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Ἀριστοτέλης, Aristotélēs

Marble bust of Aristotle. Roman copy after a Greek bronze original by Lysippus c. 330 BC. The alabaster mantle is modern
Full name Ἀριστοτέλης, Aristotélēs
Born 384 BC
Stageira, Chalcidice
Died 322 BC (age 61 or 62)
Euboea
Era Ancient philosophy
Region Western philosophy
School Peripatetic school
Aristotelianism
Main interests Physics, Metaphysics, Poetry, Theatre, Music, Rhetoric, Politics, Government, Ethics, Biology, Zoology
Notable ideas Golden mean, Reason, Logic, Passion
Aristotle (Greek: Ἀριστοτέλης, Aristotélēs) (384 BC – 322 BC) was a Greek philosopher, a student of Plato and teacher of Alexander the Great. .His writings cover many subjects, including physics, metaphysics, poetry, theater, music, logic, rhetoric, politics, government, ethics, biology, and zoology.^ This term indicates that Aristotle sees in ethical activity an attraction that is comparable to the beauty of well-crafted artifacts, including such artifacts as poetry, music, and drama.
  • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Subjects include ideas and movements of reform, church government and structures, missionary enterprises, forms of spirituality and worship, and the political role and cultural impact of Christianity.

.Together with Plato and Socrates (Plato's teacher), Aristotle is one of the most important founding figures in Western philosophy.^ That is why for Aristotle one of the most important capacities one can have is moral judgment.
  • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ And (3) others define him as one who lives with and (4) has the same tastes as another, or (5) one who grieves and rejoices with his friend; and this too is found in mothers most of all.
  • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ However, considerable emphasis will be placed on major traditions ignored by earlier histories of medieval philosophy: glossing of Plato Latinus, Aristotles Latinus, Macrobius, and Martianus Capella.

.Aristotle's writings constitute a first at creating a comprehensive system of Western philosophy, encompassing morality and aesthetics, logic and science, politics and metaphysics.^ An introduction to issues in philosophy of education such as religion and education, education and politics (including global politics), the value of social and empirical sciences for the study of education, the problem of indoctrination, etc.

^ An examination of modes of moral reasoning and what constitutes the good life, based primarily on the study of Aristotle's NICOMACHEAN ETHICS and the moral philosophy of Kant.

^ This preoccupation with the role of "acting" in moral development is reflected not only in works of theology and philosophy but also in aesthetics, theory of drama, plays, and novels.

.Aristotle's views on the physical sciences profoundly shaped medieval scholarship, and their influence extended well into the Renaissance, although they were ultimately replaced by Newtonian physics.^ Although it has often been noted that the poor are more generous than the rich, giving freely of what they have even if it isn't much, which is what Aristotle is referring to at the end of this passage.
  • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ We will study how these thinkers answered these questions as well as how their answers influenced the specific obligations they understood us as having.

^ This course integrates the principles of physical sciences and engineering as they pertain to the environment, with addition discussion of social, political, and theological concerns.

In the biological sciences, some of his observations were confirmed to be accurate only in the nineteenth century. .His works contain the earliest known formal study of logic, which was incorporated in the late nineteenth century into modern formal logic.^ A number of recent works attempt to reassess our view of modern theology by painting in broad strokes key developments of the 17th and 18th centuries.

^ Then it will focus on how immigration transformed the church in the U.S. We will study such issues as national identity, devotional life, gender, and doctrine over the course of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries.

In metaphysics, Aristotelianism had a profound influence on philosophical and theological thinking in the Islamic and Jewish traditions in the Middle Ages, and it continues to influence Christian theology, especially Eastern Orthodox theology, and the scholastic tradition of the Catholic Church. .His ethics, though always influential, gained renewed interest with the modern advent of virtue ethics.^ Guidance will be principally taken from works of Plato, Aristotle, and St. Thomas Aquinas, though some modern and contemporary conceptions of the virtues will be discussed by way of counterpoint.

^ There has been considerable interest recently in recovering traditions of reflection on the virtues as a resource for Christian ethics.

.All aspects of Aristotle's philosophy continue to be the object of active academic study today.^ An examination of modes of moral reasoning and what constitutes the good life, based primarily on the study of Aristotle's NICOMACHEAN ETHICS and the moral philosophy of Kant.

.Though Aristotle wrote many elegant treatises and dialogues (Cicero described his literary style as "a river of gold"),[1] it is thought that the majority of his writings are now lost and only about one-third of the original works have survived.^ Cicero, a leading statesman of the late Roman Republic, endeavored to mediate between the work of Greek theorists and Roman practice; in time, his writings became among the most important sources on ancient moral and political thought for the Christian tradition.

^ Now no one deliberates about things that are invariable, nor about things that it is impossible for him to do.
  • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Now about eternal things no one deliberates, e.g.
  • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

[2]
.Despite the far-reaching appeal that Aristotle's works have traditionally enjoyed, today modern scholarship questions a substantial portion of the Aristotelian corpus as authentically Aristotle's own.^ Guidance will be principally taken from works of Plato, Aristotle, and St. Thomas Aquinas, though some modern and contemporary conceptions of the virtues will be discussed by way of counterpoint.

^ Aristotle does not actually think that akrasia is possible, but common sense says that it is and it would take us too far out of the way into Aristotelian scholarship to see why he doesn't think so.
  • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

[3]

Contents

Life

Aristotle was born in Stageira, Chalcidice, in 384 BC, about 55 km (34 mi) east of modern-day Thessaloniki.[4] His father Nicomachus was the personal physician to King Amyntas of Macedon. Aristotle was trained and educated as a member of the aristocracy. At about the age of eighteen, he went to Athens to continue his education at Plato's Academy. Aristotle remained at the academy for nearly twenty years, not leaving until after Plato's death in 347 BC. He then traveled with Xenocrates to the court of his friend Hermias of Atarneus in Asia Minor. While in Asia, Aristotle traveled with Theophrastus to the island of Lesbos, where together they researched the botany and zoology of the island. Aristotle married Hermias's adoptive daughter (or niece) Pythias. She bore him a daughter, whom they named Pythias. Soon after Hermias' death, Aristotle was invited by Philip II of Macedon to become the tutor to his son Alexander the Great in 343 B.C.[5]
Early Islamic portrayal of Aristotle
Aristotle was appointed as the head of the royal academy of Macedon. .During that time he gave lessons not only to Alexander, but also to two other future kings: Ptolemy and Cassander.^ Sometimes only a small degree of anger is appropriate; but at other times, circumstances call for great anger.
  • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ For when something is subtracted from one of two equals and added to the other, the other is in excess by these two; since if what was taken from the one had not been added to the other, the latter would have been in excess by one only.
  • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ In their parts and during the time they occupy, all movements are incomplete, and are different in kind from the whole movement and from each other.
  • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

.In his Politics, Aristotle states that only one thing could justify monarchy, and that was if the virtue of the king and his family were greater than the virtue of the rest of the citizens put together.^ On the other hand, he who thinks himself worthy of great things, being unworthy of them, is vain; though not every one who thinks himself worthy of more than he really is worthy of in vain.
  • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ It should be evident that Aristotle's treatment of virtues as mean states endorses the idea that we should sometimes have strong feelings—when such feelings are called for by our situation.
  • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Now often one contrary state is recognized from its contrary, and often states are recognized from the subjects that exhibit them; for (A) if good condition is known, bad condition also becomes known, and (B) good condition is known from the things that are in good condition, and they from it.
  • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

Tactfully, he included the young prince and his father in that category. Aristotle encouraged Alexander toward eastern conquest, and his attitude towards Persia was unabashedly ethnocentric. In one famous example, he counsels Alexander to be 'a leader to the Greeks and a despot to the barbarians, to look after the former as after friends and relatives, and to deal with the latter as with beasts or plants'.[6]
By 335 BC he had returned to Athens, establishing his own school there known as the Lyceum. Aristotle conducted courses at the school for the next twelve years. .While in Athens, his wife Pythias died and Aristotle became involved with Herpyllis of Stageira, who bore him a son whom he named after his father, Nicomachus.^ And these friendships differ also from each other; for it is not the same that exists between parents and children and between rulers and subjects, nor is even that of father to son the same as that of son to father, nor that of husband to wife the same as that of wife to husband.
  • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ While Aristotle does believe that there is a common human nature in that we have common needs and capacities, he does not believe that there is a common moral nature, unlike many who moral theorists who will follow him.
  • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Power and wealth are desirable for the sake of honour (at least those who have them wish to get honour by means of them); and for him to whom even honour is a little thing the others must be so too.
  • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

According to the Suda, he also had an eromenos, Palaephatus of Abydus.[7]
.It is during this period in Athens from 335 to 323 BC when Aristotle is believed to have composed many of his works.^ While Aristotle does believe that there is a common human nature in that we have common needs and capacities, he does not believe that there is a common moral nature, unlike many who moral theorists who will follow him.
  • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

[5] Aristotle wrote many dialogues, only fragments of which survived. .The works that have survived are in treatise form and were not, for the most part, intended for widespread publication, as they are generally thought to be lecture aids for his students.^ For if the gods have any care for human affairs, as they are thought to have, it would be reasonable both that they should delight in that which was best and most akin to them (i.e.
  • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ (They are welcome guests in our discussions) Nevertheless, despite this limitation, we will be dealing with that form of postmodern discourses that has exercised the most influence on the academy in general, and has shown itself to be interesting at least in the construction of alternatives to regnant theologies.

^ Socrates, then, thought the virtues were rules or rational principles (for he thought they were, all of them, forms of scientific knowledge), while we think they involve a rational principle.
  • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

.His most important treatises include Physics, Metaphysics, Nicomachean Ethics, Politics, De Anima (On the Soul) and Poetics.^ Texts to be read include Books I and II of the Physics, the De Anima, and large chunks of the Nicomachean Ethics, along with snippets from the Parva Naturalia.

^ An examination of a number of the most important systematic contributions to medical ethics in recent years.

^ A basic introduction to Aristotle's "human philosophy" (ta anthropina philosophia) by reading the Nicomachean Ethics and the Politics.

.Aristotle not only studied almost every subject possible at the time, but made significant contributions to most of them.^ Building on a study of several well-documented cases from various places and times, an analysis will be made of the dynamics of conversion from theological as well as other perspectives.

^ Of these characteristics it is possible to have some only at times, and not to be mastered by them.
  • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Daniel Dennett, a philosopher at Tufts University, has argued that the modern theory of evolution has not only made it intellectually possible and satisfying to be an atheist, but mandatory.

In physical science, Aristotle studied anatomy, astronomy, embryology, geography, geology, meteorology, physics and zoology. .In philosophy, he wrote on aesthetics, ethics, government, metaphysics, politics, economics, psychology, rhetoric and theology.^ Ethics and International Relations explores diverse international issues through normative political philosophy and case studies.

^ An examination of the linkage among religious beliefs, world views, group identifications, political attitudes and behavior, based on literature in political science, sociology, psychology, and theology.

^ We'll look at works of literature and biography, of politics and philosophy, and of theology and economics.

He also studied education, foreign customs, literature and poetry. His combined works constitute a virtual encyclopedia of Greek knowledge. .It has been suggested that Aristotle was probably the last person to know everything there was to be known in his own time.^ Now (1) arents know their offspring better than there children know that they are their children, and (2) the originator feels his offspring to be his own more than the offspring do their begetter; for the product belongs to the producer (e.g.
  • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ If there is a natural purpose for human life (as Aristotle suggests) then it seems clear that the quality of a human life (its excellence or lack of excellence) can then be measured against the extent to which a human life has realized this purpose.
  • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

[8]
.Near the end of Alexander's life, Alexander began to suspect plots against himself, and threatened Aristotle in letters.^ If there is a natural purpose for human life (as Aristotle suggests) then it seems clear that the quality of a human life (its excellence or lack of excellence) can then be measured against the extent to which a human life has realized this purpose.
  • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

Aristotle had made no secret of his contempt for Alexander's pretense of divinity, and the king had executed Aristotle's grandnephew Callisthenes as a traitor. .A widespread tradition in antiquity suspected Aristotle of playing a role in Alexander's death, but there is little evidence for this.^ In a tradition that goes back at least as far as Homer, Aristotle has no room for the notion that there is an individual existence prior to or independent of the community.
  • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

[9]
Upon Alexander's death, anti-Macedonian sentiment in Athens once again flared. Eurymedon the hierophant denounced Aristotle for not holding the gods in honor. Aristotle fled the city to his mother's family estate in Chalcis, explaining, "I will not allow the Athenians to sin twice against philosophy,"[10] a reference to Athens's prior trial and execution of Socrates. However, he died in Euboea of natural causes within the year (in 322 BC). Aristotle named chief executor his student Antipater and left a will in which he asked to be buried next to his wife.[11]

Logic

Aristotle portrayed in the 1493 Nuremberg Chronicle as a 15th-century-A.D. scholar
.With the Prior Analytics, Aristotle is credited with the earliest study of formal logic, and his conception of it was the dominant form of Western logic until 19th century advances in mathematical logic.^ Use of four ethical theories and five classical logical/analytical criteria to ethically evaluate case studies in contemporary science.

.Kant stated in the Critique of Pure Reason that Aristotle's theory of logic completely accounted for the core of deductive inference.^ An examination of modes of moral reasoning and what constitutes the good life, based primarily on the study of Aristotle's NICOMACHEAN ETHICS and the moral philosophy of Kant.

History

.Aristotle "says that 'on the subject of reasoning' he 'had nothing else on an earlier date to speak of'".[12] However, Plato reports that syntax was devised before him, by Prodicus of Ceos, who was concerned by the correct use of words.^ For this reason it is not identity of opinion; for that might occur even with people who do not know each other; nor do we say that people who have the same views on any and every subject are unanimous, e.g.
  • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Besides, it has been shown before that the man of practical wisdom is one who will act (for he is a man concerned with the individual facts) and who has the other virtues.
  • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Therefore for this reason also the whole concern both of virtue and of political science is with pleasures and pains; for the man who uses these well will be good, he who uses them badly bad.
  • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Logic seems to have emerged from dialectics; the earlier philosophers made frequent use of concepts like reductio ad absurdum in their discussions, but never truly understood the logical implications.^ And the memory of noble things is pleasant, but that of useful things is not likely to be pleasant, or is less so; though the reverse seems true of expectation.
  • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ To clarify this concept, Aristotle introduces the notion of the practical syllogism (although he never uses this term).
  • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Even Plato had difficulties with logic; although he had a reasonable conception of a deducting system, he could never actually construct one and relied instead on his dialectic.^ Particular emphasis will be placed on the importance of viewing biomedicine as one among many culturally constructed systems of medicine.

^ To clarify this concept, Aristotle introduces the notion of the practical syllogism (although he never uses this term).
  • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Those who think there is only one because it admits of degrees have relied on an inadequate indication; for even things different in species admit of degree.
  • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

[13] Plato believed that deduction would simply follow from premises, hence he focused on maintaining solid premises so that the conclusion would logically follow. Consequently, Plato realized that a method for obtaining conclusions would be most beneficial. He never succeeded in devising such a method, but his best attempt was published in his book Sophist, where he introduced his division method.[14]

Analytics and the Organon

.What we today call Aristotelian logic, Aristotle himself would have labeled "analytics". The term "logic" he reserved to mean dialectics.^ It should be evident that Aristotle's treatment of virtues as mean states endorses the idea that we should sometimes have strong feelings—when such feelings are called for by our situation.
  • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ A defense of Aristotle would have to say that the virtuous person does after all aim at a mean, if we allow for a broad enough notion of what sort of aiming is involved.
  • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Logically, one would think that one could be temperate with regard to vision and hearing, but since people don't speak that way, Aristotle won't either.
  • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Most of Aristotle's work is probably not in its original form, since it was most likely edited by students and later lecturers.^ We have discussed movement with precision in another work, but it seems that it is not complete at any and every time, but that the many movements are incomplete and different in kind, since the whence and whither give them their form.
  • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

The logical works of Aristotle were compiled into six books in about the early 1st century AD:
  1. Categories
  2. On Interpretation
  3. Prior Analytics
  4. Posterior Analytics
  5. Topics
  6. On Sophistical Refutations
.The order of the books (or the teachings from which they are composed) is not certain, but this list was derived from analysis of Aristotle's writings.^ These books are listed in the order in which they will be read.
  • Fritzman's PHIL 103 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC legacy.lclark.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The logical works of Aristotle were compiled into six books in about the early 1st century AD: Categories On Interpretation Prior Analytics Posterior Analytics Topics On Sophistical Refutations The order of the books (or the teachings from which they are composed) is not certain, but this list was derived from analysis of Aristotle's writings.

^ In his will Aristotle ordered that "Wherever they bury me, there the bones of Pythias shall be laid, in accordance with her own instructions."

It goes from the basics, the analysis of simple terms in the Categories, the analysis of propositions and their elementary relations in On Interpretation, to the study of more complex forms, namely, syllogisms (in the Analytics) and dialectics (in the Topics and Sophistical Refutations). .The first three treatises form the core of the logical theory stricto sensu: the grammar of the language of logic and the correctness rules of reasoning.^ Now this seems to be a correct form of government, but the Persian type is perverted; for the modes of rule appropriate to different relations are diverse.
  • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

.There is one volume of Aristotle's concerning logic not found in the Organon, namely the fourth book of Metaphysics..^ We must next discuss whether there is any one who is incontinent without qualification, or all men who are incontinent are so in a particular sense, and if there is, with what sort of objects he is concerned.
  • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Logically, one would think that one could be temperate with regard to vision and hearing, but since people don't speak that way, Aristotle won't either.
  • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The excess can be manifested in all the points that have been named (for one can be angry with the wrong persons, at the wrong things, more than is right, too quickly, or too long); yet all are not found in the same person.
  • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

[13]

Aristotle's scientific method

Plato (left) and Aristotle (right), a detail of The School of Athens, a fresco by Raphael. Aristotle gestures to the earth, representing his belief in knowledge through empirical observation and experience, while holding a copy of his Nicomachean Ethics in his hand, whilst Plato gestures to the heavens, representing his belief in The Forms.
.Like his teacher Plato, Aristotle's philosophy aims at the universal.^ However, considerable emphasis will be placed on major traditions ignored by earlier histories of medieval philosophy: glossing of Plato Latinus, Aristotles Latinus, Macrobius, and Martianus Capella.

.Aristotle, however, found the universal in particular things, which he called the essence of things, while Plato finds that the universal exists apart from particular things, and is related to them as their prototype or exemplar.^ And the same equality will exist between the persons and between the things concerned; for as the latter the things concerned-are related, so are the former; if they are not equal, they will not have what is equal, but this is the origin of quarrels and complaints-when either equals have and are awarded unequal shares, or unequals equal shares.
  • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ However, considerable emphasis will be placed on major traditions ignored by earlier histories of medieval philosophy: glossing of Plato Latinus, Aristotles Latinus, Macrobius, and Martianus Capella.

^ Of things just and lawful each is related as the universal to its particulars; for the things that are done are many, but of them each is one, since it is universal.
  • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

.For Aristotle, therefore, philosophic method implies the ascent from the study of particular phenomena to the knowledge of essences, while for Plato philosophic method means the descent from a knowledge of universal Forms (or ideas) to a contemplation of particular imitations of these.^ For these variable facts are the starting-points for the apprehension of the end, since the universals are reached from the particulars; of these therefore we must have perception, and this perception is intuitive reason.
  • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ A close analysis of the forms, ideas, and preoccupations of both the religious imagination in literature and of the historical relationships between religious faith and traditions in particular literary works.

^ We shall study Boethius as reading intertextually the Greek philosophers Plato and Aristotle and the Greek scientists Nicomachus and Ptolemy, without forgetting the Latin theology of Augustine.

.For Aristotle, "form" still refers to the unconditional basis of phenomena but is "instantiated" in a particular substance (see Universals and particulars, below).^ Aristotle is not referring to some spiritual substance which is independent of the body and survives death: he is pre-Christian.
  • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

In a certain sense, Aristotle's method is both inductive and deductive, while Plato's is essentially deductive from a priori principles.[15]
.In Aristotle's terminology, "natural philosophy" is a branch of philosophy examining the phenomena of the natural world, and includes fields that would be regarded today as physics, biology and other natural sciences.^ An examination of the very distinctive manner in which Hellenistic philosophy (Cynics, Epicureans, Stoics, New Academy) defines the subject of knowledge, of action, and of interaction with others in the environment.

^ An examination of the linkage among religious beliefs, world views, group identifications, political attitudes and behavior, based on literature in political science, sociology, psychology, and theology.

^ Surely it is strange, too, to make the supremely happy man a solitary; for no one would choose the whole world on condition of being alone, since man is a political creature and one whose nature is to live with others.
  • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

.In modern times, the scope of philosophy has become limited to more generic or abstract inquiries, such as ethics and metaphysics, in which logic plays a major role.^ This perception then calls into play the relevant major premise that "spells out the general import of the concern that makes this feature the salient feature of the situation" (Wiggins 234).
  • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ A general introduction to philosophy, with emphasis on perennial problems such as the existence of God, human freedom, and moral obligation.

^ We will pay special attention to the relation between disputes within medical ethics and more general disputes in moral philosophy.

.Today's philosophy tends to exclude empirical study of the natural world by means of the scientific method.^ This involves study of the philosophies, theories, policies, and practices of development as expounded by the world powers and non-government organizations.

^ Among the most basic questions of philosophy is whether nature, as a whole world and in its parts, has a purpose or pursues goals.

^ An introduction to issues in philosophy of education such as religion and education, education and politics (including global politics), the value of social and empirical sciences for the study of education, the problem of indoctrination, etc.

.In contrast, Aristotle's philosophical endeavors encompassed virtually all facets of intellectual inquiry.^ Although Aristotle frequently draws analogies between the crafts and the virtues (and similarly between physical health and eudaimonia ), he insists that the virtues differ from the crafts and all branches of knowledge in that the former involve appropriate emotional responses and are not purely intellectual conditions.
  • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Aristotle holds that this same topography applies to every ethical virtue: all are located on a map that places the virtues between states of excess and deficiency.
  • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ A defense of Aristotle would have to say that the virtuous person does after all aim at a mean, if we allow for a broad enough notion of what sort of aiming is involved.
  • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

.In the larger sense of the word, Aristotle makes philosophy coextensive with reasoning, which he also would describe as "science". Note, however, that his use of the term science carries a different meaning than that covered by the term "scientific method". For Aristotle, "all science (dianoia) is either practical, poetical or theoretical" (Metaphysics 1025b25).^ There is, then, another kind of injustice which is a part of injustice in the wide sense, and a use of the word 'unjust' which answers to a part of what is unjust in the wide sense of 'contrary to the law'.
  • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The reason is that all law is universal but about some things it is not possible to make a universal statement which shall be correct.
  • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ And it is natural that meanness is described as the contrary of liberality; for not only is it a greater evil than prodigality, but men err more often in this direction than in the way of prodigality as we have described it.
  • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

.By practical science, he means ethics and politics; by poetical science, he means the study of poetry and the other fine arts; by theoretical science, he means physics, mathematics and metaphysics.^ Ethics and International Relations explores diverse international issues through normative political philosophy and case studies.

^ This course utilizes a burgeoning body of empirical studies, drawn from political science, sociology, and psychology, that address relationships among religious beliefs and organizations on the one hand, and political attitudes and actions, on the other.

^ For him the study of ethics, how individuals can become excellent or can evaluate excellence, is a necessary preliminary to the study of politics.
  • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

.If logic (or "analytics") is regarded as a study preliminary to philosophy, the divisions of Aristotelian philosophy would consist of: (1) Logic; (2) Theoretical Philosophy, including Metaphysics, Physics, Mathematics, (3) Practical Philosophy and (4) Poetical Philosophy.^ This involves study of the philosophies, theories, policies, and practices of development as expounded by the world powers and non-government organizations.

^ Logically, one would think that one could be temperate with regard to vision and hearing, but since people don't speak that way, Aristotle won't either.
  • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Use of four ethical theories and five classical logical/analytical criteria to ethically evaluate case studies in contemporary science.

.In the period between his two stays in Athens, between his times at the Academy and the Lyceum, Aristotle conducted most of the scientific thinking and research for which he is renowned today.^ For, as we said at the outset, most differences arise between friends when they are not friends in the spirit in which they think they are.
  • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

.In fact, most of Aristotle's life was devoted to the study of the objects of natural science.^ A study of THE DIVINE COMEDY, in translation with facing Italian text, with special attention to the history of ideas, the nature of mimesis and allegory, and Dante's sacramental vision of life.

