intersect one Saturday in a desolate part of Buenos Aires.

^ Communications.-The development of railways in Argentina, which dates from 1857 when the construction of the Buenos Aires Western was begun, was at first slow and hesitating, but after 1880 it went forward rapidly.

Right of way is determined somewhat haphazardly by a combination of vehicle size and who arrives first. Make sure you are thoroughly confident in your driving skills before attempting to drive in Argentina.
Highways are limited to the areas around large cities. Most of the country is connected by paved unlit two-lane roads (rutas) shared by buses, cars, and large trucks. .Some places are accessible only by gravel or dirt roads - indeed, some main roads in southern Argentina are unsealed, leading to 4WD vehicles being more popular in the south.^ ARGENTINA, or the Argentine Republic (officially, Republica Argentina ), a country occupying the greater part of the southern extremity of South America .

Due to this it is important to travel with a good map ( e.g. .Argentina Waterproof Road Map from World Mapping Project) and to be well informed about your route (especially distances, road conditions and the estimated travel time).^ However, we strongly recommend traveling with 6 months validity on your passport at all times.
  • Argentina Visa : Application, Requirements. Apply for Argentine Visas Online. 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC argentina.visahq.com [Source type: General]

.In addition to a good map the website of cochera andina publishes useful information on more than 120 routes in Argentina.^ Few countries have suffered more from a depreciated currency than Argentina.

.The current cost of gasoline in central and southern Argentina is approximately 3 pesos per liter, and 2,5 pesos per liter in the north (between $2.57 and $3.06 per gallon)Be aware that in many small towns, particularly in the north, they may ration gasoline to ensure they have enough to sell until the next refuelling truck arrives, in which case you will only be allowed to buy 30 pesos worth of fuel at a time.^ A gang of teenagers roams the slums until Sandra, the only girl in the gang, decides that she's had enough.

^ Other small rivers rising in the Cordoba sierras are the Primero and Segundo, which flow into the lagoons of north-east Cordoba, and the Quinto, which flows south-easterly into the lagoons and morasses of southern Cordoba.

^ Had the expenses of all the small towns and rural communities been included, the total would be in excess of $20 gold, or £4, per capita.

It's advisable to fill your tank at regular intervals when the opportunity arises. In the Andes the gasoline consumption often increases to over 15 liters per 100 km.

By thumb

.The hitchhiking club Autostop Argentina [16] began in Argentina in 2002, inspired by clubs in France, Italy and the United States.^ Argentina tourist visa is not required for citizens of United States for a stay up to 90 days.
  • Argentina Visa : Application, Requirements. Apply for Argentine Visas Online. 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC argentina.visahq.com [Source type: General]

^ Argentina official visa fees for citizens of United States .
  • Argentina Visa : Application, Requirements. Apply for Argentine Visas Online. 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC argentina.visahq.com [Source type: General]

^ Argentina visa requirements: 1-800-345-6541 Argentina visa for citizens of  United States .
  • Argentina Visa : Application, Requirements. Apply for Argentine Visas Online. 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC argentina.visahq.com [Source type: General]

As a result, hitchhiking has become more acceptable among the younger generation, and raising a thumb at a highway is a symbol most people understand.

Talk

The official language is Spanish. .Generally, most people speak the Spanish language correctly, with a local accent; but be aware of the regional dialect, Castellano Rioplatense (Rioplatense Spanish), better known as argentino, is subtly different from both the language of Spain and that of Central America.^ At ATypI 2009 in Mexico City, she speaks on Colonial Typography for Native Languages of Latin America (XVI-XIX Century) .
  • Argentinian typography 11 September 2009 1:13 UTC cg.scs.carleton.ca [Source type: General]

Most notably, the pronoun "tu" is replaced by "vos", and the you plural pronoun "vosotros" replaced with "ustedes", the latter being common throughout Latin America. Besides, there are separate verb conjugations, sometimes significantly different for irregular verbs in present tense and informal commands. Additionally, people from each city pronounce words differently too! .In this way, people from Buenos Aires speak differently compared to those from Spain and other Spanish speaking countries; example: chicken in Spanish (pollo) is pronounced PO-zhO or PO-SHO by the "Porteños" (residents of Buenos Aires), with the SH sound harder than in spaniards speakers; unlike most other Spanish speakers of South America who pronounces it PO-yo.^ Born in Buenos Aires, and a resident designer in Barcelona, Alfredo Graziani is the codesigner with Alejandro Paul at Umbrella Type of the medieval script Mama Script (2004).
  • Argentinian typography 11 September 2009 1:13 UTC cg.scs.carleton.ca [Source type: General]

^ But Urquiza was a man of different temperament from Rosas, and when he found that Buenos Aires refused to submit to his authority, he declined to use force.

^ ARGENTINA, or the Argentine Republic (officially, Republica Argentina ), a country occupying the greater part of the southern extremity of South America .