^ Part of the course will be devoted to a close study of De Consolatione Philosophers Plato and Aristotle and the Greek scientists Nicomachus and Ptolemy, without forgetting the theology of Augustine.

^ Then it will focus on how immigration transformed the church in the U.S. We will study such issues as national identity, devotional life, gender, and doctrine over the course of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries.

Aristotle's metaphysics contains observations on the nature of numbers but he made no original contributions to mathematics. .He did, however, perform original research in the natural sciences, e.g., botany, zoology, physics, astronomy, chemistry, meteorology, and several other sciences.^ Students will read books by Wald, Benson and Williams, and several other authors, and may do directed research on NES or GSS datasets.

^ An examination of the nature and limits of both scientific and religious knowledge, and a discussion of several cases in which science and religion seem to either challenge or support one another.

^ He would not accept, for example, any idea of original sin or any other idea that suggest we are naturally bad (or good) people.
  • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

Aristotle's writings on science are largely qualitative, as opposed to quantitative. Beginning in the sixteenth century, scientists began applying mathematics to the physical sciences, and Aristotle's work in this area was deemed hopelessly inadequate. His failings were largely due to the absence of concepts like mass, velocity, force and temperature. He had a conception of speed and temperature, but no quantitative understanding of them, which was partly due to the absence of basic experimental devices, like clocks and thermometers.
His writings provide an account of many scientific observations, a mixture of precocious accuracy and curious errors. .For example, in his History of Animals he claimed that human males have more teeth than females[16] and in the Generation of Animals he said the female is as it were a deformed male.^ To good temper we oppose the excess rather than the defect; for not only is it commoner since revenge is the more human), but bad-tempered people are worse to live with.
  • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Although it has often been noted that the poor are more generous than the rich, giving freely of what they have even if it isn't much, which is what Aristotle is referring to at the end of this passage.
  • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

[17]
In a similar vein, John Philoponus, and later Galileo, showed by simple experiments that Aristotle's theory that a heavier object falls faster than a lighter object is incorrect.[18] On the other hand, Aristotle refuted Democritus's claim that the Milky Way was made up of "those stars which are shaded by the earth from the sun's rays," pointing out (correctly, even if such reasoning was bound to be dismissed for a long time) that, given "current astronomical demonstrations" that "the size of the sun is greater than that of the earth and the distance of the stars from the earth many times greater than that of the sun, then...the sun shines on all the stars and the earth screens none of them."[19]
.In places, Aristotle goes too far in deriving 'laws of the universe' from simple observation and over-stretched reason.^ The reason is that all law is universal but about some things it is not possible to make a universal statement which shall be correct.
  • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ In a tradition that goes back at least as far as Homer, Aristotle has no room for the notion that there is an individual existence prior to or independent of the community.
  • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ But Aristotle gives pride of place to the appetite for pleasure as the passion that undermines reason.
  • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Today's scientific method assumes that such thinking without sufficient facts is ineffective, and that discerning the validity of one's hypothesis requires far more rigorous experimentation than that which Aristotle used to support his laws.^ One also can do more than when one started.
  • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ (Though Aristotle in fact uses bothtm ) .
  • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ On the other hand, he who thinks himself worthy of great things, being unworthy of them, is vain; though not every one who thinks himself worthy of more than he really is worthy of in vain.
  • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

Aristotle also had some scientific blind spots. He posited a geocentric cosmology that we may discern in selections of the Metaphysics, which was widely accepted up until the 1500s. From the 3rd century to the 1500s, the dominant view held that the Earth was the center of the universe (geocentrism).
.Since he was perhaps the philosopher most respected by European thinkers during and after the Renaissance, these thinkers often took Aristotle's erroneous positions as given, which held back science in this epoch.^ And that all these attributes belong most of all to the philosopher is manifest.
  • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Therefore the states that are most strictly those in respect of which each of these parts will reach truth are the virtues of the two parts.
  • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ (Though Aristotle did not see these in the separate, often conflicting, way that we do.
  • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

[20] .However, Aristotle's scientific shortcomings should not mislead one into forgetting his great advances in the many scientific fields.^ But with a view to utility or pleasure it is possible that many people should please one; for many people are useful or pleasant, and these services take little time.
  • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ But as regards good friends, should we have as many as possible, or is there a limit to the number of one's friends, as there is to the size of a city?
  • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Why then should we not say the same about at least some of the emotions that Aristotle builds into his analysis of the ethically virtuous agent?
  • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

For instance, he founded logic as a formal science and created foundations to biology that were not superseded for two millennia. .Moreover, he introduced the fundamental notion that nature is composed of things that change and that studying such changes can provide useful knowledge of underlying constants.^ It is evident which sort of thing, among things capable of being otherwise, is by nature, and which is not but is legal and conventional, assuming that both are equally changeable.
  • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ That practical wisdom is not scientific knowledge is evident; for it is, as has been said, concerned with the ultimate particular fact, since the thing to be done is of this nature.
  • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ But 'change in all things is sweet', as the poet says, because of some vice; for as it is the vicious man that is changeable, so the nature that needs change is vicious; for it is not simple nor good.
  • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

Physics

The five elements

  • Fire, which is hot and dry.
  • Earth, which is cold and dry.
  • Air, which is hot and wet.
  • Water, which is cold and wet.
  • Aether, which is the divine substance that makes up the heavenly spheres and heavenly bodies (stars and planets).
Each of the four earthly elements has its natural place; the earth at the centre of the universe, then water, then air, then fire. .When they are out of their natural place they have natural motion, requiring no external cause, which is towards that place; so bodies sink in water, air bubbles rise up, rain falls, flame rises in air.^ And politics appears to be of this nature; for it is this that ordains which of the sciences should be studied in a state, and which each class of citizens should learn and up to what point they should learn them; and we see even the most highly esteemed of capacities to fall under this, e.g.
  • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ But, being a man, one will also need external prosperity; for our nature is not self-sufficient for the purpose of contemplation, but our body also must be healthy and must have food and other attention.
  • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ But no more do we deliberate about the things that involve movement but always happen in the same way, whether of necessity or by nature or from any other cause, e.g.
  • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

The heavenly element has perpetual circular motion.

Causality, The Four Causes

  • Material cause describes the material out of which something is composed. Thus the material cause of a table is wood, and the material cause of a car is rubber and steel. It is not about action. .It does not mean one domino knocks over another domino.
  • The formal cause tells us what a thing is, that any thing is determined by the definition, form, pattern, essence, whole, synthesis or archetype.^ But one might complain of another if, when he loved us for our usefulness or pleasantness, he pretended to love us for our character.
    • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ For it is a whole, and at no time can one find a pleasure whose form will be completed if the pleasure lasts longer.
    • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Hence in respect of its substance and the definition which states its essence virtue is a mean, with regard to what is best and right an extreme.
    • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

    .It embraces the account of causes in terms of fundamental principles or general laws, as the whole (i.e., macrostructure) is the cause of its parts, a relationship known as the whole-part causation.^ The relationship of religious principles and precepts, with "positive law" in and between sovereign states and pluralist democracies; the cases of modern states in which freedom of religion is considered to be a fundamental human right by constitutional and international law.

    .Plainly put the formal cause according to which a statue or a domino, is made is the idea existing in the first place as exemplar in the mind of the sculptor, and in the second place as intrinsic, determining cause, embodied in the matter.^ The first half is on the story of the life in terms of feeling and imagination and insight and choice, and the second half is on the story of the person in terms of the life project, the boundary situations of life, and conversion of mind, of heart, and of soul.

    Formal cause could only refer to the essential quality of causation. .A more simple example of the formal cause is the blueprint or plan that one has before making or causing a human made object to exist.
  • The efficient cause is that from which the change or the ending of the change first starts.^ Being able to live to the end of a complete human life, as far as is possible; not dying prematurely, or before ones life is so reduced in quality as to be not worth living.
    • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The origin of action-its efficient, not its final cause-is choice, and that of choice is desire and reasoning with a view to an end.
    • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ This, then, is one cause, drawn from the thing itself; another is drawn from ourselves; for the things to which we ourselves more naturally tend seem more contrary to the intermediate.
    • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

    .It identifies 'what makes of what is made and what causes change of what is changed' and so suggests all sorts of agents, nonliving or living, acting as the sources of change or movement or rest.^ Thus it is like comparing a lifeless thing with a living in respect of badness; for the badness of that which has no originative source of movement is always less hurtful, and reason is an originative source.
    • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

    .Representing the current understanding of causality as the relation of cause and effect, this covers the modern definitions of "cause" as either the agent or agency or particular events or states of affairs.^ We will cover questions related to the specificity of Christian ethics, Jesus and moral thinking, the human (Christian) person as moral agent, and the different methods employed in making ethical decisions.

    More simply again that which immediately sets the thing in motion. .So take the two dominos this time of equal weighting, the first is knocked over causing the second also to fall over.^ If, then, first there is proportionate equality of goods, and then reciprocal action takes place, the result we mention will be effected.
    • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ For it consists in two things, deficiency in giving and excess in taking, and is not found complete in all men but is sometimes divided; some men go to excess in taking, others fall short in giving.
    • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

    .This is effectively efficient cause.
  • The final cause is that for the sake of which a thing exists or is done, including both purposeful and instrumental actions and activities.^ For the originating causes of the things that are done consist in the end at which they are aimed; but the man who has been ruined by pleasure or pain forthwith fails to see any such originating cause-to see that for the sake of this or because of this he ought to choose and do whatever he chooses and does; for vice is destructive of the originating cause of action.
    • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ It seems, then, as has been said, that man is a moving principle of actions; now deliberation is about the things to be done by the agent himself, and actions are for the sake of things other than themselves.
    • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ And of this nature virtuous actions are thought to be; for to do noble and good deeds is a thing desirable for its own sake.
    • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

    .The final cause or telos is the purpose or end that something is supposed to serve, or it is that from which and that to which the change is.^ The origin of action-its efficient, not its final cause-is choice, and that of choice is desire and reasoning with a view to an end.
    • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Happiness, then, is something final and self-sufficient, and is the end of action.
    • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Certainly the future is obscure to us, while happiness, we claim, is an end and something in every way final.
    • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

    This also covers modern ideas of mental causation involving such psychological causes as volition, need, motivation or motives, rational, irrational, ethical, and all that gives purpose to behavior.
.Additionally, things can be causes of one another, causing each other reciprocally, as hard work causes fitness and vice versa, although not in the same way or function, the one is as the beginning of change, the other as the goal.^ On the other hand, he who thinks himself worthy of great things, being unworthy of them, is vain; though not every one who thinks himself worthy of more than he really is worthy of in vain.
  • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The justice, then, which answers to the whole of virtue, and the corresponding injustice, one being the exercise of virtue as a whole, and the other that of vice as a whole, towards one's neighbour, we may leave on one side.
  • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The excess can be manifested in all the points that have been named (for one can be angry with the wrong persons, at the wrong things, more than is right, too quickly, or too long); yet all are not found in the same person.
  • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

.(Thus Aristotle first suggested a reciprocal or circular causality as a relation of mutual dependence or influence of cause upon effect).^ If, then, first there is proportionate equality of goods, and then reciprocal action takes place, the result we mention will be effected.
  • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Moreover, Aristotle indicated that the same thing can be the cause of contrary effects; its presence and absence may result in different outcomes.^ But not only are the sources and causes of their origination and growth the same as those of their destruction, but also the sphere of their actualization will be the same; for this is also true of the things which are more evident to sense, e.g.
  • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ We shall examine classical and modern sources to highlight the contrast, locating the signal difference in the presence (or absence) of a creator.

^ A faculty or a science which is one and the same is held to relate to contrary objects, but a state of character which is one of two contraries does not produce the contrary results; e.g.
  • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

Simply it is the goal or purpose that brings about an event (not necessarily a mental goal). .Taking our two dominos, it requires someone to intentionally knock the dominos over as they cannot fall themselves.^ And so one might rather take the aforenamed objects to be ends; for they are loved for themselves.
  • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ For it consists in two things, deficiency in giving and excess in taking, and is not found complete in all men but is sometimes divided; some men go to excess in taking, others fall short in giving.
  • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ They become apt to take because they wish to spend and cannot do this easily; for their possessions soon run short.
  • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

Aristotle marked two modes of causation: proper (prior) causation and accidental (chance) causation. .All causes, proper and incidental, can be spoken as potential or as actual, particular or generic.^ It will also on this view be very generally shared; for all who are not maimed as regards their potentiality for virtue may win it by a certain kind of study and care .
  • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

.The same language refers to the effects of causes, so that generic effects assigned to generic causes, particular effects to particular causes, operating causes to actual effects.^ But not only are the sources and causes of their origination and growth the same as those of their destruction, but also the sphere of their actualization will be the same; for this is also true of the things which are more evident to sense, e.g.
  • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

Essentially, causality does not suggest a temporal relation between the cause and the effect.
.All further investigations of causality will consist of imposing the favorite hierarchies on the order causes, such as final > efficient > material > formal (Thomas Aquinas), or of restricting all causality to the material and efficient causes or to the efficient causality (deterministic or chance) or just to regular sequences and correlations of natural phenomena (the natural sciences describing how things happen instead of explaining the whys and wherefores).^ For the originating causes of the things that are done consist in the end at which they are aimed; but the man who has been ruined by pleasure or pain forthwith fails to see any such originating cause-to see that for the sake of this or because of this he ought to choose and do whatever he chooses and does; for vice is destructive of the originating cause of action.
  • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Further, we pardon people more easily for following natural desires, since we pardon them more easily for following such appetites as are common to all men, and in so far as they are common; now anger and bad temper are more natural than the appetites for excess, i.e.
  • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The origin of action-its efficient, not its final cause-is choice, and that of choice is desire and reasoning with a view to an end.
  • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

Optics

.Aristotle held more accurate theories on some optical concepts than other philosophers of his day.^ For (a) he perhaps gets more than his share of some other good, e.g.
  • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ On the other hand, he who thinks himself worthy of great things, being unworthy of them, is vain; though not every one who thinks himself worthy of more than he really is worthy of in vain.
  • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ It is in this way more than any other that even unequals can be friends; they can be equalized.
  • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

The earliest known written evidence of a camera obscura can be found in Aristotle's documentation of such a device in 350 BC in Problemata. Aristotle's apparatus contained a dark chamber that had a single small hole, or aperture, to allow for sunlight to enter. .Aristotle used the device to make observations of the sun and noted that no matter what shape the hole was, the sun would still be correctly displayed as a round object.^ For when the thing is indefinite the rule also is indefinite, like the leaden rule used in making the Lesbian moulding; the rule adapts itself to the shape of the stone and is not rigid, and so too the decree is adapted to the facts.
  • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ But it makes, perhaps, no small difference whether we place the chief good in possession or in use, in state of mind or in activity.
  • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ And thus the incontinent man like a city which passes all the right decrees and has good laws, but makes no use of them, as in Anaxandrides' jesting remark, .
  • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

In modern cameras, this is analogous to the diaphragm. Aristotle also made the observation that when the distance between the tiny hole and the surface with the image increased, the image was amplified.[21]

Chance and spontaneity

Spontaneity and chance are causes of effects. Chance as an incidental cause lies in the realm of accidental things. .It is "from what is spontaneous" (but note that what is spontaneous does not come from chance).^ It is "from what is spontaneous" (but note that what is spontaneous does not come from chance).

.For a better understanding of Aristotle's conception of "chance" it might be better to think of "coincidence": Something takes place by chance if a person sets out with the intent of having one thing take place, but with the result of another thing (not intended) taking place.^ For a better understanding of Aristotle's conception of "chance" it might be better to think of "coincidence": Something takes place by chance if a person sets out with the intent of having one thing take place, but with the result of another thing (not intended) taking place.

^ It appears to be one thing in one particular activity or art and something else in another.
  • Aristotle, Nicomachean Ethics [Abridged] 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC records.viu.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ To escape prosecution he fled to Chalcis in Euboea so that (Aristotle says) "The Athenians might not have another opportunity of sinning against philosophy as they had already done in the person of Socrates."
  • Aristotle (384-322 BCE): Overview [Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.utm.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • Aristotle 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC history-world.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Philosophy Professor | Aristotle 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.philosophyprofessor.com [Source type: Original source]

.For example: A person seeks donations.^ For example: A person seeks donations.

^ However, if the person seeking the donations met the person donating, not for the purpose of collecting donations, but for some other purpose, Aristotle would call the collecting of the donation by that particular donator a result of chance.

.That person may find another person willing to donate a substantial sum.^ That person may find another person willing to donate a substantial sum.

^ He may also be a suitable person to look to for instruction on finding the mean between boastfulness and self-deprecation.
  • enlightenment: Carolyn Ray: Eudaimonia in Aristotle's Nicomachean Ethics 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC enlightenment.supersaturated.com [Source type: Original source]

^ A naturally slow-tempered person may find it easy to deal with some (not necessarily all) anger-provoking situations.
  • Aristotle's Doctrine of the Mean 18 September 2009 4:22 UTC www.plosin.com [Source type: Original source]

.However, if the person seeking the donations met the person donating, not for the purpose of collecting donations, but for some other purpose, Aristotle would call the collecting of the donation by that particular donator a result of chance.^ For example: A person seeks donations.

^ However, if the person seeking the donations met the person donating, not for the purpose of collecting donations, but for some other purpose, Aristotle would call the collecting of the donation by that particular donator a result of chance.

^ Some Aristotle Quotes that we are collecting .
  • Aristotle Metaphysics Philosophy: Metaphysics of Space and Motion explainsPhilosopher Aristotle's Metaphysics, Physics 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.spaceandmotion.com [Source type: Original source]

.It must be unusual that something happens by chance.^ It must be unusual that something happens by chance.

^ In other words, if something happens all or most of the time, we cannot say that it is by chance.

^ But questions as to whether something has happened or has not happened, will be or will not be, is or is not, must of necessity be left to the judge, since the lawgiver cannot foresee them.
  • TheologyWebsite.com Etext Index: Rhetoric by Aristotle 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.theologywebsite.com [Source type: Original source]

.In other words, if something happens all or most of the time, we cannot say that it is by chance.^ Most overrated philosopher of all time?
  • Amazon.com: Nicomachean Ethics (9780872204645): Aristotle, Terence Irwin: Books 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC www.amazon.com [Source type: General]

^ He left the city, saying (according to many ancient authorities) that he would not give the Athenians a chance to sin a third time against Philosophy.
  • Aristotle - Catholic Encyclopedia - Catholic Online 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.catholic.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ What to say about classic What can one say abaout Aristotle, something new and compelling, in such a short manner and on a narrow place of thousand words.
  • Amazon.com: The Nicomachean Ethics (Oxford World's Classics) (9780192834072): Aristotle, J. L. Ackrill, J. O. Urmson, David Ross: Books 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC www.amazon.com [Source type: General]

.There is also more specific kind of chance, which Aristotle names "luck", that can only apply to human beings, since it is in the sphere of moral actions.^ And this is the equal; for in any kind of action in which there's a more and a less there is also what is equal.
  • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Since only humans can reason, reason must be part of our unique function as humans .
  • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Therefore, if there is only one final end, this will be what we are seeking, and if there are more than one, the most final of these will be what we are seeking.
  • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

.According to Aristotle, luck must involve choice (and thus deliberation), and only humans are capable of deliberation and choice.^ Since humans are uniquely rational creatures, that function must involve using reason well.
  • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Since only humans can reason, reason must be part of our unique function as humans .
  • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Thus, as the wickedness which is on the human level is called wickedness simply, while that which is not is called wickedness not simply but with the qualification 'brutish' or 'morbid', in the same way it is plain that some incontinence is brutish and some morbid, while only that which corresponds to human self-indulgence is incontinence simply.
  • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

"What is not capable of action cannot do anything by chance".[22]

Metaphysics

Statue of Aristotle (1915) by Cipri Adolf Bermann at the University of Freiburg im Breisgau
Aristotle defines metaphysics as "the knowledge of immaterial being," or of "being in the highest degree of abstraction." He refers to metaphysics as "first philosophy", as well as "the theologic science."

Substance, potentiality and actuality

.Aristotle examines the concept of substance and essence (ousia) in his Metaphysics, Book VII and he concludes that a particular substance is a combination of both matter and form.^ A close analysis of the forms, ideas, and preoccupations of both the religious imagination in literature and of the historical relationships between religious faith and traditions in particular literary works.

As he proceeds to the book VIII, he concludes that the matter of the substance is the substratum or the stuff of which it is composed, e.g. the matter of the house are the bricks, stones, timbers etc., or whatever constitutes the potential house. .While the form of the substance, is the actual house, namely 'covering for bodies and chattels' or any other differentia (see also predicables).^ Once we see that temperance, courage, and other generally recognized characteristics are mean states, we are in a position to generalize and to identify other mean states as virtues, even though they are not qualities for which we have a name.
  • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

The formula that gives the components is the account of the matter, and the formula that gives the differentia is the account of the form.[23]
With regard to the change (kinesis) and its causes now, as he defines in his Physics and On Generation and Corruption 319b-320a, he distinguishes the coming to be from: 1) growth and diminution, which is change in quantity; 2) locomotion, which is change in space; and 3) alteration, which is change in quality.
The coming to be is a change where nothing persists of which the resultant is a property. In that particular change he introduces the concept of potentiality (dynamis) and actuality (entelecheia) in association with the matter and the form.
.Referring to potentiality, this is what a thing is capable of doing, or being acted upon, if it is not prevented by something else.^ It is evident which sort of thing, among things capable of being otherwise, is by nature, and which is not but is legal and conventional, assuming that both are equally changeable.
  • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Virtuous people: Their feelings support doing the right thing and so do not experience internal tension or conflict in being good.
  • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ If he had been persuaded of the rightness of what he does, he would have desisted when he was persuaded to change his mind; but now he acts in spite of his being persuaded of something quite different.
  • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

For example, the seed of a plant in the soil is potentially (dynamei) plant, and if is not prevented by something, it will become a plant. Potentially beings can either 'act' (poiein) or 'be acted upon' (paschein), which can be either innate or learned. .For example, the eyes possess the potentiality of sight (innate – being acted upon), while the capability of playing the flute can be possessed by learning (exercise – acting).^ For this reason also a boy is not happy; for he is not yet capable of such acts, owing to his age; and boys who are called happy are being congratulated by reason of the hopes we have for them.
  • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Again, every science is thought to be capable of being taught, and its object of being learned.
  • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ There remains, then, an active life of the element that has a rational principle; of this, one part has such a principle in the sense of being obedient to one, the other in the sense of possessing one and exercising thought.
  • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Actuality is the fulfillment of the end of the potentiality.^ The end of life is not a state or condition, its an activity that is reasonably designed to fulfill human potential as much as possible.We dont achieve virtue or reach it really; we do it.
  • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Because the end (telos) is the principle of every change, and for the sake of the end exists potentiality, therefore actuality is the end.^ In medicine this is health, in strategy victory, in architecture a house, in any other sphere something else, and in every action and pursuit the end; for it is for the sake of this that all men do whatever else they do.
  • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The justice therefore that exists between persons so related is not the same on both sides but is in every case proportioned to merit; for that is true of the friendship as well.
  • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ And again that is most an object of choice which we choose not because or for the sake of something else, and pleasure is admittedly of this nature; for no one asks to what end he is pleased, thus implying that pleasure is in itself an object of choice.
  • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

Referring then to our previous example, we could say that actuality is when the seed of the plant becomes a plant.
." For that for the sake of which a thing is, is its principle, and the becoming is for the sake of the end; and the actuality is the end, and it is for the sake of this that the potentiality is acquired.^ It seems, then, as has been said, that man is a moving principle of actions; now deliberation is about the things to be done by the agent himself, and actions are for the sake of things other than themselves.
  • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Therefore, while he will fear even the things that are not beyond human strength, he will face them as he ought and as the rule directs, for honour's sake; for this is the end of virtue.
  • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

.For animals do not see in order that they may have sight, but they have sight that they may see."^ For the animal nature is always in travail, as the students of natural science also testify, saying that sight and hearing are painful; but we have become used to this, as they maintain.
  • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

[24]
In conclusion, the matter of the house is its potentiality and the form is its actuality. .The formal cause (aitia) then of that change from potential to actual house, is the reason (logos) of the house builder and the final cause is the end, namely the house itself.^ The origin of action-its efficient, not its final cause-is choice, and that of choice is desire and reasoning with a view to an end.
  • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The end of life is not a state or condition, its an activity that is reasonably designed to fulfill human potential as much as possible.We dont achieve virtue or reach it really; we do it.
  • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

Then Aristotle proceeds and concludes that the actuality is prior to potentiality in formula, in time and in substantiality.
.With this definition of the particular substance (i.e., matter and form), Aristotle tries to solve the problem of the unity of the beings, e.g., what is that makes the man one?^ For one swallow does not make a summer, nor does one day; and so too one day, or a short time, does not make a man blessed and happy.
  • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Or perhaps pleasures differ in kind; for those derived from noble sources are different from those derived from base sources, and one cannot the pleasure of the just man without being just, nor that of the musical man without being musical, and so on.
  • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ If, then, being is in itself desirable for the supremely happy man (since it is by its nature good and pleasant), and that of his friend is very much the same, a friend will be one of the things that are desirable.
  • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Since, according to Plato there are two Ideas: animal and biped, how then is man a unity?^ (A) We have shown that both the unjust man and the unjust act are unfair or unequal; now it is clear that there is also an intermediate between the two unequals involved in either case.
  • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Nor is there in animals other than man any pleasure connected with these senses, except incidentally.
  • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ There are also means in the passions and concerned with the passions; since shame is not a virtue, and yet praise is extended to the modest man.
  • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

.However, according to Aristotle, the potential being (matter) and the actual one (form) are one and the same thing.^ On the other hand, he who thinks himself worthy of great things, being unworthy of them, is vain; though not every one who thinks himself worthy of more than he really is worthy of in vain.
  • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ If, then, being is in itself desirable for the supremely happy man (since it is by its nature good and pleasant), and that of his friend is very much the same, a friend will be one of the things that are desirable.
  • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ But not only are the sources and causes of their origination and growth the same as those of their destruction, but also the sphere of their actualization will be the same; for this is also true of the things which are more evident to sense, e.g.
  • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

[25]

Universals and particulars

.Aristotle's predecessor, Plato, argued that all things have a universal form, which could be either a property, or a relation to other things.^ (Aristotle says somewhere that a man with no need for others is either a god or an animal.-tm) .
  • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The reason is that all law is universal but about some things it is not possible to make a universal statement which shall be correct.
  • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Now each of these is true of the good man's relation to himself (and of all other men in so far as they think themselves good; virtue and the good man seem, as has been said, to be the measure of every class of things).
  • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

When we look at an apple, for example, we see an apple, and we can also analyze a form of an apple. In this distinction, there is a particular apple and a universal form of an apple. .Moreover, we can place an apple next to a book, so that we can speak of both the book and apple as being next to each other.^ We have now discussed continence and incontinence, and pleasure and pain, both what each is and in what sense some of them are good and others bad; it remains to speak of friendship.
  • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Plato argued that there are some universal forms that are not a part of particular things.^ The reasons for the view that not all pleasures are good are that (a) there are pleasures that are actually base and objects of reproach, and (b) there are harmful pleasures; for some pleasant things are unhealthy.
  • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The reason is that all law is universal but about some things it is not possible to make a universal statement which shall be correct.
  • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ That there is such a thing is indicated by the fact that while the man who exhibits in action the other forms of wickedness acts wrongly indeed, but not graspingly (e.g.
  • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

.For example, it is possible that there is no particular good in existence, but "good" is still a proper universal form.^ For if this were not so, there would have been no need of a teacher, but all men would have been born good or bad at their craft.
  • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ But as regards good friends, should we have as many as possible, or is there a limit to the number of one's friends, as there is to the size of a city?
  • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Let A be a farmer, C food, B a shoemaker, D his product equated to C. If it had not been possible for reciprocity to be thus effected, there would have been no association of the parties.
  • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

Bertrand Russell is a contemporary philosopher that agreed with Plato on the existence of "uninstantiated universals".
.Aristotle disagreed with Plato on this point, arguing that all universals are instantiated.^ Generalize this to all wrong acts and you can see Aristotles point.
  • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Aristotle makes no attempt to argue this fundamental point; he simply takes it as self-evident (as it would be for any one of his contemporaries).
  • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Aristotle argued that there are no universals that are unattached to existing things.^ And there are many things we should be keen about even if they brought no pleasure, e.g.
  • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ It exists least in the worst form; in tyranny there is little or no friendship.
  • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ There is no universal rule, for example, about how much food an athlete should eat, and it would be absurd to infer from the fact that 10 lbs.
  • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

.According to Aristotle, if a universal exists, either as a particular or a relation, then there must have been, must be currently, or must be in the future, something on which the universal can be predicated.^ We must next discuss whether there is any one who is incontinent without qualification, or all men who are incontinent are so in a particular sense, and if there is, with what sort of objects he is concerned.
  • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ For these variable facts are the starting-points for the apprehension of the end, since the universals are reached from the particulars; of these therefore we must have perception, and this perception is intuitive reason.
  • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ And the same equality will exist between the persons and between the things concerned; for as the latter the things concerned-are related, so are the former; if they are not equal, they will not have what is equal, but this is the origin of quarrels and complaints-when either equals have and are awarded unequal shares, or unequals equal shares.
  • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Consequently, according to Aristotle, if it is not the case that some universal can be predicated to an object that exists at some period of time, then it does not exist.^ A critic might concede that in some cases virtuous acts can be described in Aristotle's terms.
  • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ And in some cases, this difference may be made not so much by some extra degree of moral strength at all, but by some feature of the circumstances over which the agent does not have full control: the absence of a supremely-tempting object, the presence of some unusual pressure or temptation.
  • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Aristotle does urge us, in assessing such cases, to consider how the agent’s disposition stands to the usual case .
  • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

In addition, Aristotle disagreed with Plato about the location of universals. .As Plato spoke of the world of the forms, a location where all universal forms subsist, Aristotle maintained that universals exist within each thing on which each universal is predicated.^ Aristotle holds that this same topography applies to every ethical virtue: all are located on a map that places the virtues between states of excess and deficiency.
  • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ We all suppose that what we know is not even capable of being otherwise; of things capable of being otherwise we do not know, when they have passed outside our observation, whether they exist or not.
  • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The reason is that all law is universal but about some things it is not possible to make a universal statement which shall be correct.
  • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

.So, according to Aristotle, the form of apple exists within each apple, rather than in the world of the forms.^ This claim is a vital because it will enable Aristotle to anchor his discussion in nature, in the truth of things, rather than in opinion or convention.
  • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

Biology and medicine

In Aristotelian science, most especially in biology, things he saw himself have stood the test of time better than his retelling of the reports of others, which contain error and superstition. He dissected animals, but not humans and his ideas on how the human body works have been almost entirely superseded.

Empirical research program

Octopus swimming
Torpedo fuscomaculata
Leopard shark
.Aristotle is the earliest natural historian whose work has survived in some detail.^ Aristotle is not referring to some spiritual substance which is independent of the body and survives death: he is pre-Christian.
  • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

Aristotle certainly did research on the natural history of Lesbos, and the surrounding seas and neighbouring areas. .The works that reflect this research, such as History of Animals, Generation of Animals, and Parts of Animals, contain some observations and interpretations, along with sundry myths and mistakes.^ We will explore some of the major historical interpretations of the Catholic experience, and become familiar with methods of historical research.

^ Part I will look at how some of the earliest teachings of the church developed out of a need to interpret authoritatively the suffering Christ and the suffering of the early Christian martyrs.

^ This course introduces students to theoretical reflection on these and related questions through the study of some of the great works of ancient and medieval political thought.

The most striking passages are about the sea-life visible from observation on Lesbos and available from the catches of fishermen. His observations on catfish, electric fish (Torpedo) and angler-fish are detailed, as is his writing on cephalopods, namely, Octopus, Sepia (cuttlefish) and the paper nautilus (Argonauta argo). His description of the hectocotyl arm was about two thousand years ahead of its time, and widely disbelieved until its rediscovery in the nineteenth century. He separated the aquatic mammals from fish, and knew that sharks and rays were part of the group he called Selachē (selachians).[26]
.Another good example of his methods comes from the Generation of Animals in which Aristotle describes breaking open fertilized chicken eggs at intervals to observe when visible organs were generated.^ Aristotle thinks of the good person as someone who is good at deliberation, and he describes deliberation as a process of rational inquiry.
  • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The Major Premise, the universal, comes from education, habit, observation, and example, from an educated sense of what eudaimonia means in my community and its relationship to the variously ranked goods of life.
  • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

He gave accurate descriptions of ruminants' four-chambered fore-stomachs, and of the ovoviviparous embryological development of the hound shark Mustelus mustelus.[27]

Classification of living things

Aristotle's classification of living things contains some elements which still existed in the nineteenth century. .What the modern zoologist would call vertebrates and invertebrates, Aristotle called 'animals with blood' and 'animals without blood' (he was not to know that complex invertebrates do make use of haemoglobin, but of a different kind from vertebrates).^ Which is called after which, makes no difference to our present purpose; plainly, however, the later is called after the earlier.
  • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Or perhaps pleasures differ in kind; for those derived from noble sources are different from those derived from base sources, and one cannot the pleasure of the just man without being just, nor that of the musical man without being musical, and so on.
  • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ But it makes, perhaps, no small difference whether we place the chief good in possession or in use, in state of mind or in activity.
  • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Animals with blood were divided into live-bearing (humans and mammals), and egg-bearing (birds and fish).^ With the other animals the union extends only to this point, but human beings live together not only for the sake of reproduction but also for the various purposes of life; for from the start the functions are divided, and those of man and woman are different; so they help each other by throwing their peculiar gifts into the common stock.
  • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

Invertebrates ('animals without blood') are insects, crustacea (divided into non-shelled – cephalopods – and shelled) and testacea (molluscs). .In some respects, this incomplete classification is better than that of Linnaeus, who crowded the invertebrata together into two groups, Insecta and Vermes (worms).^ It is for this reason also that it is called just (sikaion), because it is a division into two equal parts (sicha), just as if one were to call it sichaion; and the judge (sikastes) is one who bisects (sichastes).
  • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ These are the reasons, too, why mothers are fonder of their children than fathers; bringing them into the world costs them more pains, and they know better that the children are their own.
  • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Within this category, some are typically better able to resist these counter-rational pressures than is the average person.
  • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

.For Charles Singer, "Nothing is more remarkable than [Aristotle's] efforts to [exhibit] the relationships of living things as a scala naturae"[26] Aristotle's History of Animals classified organisms in relation to a hierarchical "Ladder of Life" (scala naturae), placing them according to complexity of structure and function so that higher organisms showed greater vitality and ability to move.^ For a moral thinker like Immanuel Kant of the 18 th century, a virtue is really nothing more than the strength of will to overcome feelings.
  • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ On the other hand, he who thinks himself worthy of great things, being unworthy of them, is vain; though not every one who thinks himself worthy of more than he really is worthy of in vain.
  • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Aristotle assumes that when someone systematically makes bad decisions about how to live his life, his failures are caused by psychological forces that are less than fully rational.
  • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

[28]
.Aristotle believed that intellectual purposes, i.e., formal causes, guided all natural processes.^ The reasons given for the view that pleasure is not a good at all are (a) that every pleasure is a perceptible process to a natural state, and that no process is of the same kind as its end, e.g.
  • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Aristotle offers no "proof" of this claim that all behaviour is goal oriented or teleological, by nature purposeful, and that the notion of goodness is thus naturally linked to some final destination or stage of development.
  • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ If there is a natural purpose for human life (as Aristotle suggests) then it seems clear that the quality of a human life (its excellence or lack of excellence) can then be measured against the extent to which a human life has realized this purpose.
  • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Such a teleological view gave Aristotle cause to justify his observed data as an expression of formal design.^ Now this view plainly contradicts the observed facts, and we must inquire about what happens to such a man; if he acts by reason of ignorance, what is the manner of his ignorance?
  • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Noting that "no animal has, at the same time, both tusks and horns," and "a single-hooved animal with two horns I have never seen," Aristotle suggested that Nature, giving no animal both horns and tusks, was staving off vanity, and giving creatures faculties only to such a degree as they are necessary.^ But it is from their likeness and their unlikeness to the same thing that they are thought both to be and not to be friendships.
  • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ (Aristotle says somewhere that a man with no need for others is either a god or an animal.-tm) .
  • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ They say that if pain is an evil it does not follow that pleasure is a good; for evil is opposed to evil and at the same time both are opposed to the neutral state-which is correct enough but does not apply to the things in question.
  • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

Noting that ruminants had a multiple stomachs and weak teeth, he supposed the first was to compensate for the latter, with Nature trying to preserve a type of balance.[29]
In a similar fashion, Aristotle believed that creatures were arranged in a graded scale of perfection rising from plants on up to man, the scala naturae or Great Chain of Being.[30] His system had eleven grades, arranged according "to the degree to which they are infected with potentiality", expressed in their form at birth. The highest animals laid warm and wet creatures alive, the lowest bore theirs cold, dry, and in thick eggs.
Aristotle also held that the level of a creature's perfection was reflected in its form, but not preordained by that form. .Ideas like this, and his ideas about souls, are not regarded as science at all in modern times.^ Further, to maintain its supremacy would be like saying that the art of politics rules the gods because it issues orders about all the affairs of the state.
  • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Now we have discussed in detail the moral virtues; with regard to the others let us express our view as follows, beginning with some remarks about the soul.
  • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

.He placed emphasis on the type(s) of soul an organism possessed, asserting that plants possess a vegetative soul, responsible for reproduction and growth, animals a vegetative and a sensitive soul, responsible for mobility and sensation, and humans a vegetative, a sensitive, and a rational soul, capable of thought and reflection.^ There remains, then, an active life of the element that has a rational principle; of this, one part has such a principle in the sense of being obedient to one, the other in the sense of possessing one and exercising thought.
  • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

[31]
.Aristotle, in contrast to earlier philosophers, but in accordance with the Egyptians, placed the rational soul in the heart, rather than the brain.^ However, considerable emphasis will be placed on major traditions ignored by earlier histories of medieval philosophy: glossing of Plato Latinus, Aristotles Latinus, Macrobius, and Martianus Capella.

^ This claim is a vital because it will enable Aristotle to anchor his discussion in nature, in the truth of things, rather than in opinion or convention.
  • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The person who is weak goes through a process of deliberation and makes a choice; but rather than act in accordance with his reasoned choice, he acts under the influence of a passion.
  • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

[32] Notable is Aristotle's division of sensation and thought, which generally went against previous philosophers, with the exception of Alcmaeon.[33]

Successor: Theophrastus

Frontispiece to a 1644 version of the expanded and illustrated edition of Historia Plantarum (ca. 1200), which was originally written around 200 BC
.Aristotle's successor at the Lyceum, Theophrastus, wrote a series of books on botany—the History of Plants—which survived as the most important contribution of antiquity to botany, even into the Middle Ages.^ That is why for Aristotle one of the most important capacities one can have is moral judgment.
  • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

Many of Theophrastus' names survive into modern times, such as carpos for fruit, and pericarpion for seed vessel.
.Rather than focus on formal causes, as Aristotle did, Theophrastus suggested a mechanistic scheme, drawing analogies between natural and artificial processes, and relying on Aristotle's concept of the efficient cause.^ Themes treated are state of nature, relationship of society to state, conception of democracy, rights theory, economic justice and justice between groups, and alternatives to liberalism.

^ Although Aristotle frequently draws analogies between the crafts and the virtues (and similarly between physical health and eudaimonia ), he insists that the virtues differ from the crafts and all branches of knowledge in that the former involve appropriate emotional responses and are not purely intellectual conditions.
  • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Pleasant amusements also are thought to be of this nature; we choose them not for the sake of other things; for we are injured rather than benefited by them, since we are led to neglect our bodies and our property.
  • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Theophrastus also recognized the role of sex in the reproduction of some higher plants, though this last discovery was lost in later ages.^ Changing family patterns, sex roles, sexuality, premarital relationships, marriage and divorce, parenthood, childhood, and family interaction are some of the topics.

^ Though he is guided to some degree by distinctions captured by ordinary terms, his methodology allows him to recognize states for which no names exist.
  • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

[34]

Influence on Hellenistic medicine

After Theophrastus, the Lyceum failed to produce any original work. .Though interest in Aristotle's ideas survived, they were generally taken unquestioningly.^ Guidance will be principally taken from works of Plato, Aristotle, and St. Thomas Aquinas, though some modern and contemporary conceptions of the virtues will be discussed by way of counterpoint.

^ Once we see that temperance, courage, and other generally recognized characteristics are mean states, we are in a position to generalize and to identify other mean states as virtues, even though they are not qualities for which we have a name.
  • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Although it has often been noted that the poor are more generous than the rich, giving freely of what they have even if it isn't much, which is what Aristotle is referring to at the end of this passage.
  • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

[35] It is not until the age of Alexandria under the Ptolemies that advances in biology can be again found.
The first medical teacher at Alexandria Herophilus of Chalcedon, corrected Aristotle, placing intelligence in the brain, and connected the nervous system to motion and sensation. .Herophilus also distinguished between veins and arteries, noting that the latter pulse while the former do not.^ And the same equality will exist between the persons and between the things concerned; for as the latter the things concerned-are related, so are the former; if they are not equal, they will not have what is equal, but this is the origin of quarrels and complaints-when either equals have and are awarded unequal shares, or unequals equal shares.
  • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

[36] .Though a few ancient atomists such as Lucretius challenged the teleological viewpoint of Aristotelian ideas about life, teleology (and after the rise of Christianity, natural theology) would remain central to biological thought essentially until the 18th and 19th centuries.^ The purpose of this course is to accomplish a close reading of Newman's most important writings, THE OXFORD UNIVERISTY SERMONS, ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF CHRISTIAN DOCTRINE, THE GRAMMAR OF ASSENT, THE IDEA OF THE UNIVERSITY, APOLOGIA PRO VITA SUA, and excerpts from lesser known works, to discover both (1) the continuity of Newman's thought with previous theology and (2) the ideas that made him a 19th-century original.

^ A study of THE DIVINE COMEDY, in translation with facing Italian text, with special attention to the history of ideas, the nature of mimesis and allegory, and Dante's sacramental vision of life.

^ The course will examine what memory and prophecy signify for living a Christian life and doing theology in light of some of the major challenges to Christian faith today.

Ernst Mayr claimed that there was "nothing of any real consequence in biology after Lucretius and Galen until the Renaissance."[37] Aristotle's ideas of natural history and medicine survived, but they were generally taken unquestioningly.[38]

Practical philosophy

Ethics

.Aristotle considered ethics to be a practical rather than theoretical study, i.e., one aimed at doing good rather than knowing for its own sake.^ And of this nature virtuous actions are thought to be; for to do noble and good deeds is a thing desirable for its own sake.
  • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ This argument seems to show it to be one of the goods, and no more a good than any other; for every good is more worthy of choice along with another good than taken alone.
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^ Happiness, on the other hand, no one chooses for the sake of these, nor, in general, for anything other than itself.
  • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

He wrote several treatises on ethics, including most notably, the Nichomachean Ethics.
.Aristotle taught that virtue has to do with the proper function (ergon) of a thing.^ The virtue of a thing is relative to its proper work.
  • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ This is why Aristotle thinks it important that children be taught to be virtuous because it is easier to start out virtuous than to have to unlearn bad habits .
  • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

An eye is only a good eye in so much as it can see, because the proper function of an eye is sight. Aristotle reasoned that humans must have a function specific to humans, and that this function must be an activity of the psuchē (normally translated as soul) in accordance with reason (logos). .Aristotle identified such an optimum activity of the soul as the aim of all human deliberate action, eudaimonia, generally translated as "happiness" or sometimes "well being". To have the potential of ever being happy in this way necessarily requires a good character (ēthikē aretē), often translated as moral (or ethical) virtue (or excellence).^ So a good human being is not at first glance a morally good human being, but a being that carries out its human-being function well.
  • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Certainly all human beings are incapable of continuous activity.
  • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Virtue just means excellence or doing something well for Aristotle.
  • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Aristotle taught that to achieve a virtuous and potentially happy character requires a first stage of having the fortune to be habituated not deliberately, but by teachers, and experience, leading to a later stage in which one consciously chooses to do the best things.^ Now if there is any gift of the gods to men, it is reasonable that happiness should be god-given, and most surely god-given of all human things inasmuch as it is the best.
  • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Happiness, on the other hand, no one chooses for the sake of these, nor, in general, for anything other than itself.
  • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The happy life is thought to be virtuous; now a virtuous life requires exertion, and does not consist in amusement.
  • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

.When the best people come to live life this way their practical wisdom (phronēsis) and their intellect (nous) can develop with each other towards the highest possible ethical virtue, that of wisdom.^ Plainly, then, practical wisdom is a virtue and not an art.
  • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Ethical virtue is fully developed only when it is combined with practical wisdom (1144b14-17).
  • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Faith in Jesus Christ as Lord and savior has practical implications for the way believers construe the world, organize their lives and engage with the world.

Politics

.In addition to his works on ethics, which address the individual, Aristotle addressed the city in his work titled Politics.^ For him the study of ethics, how individuals can become excellent or can evaluate excellence, is a necessary preliminary to the study of politics.
  • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ A basic introduction to Aristotle's "human philosophy" (ta anthropina philosophia) by reading the Nicomachean Ethics and the Politics.

^ Individual works by artists such as Brunelleschi, Donatello, Ghiberti, Botticelli, and Alberti are set into their social, political, and religious context.

Aristotle's conception of the city is organic, and he is considered one of the first to conceive of the city in this manner.[39] Aristotle considered the city to be a natural community. .Moreover, he considered the city to be prior to the family which in turn is prior to the individual, i.e., last in the order of becoming, but first in the order of being .^ But at the outset we must consider the man by whom we are being benefited and on what terms he is acting, in order that we may accept the benefit on these terms, or else decline it.
  • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ They assume the end and consider how and by what means it is to be attained; and if it seems to be produced by several means they consider by which it is most easily and best produced, while if it is achieved by one only they consider how it will be achieved by this and by what means this will be achieved, till they come to the first cause, which in the order of discovery is last.
  • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ What are the implications of this aging process for social institutions (the family, economy, government) as well as for the individual well-being of the elderly?

He is also famous for his statement that "man is by nature a political animal." .Aristotle conceived of politics as being like an organism rather than like a machine, and as a collection of parts none of which can exist without the others.^ Part of the course will be devoted to a close study of De Consolatione Philosophers Plato and Aristotle and the Greek scientists Nicomachus and Ptolemy, without forgetting the theology of Augustine.