Hey Big Balls
Don't be surprised if you hear some creative terms of endearment on the street. It's not uncommon to refer to one's friends as boludo ("big balls") or loco ("crazy"). "Che" is also used.
There is no such thing as political correctness in Argentina. In a colloquial speech, larger people are unapologetically addressed as gordo (fat), blacks as "negro", and anyone resembling indigenous peoples are also commonly addressed as "bolita" also (regardless of their actual ancestry); Italians are tanos; spaniards gallegos; jews rusos; anyone Asian chinos and the like. This sort of blunt address is considered somewhat normal in Argentina. Try to take it lightly, as it is usually not meant to offend, but don't copy it, because in certain circles this practice is considered racist and xenophobic.
The Argentine accent evinces heavy Italian influence from the large influx of Italian immigrants. Hand gestures derived from Italy are extremely common, and many colloquialisms are borrowed from Italian (for example: instead of saying "cerveza", which means beer, young argentineans find "birra" cooler, which is in italian). Most locals can readily understand most Spanish dialects, and Portuguese or Italian if spoken slowly. English is mandatory in high school and usually understood in at least a basic level in tourists' areas. German and French can be understood and to some extent spoken by small fractions of the population. A few places in Patagonia near Rawson have native Welsh speakers. Words borrowed from aboriginal languages include: quechua, guarani, mataco, che, mate and others.
The interjection "che loco" are extremely common and mean approximately the same as English "hey!". It can also be employed as a phrase known to someone you don't remember their names. Ex: "Oíme, Che,...." .Sometimes it is peppered through out the speech, similar to the English phrase "you killa man."^ The light canvas allows your gear to dry through the canvas if you don't have time to dry it out.
  • ARGENTINA POLO - Polo equipment at the best price - polo sticks, polosaddles, polo bridles, polo helmets, polo whips, polo mallets. 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC argentinapolo.com [Source type: General]

Nonetheless, communication will not be a problem for any Spanish speaker.
Argentines will communicate with each other using lunfardo, a street dialect or slang. It is used together with Spanish by replacing nouns with their synonyms in lunfardo. As opposed to changing the original meaning, it just makes the phrase more colourful. An important aspect of lunfardo is that it is only spoken. For example, one knows the word dinero (money), but may use the word "guita" in order to refer to the same things. Lunfardo is composed of about 5,000 words, many of which do not appear in the dictionary.

Do

Walking Tours

.Buenos Aires has a number of walking tour options.^ The carrying out of Federalist principles led, however, to the formation in the republic of a number of quasiindependent military states, and Dorrego only ruled in Buenos Aires.

^ The number of newspapers published is large, especially in Buenos Aires, where in 1902 the total, including sundry periodicals , was 183.

They include the typical tours you may find in any city, as well as interesting options including free walking tours, Downloadable MP3 Walking Tours, and even Running Tours.

Sports

The most popular sport in Argentina is futbol (soccer). If you come to Argentina, you shouldn't miss the chance to experience a professional match live . Argentina's fans are very passionate.

Football teams

There are five teams called "Los 5 grandes" and are the elite of the argentinian football tournaments:
  • Boca Juniors - famous stadium "La Bombonera" where Diego Maradona played.
  • River Plate - Stadium "El monumental de Nuñez"
  • Racing Club - The first Argentine team to win the Club World Championships.
  • Independiente
  • San Lorenzo
Other Teams
  • Rosario Central - Stadium "El gigante de Arroyito"
  • Velez Sarfield (European SouthAmerican Cup Champion in Tokyo 1994)
  • Estudiantes de La Plata - World Champion '68, Champion of America '68 - '69 - '70. Club where Juan Sebastián Verón plays
  • Newell's Old Boys - team where Gabriel Batistuta played
  • Colón de Santa Fe - Stadium "Cementerio de los elefantes" (Elephants cemetery)
  • Ferrocarril Oeste.

Other sports

Rugby and basketball (basquet) are also popular. Polo is popular among the upper classes although it is still part of the nation's culture and can be readily seen in all areas of life. Tennis has been growing in popularity with the Argentina's steady production of top players over the past three decades.
Field hockey has also became a popular sport, especially among women. .The National Women's Field Hockey Team, Las Leonas (The Lionesses), has grown in the past years and developed into a now competes against the best in the world.^ Dr Burmeister was afterwards placed in charge of the provincial museum of Buenos Aires, and devoted himself to the acquisition of a collection of fossil remains, now in the La Plata museum, which ranks among the best of the world.

Car racing is popular too: The main leagues are Turismo Carretera (Ford vs Chevrolet), TC2000 (Touring Cars) and TopRace. .The most important racetrack in Argentina is in Buenos Aires is "Autódromo Oscar Alfredo Gálvez.^ Communications.-The development of railways in Argentina, which dates from 1857 when the construction of the Buenos Aires Western was begun, was at first slow and hesitating, but after 1880 it went forward rapidly.

^ The two most frequented by ocean-going vessels are Buenos Aires and Ensenada (La Plata).