^ For without virtue it is not easy to bear gracefully the goods of fortune; and, being unable to bear them, and thinking themselves superior to others, they despise others and themselves do what they please.
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^ These states being thus opposed to one another, the greatest contrariety is that of the extremes to each other, rather than to the intermediate; for these are further from each other than from the intermediate, as the great is further from the small and the small from the great than both are from the equal.
  • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

It should be noted that the modern understanding of a political community is that of the state. However, the state was foreign to Aristotle. He referred to political communities as cities. Aristotle understood a city as a political "partnership" . .Subsequently, a city is created not to avoid injustice or for economic stability , but rather to live a good life: "The political partnership must be regarded, therefore, as being for the sake of noble actions, not for the sake of living together" .^ Now virtuous actions are noble and done for the sake of the noble.
  • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ For not even with regard to each other will their tastes agree, and without this (as we saw) they cannot be friends; for they cannot live together.
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^ Therefore it is hard to be truly proud; for it is impossible without nobility and goodness of character.
  • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

This can be distinguished from the social contract theory which individuals leave the state of nature because of "fear of violent death" or its "inconveniences."[40]

Rhetoric and poetics

.Aristotle considered epic poetry, tragedy, comedy, dithyrambic poetry and music to be imitative, each varying in imitation by medium, object, and manner.^ This term indicates that Aristotle sees in ethical activity an attraction that is comparable to the beauty of well-crafted artifacts, including such artifacts as poetry, music, and drama.
  • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

[41] For example, music imitates with the media of rhythm and harmony, whereas dance imitates with rhythm alone, and poetry with language. The forms also differ in their object of imitation. Comedy, for instance, is a dramatic imitation of men worse than average; whereas tragedy imitates men slightly better than average. .Lastly, the forms differ in their manner of imitation – through narrative or character, through change or no change, and through drama or no drama.^ This form of the just has a different specific character from the former.
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^ It makes no difference whether we consider the state of character or the man characterized by it.
  • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ It makes no small difference, then, whether we form habits of one kind or of another from our very youth; it makes a very great difference, or rather all the difference.
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[42] .Aristotle believed that imitation is natural to mankind and constitutes one of mankind's advantages over animals.^ Similarly, the things which are just not by nature but by human enactment are not everywhere the same, since constitutions also are not the same, though there is but one which is everywhere by nature the best.
  • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ While Aristotle does believe that there is a common human nature in that we have common needs and capacities, he does not believe that there is a common moral nature, unlike many who moral theorists who will follow him.
  • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

[43]
.While it is believed that Aristotle's Poetics comprised two books – one on comedy and one on tragedy – only the portion that focuses on tragedy has survived.^ The two kinds of passions that Aristotle focuses on, in his treatment of akrasia , are the appetite for pleasure and anger .
  • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ For when something is subtracted from one of two equals and added to the other, the other is in excess by these two; since if what was taken from the one had not been added to the other, the latter would have been in excess by one only.
  • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

Aristotle taught that tragedy is composed of six elements: plot-structure, character, style, spectacle, and lyric poetry.[44] The characters in a tragedy are merely a means of driving the story; and the plot, not the characters, is the chief focus of tragedy. .Tragedy is the imitation of action arousing pity and fear, and is meant to effect the catharsis of those same emotions.^ It is defined, at any rate, as a kind of fear of dishonour, and produces an effect similar to that produced by fear of danger; for people who feel disgraced blush, and those who fear death turn pale.
  • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

Aristotle concludes Poetics with a discussion on which, if either, is superior: epic or tragic mimesis. .He suggests that because tragedy possesses all the attributes of an epic, possibly possesses additional attributes such as spectacle and music, is more unified, and achieves the aim of its mimesis in shorter scope, it can be considered superior to epic.^ And the more he is possessed of virtue in its entirety and the happier he is, the more he will be pained at the thought of death; for life is best worth living for such a man, and he is knowingly losing the greatest goods, and this is painful.
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^ Those who are called by such names as 'miserly', 'close', 'stingy', all fall short in giving, but do not covet the possessions of others nor wish to get them.
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^ But he is none the less brave, and perhaps all the more so, because he chooses noble deeds of war at that cost.
  • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

[45]
Aristotle was a keen systematic collector of riddles, folklore, and proverbs; he and his school had a special interest in the riddles of the Delphic Oracle and studied the fables of Aesop.[46]

Modern scholarship

.Modern scholarship reveals that Aristotle's "lost" works stray considerably in characterization[3] from the surviving Aristotelian corpus.^ Guidance will be principally taken from works of Plato, Aristotle, and St. Thomas Aquinas, though some modern and contemporary conceptions of the virtues will be discussed by way of counterpoint.

Whereas the lost works appear to have been originally written with an intent for subsequent publication, the surviving works do not appear to have been so.[3] Rather the surviving works mostly resemble lectures unintended for publication.[3] .The authenticity of a portion of the surviving works as originally Aristotelian is also today held suspect, with some books duplicating or summarizing each other, the authorship of one book questioned and another book considered to be unlikely Aristotle's at all.^ After considering the bearing of some common views of faith and reason on these questions, we turn to more specific questions in epistemology, ethics, and philosophical anthropology.

^ If not, the bargain is not equal, and does not hold; for there is nothing to prevent the work of the one being better than that of the other; they must therefore be equated.
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^ But since unfair and the unlawful are not the same, but are different as a part is from its whole (for all that is unfair is unlawful, but not all that is unlawful is unfair), the unjust and injustice in the sense of the unfair are not the same as but different from the former kind, as part from whole; for injustice in this sense is a part of injustice in the wide sense, and similarly justice in the one sense of justice in the other.
  • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

[3]
.Some of the individual works within the corpus, including the Constitution of Athens, are regarded by most scholars as products of Aristotle's "school," perhaps compiled under his direction or supervision.^ Guidance will be principally taken from works of Plato, Aristotle, and St. Thomas Aquinas, though some modern and contemporary conceptions of the virtues will be discussed by way of counterpoint.

^ I have chosen to see Aristotle as holding the view that our happiness is to some extent dependent on chance but there is no consensus on this among scholars .
  • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

Others, such as On Colors, may have been produced by Aristotle's successors at the Lyceum, e.g., Theophrastus and Straton. .Still others acquired Aristotle's name through similarities in doctrine or content, such as the De Plantis, possibly by Nicolaus of Damascus.^ Those who are called by such names as 'miserly', 'close', 'stingy', all fall short in giving, but do not covet the possessions of others nor wish to get them.
  • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

Other works in the corpus include medieval palmistries and astrological and magical texts whose connections to Aristotle are purely fanciful and self-promotional.

Loss of his works

.According to a distinction that originates with Aristotle himself, his writings are divisible into two groups: the "exoteric" and the "esoteric".[47] Most scholars have understood this as a distinction between works Aristotle intended for the public (exoteric), and the more technical works (esoteric) intended for the narrower audience of Aristotle's students and other philosophers who were familiar with the jargon and issues typical of the Platonic and Aristotelian schools.^ On the other hand, he who thinks himself worthy of great things, being unworthy of them, is vain; though not every one who thinks himself worthy of more than he really is worthy of in vain.
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^ Virtue too is distinguished into kinds in accordance with this difference; for we say that some of the virtues are intellectual and others moral, philosophic wisdom and understanding and practical wisdom being intellectual, liberality and temperance moral .
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^ We will also pay special attention to the crucial connections between work and identities of class, race, and gender as they evolved over the past two centuries.

.Another common assumption is that none of the exoteric works is extant – that all of Aristotle's extant writings are of the esoteric kind.^ Aristotle saw these as objective needs common to all human beings.
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.Current knowledge of what exactly the exoteric writings were like is scant and dubious, though many of them may have been in dialogue form.^ And (F) if certain pleasures are bad, that does not prevent the chief good from being some pleasure, just as the chief good may be some form of knowledge though certain kinds of knowledge are bad.
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^ It is found difficult, too, to rejoice and to grieve in an intimate way with many people, for it may likely happen that one has at once to be happy with one friend and to mourn with another.
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^ While many of these courses are offered currently at Notre Dame, some courses may not be offered at present.

.(Fragments of some of Aristotle's dialogues have survived.^ Aristotle is not referring to some spiritual substance which is independent of the body and survives death: he is pre-Christian.
  • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

) .Perhaps it is to these that Cicero refers when he characterized Aristotle's writing style as "a river of gold";[48] it is hard for many modern readers to accept that one could seriously so admire the style of those works currently available to us.^ These people seem to bear goodwill to each other; but how could one call them friends when they do not know their mutual feelings?
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^ Many of us would do something shameful if pressed hard enough; and yet the few who have the bad luck to be so pressed will be judged for their acts, while the rest of us will not.
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^ Logically, one would think that one could be temperate with regard to vision and hearing, but since people don't speak that way, Aristotle won't either.
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[49] .However, some modern scholars have warned that we cannot know for certain that Cicero's praise was reserved specifically for the exoteric works; a few modern scholars have actually admired the concise writing style found in Aristotle's extant works.^ So, although Aristotle holds that ethics cannot be reduced to a system of rules, however complex, he insists that some rules are inviolable.
  • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Readings will include writings of authors such as Thucydides, Plato, Aristotle, Cicero, Augustine, Farabi, Maimonides, and Aquinas.

^ Further, a man has practical wisdom not by knowing only but by being able to act; but the incontinent man is unable to act-there is, however, nothing to prevent a clever man from being incontinent; this is why it is sometimes actually thought that some people have practical wisdom but are incontinent, viz.
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[50]
.One major question in the history of Aristotle's works, then, is how were the exoteric writings all lost, and how did the ones we now possess come to us?^ Aristotle does urge us, in assessing such cases, to consider how the agent’s disposition stands to the usual case .
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^ Now laws are as it were the' works' of the political art; how then can one learn from them to be a legislator, or judge which are best?
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^ If you come to a different one, do you think there is some further goal that you do each of those stopping points for (so that they're not really final stopping points at all.
  • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

[51] The story of the original manuscripts of the esoteric treatises is described by Strabo in his Geography and Plutarch in his Parallel Lives.[52] The manuscripts were left from Aristotle to his successor Theophrastus, who in turn willed them to Neleus of Scepsis. Neleus supposedly took the writings from Athens to Scepsis, where his heirs let them languish in a cellar until the first century BC, when Apellicon of Teos discovered and purchased the manuscripts, bringing them back to Athens. According to the story, Apellicon tried to repair some of the damage that was done during the manuscripts' stay in the basement, introducing a number of errors into the text. When Lucius Cornelius Sulla occupied Athens in 86 BC, he carried off the library of Apellicon to Rome, where they were first published in 60 BC by the grammarian Tyrannion of Amisus and then by philosopher Andronicus of Rhodes.[53][54]
.Carnes Lord attributes the popular belief in this story to the fact that it provides "the most plausible explanation for the rapid eclipse of the Peripatetic school after the middle of the third century, and for the absence of widespread knowledge of the specialized treatises of Aristotle throughout the Hellenistic period, as well as for the sudden reappearance of a flourishing Aristotelianism during the first century B.C."[55] Lord voices a number of reservations concerning this story, however.^ How British and American modernist writers responded to an upheaval of traditional religious belief in the first half of the 20th century.

^ Readings for the first part of the course are taken from Plato and Aristotle, for the second from thinkers from the 18th century to the present.

^ We will place our understanding of current conditions in historical perspective by looking at the formation of common schools in the middle of the 19th century.

.First, the condition of the texts is far too good for them to have suffered considerable damage followed by Apellicon's inexpert attempt at repair.^ That it does not follow from these grounds that pleasure is not a good, or even the chief good, is plain from the following considerations.
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.Second, there is "incontrovertible evidence," Lord says, that the treatises were in circulation during the time in which Strabo and Plutarch suggest they were confined within the cellar in Scepsis.^ In their parts and during the time they occupy, all movements are incomplete, and are different in kind from the whole movement and from each other.
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.Third, the definitive edition of Aristotle's texts seems to have been made in Athens some fifty years before Andronicus supposedly compiled his.^ Even medical men do not seem to be made by a study of text-books.
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And fourth, ancient library catalogues predating Andronicus' intervention list an Aristotelian corpus quite similar to the one we currently possess. .Lord sees a number of post-Aristotelian interpolations in the Politics, for example, but is generally confident that the work has come down to us relatively intact.^ Let us too, then, lay this down as a general basis.
  • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ While it focuses mainly on economic factors at work and makes us use the tools of economic analysis, it adopts a broader political economy framework.

^ While it focuses mainly on economic factors at work and makes us use the tools fo economic analysis, it adopts a broader political economy framework.

As the influence of the falsafa grew in the West, in part due to Gerard of Cremona's translations and the spread of Averroism, the demand for Aristotle's works grew. William of Moerbeke translated a number of them into Latin. .When Thomas Aquinas wrote his theology, working from Moerbeke's translations, the demand for Aristotle's writings grew and the Greek manuscripts returned to the West, stimulating a revival of Aristotelianism in Europe, and ultimately revitalizing European thought through Muslim influence in Spain to fan the embers of the Renaissance.^ We shall study Boethius as reading intertextually the Greek philosophers Plato and Aristotle and the Greek scientists Nicomachus and Ptolemy, without forgetting the Latin theology of Augustine.

^ Cicero, a leading statesman of the late Roman Republic, endeavored to mediate between the work of Greek theorists and Roman practice; in time, his writings became among the most important sources on ancient moral and political thought for the Christian tradition.

^ Critical of the growing influence of Aristotelian thought within theology, he deliberately chose the tradition of St. Augustine, Ps.-Denis and Hugh of St. Victor as the basis for his theology.

[citation needed]

Legacy

Portrait of Aristoteles. Pentelic marble, copy of the Imperial Period (1st or 2nd century) of a lost bronze sculpture made by Lysippos

Development of logic

.Twenty-three hundred years after his death, Aristotle remains one of the most influential people who ever lived.^ Readings will vary from year to year but will be drawn from the most influential contemporary work in moral philosophy.

^ We said, then, that it is not a disposition; for if it were it might belong to some one who was asleep throughout his life, living the life of a plant, or, again, to some one who was suffering the greatest misfortunes.
  • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ That is why for Aristotle one of the most important capacities one can have is moral judgment.
  • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

.He was the founder of formal logic, pioneered the study of zoology, and left every future scientist and philosopher in his debt through his contributions to the scientific method.^ Part of the course will be devoted to a close study of De Consolatione Philosophers Plato and Aristotle and the Greek scientists Nicomachus and Ptolemy, without forgetting the theology of Augustine.

^ We shall study Boethius as reading intertextually the Greek philosophers Plato and Aristotle and the Greek scientists Nicomachus and Ptolemy, without forgetting the Latin theology of Augustine.

[56][57] Despite these accolades, many of Aristotle's errors held back science considerably. .Bertrand Russell notes that "almost every serious intellectual advance has had to begin with an attack on some Aristotelian doctrine". Russell also refers to Aristotle's ethics as "repulsive", and calls his logic "as definitely antiquated as Ptolemaic astronomy". Russell notes that these errors make it difficult to do historical justice to Aristotle, until one remembers how large of an advance he made upon all of his predecessors.^ These capacities are the intellectual virtues , which Aristotle calls theoretical wisdom.
  • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ So, although Aristotle holds that ethics cannot be reduced to a system of rules, however complex, he insists that some rules are inviolable.
  • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ For every one ceases to inquire how he is to act when he has brought the moving principle back to himself and to the ruling part of himself; for this is what chooses.
  • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

[5] .Of course, the problem of excessive devotion to Aristotle is more a problem of those later centuries and not of Aristotle himself.^ Readings for the first part of the course are taken from Plato and Aristotle, for the second from thinkers from the 18th century to the present.

^ Part of the course will be devoted to a close study of De Consolatione Philosophers Plato and Aristotle and the Greek scientists Nicomachus and Ptolemy, without forgetting the theology of Augustine.

^ Then it will focus on how immigration transformed the church in the U.S. We will study such issues as national identity, devotional life, gender, and doctrine over the course of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries.

Later Greek philosophers

The immediate influence of Aristotle's work was felt as the Lyceum grew into the Peripatetic school. Aristotle's notable students included Aristoxenus, Dicaearchus, Demetrius of Phalerum, Eudemos of Rhodes, Harpalus, Hephaestion, Meno, Mnason of Phocis, Nicomachus, and Theophrastus. Aristotle's influence over Alexander the Great is seen in the latter's bringing with him on his expedition a host of zoologists, botanists, and researchers. He had also learned a great deal about Persian customs and traditions from his teacher. .Although his respect for Aristotle was diminished as his travels made it clear that much of Aristotle's geography was clearly wrong, when the old philosopher released his works to the public, Alexander complained "Thou hast not done well to publish thy acroamatic doctrines; for in what shall I surpass other men if those doctrines wherein I have been trained are to be all men's common property?"^ Our discussion will be adequate if it has as much clearness as the subject-matter admits of, for precision is not to be sought for alike in all discussions, any more than in all the products of the crafts.
  • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ For this also seems to be a virtue concerned with wealth; but it does not like liberality extend to all the actions that are concerned with wealth, but only to those that involve expenditure; and in these it surpasses liberality in scale.
  • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Perfect friendship is the friendship of men who are good, and alike in virtue; for these wish well alike to each other qua good, and they are good themselves.
  • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

[58]

Influence on Christian theologians

.Aristotle is referred to as "The Philosopher" by Scholastic thinkers such as Thomas Aquinas.^ Along with Thomas Aquinas and Albertus Magnus, St. Bonaventure is considered one of the leading and most influential theologians of the high Scholastic period.

^ Readings will include writings of authors such as Thucydides, Plato, Aristotle, Cicero, Augustine, Farabi, Maimonides, and Aquinas.

^ Guidance will be principally taken from works of Plato, Aristotle, and St. Thomas Aquinas, though some modern and contemporary conceptions of the virtues will be discussed by way of counterpoint.

See Summa Theologica, Part I, Question 3, etc. .These thinkers blended Aristotelian philosophy with Christianity, bringing the thought of Ancient Greece into the Middle Ages.^ These thinkers blended Aristotelian philosophy with Christianity, bringing the thought of Ancient Greece into the Middle Ages.

^ Muslim thinkers such as Avicenna, Al-Farabi, and Yaqub ibn Ishaq al-Kindi were a few of the major proponents of the Aristotelian school of thought during the Golden Age of Islam .

^ The eucharist stands at the heart of western European Christianity in the high middle ages.

.It required a repudiation of some Aristotelian principles for the sciences and the arts to free themselves for the discovery of modern scientific laws and empirical methods.^ It required a repudiation of some Aristotelian principles for the sciences and the arts to free themselves for the discovery of modern scientific laws and empirical methods.

^ The free, unhampered exchange of ideas and scientific conclusions is necessary for the sound development of science, as it is in all spheres of cultural life.
  • Aristotle Metaphysics Philosophy: Metaphysics of Space and Motion explainsPhilosopher Aristotle's Metaphysics, Physics 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.spaceandmotion.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Note, however, that his use of the term science carries a different meaning than that covered by the term scientific method.

The medieval English poet Chaucer describes his student as being happy by having
                      at his beddes heed
Twenty bookes, clad in blak or reed,
Of aristotle and his philosophie,[59]
The Italian poet Dante says of Aristotle in the first circles of hell,
I saw the Master there of those who know,
Amid the philosophic family,
By all admired, and by all reverenced;
There Plato too I saw, and Socrates,
Who stood beside him closer than the rest.[60]

Views on women

Aristotle believed that women are colder than men and thus a lower form of life.[61] His assumption carried forward unexamined to Galen and others for almost two thousand years until the sixteenth century.[62] He also believed that females could not be fully human.[63] .His analysis of procreation is frequently criticized on the grounds that it presupposes an active, ensouling masculine element bringing life to an inert, passive, lumpen female element; it is on these grounds that Aristotle is considered by some feminist critics to have been a misogynist.^ After considering the bearing of some common views of faith and reason on these questions, we turn to more specific questions in epistemology, ethics, and philosophical anthropology.

^ Why then should we not say the same about at least some of the emotions that Aristotle builds into his analysis of the ethically virtuous agent?
  • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Are there elements of the Christian tradition that we can draw upon to counteract these kinds of assumptions and use to construct a vision of sustainable life on earth?

[64] .On the other hand, Aristotle gave equal weight to women's happiness as he did to men's, and commented in his Rhetoric that a society cannot be happy unless women are happy too.^ Happiness, on the other hand, no one chooses for the sake of these, nor, in general, for anything other than itself.
  • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The magistrate on the other hand is the guardian of justice, and, if of justice, then of equality also.
  • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ And in all other things the same distinction will apply; by nature the right hand is stronger, yet it is possible that all men should come to be ambidextrous.
  • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

.In places like Sparta where the lot of women is bad, there can only be half-happiness in society.^ And not only so, but in walking itself there are such differences; for the whence and whither are not the same in the whole racecourse and in a part of it, nor in one part and in another, nor is it the same thing to traverse this line and that; for one traverses not only a line but one which is in a place, and this one is in a different place from that.
  • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

(see Rhetoric 1.5.6)

Post-Enlightenment thinkers

.The German philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche has been said to have taken nearly all of his political philosophy from Aristotle.^ A basic introduction to Aristotle's "human philosophy" (ta anthropina philosophia) by reading the Nicomachean Ethics and the Politics.

^ The second part will review what statesmen and political philosophers have said about the subject.

[65] .However implausible this is, it is certainly the case that Aristotle's rigid separation of action from production, and his justification of the subservience of slaves and others to the virtue – or arete – of a few justified the ideal of aristocracy.^ So too is it, then, in the case of temperance and courage and the other virtues.
  • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ At all events it seems that each party is justified in his claim, and that each should get more out of the friendship than the other-not more of the same thing, however, but the superior more honour and the inferior more gain; for honour is the prize of virtue and of beneficence, while gain is the assistance required by inferiority.
  • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ A critic might concede that in some cases virtuous acts can be described in Aristotle's terms.
  • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

It is Martin Heidegger, not Nietzsche, who elaborated a new interpretation of Aristotle, intended to warrant his deconstruction of scholastic and philosophical tradition. .More recently, Alasdair MacIntyre has attempted to reform what he calls the Aristotelian tradition in a way that is anti-elitist and capable of disputing the claims of both liberals and Nietzscheans.^ One of the main objectives of this class is to both critique and retrieve our biblical and historical traditions in ways that respond to contemporary concerns while avoiding uncritical anachronisms.

^ Recent events both domestically and internationally remind us that the relation of religion and politics and the liberal solution of sparation remain vexed questions.

^ This course has three quite specific aims: (1) to describe that form of the Christian tradition both in doctrine and practice which is called Catholic; (2) to argue that within the Catholic tradition there are different "ways" of being a Catholic; (3) to outline a general way of being a Christian within the Catholic tradition; we will call that "way" a "spirituality.

[66]

List of works

The works of Aristotle that have survived from antiquity through Mediæval manuscript transmission are collected in the Corpus Aristotelicum. .These texts, as opposed to Aristotle's lost works, are technical philosophical treatises from within Aristotle's school.^ In addition to the ancient texts themselves, we will be considering contemporary work by philosophers such as Annas, Cavell, Foucault and Hedot.

^ A study of the enquiries of three 20th-century Catholic philosophers at work within three very different philosophical traditions, designed to identify the relationship between a commitment to philosophical enquiry and Catholic faith.

.Reference to them is made according to the organization of Immanuel Bekker's Royal Prussian Academy edition (Aristotelis Opera edidit Academia Regia Borussica, Berlin, 1831-1870), which in turn is based on ancient classifications of these works.^ According to student interest, these may be selected from work on specialized cultural institution like art and the mass media, or from more broadly based studies of meaning and value.

^ This course introduces students to theoretical reflection on these and related questions through the study of some of the great works of ancient and medieval political thought.