^ Buenos Aires, Argentina) is based in Buenos Aires, where he works as a graphic and type designer.
  • Argentinian typography 11 September 2009 1:13 UTC cg.scs.carleton.ca [Source type: General]

Golf in Argentina is an increasingly popular sport in Argentina, thanks in part to the success of Argentinian players such as Angel Cabrera, Andres Romero and Eduardo Romero. .There are currently around 280 courses in the country, most located around Buenos Aires and including such well-known names as the Jockey Club, Olivos and Hurlingham.^ The name of Buenos Aires was given to the country by Sancho del.

^ The new town received from Garay the name of Ciudad de la Santissira Trinidad , while its port retained the old appellation of Santa Maria de Buenos Aires.

^ Under the direction of this committee, the association known elected, and in order to provide against the predominance of Buenos Aires, it was determined that Sante Fe should be the place of session .

.On the Atlantic coast in Mar del Plata are a couple of courses that have held international events, and Patagonia has excellent resort courses such as Llao Lloa, Arelauquen and Chapelco (a Nicklaus design) as well as the 9-hole course in Ushaia.^ Eduardo was born in Buenos Aires in 1972 and studied graphic design at the Escuela de Artes Visuales Martín A. Malharro and at the Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata, both in Mar del Plata.
  • Argentinian typography 11 September 2009 1:13 UTC cg.scs.carleton.ca [Source type: General]

^ He graduated with a certificate of illustration and graphic design from Escuela Superior de Arts Visuales Martin A. Malharro, in Mar del Plata, where he resides and works today.
  • Argentinian typography 11 September 2009 1:13 UTC cg.scs.carleton.ca [Source type: General]

Buy

.The official currency of Argentina is the peso (ARS), divided into 100 centavos.^ October i 899,which provided that the outstanding circulation should be redeemed at the rate of 44 centavos gold for each 100 centavos paper, the official rate for gold being 227.27.

Generally, the exchange rate floats around ARS3.85/USD 1 and ARS5.20/€1.
Coins come in 5, 10, 25, 50 centavo and 1 peso denominations. Banknotes are issued in values of 2, 5, 10, 20, 50, and 100 pesos. Be prepared to receive 5 or 10 cent change in the form of golosinas (candies), specially in chinese supermarkets.
The fashion and art scenes are booming. Buenos Aires' signature European-South American style overflows with unique art pieces, art deco furniture, and antiques. Creative and independent, local fashion designers - who are becoming a source of inspiration for the U.S. and European high-end markets - compose their collections based on lots of leather, wools, woven fabrics, and delicate laces with a gaucho twist. The dollar and the euro are very strong in Argentina as of early 2006, so this has indeed become a shopping paradise for tourists from these regions.
.Fashionable clothing and leather products can be found in most commercial areas; jackets, boots and shoes are easily available.^ These are worn without boots over normal shoes to protect calves from stirrup leather; a good alternative to boots when you have to travel lightly.
  • ARGENTINA POLO - Polo equipment at the best price - polo sticks, polosaddles, polo bridles, polo helmets, polo whips, polo mallets. 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC argentinapolo.com [Source type: General]

.However, Buenos Aires only has a relatively mild climate, so truly cold-weather gear is harder to find here.^ The struggle for supremacy between Buenos Aires and the provinces had, however, to be fought out, and hostilities once more broke out in 1861.

^ The carrying out of Federalist principles led, however, to the formation in the republic of a number of quasiindependent military states, and Dorrego only ruled in Buenos Aires.

^ This project of closer union met, however, with much opposition both at Buenos Aires and the provinces.

.Long coats or heavy gloves may not be in stock; similarly, jeans and other basics, are thinly constructed compared to those in cooler countries.^ At the same time all this country was opened to Spanish trade even with Peru, and the development of its resources, so long thwarted, was allowed comparatively free play.

.The Andes regions and Patagonia are considerably colder in the winter, so thick clothing is much easier to find here.^ Farther south, in Patagonia, the prevailing wind is westerly, in which case the Andes again " blanket " an extensive region and deprive it of rain , turning it into an arid desolate steppe .

Electronics will not be cheap, as they are imported from elsewhere; music, books, and movies will be discounted by the weak peso, though.
.Most freestanding shops in Buenos Aires are open 10AM-8PM on weekdays, and some of them also Saturdays and Sundays, depending on what area of the city they are in.^ In the city and province of Buenos Aires, plenty of volunteers offered their services, and an army of some twenty-five thousand men was quickly raised, but they were armed with old-fashioned weapons and there was only a limited supply of ammunition.

^ He summoned all the provincial governors at San Nicolas in the province of Buenos Aires, and on the 31st of May they pro claimed a new constitution, with Urquiza.

^ Buenos Aires has some excellent daily journals, but the tone of the press in general is sensational.

Enclosed malls, however, set their own hours, and are also open on the weekends.
.Most places outside of the city of Buenos Aires, where most stores remain open during a siesta, still observe a siesta from approximately 12 until 4 PM; almost all businesses are closed during this time.^ One of the first notable acts of the Roca administration was to declare the city of Buenos Aires the property of the national government.

^ The guia tax on the transport of stock from one province to another, which has been declared unconstitutional in the courts, is still enforced, and is a vexatious tax upon the stock-raiser, while the consumption, or octroi , tax in Buenos Aires and other cities is a heavy burden upon small producers.

^ The steamships under the national flag are almost wholly engaged in the traffic between Buenos Aires and Montevideo, the river traffic, and port services.

The precise closing hours vary from store to store, according to the preferences of the owner. Shops and offices generally open again in the evening until 9 or 10 PM.

Eat

Argentinian breakfast is somewhat light compared to what travellers from English-speaking countries are accustomed to. Hotels typically provide a free buffet consisting of coffee, tea, drinkable yogurt, assorted pastries and toast, fruit, and perhaps cereal. These kinds of breakfasts are also readily available in the many cafes.
Lunch is a big meal in Argentina, typically taken in the early afternoon. Lunch is so big because dinner is not until late: 8.30PM to 9.00PM at the earliest, more commonly at 9PM or even later. Most restaurants do not serve food until then except for pastries or small ham-and-cheese toasted sandwiches (tostados), for afternoon tea between 6 and 8 PM. Tea is the one meal that is rarely skipped. .A few cafes do offer heartier fare all day long, but don't expect anything more substantial than pizza or a milanesa (breaded meat fillets) or a lomito (steak sandwiches) outside of normal Argentine mealtimes.^ Originally the cattle were nearly all of the long-horned Spanish breed and of little value for their meat, except to the saladero establishments.

^ Few countries have suffered more from a depreciated currency than Argentina.

Dinner is usually eaten at 10:00 P.M. and typically consists of appetizers, entrees, and desserts. Be aware that, similarly to the European "entree", (entrada) refers to the appetizers. The north american "entree" is refered to as "main dish" or "plato principal". For appetizers, there are empanadas (meat turnovers or dumplings), chorizo or morcilla (pork or blood sausage), and assortments of achuras (entrails). For an entree there is usually bife de chorizo (T-bone steak) and various types of salads. Then for dessert, there is flan (custard) topped with dulce de leche and whipped cream.
Beef is the central component of the Argentine diet, and Argentine beef is world-famous for good reason. Definitely check out Argentine barbecue: asado, sometimes also called parrillada, because it is made on a parrilla, or grill. There is no way around it - foodwise Argentina is virtually synonymous with beef. The beef is some of the best in the world, and there are many different cuts of meat. Lomo (tenderloin) and bife de chorizo are excellent. Having a parrillada dinner is one of the best ways to experience it, preferably with a bottle of wine from Mendoza. In some popular areas, parrilladas are available from small buffets, or sidewalk carts and barbecue trailers. Skewers and steak sandwiches can then be purchased to go.
Given that a large portion of Argentines are of Italian, Spanish and French descent, such fare is very widespread and of high quality; pizzerias and specialized restaurants are very common. Take note that a convention observed in Argentina is to treat the pasta and sauce as separate items; some travellers have found out what they thought was cheap pasta only to find that they were not getting any sauce. You will see the pastas for one price and then the sauces for an additional charge.
Cafes, bakeries, and ice-cream shops (heladerías) are very popular. Inexpensive and high-quality snacks can be found in most commercial areas, and many have outdoor seating areas. Empanadas (turnovers) containing meats, cheeses, or many other fillings can be bought cheaply from restaurants or lunch counters. The Alfajor is a must try snack of a two cookies with a dulce de leche filling and can be purchased at virtually any local kiosco.
Smoking is now prohibited in most restaurants of Capital Federal and all of Mendoza's restaurants.

Drink

Yerba mate (pronounced in two syllables, 'MAH-tae') is a traditional Argentine herbal drink, prepared in a hollowed-out gourd which is passed around in a social setting and drunk through a metal straw. Though usually drunk hot, mate can also be served cold, usually known as "tereré". Terere is prefered by the populace in Uruguay and Paraguay. Mate contains less caffeine than coffee, but contains other vitamins and minerals that give it a stimulating effect, particularly to those who are not used to it. It is naturally rather bitter, so it's not uncommon to add sugar. The drinking of mate with friends is an important social ritual in Argentina. The informal tea ceremony is lead by a "cebador" or server and people arrange themselves in a "rueda" or wheel. Those who like the drink bitter and those who like it sweet are clustered together to aide the server.
Argentina is renowned for its excellent selection of wine. .The most popular being Mendoza which is rated amongst the worlds most popular regions due to its high altitude, volcanic soils and proximity to the Andes Mountains.^ The vegetation of each region has its distinctive character, modified here and there by elevation, irrigation from mountain streams, and by the saline character of the soil.