See also

Notes and references

  1. ^ Cicero, Marcus Tullius (106BC-43BC). ""flumen orationis aureum fundens Aristoteles"". Acadmeica. http://www2.cddc.vt.edu/gutenberg/1/4/9/7/14970/14970-h/14970-h.htm#BkII_119. Retrieved 25-Jan-2007. 
  2. ^ Jonathan Barnes, "Life and Work" in The Cambridge Companion to Aristotle (1995), p. 9.
  3. ^ a b c d e Terence Irwin and Gail Fine, Cornell University, Aristotle: Introductory Readings. Indianapolis, Indiana: Hackett Publishing Company, Inc. (1996), Introduction, pp. xi-xii.
  4. ^ McLeisch, Kenneth Cole (1999). Aristotle: The Great Philosophers. Routledge. p. 5. ISBN 0-415-92392-1. 
  5. ^ a b c Bertrand Russell, "A History of Western Philosophy", Simon & Schuster, 1972
  6. ^ Peter Green, Alexander of Macedon, 1991 University of California Press, Ltd. Oxford, England. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data, p.58–59
  7. ^ William George Smith,Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology, vol. 3, p. 88
  8. ^ Neill, Alex; Aaron Ridley (1995). The Philosophy of Art: Readings Ancient and Modern. McGraw Hill. p. 488. http://www.amazon.com/dp/0070461929/. 
  9. ^ Peter Green, Alexander of Macedon, 1991 University of California Press, Ltd. Oxford, England. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data, p.379,459
  10. ^ Jones, W.T. (1980). The Classical Mind: A History of Western Philosophy. Harcourt Brace Jovanovich. p. 216. http://www.amazon.com/dp/0155383124/. , cf. Vita Marciana 41.
  11. ^ Aufstieg und Niedergang der römischen Welt by Hildegard Temporini, Wolfgang Haase Aristotle's Will
  12. ^ Bocheński, I. M. (1951). Ancient Formal Logic. Amsterdam: North-Holland Publishing Company. 
  13. ^ a b Bocheński, 1951.
  14. ^ Rose, Lynn E. (1968). Aristotle's Syllogistic. Springfield: Charles C Thomas Publisher. 
  15. ^ Jori, Alberto (2003). Aristotele. Milano: Bruno Mondadori Editore. 
  16. ^ Aristotle, History of Animals, 2.3.
  17. ^ Aristotle, 1943 (1953). Generation of animals. Harvard University Press via Google Books. 
  18. ^ "Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy". Plato.stanford.edu. http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/philoponus/#2.2. Retrieved 2009-04-26. 
  19. ^ Aristotle, Meteorology 1.8, trans. E.W. Webster, rev. J. Barnes.
  20. ^ Burent, John. 1928. Platonism, Berkeley: University of California Press, pp. 61, 103–104.
  21. ^ Michael Lahanas. "Optics and ancient Greeks". Mlahanas.de. http://www.mlahanas.de/Greeks/Optics.htm. Retrieved 2009-04-26. 
  22. ^ Aristotle, Physics 2.6
  23. ^ Aristotle, Metaphysics VIII 1043a 10–30
  24. ^ Aristotle, Metaphysics IX 1050a 5–10
  25. ^ Aristotle, Metaphysics VIII 1045a-b
  26. ^ a b Singer, Charles. A short history of biology. Oxford 1931.
  27. ^ Emily Kearns, "Animals, knowledge about," in Oxford Classical Dictionary, 3rd ed., 1996, p. 92.
  28. ^ Aristotle, of course, is not responsible for the later use made of this idea by clerics.
  29. ^ Mason, A History of the Sciences pp 43–44
  30. ^ Mayr, The Growth of Biological Thought, pp 201–202; see also: Lovejoy, The Great Chain of Being
  31. ^ Aristotle, De Anima II 3
  32. ^ Mason, A History of the Sciences pp 45
  33. ^ Guthrie, A History of Greek Philosophy Vol. 1 pp. 348
  34. ^ Mayr, The Growth of Biological Thought, pp 90–91; Mason, A History of the Sciences, p 46
  35. ^ Annas, Classical Greek Philosophy pp 252
  36. ^ Mason, A History of the Sciences pp 56
  37. ^ Mayr, The Growth of Biological Thought, pp 90–94; quotation from p 91
  38. ^ Annas, Classical Greek Philosophy, p 252
  39. ^ Ebenstein, Alan; William Ebenstein (2002). Introduction to Political Thinkers. Wadsworth Group. p. 59. 
  40. ^ For a different reading of social and economic processes in the Nicomacean Ethics and Politics see Polanyi, K. (1957) "Aristotle Discovers the Economy" in Primitive, Archaic and Modern Economies: Essays of Karl Polanyi ed. G. Dalton, Boston 1971, 78–115
  41. ^ Aristotle, Poetics I 1447a
  42. ^ Aristotle, Poetics III
  43. ^ Aristotle, Poetics IV
  44. ^ Aristotle, Poetics VI
  45. ^ Aristotle, Poetics XXVI
  46. ^ Temple, Olivia, and Temple, Robert (translators), The Complete Fables By Aesop Penguin Classics, 1998. ISBN 0140446494 Cf. Introduction, pp. xi-xii.
  47. ^ Jonathan Barnes, "Life and Work" in The Cambridge Companion to Aristotle (1995), p. 12; Aristotle himself: Nichomachean Ethics 1102a26–27. Aristotle himself never uses the term "esoteric" or "acroamatic". For other passages where Aristotle speaks of exōterikoi logoi, see W. D. Ross, Aristotle's Metaphysics (1953), vol. 2, pp. 408–410. Ross defends an interpretation according to which the phrase, at least in Aristotle's own works, usually refers generally to "discussions not peculiar to the Peripatetic school", rather than to specific works of Aristotle's own.
  48. ^ Cicero, Marcus Tullius (106BC-43BC). ""flumen orationis aureum fundens Aristoteles"". Academica. http://www2.cddc.vt.edu/gutenberg/1/4/9/7/14970/14970-h/14970-h.htm#BkII_119. Retrieved 25 January 2007. 
  49. ^ Barnes, "Life and Work", p. 12.
  50. ^ Barnes, "Roman Aristotle", in Gregory Nagy, Greek Literature, Routledge 2001, vol. 8, p. 174 n. 240.
  51. ^ The definitive, English study of these questions is Barnes, "Roman Aristotle".
  52. ^ "Sulla."
  53. ^ Ancient Rome: from the early Republic to the assassination of Julius Caesar‎ - Page 513, Matthew Dillon, Lynda Garland
  54. ^ The Encyclopedia Americana, Volume 22‎ - Page 131, Grolier Incorporated - Juvenile Nonfiction
  55. ^ Lord, Carnes (1984). Introduction to the Politics, by Aristotle. Chicago: Chicago University Press. p. 11. 
  56. ^ "Aristotle (Greek philosopher) - Britannica Online Encyclopedia". Britannica.com. http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/34560/Aristotle. Retrieved 2009-04-26. 
  57. ^ Durant, Will (1926 (2006)). The Story of Philosophy. United States: Simon & Schuster, Inc.. p. 92. ISBN 9780671739164. 
  58. ^ Plutarch, Life of Alexander
  59. ^ Geoffrey Chaucer, The Canterbury Tales, Prologue, lines 295–295
  60. ^ vidi ’l maestro di color che sanno seder tra filosofica famiglia.
    Tutti lo miran, tutti onor li fanno:
    quivi vid’ïo Socrate e Platone
    che ’nnanzi a li altri più presso li stanno;
    Dante, L’Inferno (Hell), Canto IV. Lines 131–135
  61. ^ Lovejoy, Arthur (1964). The Great Chain of Being: A Study of the History of an Idea. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. ISBN 0674361539. 
  62. ^ Tuana, Nancy (1993). The Less Noble Sex: Scientific, Religious and Philosophical Conceptions of Women's Nature. Indiana University Press. pp. 21, 169. ISBN 0-253-36098-6. 
  63. ^ Tuana, The Less Noble Sex p. 19, and footnote 8 p. 176
  64. ^ Harding, Sandra; Merrill B. Hintikka (31 December 1999). Discovering Reality,: Feminist Perspectives on Epistemology, Metaphysics, Methodology, and Philosophy of Science. Springer. p. 372. http://www.amazon.com/gp/reader/9027714967/. 
  65. ^ Durant, p. 86
  66. ^ Kelvin Knight, Aristotelian Philosophy, Polity Press, 2007, passim.

Further reading

The secondary literature on Aristotle is vast. The following references are only a small selection.
  • Ackrill J. L. 2001. Essays on Plato and Aristotle, Oxford University Press, USA
  • Adler, Mortimer J. (1978). Aristotle for Everybody. New York: Macmillan.  A popular exposition for the general reader.
  • Bakalis Nikolaos. .2005. Handbook of Greek Philosophy: From Thales to the Stoics Analysis and Fragments, Trafford Publishing ISBN 1-4120-4843-5
  • Barnes J. 1995. The Cambridge Companion to Aristotle, Cambridge University Press
  • Bocheński, I. M. (1951).^ From 1951 to 1953, the University of Chicago Press published three sets of the Walgreen Lectures dealing with the intellectual basis of various twentieth-century challenges to democracy.

    Ancient Formal Logic. Amsterdam: North-Holland Publishing Company. 
  • Bolotin, David (1998). An Approach to Aristotle's Physics: With Particular Attention to the Role of His Manner of Writing. Albany: SUNY Press. .A contribution to our understanding of how to read Aristotle's scientific works.
  • Burnyeat, M. F. et al. 1979. Notes on Book Zeta of Aristotle's Metaphysics.^ Students will be required to read a list of books and articles prior to coming to Notre Dame and will spend the majority of their time here working on a research project.

    ^ Students will read one document each week and ask how the document's ideas relate to our own present lives and planned futures.

    ^ Our method of work combines survey by means of set readings and "close readings" of selected prophetic texts.

    Oxford: Sub-faculty of Philosophy
  • Chappell, V. 1973. Aristotle's Conception of Matter, Journal of Philosophy 70: 679–696
  • Code, Alan. 1995. Potentiality in Aristotle's Science and Metaphysics, Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 76
  • Frede, Michael. 1987. Essays in Ancient Philosophy. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press
  • Gill, Mary Louise. 1989. Aristotle on Substance: The Paradox of Unity. Princeton: Princeton University Press
  • Guthrie, W. K. C. (1981). .A History of Greek Philosophy, Vol.^ A History of Greek Philosophy / ARISTOTLE .
    • Aristotle - 1 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.ellopos.net [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Tracy, T. “Heart and Soul in Aristotle.” in Essays in Ancient Greek Philosophy , vol.

    ^ A History of Greek Philosophy : Table of Contents Cf.
    • Aristotle - 1 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.ellopos.net [Source type: Academic]

    6
    . .Cambridge University Press. 
  • Halper, Edward C. (2007) One and Many in Aristotle's Metaphysics, Volume 1: Books Alpha — Delta, Parmenides Publishing, ISBN 978-1-930972-21-6
  • Halper, Edward C. (2005) One and Many in Aristotle's Metaphysics, Volume 2: The Central Books, Parmenides Publishing, ISBN 978-1-930972-05-6
  • Irwin, T. H. 1988. Aristotle's First Principles.^ From 1951 to 1953, the University of Chicago Press published three sets of the Walgreen Lectures dealing with the intellectual basis of various twentieth-century challenges to democracy.

    ^ Of things just and lawful each is related as the universal to its particulars; for the things that are done are many, but of them each is one, since it is universal.
    • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Scientific knowledge is judgement about things that are universal and necessary, and the conclusions of demonstration, and all scientific knowledge, follow from first principles (for scientific knowledge involves apprehension of a rational ground).
    • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

    Oxford: Clarendon Press
  • Jori, Alberto. 2003. Aristotele, Milano: Bruno Mondadori Editore (Prize 2003 of the "International Academy of the History of Science") ISBN 88-424-9737-1
  • Knight, Kelvin. .2007. Aristotelian Philosophy: Ethics and Politics from Aristotle to MacIntyre, Polity Press.
  • Lewis, Frank A. 1991. Substance and Predication in Aristotle.^ Ethics and International Relations explores diverse international issues through normative political philosophy and case studies.

    ^ A basic introduction to Aristotle's "human philosophy" (ta anthropina philosophia) by reading the Nicomachean Ethics and the Politics.

    ^ An examination of modes of moral reasoning and what constitutes the good life, based primarily on the study of Aristotle's NICOMACHEAN ETHICS and the moral philosophy of Kant.

    Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Lloyd, G. E. R. 1968. Aristotle: The Growth and Structure of his Thought. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Pr., ISBN 0-521-09456-9.
  • Lord, Carnes. .1984. Introduction to The Politics, by Aristotle.^ A basic introduction to Aristotle's "human philosophy" (ta anthropina philosophia) by reading the Nicomachean Ethics and the Politics.

    .Chicago: Chicago University Press.
  • Loux, Michael J. 1991. Primary Ousia: An Essay on Aristotle's Metaphysics Ζ and Η.^ From 1951 to 1953, the University of Chicago Press published three sets of the Walgreen Lectures dealing with the intellectual basis of various twentieth-century challenges to democracy.

    Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press
  • Owen, G. E. L. 1965c. The Platonism of Aristotle, Proceedings of the British Academy 50 125–150. Reprinted in J. Barnes, M. Schofield, and R. R. K. Sorabji (eds.), Articles on Aristotle, Vol 1. Science. London: Duckworth (1975). 14–34
  • Pangle, Lorraine Smith (2003). Aristotle and the Philosophy of Friendship. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. .Aristotle's conception of the deepest human relationship viewed in the light of the history of philosophic thought on friendship.
  • Reeve, C. D. C. 2000. Substantial Knowledge: Aristotle's Metaphysics.^ An examination of the view of providence offered by the proponents of middle knowledge, and the objections raised against this Molinist view by both Thomists and contemporary analytic philosophers.

    ^ Yet Aquinas’s moral thought cannot be fully understood or appreciated unless it is placed in relationship to the views of his immediate predecessors and interlocutors.

    ^ An examination of the relationship between thought and action in light of contemporary and traditional accounts of the nature of ethics.

    Indianapolis: Hackett.
  • Rose, Lynn E. (1968). Aristotle's Syllogistic. Springfield: Charles C Thomas Publisher. 
  • Ross, Sir David (1995). Aristotle (6th ed.). .London: Routledge.  A classic overview by one of Aristotle's most prominent English translators, in print since 1923.
  • Scaltsas, T. 1994. Substances and Universals in Aristotle's Metaphysics.^ Logically, one would think that one could be temperate with regard to vision and hearing, but since people don't speak that way, Aristotle won't either.
    • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ That is why for Aristotle one of the most important capacities one can have is moral judgment.
    • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ NICHOMACHEAN ETHICS by Aristotle Public Domain English Translation by W. D. Ross .
    • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

    Ithaca: Cornell University Press.
  • Strauss, Leo. "On Aristotle's Politics" (1964), in The City and Man, Chicago; Rand McNally.
  • Swanson, Judith (1992). .The Public and the Private in Aristotle's Political Philosoophy.^ How do political theorists distinguish between the public and the private?

    Ithaca: Cornell University Press.
     
  • Taylor, Henry Osborn (1922). "Chapter 3: Aristotle's Biology". Greek Biology and Medicine. http://web.archive.org/web/20060327222953/http://www.ancientlibrary.com/medicine/0051.html. 
  • Veatch, Henry B. (1974). Aristotle: A Contemporary Appreciation. Bloomington: Indiana U. Press.  For the general reader.
  • Woods, M. J. 1991b. "Universals and Particular Forms in Aristotle's Metaphysics." Oxford Studies in Ancient Philosophy supplement. 41–56

External links

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Quotes

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikiquote

Piety requires us to honor truth above our friends.
Aristotle (Αριστοτέλης; Aristotelēs) (384 BC – 7 March 322 BC) was a Greek philosopher and scientist.

Contents

Sourced

Quotations from Aristotle are often cited by Bekker numbers, which are keyed to the original Greek and therefore independent of the translation used.
.
  • He who has overcome his fears will truly be free.
    • Variant: I count him braver who overcomes his desires than him who overcomes his enemies.
    • Quoted in Florilegium by Joannes Stobaeus
  • In all things of nature there is something of the marvelous.^ On the other hand, he who thinks himself worthy of great things, being unworthy of them, is vain; though not every one who thinks himself worthy of more than he really is worthy of in vain.
    • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Now if there is any gift of the gods to men, it is reasonable that happiness should be god-given, and most surely god-given of all human things inasmuch as it is the best.
    • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ We must next discuss whether there is any one who is incontinent without qualification, or all men who are incontinent are so in a particular sense, and if there is, with what sort of objects he is concerned.
    • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

    .
    • Parts of Animals I.645a16
  • Concerning the generation of animals akin to them, as hornets and wasps, the facts in all cases are similar to a certain extent, but are devoid of the extraordinary features which characterize bees; this we should expect, for they have nothing divine about them as the bees have.^ For if the gods have any care for human affairs, as they are thought to have, it would be reasonable both that they should delight in that which was best and most akin to them (i.e.
    • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ This perception then calls into play the relevant major premise that "spells out the general import of the concern that makes this feature the salient feature of the situation" (Wiggins 234).
    • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ And there are many things we should be keen about even if they brought no pleasure, e.g.
    • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

    • Generation of Animals III.761a2
  • Just as it sometimes happens that deformed offspring are produced by deformed parents, and sometimes not, so the offspring produced by a female are sometimes female, sometimes not, but male, because the female is as it were a deformed male.
  • Generation of Animals as translated by Arthur Leslie Peck (1943), p. 175
.
  • Misfortune shows those who are not really friends.
    • Eudemian Ethics VII.1238a20
  • Time crumbles things; everything grows old under the power of Time and is forgotten through the lapse of Time.^ On the other hand, he who thinks himself worthy of great things, being unworthy of them, is vain; though not every one who thinks himself worthy of more than he really is worthy of in vain.
    • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ For most things are not assessed at the same value by those who have them and those who want them; each class values highly what is its own and what it is offering; yet the return is made on the terms fixed by the receiver.
    • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ But we must not follow those who advise us, being men, to think of human things, and, being mortal, of mortal things, but must, so far as we can, make ourselves immortal, and strain every nerve to live in accordance with the best thing in us; for even if it be small in bulk, much more does it in power and worth surpass everything.
    • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

    • Physics

Rhetoric

.
  • It is absurd to hold that a man ought to be ashamed of being unable to defend himself with his limbs but not of being unable to defend himself with speech and reason, when the use of reason is more distinctive of a human being than the use of his limbs.^ On the other hand, he who thinks himself worthy of great things, being unworthy of them, is vain; though not every one who thinks himself worthy of more than he really is worthy of in vain.
    • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ And children seem to be a bond of union (which is the reason why childless people part more easily); for children are a good common to both and what is common holds them together.
    • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Since humans are uniquely rational creatures, that function must involve using reason well.
    • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

    .(I.1355b1)
  • Evils draw men together.^ Men seek to return either evil for evil-and if they cana not do so, think their position mere slavery-or good for good-and if they cannot do so there is no exchange, but it is by exchange that they hold together.
    • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

    .(I.1362b39)
    • (quoting a proverb)
  • Thus every action must be due to one or other of seven causes: chance, nature, compulsion, habit, reasoning, anger, or appetite.^ On the other hand, he who thinks himself worthy of great things, being unworthy of them, is vain; though not every one who thinks himself worthy of more than he really is worthy of in vain.
    • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Of the remaining goods, some must necessarily pre-exist as conditions of happiness, and others are naturally co-operative and useful as instruments.
    • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ If not, the bargain is not equal, and does not hold; for there is nothing to prevent the work of the one being better than that of the other; they must therefore be equated.
    • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

    .(I.1369a5)
    • Variant: All human actions have one or more of these seven causes: chance, nature, compulsions, habit, reason, passion and desire.
  • The young have exalted notions, because they have not been humbled by life or learned its necessary limitations; moreover, their hopeful disposition makes them think themselves equal to great things—and that means having exalted notions.^ But it is possible to fear these more, or less, and again to fear things that are not terrible as if they were.
    • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ If, then, he deserves and claims great things, and above all the great things, he will be concerned with one thing in particular.
    • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Now these things are thought to be of the nature of happiness because people in despotic positions spend their leisure in them, but perhaps such people prove nothing; for virtue and reason, from which good activities flow, do not depend on despotic position; nor, if these people, who have never tasted pure and generous pleasure, take refuge in the bodily pleasures, should these for that reason be thought more desirable; for boys, too, think the things that are valued among themselves are the best.
    • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

    .They would always rather do noble deeds than useful ones: Their lives are regulated more by moral feeling than by reasoning....^ One also can do more than when one started.
    • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ For a moral thinker like Immanuel Kant of the 18 th century, a virtue is really nothing more than the strength of will to overcome feelings.
    • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ On the other hand, he who thinks himself worthy of great things, being unworthy of them, is vain; though not every one who thinks himself worthy of more than he really is worthy of in vain.
    • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

    All their mistakes are in the direction of doing things excessively and vehemently. .They overdo everything; they love too much, hate too much, and the same with everything else.^ And alien pleasures have been stated to do much the same as pain; they destroy the activity, only not to the same degree.
    • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

    (II.1389a31)
  • Wit is well-bred insolence. (II.1389b11)
  • It is simplicity that makes the uneducated more effective than the educated when addressing popular audiences. (II.1395b27)

Politics

Politics
  • Man is by nature a political animal. .(I.1253a2)
    • Variant: Man is an animal whose nature it is to live in a polis.^ Surely it is strange, too, to make the supremely happy man a solitary; for no one would choose the whole world on condition of being alone, since man is a political creature and one whose nature is to live with others.
      • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

      ^ Therefore even the happy man lives with others; for he has the things that are by nature good.
      • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

      .(H.D.F. Kitto, The Greeks)
  • Nature does nothing uselessly.^ For the former is actuated by pleasure, the latter by pain, of which the one is to be chosen and the other to be avoided; and pain upsets and destroys the nature of the person who feels it, while pleasure does nothing of the sort.
    • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

    .(I.1253a8)
  • He who is unable to live in society, or who has no need because he is sufficient for himself, must be either a beast or a god.^ For we think young people should be prone to the feeling of shame because they live by feeling and therefore commit many errors, but are restrained by shame; and we praise young people who are prone to this feeling, but an older person no one would praise for being prone to the sense of disgrace, since we think he should not do anything that need cause this sense.
    • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ (Aristotle says somewhere that a man with no need for others is either a god or an animal.-tm) .
    • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ It is complete because he who possesses it can exercise his virtue not only in himself but towards his neighbour also; for many men can exercise virtue in their own affairs, but not in their relations to their neighbour.
    • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

    .(I.1253a27)
  • Man, when perfected, is the best of animals, but when separated from law and justice, he is the worst of all.^ But in this way we may also refute the dialectical argument whereby it might be contended that the virtues exist in separation from each other; the same man, it might be said, is not best equipped by nature for all the virtues, so that he will have already acquired one when he has not yet acquired another.
    • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Since the lawless man was seen to be unjust and the law-abiding man just, evidently all lawful acts are in a sense just acts; for the acts laid down by the legislative art are lawful, and each of these, we say, is just.
    • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ And thus the incontinent man like a city which passes all the right decrees and has good laws, but makes no use of them, as in Anaxandrides' jesting remark, .
    • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

    (I.1253a31)
  • Money was intended to be used in exchange, but not to increase at interest. And this term interest, which means the birth of money from money, is applied to the breeding of money because the offspring resembles the parent. Wherefore of all modes of getting wealth this is the most unnatural. (I.1258b4)
  • Men ... are easily induced to believe that in some wonderful manner everybody will become everybody's friend, especially when some one is heard denouncing the evils now existing in states, suits about contracts, convictions for perjury, flatteries of rich men and the like, which are said to arise out of the possession of private property. .These evils, however, are due to a very different cause—the wickedness of human nature.^ These, then, are terrible to every one- at least to every sensible man; but the terrible things that are not beyond human strength differ in magnitude and degree, and so too do the things that inspire confidence.
    • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Being connected with the passions also, the moral virtues must belong to our composite nature; and the virtues of our composite nature are human; so, therefore, are the life and the happiness which correspond to these.
    • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ There is a difference between the act of injustice and what is unjust, and between the act of justice and what is just; for a thing is unjust by nature or by enactment; and this very thing, when it has been done, is an act of injustice, but before it is done is not yet that but is unjust.
    • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

    .(II.1263b15)
  • It is of the nature of desire not to be satisfied, and most men live only for the gratification of it.^ Perhaps, however, contrary does not even aim at contrary by its own nature, but only incidentally, the desire being for what is intermediate; for that is what is good, e.g.
    • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ And it is natural that meanness is described as the contrary of liberality; for not only is it a greater evil than prodigality, but men err more often in this direction than in the way of prodigality as we have described it.
    • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ For the mistakes which men make not only in ignorance but also from ignorance are excusable, while those which men do not from ignorance but (though they do them in ignorance) owing to a passion which is neither natural nor such as man is liable to, are not excusable.
    • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

    .(II.1267b4)
  • Again, men in general desire the good, and not merely what their fathers had.^ Men seek to return either evil for evil-and if they cana not do so, think their position mere slavery-or good for good-and if they cannot do so there is no exchange, but it is by exchange that they hold together.
    • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

    .(II.1269a4)
  • Even when laws have been written down, they ought not always to remain unaltered.^ And while people hate men who oppose their impulses, even if they oppose them rightly, the law in its ordaining of what is good is not burdensome.
    • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ But wicked men have no steadfastness (for they do not remain even like to themselves), but become friends for a short time because they delight in each other's wickedness.
    • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

    .(II.1269a9)
  • That judges of important causes should hold office for life is a disputable thing, for the mind grows old as well as the body.^ John Paul II finds in human sexuality an important key to the fundamental significance of the body as the person's way of being present in the world and to others.