The terrain seems to complement the European grape varietals with interesting notes not present when produced in other climates, this allows the Argentine wine to be positioned in a league of its own. The best way to experience and understand the selection of Argentine varietals is one of the many degustation events.
Most restaurants serve a broad range of liquors. Beer is offered in draft form in a chopp (small glass) or served in bottles or cans, and is typically a light, easily drinkable lager. The most popular locally made brands of beer are Quilmes, Isenbeck, Schneider and Brahma(although it's brazilian). Widely-available imports include Warsteiner, Heineken, Budweiser and Corona. .There are now many small pubs and bars in Buenos Aires that brew beer on premises, but most of these offer a poor quality product compared to what is widely available in parts of the USA and Europe.^ Of these colleges four are in Buenos Aires, one in each province, and one in Concepcion del Uruguay.

^ The two most frequented by ocean-going vessels are Buenos Aires and Ensenada (La Plata).

^ The consequences of this catastrophe were felt far and wide, and in the spring of 1891 both the Banco Nacional and the Banco de la provincia de Buenos Aires were unable to meet their obligations.

.In the Buenos Aires area, the Buller Brewing Company in Recoleta and the Antares Brewery in Mar del Plata offer excellent handcrafted English/American style ales.^ Of these colleges four are in Buenos Aires, one in each province, and one in Concepcion del Uruguay.

^ Those of Buenos Aires, Rosario and La Plata are owned by public companies.

^ Buenos Aires has some excellent daily journals, but the tone of the press in general is sensational.

If you ask if there are "cervezas artesanales" you will be able to find out if there are local handcrafted beers.
.Fernet is very consumed by argentineans, specially in Córdoba, Santa Fe and Buenos Aires.^ The new town received from Garay the name of Ciudad de la Santissira Trinidad , while its port retained the old appellation of Santa Maria de Buenos Aires.

^ Under the direction of this committee, the association known elected, and in order to provide against the predominance of Buenos Aires, it was determined that Sante Fe should be the place of session .

^ While these disturbances were taking place in the province of Buenos Aires, another revolutionary rising was in progress in Santa Fe.

It's a bitter drink mixed with coke, served in bars, pubs, clubs and if you go to an argentineanian's house he will have fernet and coke to offer you.Fernet is 40% alcohol by volume and is dark brown in color. Fernet is usually served as a digestif after a meal, but may also be enjoyed with coffee and espresso, or mixed into coffee and espresso drinks. It may be enjoyed at room temperature or with ice.
Cafes often have fresh-squeezed fruit juices, which is otherwise hard to find. The legal drinking age is officially 18, although most establishments will serve anyone approximately 16 or older.

Sleep

.A wide range of accommodation possibilities are available in Buenos Aires and the rest of the country, from student hostels to homey bed and breakfasts to trendy boutique hotels in the city to luxurious palaces and modern five-star hotels.^ The consequences of this catastrophe were felt far and wide, and in the spring of 1891 both the Banco Nacional and the Banco de la provincia de Buenos Aires were unable to meet their obligations.

^ The name of Buenos Aires was given to the country by Sancho del.

^ The The national government and the twelve provinces forming the Cordoba League, were ranged on one side; the city and province of Buenos Aires and the province of Corrientes on the other.

.There are also many beautiful lake-side lodges in Patagonia, and fabulous regional farms (estancias) outside the cities.^ Schools of art and conservatories of music are also maintained in the large cities, where there are, besides, many private schools.

Many vacation cabañas (cabins or weekend houses) are available for short-term rent directly from the owners in the mountains, seaside, and in rural areas. Drive around and look for signs saying alquiler ("rental"), or check the classified section of any major newspaper.
Bear in mind that except in the 5-star hotels, usually the rooms are not as large as in hotels around the world.

Learn

.There are a lot of public and private quality institutes who give Spanish lessons, and many more for Tango lessons, argentinean art and literature, architecture.^ Schools of art and conservatories of music are also maintained in the large cities, where there are, besides, many private schools.

Stay safe

.Argentina has the highest traffic mortality rate in South America per 100,000 inhabitants, with Argentinian drivers causing 20 deaths each day (about 7,000 a year), with more than 120,000 injured people each year.^ In 1665 the relaxation of this system was brought about by the continual remonstrances of the people, but for more than a century afterwards (until 1776) the policy of exclusion was enforced.

^ ARGENTINA, or the Argentine Republic (officially, Republica Argentina ), a country occupying the greater part of the southern extremity of South America .

^ The boundary with Chile, extending across more than 32° lat., had been the cause of disputes for many years, which at times led to costly preparations for war.

These deaths have included some unfortunate tourists. Pedestrians should exercise extreme caution. Do not jaywalk if you do not feel comfortable, and always keep your eyes about you when crossing the street.
There is plenty of activity and foot traffic throughout the night. Nice areas have a very thorough police presence, perhaps one officer per 3 blocks, plus store security and auxiliary patrols. .Public security in all major cities like Buenos Aires, Córdoba and Rosario is handled by the Federal Police and the National Gendarmerie or the Naval Prefecture, especially in the Puerto Madero area of Buenos Aires.^ The steamships under the national flag are almost wholly engaged in the traffic between Buenos Aires and Montevideo, the river traffic, and port services.

^ Those of Buenos Aires, Rosario and La Plata are owned by public companies.

^ He summoned all the provincial governors at San Nicolas in the province of Buenos Aires, and on the 31st of May they pro claimed a new constitution, with Urquiza.

.As in any large city, certain particular neighborhoods in Buenos Aires and other cities are very dangerous.^ The The national government and the twelve provinces forming the Cordoba League, were ranged on one side; the city and province of Buenos Aires and the province of Corrientes on the other.

^ The guia tax on the transport of stock from one province to another, which has been declared unconstitutional in the courts, is still enforced, and is a vexatious tax upon the stock-raiser, while the consumption, or octroi , tax in Buenos Aires and other cities is a heavy burden upon small producers.

^ Electric power generated by steam is now commonly used in Buenos Aires and other large cities for driving light machinery.

.There are also many shantytowns in Buenos Aires.^ There is also a dockyard and torpedo arsenal at La Plata, an artillery depot at Zarate, above Buenos Aires, and naval depots on the island of Martin Garcia and at Tigre , on the Lujan river.

The most famous are in Retiro, Villa Lugano, La Boca and Villa Riachuelo. Ask trusted locals, such as hotel desk staff or police officers, for advice. Pay attention to your environment and trust your instincts. If an area seems questionable, leave.
Many people in the street and in the subway hand out small cards with horoscopes, lottery numbers, pictures of saints, or cute drawings on them. If you take the card, the person will ask for payment. You can simply return the card along with a no, gracias. or simply in silence if your Spanish is not good. Persistent panhandlers are usually not dangerous; a polite but firm no tengo nada ("I don't have anything") and/or hand gestures are usually enough.
Most robberies are not violent, if it is just give the robbers everything, because they may be on drugs, drunk, have a knife or a gun; in most cases, if your wallet is stolen, you won't even notice until hours later. In the unlikely event that you are confronted by a mugger, simply hand over your valuables - they are replaceable. Watch out for pickpockets in the subway and on crowded city streets. Never hang your purse or bag from the back of your chair in a cafe or restaurant - stealthy theft from such bags is common. Keep your purse or backpack on the floor between your legs while you eat.
.Popular demonstrations are very common in Buenos Aires, and are best avoided by tourists as these demonstrations sometimes grow into violent confrontations with the police or National Gendarmerie, particularly as they approach the government buildings in the city center.^ Of these colleges four are in Buenos Aires, one in each province, and one in Concepcion del Uruguay.

^ The steamships under the national flag are almost wholly engaged in the traffic between Buenos Aires and Montevideo, the river traffic, and port services.

^ In October 1900 Dr Manuel Campos Salles, president of Brazil, paid a visit to Buenos Aires, and was received with great demonstrations of friendliness.

.There are rogue taxis operating in Buenos Aires whose drivers kidnap and rob tourists and locals alike.^ There is also a dockyard and torpedo arsenal at La Plata, an artillery depot at Zarate, above Buenos Aires, and naval depots on the island of Martin Garcia and at Tigre , on the Lujan river.

If you take a taxi, it's best to have your hotel or business phone for a radio taxi. If you must hail one on the street, look for one with the lighted gear on the roof and the designation "Radio Taxi" next to a phone number. Try to have small bills ready, as you may receive counterfeits if you pay in large denominations.
It is recommended that you carry some ID with you, but not your original passport. A copy of it (easily provided by your own hotel) should be enough.

Ezeiza International Airport Security Warning

In July of 2007, Argentina's TV network "Canal 13" conducted an investigation revealing that a group of security operators at the airport are stealing valuable objects such as iPods, digital cameras, cellular phones, sun glasses, jewelry and laptops while scanning the checked luggage of passengers. According to the special report, security operators at the airport should check each bag before putting it into the plane; however, as in most airports in the United States, some operators take advantage of the scanner machine to detect valuable objects and steal them. The report states that this event occurs every day and that the stolen items include anything from electronic devices to perfumes and works of art.
Travelers and residents traveling to the United States are strongly encouraged to place high-value items in their carry-on luggage to prevent any incidents.
  • Ambulance (Inmediate Health Emergency Service, SAME): 107
  • Firemen (National Firemen Corps): 100
  • Police (Argentine Federal Police): 101 (currently Argentina is implementing a 911 service, but at the time of this writing it is available only in a few cities, which include Buenos Aires and Mar del Plata)
  • Tourist Police: (011) 4346-5748 / 0800-999-5000
Travel Warning
WARNING: There's been an outbreak of dengue fever in the central and north region of Argentina. Argentine Ministry of Health has reported over 13,000 confirmed cases of dengue fever in Argentina as of April 16, 2009. Up until recently, cases had been restricted to the northern Argentine provinces of Chaco, Salta, Catamarca, Tucuman, Corrientes and Jujuy, however over 100 cases have now been confirmed in the capital and in Buenos Aires Province
Visiting Argentina doesn't raise any major health worries. Certain vaccinations may be necessary for visitors, depending on where in Argentina you plan to visit. Yellow Fever vaccinations are recommended for those visiting the Northern forests. Different climate conditions might take your body by surprise, so be aware of the weather before you arrive. A bout of travellers' diarrhoea is the most you're likely to have to worry about as your body adjusts to local micro-organisms in the food. It's also best to ease yourself gently into the local diet – sudden quantities of red meat, red wine, strong coffee and sweet pastries can be very unsettling for a stomach used to gentler repasts – and though tap water in Argentina is safe to drink, if sometimes heavily chlorinated, you may prefer to err on the side of caution in rural areas in the north of the country.
Although oral contraceptives are sold over the counter, without a prescription, a woman considering taking them is well advised first to consult a wise and licensed physician about their proper use, as well as possible contraindications and side effects.