    ^ The problem is not that there is anything intrinsically wrong with desiring food or sex; the problem is that indulging in them excessively can cause one to neglect more important things in one's life.
    • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Since life includes rest as well as activity, and in this is included leisure and amusement, there seems here also to be a kind of intercourse which is tasteful; there is such a thing as saying- and again listening to- what one should and as one should.
    • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

    .(II.1270b39)
  • They should rule who are able to rule best.^ For if the gods have any care for human affairs, as they are thought to have, it would be reasonable both that they should delight in that which was best and most akin to them (i.e.
    • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ For he who neglects these conditions loves such pleasures more than they are worth, but the temperate man is not that sort of person, but the sort of person that the right rule prescribes.
    • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Perhaps they should look out for friends who, being pleasant, are also good, and good for them too; for so they will have all the characteristics that friends should have.
    • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

    .(II.1273b5)
  • The good citizen need not of necessity possess the virtue which makes a good man.^ We may remark, then, that every virtue or excellence both brings into good condition the thing of which it is the excellence and makes the work of that thing be done well; e.g.
    • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ As we said, then, happiness seems to need this sort of prosperity in addition; for which reason some identify happiness with good fortune, though others identify it with virtue.
    • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ For in speaking about a man's character we do not say that he is wise or has understanding but that he is good-tempered or temperate; yet we praise the wise man also with respect to his state of mind; and of states of mind we call those which merit praise virtues.
    • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

    (III.1276b34)
  • A state is not a mere society, having a common place, established for the prevention of mutual crime and for the sake of exchange.... .Political society exists for the sake of noble actions, and not of mere companionship.^ Now virtuous actions are noble and done for the sake of the noble.
    • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ And of this nature virtuous actions are thought to be; for to do noble and good deeds is a thing desirable for its own sake.
    • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

    (III.1280b30, 1281a3)
  • The law is reason unaffected by desire. .(III.1287a32)
    • Variant: The Law is reason free from passion.
  • If liberty and equality, as is thought by some, are chiefly to be found in democracy, they will be best attained when all persons alike share in the government to the utmost.^ So, too, with the case of being justly treated; all just action is voluntary, so that it is reasonable that there should be a similar opposition in either case-that both being unjustly and being justly treated should be either alike voluntary or alike involuntary.
    • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Now if there is any gift of the gods to men, it is reasonable that happiness should be god-given, and most surely god-given of all human things inasmuch as it is the best.
    • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ This is found among men who share their life with a view to selfsufficiency, men who are free and either proportionately or arithmetically equal, so that between those who do not fulfil this condition there is no political justice but justice in a special sense and by analogy.
    • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

    .(IV.1291b34)
  • Inferiors revolt in order that they may be equal, and equals that they may be superior.^ This being so, equals must effect the required equalization on a basis of equality in love and in all other respects, while unequals must render what is in proportion to their superiority or inferiority.
    • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

    Such is the state of mind which creates revolutions. (V.1302a29)
  • Well begun is half done. .(V.1303b30)
    • (quoting a proverb)
  • Both oligarch and tyrant mistrust the people, and therefore deprive them of their arms.^ It is about things to be done, therefore, that people are said to be unanimous, and, among these, about matters of consequence and in which it is possible for both or all parties to get what they want; e.g.
    • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

    (V.1311a11)
  • A tyrant must put on the appearance of uncommon devotion to religion. .Subjects are less apprehensive of illegal treatment from a ruler whom they consider god-fearing and pious.^ But it is possible to fear these more, or less, and again to fear things that are not terrible as if they were.
    • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

    .On the other hand, they do less easily move against him, believing that he has the gods on his side.^ His desires for pleasure, power or some other external goal have become so strong that they make him care too little or not at all about acting ethically.
    • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Scientific knowledge is, then, a state of capacity to demonstrate, and has the other limiting characteristics which we specify in the Analytics, for it is when a man believes in a certain way and the starting-points are known to him that he has scientific knowledge, since if they are not better known to him than the conclusion, he will have his knowledge only incidentally.
    • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Such friendships, then, are easily dissolved, if the parties do not remain like themselves; for if the one party is no longer pleasant or useful the other ceases to love him.
    • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

    (V.1314b39)
  • The basis of a democratic state is liberty. .(VI.1317a40)
  • Happiness, whether consisting in pleasure or virtue, or both, is more often found with those who are highly cultivated in their minds and in their character, and have only a moderate share of external goods, than among those who possess external goods to a useless extent but are deficient in higher qualities.^ We have, then, described the character both of brave men and of those who are thought to be brave.
    • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ What qualities of mind and character differentiate the good from the bad.

    ^ This is true only of those who are not yet virtuous.
    • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

    (VII.1323b1)
  • Law is order, and good law is good order. .(VII.1326a29)
  • Let us then enunciate the functions of a state and we shall easily elicit what we want: First there must be food; secondly, arts, for life requires many instruments; thirdly, there must be arms, for the members of a community have need of them, and in their own hands, too, in order to maintain authority both against disobedient subjects and against external assailants....^ And first let us speak of courage.
    • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Let us leave this subject, then.
    • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Let us discuss them both, but first of all the truthful man.
    • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

    (VII.1328b4)
  • The appropriate age for marriage is around eighteen for girls and thirty-seven for men. (VII.1335a27)

Metaphysics

.
  • All men by nature desire to know.^ Further, we pardon people more easily for following natural desires, since we pardon them more easily for following such appetites as are common to all men, and in so far as they are common; now anger and bad temper are more natural than the appetites for excess, i.e.
    • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ And in all other things the same distinction will apply; by nature the right hand is stronger, yet it is possible that all men should come to be ambidextrous.
    • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ And with reference to all objects whether of this or of the intermediate kind men are not blamed for being affected by them, for desiring and loving them, but for doing so in a certain way, i.e.
    • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

    .An indication of this is the delight we take in our senses; for even apart from their usefulness they are loved for themselves; and above all others the sense of sight.^ To delight in such things, then, and to love them above all others, is brutish.
    • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ But it seems to lie in loving rather than in being loved, as is indicated by the delight mothers take in loving; for some mothers hand over their children to be brought up, and so long as they know their fate they love them and do not seek to be loved in return (if they cannot have both), but seem to be satisfied if they see them prospering; and they themselves love their children even if these owing to their ignorance give them nothing of a mother's due.
    • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ And having nothing lovable in them they have no feeling of love to themselves.
    • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

    For not only with a view to action, but even when we are not going to do anything, we prefer sight to almost everything else. .The reason is that this, most of all the senses, makes us know and brings to light many differences between things.^ We may remark, then, that every virtue or excellence both brings into good condition the thing of which it is the excellence and makes the work of that thing be done well; e.g.
    • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Now if there is any gift of the gods to men, it is reasonable that happiness should be god-given, and most surely god-given of all human things inasmuch as it is the best.
    • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The reasons for the view that not all pleasures are good are that (a) there are pleasures that are actually base and objects of reproach, and (b) there are harmful pleasures; for some pleasant things are unhealthy.
    • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

    .(I.980a21)
    • Variant: All men by nature desire knowledge...
    • The first sentence is in the Oxford Dictionary of Scientific Quotations (2005), 21:10.
  • If, then, God is always in that good state in which we sometimes are, this compels our wonder; and if in a better this compels it yet more.^ It should be evident that Aristotle's treatment of virtues as mean states endorses the idea that we should sometimes have strong feelings—when such feelings are called for by our situation.
    • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Now if there is any gift of the gods to men, it is reasonable that happiness should be god-given, and most surely god-given of all human things inasmuch as it is the best.
    • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Since the unjust man is grasping, he must be concerned with goods-not all goods, but those with which prosperity and adversity have to do, which taken absolutely are always good, but for a particular person are not always good.
    • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

    And God is in a better state. .And life also belongs to God; for the actuality of thought is life, and God is that actuality; and God's self-dependent actuality is life most good and eternal.^ For if the gods have any care for human affairs, as they are thought to have, it would be reasonable both that they should delight in that which was best and most akin to them (i.e.
    • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ So while the Greeks believed in gods, their conception of the good life was secular.
    • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ And this is most manifest in the case of the gods; for they surpass us most decisively in all good things.
    • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

    .(XII.1072b24)
  • Those who assert that the mathematical sciences say nothing of the beautiful or the good are in error.^ For in speaking about a man's character we do not say that he is wise or has understanding but that he is good-tempered or temperate; yet we praise the wise man also with respect to his state of mind; and of states of mind we call those which merit praise virtues.
    • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Those who say that the victim on the rack or the man who falls into great misfortunes is happy if he is good, are, whether they mean to or not, talking nonsense.
    • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ When then should we not say that he is happy who is active in accordance with complete virtue and is sufficiently equipped with external goods, not for some chance period but throughout a complete life?
    • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

    .For these sciences say and prove a great deal about them; if they do not expressly mention them, but prove attributes which are their results or definitions, it is not true that they tell us nothing about them.^ For the animal nature is always in travail, as the students of natural science also testify, saying that sight and hearing are painful; but we have become used to this, as they maintain.
    • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Those who say that the victim on the rack or the man who falls into great misfortunes is happy if he is good, are, whether they mean to or not, talking nonsense.
    • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ This is why lovers sometimes seem ridiculous, when they demand to be loved as they love; if they are equally lovable their claim can perhaps be justified, but when they have nothing lovable about them it is ridiculous.
    • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

    The chief forms of beauty are order and symmetry and definiteness, which the mathematical sciences demonstrate in a special degree. (XIII.1078a33)

Nicomachean Ethics (c. 325 BC)

.
  • If there is some end of the things we do, which we desire for its own sake, clearly this must be the good.^ If, then, there is some end of the things we do, which we desire for its own sake (everything else being desired for the sake of this), and if we do not choose everything for the sake of something else (for at that rate the process would go on to infinity, so that our desire would be empty and vain), clearly this must be the good and the chief good.
    • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Of the remaining goods, some must necessarily pre-exist as conditions of happiness, and others are naturally co-operative and useful as instruments.
    • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ It is final because we desire it for its own sake, not for the sake of something else .
    • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

    .Will not knowledge of it, then, have a great influence on life?^ Will not the knowledge of it, then, have a great influence on life?
    • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The neighboring presence of Islam had an enduring influence on medieval Christian theology, philosophy, medical knowledge, literature, culture, imagination, art, and material life.

    .Shall we not, like archers who have a mark to aim at, be more likely to hit upon what we should?^ Shall we not, like archers who have a mark to aim at, be more likely to hit upon what is right?
    • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ When these have been studied we shall perhaps be more likely to see with a comprehensive view, which constitution is best, and how each must be ordered, and what laws and customs it must use, if it is to be at its best.
    • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Hence he who aims at the intermediate must first depart from what is the more contrary to it , as Calypso advises- .
    • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

    .If so, we must try, in outline at least, to determine what it is.^ If so, we must try, in outline at least, to determine what it is, and of which of the sciences or capacities it is the object.
    • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

    .(I.1094a18)
  • It is the mark of an educated man to look for precision in each class of things just so far as the nature of the subject admits; it is evidently equally foolish to accept probable reasoning from a mathematician and to demand from a rhetorician scientific proofs.^ In the same spirit, therefore, should each type of statement be received; for it is the mark of an educated man to look for precision in each class of things just so far as the nature of the subject admits; it is evidently equally foolish to accept probable reasoning from a mathematician and to demand from a rhetorician scientific proofs.
    • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ For a man is not a king unless he is sufficient to himself and excels his subjects in all good things; and such a man needs nothing further; therefore he will not look to his own interests but to those of his subjects; for a king who is not like that would be a mere titular king.
    • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ To the middle state belongs also tact; it is the mark of a tactful man to say and listen to such things as befit a good and well-bred man; for there are some things that it befits such a man to say and to hear by way of jest, and the well-bred man's jesting differs from that of a vulgar man, and the joking of an educated man from that of an uneducated.
    • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

    .(I.1094b24)
  • The life of money-making is one undertaken under compulsion, and wealth is evidently not the good we are seeking; for it is merely useful and for the sake of something else.^ The life of money-making is one undertaken under compulsion, and wealth is evidently not the good we are seeking; for it is merely useful and for the sake of something else.
    • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Internal conflict will make one less of a good person because one's reason isn't capable of consistently causing one to do what is right.
    • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ A craft product, when well designed and produced by a good craftsman, is not merely useful, but also has such elements as balance, proportion and harmony—for these are properties that help make it useful.
    • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

    .(I.1096a5)
  • Piety requires us to honor truth above our friends.^ But some limit must be set to this; for if we extend our requirement to ancestors and descendants and friends' friends we are in for an infinite series.
    • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

    .(I.1096a16)
  • For just as for a flute-player, a sculptor, or an artist, and, in general, for all things that have a function or activity, the good and the well is thought to reside in the function, so would it seem to be for man, if he has a function.^ But in all such matters that which appears to the good man is thought to be really so.
    • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ For just as for a flute-player, a sculptor, or an artist, and, in general, for all things that have a function or activity, the good and the 'well' is thought to reside in the function, so would it seem to be for man, if he has a function.
    • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Now each man judges well the things he knows, and of these he is a good judge.
    • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

    (I.1097b25)
  • If ... we state the function of man to be a certain kind of life, and this to be an activity or actions of the soul implying a rational principle, and the function of a good man to be the good and noble performance of these, and if any action is well performed when it is performed in accordance with the appropriate excellence ... human good turns out to be activity of the soul in accordance with virtue, and if there are more than one virtue, in accordance with the best and most complete. .(I.1098a13)
  • One swallow does not make a summer, nor does one day; and so too one day, or a short time, does not make a man blessed and happy.^ For one swallow does not make a summer, nor does one day; and so too one day, or a short time, does not make a man blessed and happy.
    • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ If, then, being is in itself desirable for the supremely happy man (since it is by its nature good and pleasant), and that of his friend is very much the same, a friend will be one of the things that are desirable.
    • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ When (2) it is not contrary to reasonable expectation, but does not imply vice, it is a mistake (for a man makes a mistake when the fault originates in him, but is the victim of accident when the origin lies outside him).
    • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

    .(I.1098a18)
  • For some identify happiness with virtue, some with practical wisdom, others with a kind of philosophic wisdom, others with these, or one of these, accompanied by pleasure or not without pleasure; while others include also external prosperity.^ For some identify happiness with virtue, some with practical wisdom, others with a kind of philosophic wisdom, others with these, or one of these, accompanied by pleasure or not without pleasure; while others include also external prosperity.
    • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Plainly, then, practical wisdom is a virtue and not an art.
    • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ But of practical as of philosophic wisdom there must be a controlling kind.
    • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

    Now ... it is not probable that these should be entirely mistaken, but rather that they should be right in at least some one respect or even in most respects. .(I.1098b23)
  • For pleasure is a state of soul, and to each man that which he is said to be a lover of is pleasant....^ In this sense, then, as has been said, a man should be a lover of self; but in the sense in which most men are so, he ought not.
    • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ And this eye of the soul acquires its formed state not without the aid of virtue, as has been said and is plain; for the syllogisms which deal with acts to be done are things which involve a starting-point, viz.
    • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ But sometimes we praise the ambitious man as being manly and a lover of what is noble, and the unambitious man as being moderate and self-controlled, as we said in our first treatment of the subject.
    • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

    .Now for most men their pleasures are in conflict with one another because these are not by nature pleasant, but the lovers of what is noble find pleasant the things that are by nature pleasant; and virtuous actions are such...^ If this is so, virtuous actions must be in themselves pleasant.
    • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Now virtuous actions are noble and done for the sake of the noble.
    • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ But the pleasures that do not involve pains do not admit of excess; and these are among the things pleasant by nature and not incidentally.
    • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

    .Happiness then is the best, noblest, and most pleasant thing in the world, and these attributes are not severed as in the inscription at Delos: Most noble is that which is justest, and best is health; but pleasantest is it to win what we love.^ But pleasantest is it to win what we love.
    • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Happiness then is the best, noblest, and most pleasant thing in the world, and these attributes are not severed as in the inscription at Delos- .
    • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Most noble is that which is justest, and best is health; .
    • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

    .(I.1099a6)
  • Everything that depends on the action of nature is by nature as good as it can be, and similarly everything that depends on art or any rational cause, and especially if it depends on the best of all causes.^ But if it is better to be happy thus than by chance, it is reasonable that the facts should be so, since everything that depends on the action of nature is by nature as good as it can be, and similarly everything that depends on art or any rational cause, and especially if it depends on the best of all causes.
    • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ And of this nature virtuous actions are thought to be; for to do noble and good deeds is a thing desirable for its own sake.
    • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Aristotles answer is clear: happiness is acquired by habitual rational good action.
    • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

    .To entrust to chance what is greatest and most noble would be a very defective arrangement.^ To entrust to chance what is greatest and most noble would be a very defective arrangement.
    • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

    .(I.1099b22)
    • Quoted in Oxford Dictionary of Scientific Quotations (2005), 21:8.
  • May not we then confidently pronounce that man happy who realizes complete goodness in action, and is adequately furnished with external goods?^ The person struck may be the striker's father, and the striker may know that it is a man or one of the persons present, but not know that it is his father; a similar distinction may be made in the case of the end, and with regard to the whole action.
    • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The man, however, who deviates little from goodness is not blamed, whether he do so in the direction of the more or of the less, but only the man who deviates more widely; for he does not fail to be noticed.
    • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ If, then, being is in itself desirable for the supremely happy man (since it is by its nature good and pleasant), and that of his friend is very much the same, a friend will be one of the things that are desirable.
    • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

    .Or should we add, that he must also be destined to go on living not for any casual period but throughout a complete lifetime in the same manner, and to die accordingly, because the future is hidden from us, and we conceive happiness as an end, something utterly and absolutely final and complete?^ But we must add 'in a complete life .'
    • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Happiness, then, is something final and self-sufficient, and is the end of action.
    • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Certainly the future is obscure to us, while happiness, we claim, is an end and something in every way final.
    • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

    .If this is so, we shall pronounce those of the living who possess and are destined to go on possessing the good things we have specified to be supremely blessed, though on the human scale of bliss.^ For most things are not assessed at the same value by those who have them and those who want them; each class values highly what is its own and what it is offering; yet the return is made on the terms fixed by the receiver.
    • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ But we must not follow those who advise us, being men, to think of human things, and, being mortal, of mortal things, but must, so far as we can, make ourselves immortal, and strain every nerve to live in accordance with the best thing in us; for even if it be small in bulk, much more does it in power and worth surpass everything.
    • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ If, then, being is in itself desirable for the supremely happy man (since it is by its nature good and pleasant), and that of his friend is very much the same, a friend will be one of the things that are desirable.
    • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

    .(I.1101a10)
  • For the things we have to learn before we can do, we learn by doing.^ For the things we have to learn before we can do them, we learn by doing them, e.g.
    • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

    .(II.1103a33)
    • Oxford Dictionary of Scientific Quotations (2005), 21:9.
  • For legislators make the citizens good by forming habits in them, and this is the wish of every legislator, and those who do not effect it miss their mark, and it is in this that a good constitution differs from a bad one.^ This is confirmed by what happens in states; for legislators make the citizens good by forming habits in them, and this is the wish of every legislator, and those who do not effect it miss their mark, and it is in this that a good constitution differs from a bad one.
    • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ On the other hand, he who thinks himself worthy of great things, being unworthy of them, is vain; though not every one who thinks himself worthy of more than he really is worthy of in vain.
    • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ We may remark, then, that every virtue or excellence both brings into good condition the thing of which it is the excellence and makes the work of that thing be done well; e.g.
    • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

    .(II.1103b4)
  • It is well said, then, that it is by doing just acts that the just man is produced, and by doing temperate acts the temperate man; without doing these no one would have even a prospect of becoming good.^ This is why the temperate man avoids these pleasures; for even he has pleasures of his own.
    • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ It is well said, then, that it is by doing just acts that the just man is produced, and by doing temperate acts the temperate man; without doing these no one would have even a prospect of becoming good.
    • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ This will be the good-tempered man, then, since good temper is praised.
    • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

    .But most people do not do these, but take refuge in theory and think they are being philosophers and will become good in this way, behaving somewhat like patients who listen attentively to their doctors, but do none of the things they are ordered to do.^ But most people do not do these, but take refuge in theory and think they are being philosophers and will become good in this way, behaving somewhat like patients who listen attentively to their doctors, but do none of the things they are ordered to do.
    • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ (Drunken men also behave in this way; they become sanguine).
    • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Now these things are thought to be of the nature of happiness because people in despotic positions spend their leisure in them, but perhaps such people prove nothing; for virtue and reason, from which good activities flow, do not depend on despotic position; nor, if these people, who have never tasted pure and generous pleasure, take refuge in the bodily pleasures, should these for that reason be thought more desirable; for boys, too, think the things that are valued among themselves are the best.
    • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

    .(II.1105b9)
  • Again, it is possible to fail in many ways (for evil belongs to the class of the unlimited ...^ Again, it is possible to fail in many ways (for evil belongs to the class of the unlimited, as the Pythagoreans conjectured, and good to that of the limited), while to succeed is possible only in one way (for which reason also one is easy and the other difficult- to miss the mark easy, to hit it difficult); for these reasons also, then, excess and defect are characteristic of vice, and the mean of virtue; .
    • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

    and good to that of the limited), while to succeed is possible only in one way .(for which reason also one is easy and the other difficult—to miss the mark easy, to hit it difficult); for these reasons also, then, excess and defect are characteristic of vice, and the mean of virtue; For men are good in but one way, but bad in many.^ For men are good in but one way, but bad in many.
    • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Again, it is possible to fail in many ways (for evil belongs to the class of the unlimited, as the Pythagoreans conjectured, and good to that of the limited), while to succeed is possible only in one way (for which reason also one is easy and the other difficult- to miss the mark easy, to hit it difficult); for these reasons also, then, excess and defect are characteristic of vice, and the mean of virtue; .
    • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ One of those is that virtuous people avoid excess and defect and find a mean.
    • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

    .(II.1106b28)
  • The vices respectively fall short of or exceed what is right in both passions and actions, while virtue both finds and chooses that which is intermediate.^ Now it is a mean between two vices, that which depends on excess and that which depends on defect; and again it is a mean because the vices respectively fall short of or exceed what is right in both passions and actions, while virtue both finds and chooses that which is intermediate.
    • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Second, there is the idea that whenever a virtuous person chooses to perform a virtuous act, he can be described as aiming at an act that is in some way or other intermediate between alternatives that he rejects.
    • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Just and brave acts, and other virtuous acts, we do in relation to each other, observing our respective duties with regard to contracts and services and all manner of actions and with regard to passions; and all of these seem to be typically human.
    • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

    .(II.1107a4)
    • Variant: Some vices miss what is right because they are deficient, others because they are excessive, in feelings or in actions, while virtue finds and chooses the mean.
  • In cases of this sort, let us say adultery, rightness and wrongness do not depend on committing it with the right woman at the right time and in the right manner, but the mere fact of committing such action at all is to do wrong.^ Nor does goodness or badness with regard to such things depend on committing adultery with the right woman, at the right time, and in the right way, but simply to do any of them is to go wrong.
    • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Thus they are forced to provide means from some other source.
    • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ They can overcome their feelings and do what is right.
    • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

    .(II.1107a15)
  • Any one can get angry — that is easy — or give or spend money; but to do this to the right person, to the right extent, at the right time, with the right motive, and in the right way, that is not for every one, nor is it easy.^ Now hot-tempered people get angry quickly and with the wrong persons and at the wrong things and more than is right, but their anger ceases quickly-which is the best point about them.
    • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Now we have said generally that he will associate with people in the right way; but it is by reference to what is honourable and expedient that he will aim at not giving pain or at contributing pleasure.
    • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Internal conflict will make one less of a good person because one's reason isn't capable of consistently causing one to do what is right.
    • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

    .(II.1109a27)
  • We must as second best, as people say, take the least of the evils.^ For of the extremes one is more erroneous, one less so; therefore, since to hit the mean is hard in the extreme, we must as a second best, as people say, take the least of the evils; and this will be done best in the way we describe.
    • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

    .(II.1109a34)
  • Without friends no one would choose to live, though he had all other goods.^ And each is good without qualification and to his friend, for the good are both good without qualification and useful to each other.
    • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ For without friends no one would choose to live, though he had all other goods; even rich men and those in possession of office and of dominating power are thought to need friends most of all; for what is the use of such prosperity without the opportunity of beneficence, which is exercised chiefly and in its most laudable form towards friends?
    • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ On the other hand, he who thinks himself worthy of great things, being unworthy of them, is vain; though not every one who thinks himself worthy of more than he really is worthy of in vain.
    • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

    .(VIII.1155a5)
  • When people are friends, they have no need of justice, but when they are just, they need friendship in addition.^ The association of brothers is like timocracy; for they are equal, except in so far as they differ in age; hence if they differ much in age, the friendship is no longer of the fraternal type.
    • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ This is why they quickly become friends and quickly cease to be so; their friendship changes with the object that is found pleasant, and such pleasure alters quickly.
    • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ These people seem to bear goodwill to each other; but how could one call them friends when they do not know their mutual feelings?
    • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

    .(VIII.1155a26)
  • After these matters we ought perhaps next to discuss pleasure.^ AFTER these matters we ought perhaps next to discuss pleasure.
    • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ But we have discussed these matters.
    • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ SINCE we have previously said that one ought to choose that which is intermediate, not the excess nor the defect, and that the intermediate is determined by the dictates of the right rule, let us discuss the nature of these dictates.
    • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

    .For it is thought to be most intimately connected with our human nature, which is the reason why in educating the young we steer them by the rudders of pleasure and pain; it is thought, too, that to enjoy the things we ought and to hate the things we ought has the greatest bearing on virtue of character.^ For it is thought to be most intimately connected with our human nature, which is the reason why in educating the young we steer them by the rudders of pleasure and pain; it is thought, too, that to enjoy the things we ought and to hate the things we ought has the greatest bearing on virtue of character.
    • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Now if there is any gift of the gods to men, it is reasonable that happiness should be god-given, and most surely god-given of all human things inasmuch as it is the best.
    • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ For the originating causes of the things that are done consist in the end at which they are aimed; but the man who has been ruined by pleasure or pain forthwith fails to see any such originating cause-to see that for the sake of this or because of this he ought to choose and do whatever he chooses and does; for vice is destructive of the originating cause of action.
    • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

    .For these things extend right through life, with a weight and power of their own in respect both to virtue and to the happy life, since men choose what is pleasant and avoid what is painful; and such things, it will be thought, we should least of all omit to discuss, especially since they admit of much dispute.^ But it is from their likeness and their unlikeness to the same thing that they are thought both to be and not to be friendships.
    • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ We therefore choose the pleasant as a good, and avoid pain as an evil.
    • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Now men pray for and pursue these things; but they should not, but should pray that the things that are good absolutely may also be good for them, and should choose the things that are good for them.
    • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

    .(X.1172a17)
  • And happiness is thought to depend on leisure; for we are busy that we may have leisure, and make war that we may live in peace.^ And happiness is thought to depend on leisure; for we are busy that we may have leisure, and make war that we may live in peace.
    • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ And the more he is possessed of virtue in its entirety and the happier he is, the more he will be pained at the thought of death; for life is best worth living for such a man, and he is knowingly losing the greatest goods, and this is painful.
    • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ And it makes no difference whether he is young in years or youthful in character; the defect does not depend on time, but on his living, and pursuing each successive object, as passion directs.
    • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

    .(X.1177b4)
  • Now the activity of the practical virtues is exhibited in political or military affairs, but the actions concerned with these seem to be unleisurely.^ Now the activity of the practical virtues is exhibited in political or military affairs, but the actions concerned with these seem to be unleisurely.
    • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Now virtuous actions are noble and done for the sake of the noble.
    • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ So if among virtuous actions political and military actions are distinguished by nobility and greatness, and these are unleisurely and aim at an end and are not desirable for their own sake, but the activity of reason, which is contemplative, seems both to be superior in serious worth and to aim at no end beyond itself, and to have its pleasure proper to itself (and this augments the activity), and the self-sufficiency, leisureliness, unweariedness (so far as this is possible for man), and all the other attributes ascribed to the supremely happy man are evidently those connected with this activity, it follows that this will be the complete happiness of man, if it be allowed a complete term of life (for none of the attributes of happiness is incomplete).
    • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

    .Warlike actions are completely so (for no one chooses to be at war, or provokes war, for the sake of being at war; any one would seem absolutely murderous if he were to make enemies of his friends in order to bring about battle and slaughter); but the action of the statesman is also unleisurely, and-apart from the political action itself-aims at despotic power and honours, or at all events happiness, for him and his fellow citizens-a happiness different from political action, and evidently sought as being different.^ Happiness, on the other hand, no one chooses for the sake of these, nor, in general, for anything other than itself.
    • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Warlike actions are completely so (for no one chooses to be at war, or provokes war, for the sake of being at war; any one would seem absolutely murderous if he were to make enemies of his friends in order to bring about battle and slaughter); but the action of the statesman is also unleisurely, and-apart from the political action itself-aims at despotic power and honours, or at all events happiness, for him and his fellow citizens-a happiness different from political action, and evidently sought as being different.
    • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The characteristics that are looked for in happiness seem also, all of them, to belong to what we have defined happiness as being.
    • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

    .So if among virtuous actions political and military actions are distinguished by nobility and greatness, and these are unleisurely and aim at an end and are not desirable for their own sake, but the activity of reason, which is contemplative, seems both to be superior in serious worth and to aim at no end beyond itself, and to have its pleasure proper to itself (and this augments the activity), and the self-sufficiency, leisureliness, unweariedness (so far as this is possible for man), and all the other attributes ascribed to the supremely happy man are evidently those connected with this activity, it follows that this will be the complete happiness of man, if it be allowed a complete term of life.^ For while making has an end other than itself, action cannot; for good action itself is its end.
    • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ And of this nature virtuous actions are thought to be; for to do noble and good deeds is a thing desirable for its own sake.
    • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Happiness, on the other hand, no one chooses for the sake of these, nor, in general, for anything other than itself.
    • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

    (X.1177b6)
  • Life in the true sense is perceiving or thinking.
  • To be conscious that we are perceiving or thinking is to be conscious of our own existence.
  • With regard to excellence, it is not enough to know, but we must try to have and use it.
  • Young people are in a condition like permanent intoxication, because youth is sweet and they are growing.

Poetics

  • A tragedy, then, is the imitation of an action ... with incidents arousing pity and fear, wherewith to accomplish its catharsis of such emotions. (1449b24)
  • A whole is that which has beginning, middle, and end. .(1450b26)
  • Poetry is finer and more philosophical than history; for poetry expresses the universal, and history only the particular.^ And it is natural that meanness is described as the contrary of liberality; for not only is it a greater evil than prodigality, but men err more often in this direction than in the way of prodigality as we have described it.
    • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Therefore, if there is only one final end, this will be what we are seeking, and if there are more than one, the most final of these will be what we are seeking.
    • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ And he who is that will presumably be also the happiest; so that in this way too the philosopher will more than any other be happy.
    • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

    .(1451b6)
  • Poetry demands a man with a special gift for it, or else one with a touch of madness in him.^ But if one accepts another man as good, and he turns out badly and is seen to do so, must one still love him?
    • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

    (1455a33)
  • But the greatest thing by far is to have a command of metaphor. .This alone cannot be imparted by another; it is the mark of genius, for to make good metaphors implies an eye for resemblances.^ For while making has an end other than itself, action cannot; for good action itself is its end.
    • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ This argument seems to show it to be one of the goods, and no more a good than any other; for every good is more worthy of choice along with another good than taken alone.
    • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ But those who without virtue have such goods are neither justified in making great claims nor entitled to the name of 'proud'; for these things imply perfect virtue.
    • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

    (1459a4)
  • Homer has taught all other poets the art of telling lies skillfully. .(1460a19)
    • Variant: It is Homer who has chiefly taught other poets the art of telling lies skillfully.
  • For the purposes of poetry a convincing impossibility is preferable to an unconvincing possibility.^ Presumably, then, it is well not to seek to have as many friends as possible, but as many as are enough for the purpose of living together; for it would seem actually impossible to be a great friend to many people.
    • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ In friendships based on virtue on the other hand, complaints do not arise, but the purpose of the doer is a sort of measure; for in purpose lies the essential element of virtue and character.
    • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

    (1461b11)

Lives of Eminent Philosophers

Assertions attributed to Aristotle in Lives of Eminent Philosophers by Diogenes Laërtius
.
  • Education is the best provision for old age.
  • Hope is a waking dream.
  • I have gained this by philosophy: that I do without being commanded what others do only from fear of the law.
  • Liars when they speak the truth are not believed.
  • To the query, "What is a friend?"^ If not, the bargain is not equal, and does not hold; for there is nothing to prevent the work of the one being better than that of the other; they must therefore be equated.
    • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Christians believe that human beings can truly flourish, be deeply and ultimately fulfilled, and attain the best sort of life possible for them only in relationship with God.

    ^ For it makes no difference whether a good man has defrauded a bad man or a bad man a good one, nor whether it is a good or a bad man that has committed adultery; the law looks only to the distinctive character of the injury, and treats the parties as equal, if one is in the wrong and the other is being wronged, and if one inflicted injury and the other has received it.
    • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

    his reply was "A single soul dwelling in two bodies."
    • Variants: Friendship is a single soul dwelling in two bodies.
      .A true friend is one soul in two bodies.^ There being two parts of the soul that can follow a course of reasoning, it must be the virtue of one of the two, i.e.
      • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]


      Love is composed of a single soul inhabiting two bodies.
      What is a friend? A single soul dwelling in two bodies.
    • To the query, in the same text, "what is love?" he replied "What is life without love? Love is like the sun; without light, there's no life" [citation needed]

Economics

.
  • "For well-being and health, again, the homestead should be airy in summer, and sunny in winter.^ Again, just as health admits of degrees without being indeterminate, why should not pleasure?
    • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

    A homestead possessing these qualities would be longer than it is deep; and its main front would face the south".
    • Economics (Oeconomica) 1345a.20, Greek Texts and Translations, Perseus under PhiloLogic.

Disputed

  • Plato is dear to me, but dearer still is truth. .
    • Variant: Plato is my friend, but the truth is more my friend.
    • These statements have been attributed to Aristotle, but research done for Wikiquote has thus far not found them among his works.^ The friendship of man and wife, again, is the same that is found in an aristocracy; for it is in accordance with virtue the better gets more of what is good, and each gets what befits him; and so, too, with the justice in these relations.
      • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

      ^ Are we to say then that in so far as they are satisfied with themselves and think they are good, they share in these attributes?
      • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

      ^ For among statements about conduct those which are general apply more widely, but those which are particular are more genuine, since conduct has to do with individual cases, and our statements must harmonize with the facts in these cases.
      • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

      .They may possibly be derived from a reduction of a statement known to have been made by Isaac Newton, who at the head of notes he titled Quaestiones Quaedam Philosophicae (Certain Philosophical Questions) wrote in Latin: "Amicus Plato— amicus Aristoteles— magis amica veritas" which translates to: "Plato is my friend— Aristotle is my friend— but my greatest friend is truth." (c.^ This is in fact the origin of the question whether friends really wish for their friends the greatest goods, e.g.
      • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

      ^ Part of the course will be devoted to a close study of De Consolatione Philosophers Plato and Aristotle and the Greek scientists Nicomachus and Ptolemy, without forgetting the theology of Augustine.

      ^ Those who quickly show the marks of friendship to each other wish to be friends, but are not friends unless they both are lovable and know the fact; for a wish for friendship may arise quickly, but friendship does not.
      • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

      .1664)
    • Another possible origin of the "dear is Plato" statement is in the Nicomachean Ethics; the Ross translation (of 1096a11-1096a16) provides: "We had perhaps better consider the universal good and discuss thoroughly what is meant by it, although such an inquiry is made an uphill one by the fact that the Forms have been introduced by friends of our own.^ Since happiness is an activity of soul in accordance with perfect virtue, we must consider the nature of virtue; for perhaps we shall thus see better the nature of happiness .
      • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

      ^ This is in fact the origin of the question whether friends really wish for their friends the greatest goods, e.g.
      • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

      ^ These, then, are the ends at which our inquiry aims, since it is political science, in one sense of that term.
      • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

      .Yet it would perhaps be thought to be better, indeed to be our duty, for the sake of maintaining the truth even to destroy what touches us closely, especially as we are philosophers; for, while both are dear, piety requires us to honour truth above our friends."

      Note that the last clause, when quoted by itself loses the connection to "the friends" who introduced "the Forms", Plato above all.^ Let us discuss them both, but first of all the truthful man.
      • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

      ^ And it would be thought that in the matter of food we should help our parents before all others, since we owe our own nourishment to them, and it is more honourable to help in this respect the authors of our being even before ourselves; and honour too one should give to one's parents as one does to the gods, but not any and every honour; for that matter one should not give the same honour to one's father and one's mother, nor again should one give them the honour due to a philosopher or to a general, but the honour due to a father, or again to a mother.
      • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

      ^ But it seems strange, when one assigns all good things to the happy man, not to assign friends, who are thought the greatest of external goods.
      • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

      .Therefore the misattribution could be the result of the "quote" actually being a paraphrase which identifies Plato where Aristotle only alludes to him circumspectly.
  • The ideal man bears the accidents of life with dignity and grace, making the best of circumstances.^ When (2) it is not contrary to reasonable expectation, but does not imply vice, it is a mistake (for a man makes a mistake when the fault originates in him, but is the victim of accident when the origin lies outside him).
    • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Secondly, they do produce something, not as the art of medicine produces health, however, but as health produces health; so does philosophic wisdom produce happiness; for, being a part of virtue entire, by being possessed and by actualizing itself it makes a man happy.
    • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ And the more he is possessed of virtue in its entirety and the happier he is, the more he will be pained at the thought of death; for life is best worth living for such a man, and he is knowingly losing the greatest goods, and this is painful.
    • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

    • Considering the subject matter, this should appear in "Nicomachean Ethics", but research done for Wikiquote has thus far not found it in that work or any other.

Misattributed

  • We are what we repeatedly do. Excellence, then, is not an act, but a habit. .
    • Variant: We are what we repeatedly do, therefore excellence is not an act, but a habit.
    • Source: Will Durant, The Story of Philosophy: The Lives and Opinions of the World's Greatest Philosophers (1926) [Simon & Schuster/Pocket Books, 1991, ISBN 0-671-73916-6] Ch.^ And such a man wishes to live with himself; for he does so with pleasure, since the memories of his past acts are delightful and his hopes for the future are good, and therefore pleasant.
      • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

      .II: Aristotle and Greek Science; part VII: Ethics and the Nature of Happiness: "Excellence is an art won by training and habituation: we do not act rightly because we have virtue or excellence, but we rather have these because we have acted rightly; 'these virtues are formed in man by his doing the actions'; we are what we repeatedly do.^ Virtue just means excellence or doing something well for Aristotle.
      • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

      ^ Just and brave acts, and other virtuous acts, we do in relation to each other, observing our respective duties with regard to contracts and services and all manner of actions and with regard to passions; and all of these seem to be typically human.
      • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

      ^ But if a man harms another by choice, he acts unjustly; and these are the acts of injustice which imply that the doer is an unjust man, provided that the act violates proportion or equality.
      • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

      .Excellence, then, is not an act but a habit: 'the good of man is a working of the soul in the way of excellence in a complete life...^ We may remark, then, that every virtue or excellence both brings into good condition the thing of which it is the excellence and makes the work of that thing be done well; e.g.
      • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

      ^ Another belief which harmonizes with our account is that the happy man lives well and does well; for we have practically defined happiness as a sort of good life and good action.
      • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

      ^ It is well said, then, that it is by doing just acts that the just man is produced, and by doing temperate acts the temperate man; without doing these no one would have even a prospect of becoming good.
      • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

      for as it is not one swallow or one fine day that makes a spring, so it is not one day or a short time that makes a man blessed and happy'" (p. 76). .The quoted phrases within the quotation are from the Nicomachean Ethics, Book II, 4; Book I, 7. The misattribution is from taking Durant's summation of Aristotle's ideas as being the words of Aristotle himself.
  • "We live in deeds, not years: In thoughts not breaths; In feelings, not in figures on a dial.^ It should be evident that Aristotle's treatment of virtues as mean states endorses the idea that we should sometimes have strong feelings—when such feelings are called for by our situation.
    • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ In gatherings of men, in social life and the interchange of words and deeds, some men are thought to be obsequious, viz.
    • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Texts to be read include Books I and II of the Physics, the De Anima, and large chunks of the Nicomachean Ethics, along with snippets from the Parva Naturalia.

    We should count time by heart throbs. .He most lives Who thinks most, feels the noblest, acts the best."^ Happiness then is the best, noblest, and most pleasant thing in the world, and these attributes are not severed as in the inscription at Delos- .
    • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The person who lives by his feelings cannot listen to an argument that directs him away, nor even understand it; how can one persuade someone like this?
    • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ And (3) others define him as one who lives with and (4) has the same tastes as another, or (5) one who grieves and rejoices with his friend; and this too is found in mothers most of all.
    • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

    • This is actually from the poem "We live in deeds..." by Philip James Bailey. .This explains the strange pattern of capitalization.
  • The worst form of inequality is to try to make unequal things equal.^ And the same equality will exist between the persons and between the things concerned; for as the latter the things concerned-are related, so are the former; if they are not equal, they will not have what is equal, but this is the origin of quarrels and complaints-when either equals have and are awarded unequal shares, or unequals equal shares.
    • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Therefore, this kind of injustice being an inequality, the judge tries to equalize it; for in the case also in which one has received and the other has inflicted a wound, or one has slain and the other been slain, the suffering and the action have been unequally distributed; but the judge tries to equalize by means of the penalty, taking away from the gain of the assailant.
    • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

    • This first appears in 1974 in an explanation of Aristotle's politics in Time magazine, before being condensed to an epigram as "Aristotle's Axiom" in Peter's People (1979) by Laurence J. Peter

Sources

The Works of Aristotle. Ed. W. David Ross. 12 vols. Oxford: Clarendon, 1908.
The Complete Works of Aristotle: The Revised Oxford Translation. Ed. Jonathan Barnes. 2 vols. Princeton, NJ: Princeton Univ. Press, 1984.
  • A revised edition of Ross's compilation of translations. Much more compact.
.The quotations above may have come from these or other translations.^ Now most of these states also have no names, but we must try, as in the other cases, to invent names ourselves so that we may be clear and easy to follow.
  • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Whether it is for these reasons or for some other that our grief is lightened, is a question that may be dismissed; at all events what we have described appears to take place.
  • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

External links

Wikipedia
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1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

.ARISTOTLE (384-322 B.C.), the great Greek philosopher, was born at Stagira, on the Strymonic Gulf, and hence called " the Stagirite."^ Aristotle was born in 384 BC, fifteen years after the death of Socrates and about two years after Plato founded the Academy.
  • Phil 101 Notes Aristotle 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www4.hmc.edu:8001 [Source type: Original source]

^ Curzer, Howard J. "A Great Philosopher’s Not So Great Account of Great Virtue: Aristotle’s Treatment of ‘Greatness of Soul’," Canadian Journal of Philosophy 20 (1990), pp.

^ Aristotle (384-322 B.C .
  • ARISTOTLE, HUMAN FLOURISHING, AND THE LIMITED STATE 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.quebecoislibre.org [Source type: Original source]

Dionysius of Halicarnassus, in his Epistle on Demosthenes and Aristotle (chap. .5), gives the following sketch of his life: - Aristotle ('ApeaToTE ujs) was the son of Nicomachus, who traced back his descent and his art to Machaon,son of Aesculapius; his mother being Phaestis, a descendant of one of those who carried the colony from Chalcis to Stagira.^ Aristotle gives the following formula (p.
  • Phil 101 Notes Aristotle 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www4.hmc.edu:8001 [Source type: Original source]

^ Aristotle of Stagira 384-322BC Aristotle died at Chalcis in Euboea (above) His last resting place is unknown.
  • Aristotle of Stagira - Nicomachean Ethics - 'Squashed Philosophers' Abridged Edition 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.btinternet.com [Source type: Original source]

^ On the other hand, he who thinks himself worthy of great things, being unworthy of them, is vain; though not every one who thinks himself worthy of more than he really is worthy of in vain.
  • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

.He was born in the 99th Olympiad in the archonship at Athens of Diotrephes (384-383), three years before Demosthenes.^ Aristotle was born in 384 BC, fifteen years after the death of Socrates and about two years after Plato founded the Academy.
  • Phil 101 Notes Aristotle 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www4.hmc.edu:8001 [Source type: Original source]

^ In his last oration, started when he was 94 and delayed by three years of illness before he finished it at 97, Isocrates praised Athens and criticized the aggressive ways of Sparta.
  • Ethics of Isocrates, Aristotle, and Diogenes by Sanderson Beck 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.san.beck.org [Source type: Original source]

^ There he died in the year 322, a few months before the death of Demosthenes.
  • History of Philosophy 11 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www2.nd.edu [Source type: Original source]

.In the archonship of Polyzelus (367-366), after the death of his father, in his eighteenth year, he came to Athens, and having joined Plato spent twenty years with him.^ In 367 bc Aristotle came to Athens.

^ Plato before his death bequeathed his Academy to his nephew Speusippus, who continued its president for eight years; and on his death the office passed to Xenocrates, who held it for twenty-five years.
  • Aristotle - 1 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.ellopos.net [Source type: Academic]

^ Aristotle was born in 384 BC, fifteen years after the death of Socrates and about two years after Plato founded the Academy.
  • Phil 101 Notes Aristotle 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www4.hmc.edu:8001 [Source type: Original source]

.On the death of Plato (May 347) in the archonship of Theophilus (348-347) he departed to Hermias, tyrant of Atarneus, and, after three years' stay, during the archonship of Eubulus (345-344) he moved to Mitylene, whence he went to Philip of Macedon in the archonship of Pythodotus (343-342), and spent eight years with him as tutor of Alexander.^ Later he moved to Lesbos, in the eastern Aegean, and then to Macedon, where he was a tutor of Alexander.

^ In 343 he was summoned by Philip of Macedon to become the tutor of Alexander, who was then in his thirteenth year.
  • History of Philosophy 11 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www2.nd.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ At the invitation of Philip of Macedonia he became the tutor of his 13 year old son Alexander (later world conqueror); he did this for the next five years.
  • Aristotle (384-322 BCE): Overview [Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.utm.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • Aristotle [The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.iep.utm.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • Aristotle [The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.iep.utm.edu [Source type: Original source]

.After the death of Philip (336), in the archonship of Euaenetus (335-334), he returned to Athens and kept a school in the Lyceum for twelve years.^ In 334 he returned to Athens and founded his own school, the Lyceum.

^ In 335 he returned to Athens where he founded a school, the Lyceum.
  • Aristotle bio of Ancient Philosopher 384-322 B.C. 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.briantaylor.com [Source type: Original source]

^ There he studied under Plato , and, after twenty years at the school of Academe, by way of a spell as tutor to the future Alexander the Great, he returned to Athens to found his own school of philosophy at the Lyceum, whose colonnades, the 'peripatos' gave Aristotle's followers their name of the 'Peripatetics'.
  • Aristotle of Stagira - Nicomachean Ethics - 'Squashed Philosophers' Abridged Edition 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.btinternet.com [Source type: Original source]

.In the thirteenth, after the death of Alexander (June 323) in the archonship of Cephisodorus (323-322), having departed to Chalcis, he died of disease (322), after a life of three-and-sixty years.^ In 343 he was summoned by Philip of Macedon to become the tutor of Alexander, who was then in his thirteenth year.
  • History of Philosophy 11 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www2.nd.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ In 323 Alexander died; in the resulting outbreak of anti-Macedonian feeling in Athens Aristotle left for Chalcis, on the island of Euboea, where he died in 322.

^ In the first year of his residence at Chalcis he complained of a stomach illness and died in 322 BCE. .

.I. Aristotle'S Life This account is practically repeated by Diogenes Laertius in his Life of Aristotle, on the authority of the Chronicles of Apollodorus, who lived in the 2nd century B.C. Starting then from this tradition, near enough to the time, we can confidently divide Aristotle's career into four periods: his youth under his parents till his eighteenth year; his philosophical education under Plato at Athens till his thirty-eighth year; his travels in the Greek world till his fiftieth year; and his philosophical teaching in the Lyceum till his departure to Chalcis and his death in his sixtythird year.^ PLATO ANTHOLOGY: Who is a philosopher?
  • Aristotle Bilingual - Greek English - Anthology 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.ellopos.net [Source type: Academic]
  • Aristotle - 1 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.ellopos.net [Source type: Academic]

^ Guthrie, Life of Plato and philosophical influences .
  • Aristotle Bilingual - Greek English - Anthology 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.ellopos.net [Source type: Academic]
  • Aristotle - 1 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.ellopos.net [Source type: Academic]

^ Diogenes Laertius, Lives of the Eminent Philosophers , tr.
  • Ethics of Isocrates, Aristotle, and Diogenes by Sanderson Beck 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.san.beck.org [Source type: Original source]

.But when we descend from generals to particulars, we become less certain, and must here content ourselves with few details.^ But one must establish a certain limit to such relationships, for if we extend them to ones ancestors and descendants and to ones friends friends, they would go on for ever.
  • Aristotle, Nicomachean Ethics [Abridged] 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC records.viu.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ Although we must be fortunate enough to have parents and fellow citizens who help us become virtuous, we ourselves share much of the responsibility for acquiring and exercising the virtues.
  • Aristotle's Ethics (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • Aristotle's Ethics (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy/Spring 2004 Edition) 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC stanford.library.usyd.edu.au [Source type: Original source]

^ Generative anthropology can help us here to make a closer reading of Aristotle's discussion of form and content, and of high and popular culture, with regard to the esthetic of tragedy.