Respect

The 2001 peso crisis has left many Argentines bitter towards some authorities and institutions. While many shops will appreciate payment in US dollars or Euros and even offer you a better exchange rate than the banks, try to blend in elsewhere. Keep a supply of pesos on hand for those businesses that do not accept dollars.

Conversation

Argentines are very engaging people who may ask very personal questions within minutes after first meeting someone. They will expect you to do the same. Failing to do so would signify lack of interest in the other person.
Don't be offended if someone calls you a "boludo". Even though it's a swear word, to Argentines it means "pal", or "mate". Argentinean people are infamous for the amount of cursing they do, so if they are talking to you don't pay attention to the cursing. If Argentineans are mad, teasing you or making fun of you, you will tell by the expression of their face or the tone of their voice as well as even more cursing than usual.
Try not to compare "dulce de leche" disfavorably with anything else in the world, likewise for Argentinian meat; doing it will be considered somewhat insulting.

Greeting

Cheek kissing is very common in Argentina's big cities, among and between women and men. When two women, or opposite sexes first meet, it is not uncommon to kiss. Two men will first shake hands if they do not know each other, but will probably kiss when departing, especially if they have spoken for a while. Male friends cheek kiss every time when greeting, it is like a sign of trust. Trying to shake hands when offered a kiss will be considered odd, but never rude especially if you are an obvious foreigner. Remember when visiting another country its always interesting to try new customs.
In the rest of the country, regular handshaking applies. Also women will greet by kissing as describing below, but reserved to other women and to men they are acquainted with.

Football

Since some Argentines are extremely die-hard football fans, try to avoid wearing rival soccer jerseys, as one bad turn on the wrong street, or walking into a bar wearing the wrong colors, could be dangerous in low-class neighborhoods. You can wear European football club jerseys with an Argentinean player's name on the back (for example: a Manchester City jersey with Tevez's name,a Liverpool jersey with Mascherano's name,etc..). If you really want to wear a jersey, the safest plan is to wear an Argentina world cup jersey.

Punctuality and Perception of Time

Argentinians generally take a relaxed attitude towards time. This can be unsettling to visitors from North America and non-Latin parts of Europe where punctuality is highly valued. You should expect that your Argentine contacts will be at least 10 to 15 minutes late for any appointment. Tardiness of 30 to 45 minutes is not unusual. This is considered normal in Argentina and does not signify any lack of respect for the relationship. Of course, this does not apply to business meetings.
If you are invited to a dinner or party at, say 9PM, it does not mean that you should be present at 9PM, but instead that you should not arrive before 9PM. You'll be welcomed anytime afterwards. Arriving to a party 2-3 hours late is normally OK and sometimes expected.
This attitude extends to any scheduled activity in Argentina. Plays, concerts usually get going around half an hour after their scheduled times. Long distance buses leave on time though. As in any busy city around the world, short-distance public transportation like city buses and the subway do not even bother with time estimates; they arrive when they arrive! Factor these elements into your calculations of how long things will take.
Unannounced bus or train departures ahead of the schedule are not uncommon, especially in big cities. This is normally not a problem, as in general no one will expect you to be on time anyway.

Contact

By phone

You can get a prepaid Movistar SIM card for free at phone shops, all you pay is about 20 Pesos (about 7 US-Dollars) for your initial credits. Inserting the SIM card into your American or European mobile phone should work - you then have your personal Argentinean phone number, which is very useful to keep in touch with other travellers, either by calling or by writing text messages. Your credits are used up at a rate of about 1 Peso per minute. To reload you can buy small cards with secret numbers at many kiosks. Dialing *444, pressing 2 followed by 1, and entering the secret number does the trick.
Not related to mobile phones, there are similar cards with credits for international calls. You get them at so called 'locutorios', where you can also use the phone booths. You dial a free number to connect to the service, then your secret number for the credits, and then the international phone number you want to call. Using these cards, a one-hour call to Europe will cost about 10 Pesos (3 US-Dollars). Don't call without such cards or even from your hotel - it will be way more expensive.
The phone numbering plan in Argentina is hopelessly complicated for unexpecting foreigners. Do check out the Wikipedia article about it to find out more.
  • Directory Listing (The White Pages): 110
  • International Operator: 000
  • National Operator: 19
  • Collect National Calls: 19 from regular phones, *19 from public phones
  • Mobile phone numbers start with 15
  • Regional code for Buenos Aires: 11
Other useful phone numbers include:
  • Official Time: 113
  • Consumer Defense: (011) 5382-6216/17
All 2 and 3-digit numbers are free, except the official time service (113). All 0800 numbers are toll-free numbers.
Long Distance Calls From Argentina: You may use calling card, 0.18 Peso/min or 5.90 ¢/min for calling from Argentina to USA.
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Study guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikiversity

ARGENTINA
Flag of Argentina.svg

--72.209.57.63 20:52, 22 October 2009 (UTC) Part of the Comparative law and justice Wikiversity Project
Scale of justice 2 new.jpeg Subject classification: this is a law resource .

Contents

Basic Information

Argentina is a latin-american country located in South America. With a population of over 40.3 million and an annual growth of 0.92% Argentina is the second biggest country in South America and the eighth largest country in the world. It is about 1/3 the size of the the United States.

Argentina is 1,008,296 square miles. Because of its large size the country is well known for having many diverse regions. in northern region of Argentina is called Gran Chacos. Borderibng with the countries Uruguay, Brazil, Paraguay and Bolivia, this region has heavily forested lowlands and limited fertility because of swamps and drought in certain parts. Gran Chaco has humid summers, and dry winters. In the center of Argentina stretching from West to East, the land is a flat fertile plain known as Las Pampas (or the level lands). Las Papas has fertile soil and a temperate climate. Their seasons are very similar to United Staes, but because Argentina is located in another hemisphere their seasons are opposite to our own. January is considered their hottest month of the year and July their coldest month. About 2/3 of Argentina's population lives in this region which is also home to Argentina's capitol city, Buenos Aires. This city is populated with 13 million people and is the main center for the nation's economic activities. Las Pampas also has its own brand of cowboys known as Gauchos who heard cattle in this region.

Spanish is the official language of Argentina and the country is the largest among Spanish-speaking nations. However, because of its big European influence, lanuages such as Italian, Geman, French and English are still spoken. Accents vary by region the most popular being a type of slang known as castellano (Castilian).

The word Argentina comes from the latin word Argentum which means "silver".

Brief History

Economic Development, Health, and Education

Governance

Elections

Judicial Review

Courts and Criminal Law

Punishment

Legal Personnel

Law Enforcement

Crime Rates and Public Opinion

Rights

Family Law

Social Inequality

Human Rights

Works Cited


1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010
(Redirected to Database error article)

From LoveToKnow 1911

(There is currently no text in this page)


Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

Wikipedia-logo.png
Wikipedia has an article on:
See also argentina

Contents

English

Etymology

.Latin argentum (silver), from the genitive ἀργήντος (argēntos) of the Ancient Greek ἀργήεις (argēeis), white, shining) < ἀργός (argos), shining, bright, glistening).^ Go to site ORIGIN OF THE NAME ARGENTINA The word Argentina comes from the Latin Argentum , that means “silver”.
  • Argentina - About Argentina 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.argentina.gov.ar [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The word Argentina comes from the latin word Argentum which means "silver".
  • Argentina - Wikiversity 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikiversity.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It comes from the Latin term "argentum", which means silver.

Pronunciation

  • (UK) IPA: /ˈɑː(ɹ).dʒənˌtin.ə/, SAMPA: /"A:(r).dZ@n.tin.@/

Proper noun

Singular
Argentina
Plural
-
Argentina
  1. A country in South America, called officially The Argentine Republic.

Related terms

Translations

See also


Bosnian

Proper noun

Argentina f.
  1. Argentina

Croatian

Proper noun

Argentína f.
  1. Argentina

Czech

Proper noun

Argentina f.
  1. Argentina

Estonian

Proper noun

Argentina
  1. Argentina

Italian

Proper noun

Argentina f.
  1. Argentina

Related terms

Anagrams


Norwegian

Pronunciation

  • IPA: /ɑɾgəntɪːnɑ/

Proper noun

Argentina
  1. Argentina

Related terms


Serbian

Proper noun

Argentina f.
  1. Argentina

See also


Spanish

Wikipedia-logo.png
Spanish Wikipedia has an article on:
Argentina
Wikipedia es

Proper noun

Argentina f.
  1. Argentina

Related terms


Swedish

Proper noun

Argentina
  1. Argentina

Wikispecies

Up to date as of January 23, 2010

From Wikispecies

Argentina may mean:


Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 06, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Argentina, which are similar to those in the above article.








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