.Aristotle from the first profited by having a father who, being physician to Amyntas II., king of Macedon, and one of the Asclepiads who, according to Galen, practised their sons in dissection, both prepared the way for his son's influence at the Macedonian court, and gave him a bias to medicine and biology, which certainly led to his belief in nature and natural science, and perhaps induced him to practise medicine, as he did, according to his enemies, Timaeus and Epicurus, when he first went to Athens.^ Aristotle was the son of Nicomachus, a doctor attached to the Macedonian court.

^ His father Nichomachus was court physician to King Amyntas of Macedonia, and from this began Aristotle’s long association with the Macedonian Court, which considerably influenced his life.
  • Aristotle [The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.iep.utm.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • Aristotle [The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.iep.utm.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ His father Nicomachus was court physician to Amyntas III, king of Macedonia and father of Philip II .
  • Ethics of Isocrates, Aristotle, and Diogenes by Sanderson Beck 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.san.beck.org [Source type: Original source]

.At Athens in his second period for some twenty years he acquired the further advantage of balancing natural science by metaphysics and morals in the course of reading Plato's writings and of hearing Plato's unwritten dogmas (cf.^ Plato before his death bequeathed his Academy to his nephew Speusippus, who continued its president for eight years; and on his death the office passed to Xenocrates, who held it for twenty-five years.
  • Aristotle - 1 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.ellopos.net [Source type: Academic]

^ Judged on the basis of their content, Aristotle's most important psychological writings probably belong to his second residence in Athens, and so to his most mature period.
  • Aristotle's Psychology (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ For more on what the Republic says about knowledge and its objects, see Plato: middle period metaphysics and epistemology , and for more about the discussion of the poets, see Plato: rhetoric and poetry .
  • Plato's Ethics and Politics in The Republic (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

Ev Tols Xe'yo,ubiocs a'yp c/xns 86y,uaccv, Ar. Physics, iv. 2, 209 b 15, Berlin ed.). He was an earnest, appreciative, independent student. The master is said to have called his pupil the intellect of the school and his house a reader's. He is also said to have complained that his pupil spurned him as colts do their mothers. .Aristotle, however, always revered Plato's memory (Nic.^ It would, however, be a serious mistake to represent Aristotle as reducing all reality to form, and ending as Plato had begun, with the doctrine of monism.
  • History of Philosophy 11 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www2.nd.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Aristotle is, however, more inclined than Plato was to attach a theoretical value to philosophy.
  • History of Philosophy 11 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www2.nd.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ On Memory: Aristotle's Corrections of Plato.’ Journal of the History of Philosophy 18: 379-93.
  • Aristotle's Psychology (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

Ethics,
i. .6), and even in criticizing his master counted himself enough of a Platonist to cite Plato's doctrines as what "we say" (cf.^ (This was a common doctrine in Plato's Academy - cf.
  • Nicomachean Ethics 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC www.uri.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Plato was thus the founder of a school or sect of teachers who busied themselves with commenting, expanding, modifying here and there the doctrines of the master.
  • Aristotle - 1 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.ellopos.net [Source type: Academic]

^ But Plato might signal for his readers to examine and re-examine what Socrates says without thereby suggesting that he himself finds fault with what Socrates says.
  • Plato's Ethics and Politics in The Republic (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

4a,Ap, Metaphysics, i. 9, 99 0 b 16). .At the same time, he must have learnt much from other contemporaries at Athens, especially from astronomers such as Eudoxus and Callippus, and from orators such as Isocrates and Demosthenes.^ For it would then be limited by some other substance of the same nature which also of necessity must exist: and then two substances would be granted having the same attribute, which is absurd.
  • Aristotle Metaphysics Philosophy: Metaphysics of Space and Motion explainsPhilosopher Aristotle's Metaphysics, Physics 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.spaceandmotion.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The best definition I ever read of introverts was that extroverts draw their energy from interaction with other people and are drained by too much time alone.
  • Villainous Company: The Womanliness Project: Nature versus Virtue 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC www.villainouscompany.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Other arguments about a witness-that he is a friend or an enemy or neutral, or has a good, bad, or indifferent reputation, and any other such distinctions-we must construct upon the same general lines as we use for the regular rhetorical proofs.
  • TheologyWebsite.com Etext Index: Rhetoric by Aristotle 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.theologywebsite.com [Source type: Original source]

.He also attacked Isocrates, according to Cicero, and perhaps even set up a rival school of rhetoric.^ The Academy, by this time, has established a system of general education that was based on mathematics and was postured in opposition to a school organized by Isocrates which offered a strictly rhetorical training.
  • Phil 101 Notes Aristotle 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www4.hmc.edu:8001 [Source type: Original source]

^ But, even those schools give up on this model of education when faced with curricula that must be taught and tests that must be passed.
  • Edge: "ARISTOTLE " (THE KNOWLEDGE WEB) 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.edge.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For twenty years he was a member of Plato's Academy; later he set up his own philosophical school, the Lyceum.

.At any rate he had pupils of his own, such as Eudemus of Cyprus, Theodectes and Hermias, books of his own, especially dialogues, and even to some extent his own philosophy, while he was still a pupil of Plato.^ Such actions are to be chosen for their own sake, as being their own end; they are not simply instrumental means to some further end.

^ For the man who loves truth, and is truthful where nothing is at stake, will still more be truthful where something is at stake; he will avoid falsehood as something base, seeing that he avoided it even for its own sake; and such a man is worthy of praise.
  • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ These theories form a tradition going back to Plato and Aristotle leading up to the (in some ways very different) concerns of recent philosophy.
  • LPSG Ethics 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC www.ucl.ac.uk [Source type: Academic]

.Well grounded in his boyhood, and thoroughly educated in his manhood, Aristotle, after Plato's death, had the further advantage of travel in his third period, when he was in his prime.^ After Plato's death Aristotle repaired, in company with Xenocrates, to the court of Hermias, lord of Atarneus, whose sister or niece, Pythias, he married.
  • History of Philosophy 11 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www2.nd.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Aristotle was born in 384 BC, fifteen years after the death of Socrates and about two years after Plato founded the Academy.
  • Phil 101 Notes Aristotle 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www4.hmc.edu:8001 [Source type: Original source]

^ Aristotle's work being finished, he returned to Athens, which he had not visited since the death of Plato.
  • Aristotle (384-322 BCE): Overview [Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.utm.edu [Source type: Original source]

.The appointment of Plato's nephew, Speusippus, to succeed his uncle in the Academy induced Aristotle and Xenocrates to leave Athens together and repair to the court of Hermias.^ Plato before his death bequeathed his Academy to his nephew Speusippus, who continued its president for eight years; and on his death the office passed to Xenocrates, who held it for twenty-five years.
  • Aristotle - 1 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.ellopos.net [Source type: Academic]

^ After Plato's death Aristotle repaired, in company with Xenocrates, to the court of Hermias, lord of Atarneus, whose sister or niece, Pythias, he married.
  • History of Philosophy 11 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www2.nd.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ When Plato's nephew Speusippus became head of the Academy in 347 BC, Aristotle and Xenocrates started a philosophical school at Assus where Hermeias, a former slave and banker, was ruling the Troad.
  • Ethics of Isocrates, Aristotle, and Diogenes by Sanderson Beck 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.san.beck.org [Source type: Original source]

.Aristotle admired Hermias, and married his friend's sister or niece, Pythias, by whom he had his daughter Pythias.^ Aristotle married Pythias, a niece of Hermeias, the ruler of Assos.

^ Aristotle fled to the island of Lesbos with the others associated with the school, including Hermeias' niece, Pythias, who became Aristotle's wife.
  • Phil 101 Notes Aristotle 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www4.hmc.edu:8001 [Source type: Original source]

^ He stayed three year and, while there, married Pythias, the niece of the King.
  • Aristotle (384-322 BCE): Overview [Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.utm.edu [Source type: Original source]

.After the tragic death of Hermias, he retired for a time to Mitylene, and in 343-342 was summoned to Macedon by Philip to teach Alexander, who was then a boy of thirteen.^ In 343 he was summoned by Philip of Macedon to become the tutor of Alexander, who was then in his thirteenth year.
  • History of Philosophy 11 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www2.nd.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ In his lifetime the kingdom of Macedon, first under Philip and then under Philip's son Alexander ('the Great'), conquered both the Greek cities of Europe and Asia and the Persian Empire.

^ Upon the death of Philip, Alexander succeeded to the kingship and prepared for his subsequent conquests.
  • Aristotle (384-322 BCE): Overview [Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.utm.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • Aristotle [The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.iep.utm.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • Aristotle [The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.iep.utm.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • Philosophy Professor | Aristotle 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.philosophyprofessor.com [Source type: Original source]

According to Cicero (De Oratore, iii. .41), Philip wished his son, then a boy of thirteen, to receive from Aristotle " agendi praecepta et eloquendi."^ According to Aristotle “all” can mean “each individually,” and in this case “each will then speak of the same boy as his own son and the same woman as his own wife” (1261b20-23).
  • Mothering and the Sacrifice of Self: Women and Friendship in Aristotle's Nicomachean Ethics | Ward | thirdspace: a journal of feminist theory & culture 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC www.thirdspace.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ Three years later Aristotle returned to the Macedonian court at Pella to tutor Philip's son Alexander , who was 13 then.
  • Ethics of Isocrates, Aristotle, and Diogenes by Sanderson Beck 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.san.beck.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The problem, according to Aristotle, with the collective understanding of “all” – when every person, as it were, says all of these boys are all of our sons rather than that each boy is my son – is: .
  • Mothering and the Sacrifice of Self: Women and Friendship in Aristotle's Nicomachean Ethics | Ward | thirdspace: a journal of feminist theory & culture 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC www.thirdspace.ca [Source type: Original source]

.Aristotle is said to have written on monarchy and on colonies for Alexander; and the pupil is said to have slept with his master's edition of Homer under his pillow, and to have respected him, until from hatred of Aristotle's tactless relative, Callisthenes, who was done to death in 328, he turned at last against Aristotle himself.^ Aristotle introduced his nephew Callisthenes to Alexander but warned him to be careful of what he said.
  • Ethics of Isocrates, Aristotle, and Diogenes by Sanderson Beck 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.san.beck.org [Source type: Original source]

^ It lasted after Aristotle's death; his successor as head of the school was his pupil Theophrastus .

^ Unfortunately, by the time of Alexander's death, the Athenians moved to remove all Macedonian connections from their midst; Aristotle himself was put up for trial on a charge of impiety for some verses he had written, many years earlier, in praise of Hermeias' bravery.
  • Phil 101 Notes Aristotle 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www4.hmc.edu:8001 [Source type: Original source]

.Aristotle had power to teach, and Alexander to learn.^ The process of teaching helps Aristotle learn to be a better teacher.
  • Edge: "ARISTOTLE " (THE KNOWLEDGE WEB) 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.edge.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Still we must not exaggerate the result. .Dionysius must have spoken too strongly, when he says that Aristotle was tutor of Alexander for eight years; for in 340, when Philip went to war with Byzantium, Alexander became regent at home, at the age of sixteen.^ At the invitation of Philip of Macedonia he became the tutor of his 13 year old son Alexander (later world conqueror); he did this for the next five years.
  • Aristotle (384-322 BCE): Overview [Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.utm.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ In 336 B.C. Philip II was assassinated and his son succeeded as Alexander III. Alexander had no further time for education so Aristotle left Macedon the next year and went back to Athens while Alexander went on to invade the Persian Empire in a great conquering campaign.
  • Aristotle bio of Ancient Philosopher 384-322 B.C. 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.briantaylor.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In 336 BC, Alexander became king of Macedonia and spent the next thirteen years expanding Greek influence throughout the region.
  • Phil 101 Notes Aristotle 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www4.hmc.edu:8001 [Source type: Original source]

.From this date Aristotle probably spent much time at his paternal house in his native city at Stagira as a patriotic citizen.^ South Bend has several Sears and Roebuck homes and part of our class time will be spent in looking at these houses in the context of the course themes.

^ Although Aristotle spent much of his adult life in Athens, he was not an Athenian citizen.

^ It is from this love of the other within the biological family, Aristotle suggests, that human beings are prepared for and move toward love others within larger wholes such as fellow citizens within the city.
  • Mothering and the Sacrifice of Self: Women and Friendship in Aristotle's Nicomachean Ethics | Ward | thirdspace: a journal of feminist theory & culture 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC www.thirdspace.ca [Source type: Original source]

.Philip had sacked it in 348: Aristotle induced him or his son to restore it, made for it a new constitution, and in return was celebrated in a festival after his death.^ Aristotle's work being finished, he returned to Athens, which he had not visited since the death of Plato .

^ In 340 BC when Philip went to war against Byzantium, Alexander ruled as regent, giving Aristotle more time for his own studies at Stagira, now restored for him after Philip had destroyed it in the Olynthian war.
  • Ethics of Isocrates, Aristotle, and Diogenes by Sanderson Beck 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.san.beck.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In 342 BC, Aristotle was asked to return to Macedonia to tutor Phillip's son, Alexander.
  • Phil 101 Notes Aristotle 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www4.hmc.edu:8001 [Source type: Original source]

.All these vicissitudes made him a man of the world, drew him out of the philosophical circle at Athens, and gave him leisure to develop his philosophy.^ At age 17 his guardian, Proxenus, sent him to Athens, the intellectual center of the world, to complete his education.

^ Knowing the above facts, we know their contraries; and it is out of these that speeches of censure are made.
  • TheologyWebsite.com Etext Index: Rhetoric by Aristotle 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.theologywebsite.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This involves study of the philosophies, theories, policies, and practices of development as expounded by the world powers and non-government organizations.

.Besides Alexander he had other pupils: Callisthenes, Cassander, Marsyas, Phanias, and Theophrastus of Eresus, who is said to have had land at Stagira.^ Alexander said he was a good thing, and Diogenes asked who is afraid of the good.
  • Ethics of Isocrates, Aristotle, and Diogenes by Sanderson Beck 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.san.beck.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Besides, it has been shown before that the man of practical wisdom is one who will act (for he is a man concerned with the individual facts) and who has the other virtues.
  • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Aristotle introduced his nephew Callisthenes to Alexander but warned him to be careful of what he said.
  • Ethics of Isocrates, Aristotle, and Diogenes by Sanderson Beck 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.san.beck.org [Source type: Original source]

.He also continued the writings begun in his second period; and the Macedonian kings have the glory of having assisted the Stagirite philosopher with the means of conducting his researches in the History of Animals. At last, in his fourth period, after the accession of Alexander, Aristotle at fifty returned to Athens and became the head of his own school in the Lyceum, a gymnasium near the temple of Apollo Lyceius in the suburbs.^ In 334 he returned to Athens and founded his own school, the Lyceum.

^ When Alexander departed on his Asiatic campaign Aristotle returned to Athens.
  • History of Philosophy 11 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www2.nd.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ He returned to Athens and founded his own school, the Lyceum, which flourished as a center of both humanistic and scientific research.
  • Phil 101 Notes Aristotle 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www4.hmc.edu:8001 [Source type: Original source]

.The master and his scholars were called Peripatetics (ol Ert Tov 7reptlredrov), certainly from meeting, like other philosophical schools, in a walk (7repL7raros), and perhaps also, on the authority of Hermippus of Smyrna, from walking and talking there, like Protagora s s and his followers as described in Plato's Protagoras (314 E, 315 e).^ There he studied under Plato , and, after twenty years at the school of Academe, by way of a spell as tutor to the future Alexander the Great, he returned to Athens to found his own school of philosophy at the Lyceum, whose colonnades, the 'peripatos' gave Aristotle's followers their name of the 'Peripatetics'.
  • Aristotle of Stagira - Nicomachean Ethics - 'Squashed Philosophers' Abridged Edition 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.btinternet.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Bodily pleasures are likely to be abused because all men share in them and some think there are no others.
  • Nicomachean ethics 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC www.culturism.us [Source type: Original source]

^ For twenty years he was a member of Plato's Academy; later he set up his own philosophical school, the Lyceum.

.Indeed, according to Ammonius, Plato too had talked as he walked in the Academy; and all his followers were called Peripatetics, until, while the pupils of Xenocrates took the name " Academics," those of Aristotle retained the general name.^ Plato before his death bequeathed his Academy to his nephew Speusippus, who continued its president for eight years; and on his death the office passed to Xenocrates, who held it for twenty-five years.
  • Aristotle - 1 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.ellopos.net [Source type: Academic]

^ The materials that were editorially placed in what we call the Metaphysics were named so because, in the mind of the early editors, they fell between Aristotle's discussion of physics and his later discussions of practical and productive sciences and because they took up a different collection of problems.
  • Phil 101 Notes Aristotle 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www4.hmc.edu:8001 [Source type: Original source]

^ He taught in a gymnasium called the Lyceum , discoursing with his favorite pupils while strolling up and down the shaded walks around the gymnasium of Apollo, -- whence the name Peripatetics (from peripateô ).
  • History of Philosophy 11 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www2.nd.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Aristotle also formed his Peripatetic school into a kind of college with common meals under a president (6tpxcov) changing every ten days; while the philosopher himself delivered lectures, in which his practice, as his pupil Aristoxenus tells us (Harmonics, ii.^ Aristotle does not tell us what is its content.
  • Nicomachean Ethics 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC www.uri.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The third kind of friendship Aristotle identifies is its true or perfect form.
  • Mothering and the Sacrifice of Self: Women and Friendship in Aristotle's Nicomachean Ethics | Ward | thirdspace: a journal of feminist theory & culture 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC www.thirdspace.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ Aristotle's writings on the general subject of logic were grouped by the later Peripatetics under the name Organon, or instrument.

.init.), was, avoiding the generalities of Plato, to prepare his audience by explaining the subject of investigation and its nature.^ Plato's Republic , for example, does not treat ethics as a distinct subject matter; nor does it offer a systematic examination of the nature of happiness, virtue, voluntariness, pleasure, or friendship.
  • Aristotle's Ethics (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • Aristotle's Ethics (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy/Spring 2004 Edition) 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC stanford.library.usyd.edu.au [Source type: Original source]

^ Plato’s Republic , for example, does not treat ethics as a distinct subject matter; nor does it offer a systematic examination of the nature of happiness, virtue, voluntariness, pleasure, or friendship.

^ To the degree that hylomorphism is generally defensible, then, its application in this domain provides a theoretically rich framework for investigating the nature of thought.
  • Aristotle's Psychology (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

.But Aristotle was an author as well as a lecturer; for the hypothesis that the Aristotelian writings are notes of his lectures taken down by his pupils is contradicted by the tradition of their learning while walking, and disproved by the impossibility of taking down such complicated discourses from dictation.^ He taught in a gymnasium called the Lyceum , discoursing with his favorite pupils while strolling up and down the shaded walks around the gymnasium of Apollo, -- whence the name Peripatetics (from peripateô ).
  • History of Philosophy 11 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www2.nd.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ As such, it may be that Voegelin takes Aristotle seriously not only as a philosopher, but as a human being in a way that many other commentators have failed to do.
  • Ethics and Natural Law in Eric Voegelin 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC www.artsci.lsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Aristotle on Well-Being and Intellectual Contemplation.” Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society , Supplementary Volume 73, pp.
  • Aristotle's Ethics (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Moreover, it is clear that Aristotle addressed himself to readers as well as hearers, as in concluding his whole theory of syllogisms he says, " There would remain for all of you or for our hearers (763,7 co y uµWV rt T&?v ipcpoapEVwv) a duty of according to the defects of the investigation consideration, to its discoveries much gratitude " (Sophistical Elenchi, 34, 184 b 6).^ All I was trying to do there was to lay out what Aristotle had to say.
  • Villainous Company: The Womanliness Project: Nature versus Virtue 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC www.villainouscompany.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I get what you're saying, but I'm not there yet.
  • Villainous Company: The Womanliness Project: Nature versus Virtue 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC www.villainouscompany.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In "Poetics" the character is defined by 'that kind of utterance which clearly reveals the bent of man's moral choice', hence Aristotle concludes that there is no character in that class of utterance where there is nothing at all that the speaker is selecting or rejecting.
  • Paul Auster's Postmodernist Fiction: Deconstructing Aristotle's "Poetics" 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.bluecricket.com [Source type: Original source]

.In short, Aristotle was at once a student, a reader, a lecturer, a writer and a book collector.^ The Magna Moralia is widely agreed not to have been written by Aristotle; some believe, with good reason, that it contains a student's notes on an early course of lectures by Aristotle.

^ Aristotle observes in Book X that what all things aim at is good (1172b35-1173a1); significantly, he falls short of endorsing the argument that since all aim at pleasure, it must be the good.
  • Aristotle's Ethics (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • Aristotle’s Ethics 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC stanford.library.usyd.edu.au [Source type: Original source]
  • Aristotle's Ethics (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy/Spring 2004 Edition) 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC stanford.library.usyd.edu.au [Source type: Original source]

^ However, the book is rather a patchwork of disparate materials used by Aristotle for his lectures on the issues of 'practical' philosophy than a continuous and homogenious exposition.
  • Nicomachean Ethics 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC www.uri.edu [Source type: Original source]

.He was, says Strabo (608), the first we knew who collected books and taught the kings in Egypt the arrangement of a library.^ For instance, in his first reference to the mother-child relationship in Book Eight, Aristotle says, “friendship appears to consist in giving rather than receiving affection.
  • Mothering and the Sacrifice of Self: Women and Friendship in Aristotle's Nicomachean Ethics | Ward | thirdspace: a journal of feminist theory & culture 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC www.thirdspace.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ Florentinus the Grecian says, that Jubas King of Africa, taught how to make Bees in a wooden Ark ..."
  • "Natural Magick" - "Glossery/Index - A" 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC homepages.tscnet.com [Source type: Original source]

.In leis library no doubt were books of others, but also his own.^ Are ethics books more, or less, likely to be missing from academic libraries than other philosophy books?
  • RUNNING HEAD: Do Ethicists Steal More Books 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC www.faculty.ucr.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The effect does not appear to be attributable to law faculty and students, since law books and ethics books in law libraries seem to be missing at about the same rate as other ethics books.
  • RUNNING HEAD: Do Ethicists Steal More Books 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC www.faculty.ucr.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Anticipating the current research, several philosophers have shared with me their impression that ethics books are missing from libraries more often than other philosophy books.
  • RUNNING HEAD: Do Ethicists Steal More Books 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC www.faculty.ucr.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.There we must figure to ourselves the philosopher, constantly referring to his autograph rolls; entering references and cross-references; correcting, rewriting, collecting and arranging them according to their subjects; showing as well as reading them to his pupils; with little thought of publication, but with his whole soul concentrated on being and truth.^ If not, the bargain is not equal, and does not hold; for there is nothing to prevent the work of the one being better than that of the other; they must therefore be equated.
  • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Part 11 We may lay it down that Pleasure is a movement, a movement by which the soul as a whole is consciously brought into its normal state of being; and that Pain is the opposite.
  • TheologyWebsite.com Etext Index: Rhetoric by Aristotle 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.theologywebsite.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Equality Of Animals [ send me this paper ] A philosophical critique of any given argument must rest on the merits as well as the faults of the presentation of the argument.
  • philosophy of ethics - papers 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC www.ethicspapers.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.On his first visit to Athens, during which occurred the fatal battle of Mantineia (362 B.C.), Aristotle had seen the confusion of Greece becoming the opportunity of Macedon under Philip; and on his second visit he was supported at Athens by the complete domination of Macedon under Alexander.^ First published Tue Jan 11, 2000; substantive revision Mon Apr 28, 2003 Aristotle (384-322 BC) was born in Macedon, in what is now northern Greece, but spent most of his adult life in Athens.
  • Aristotle's Psychology (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Judged on the basis of their content, Aristotle's most important psychological writings probably belong to his second residence in Athens, and so to his most mature period.
  • Aristotle's Psychology (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ At the sudden death of Alexander in 323 BCE., the pro-Macedonian government in Athens was overthrown, and a general reaction occurred against anything Macedonian.

.Having witnessed the unjust exactions of a democracy at Athens, the dwindling population of an oligarchy at Sparta, and the oppressive selfishness of new tyrannies throughout the Greek world, he condemned the actual constitutions of the Greek states as deviations (7rapec- (3do as) directed merely to the good of the government; and he contemplated a right constitution (607) 7roAtTeia), which might be either a commonwealth, an aristocracy or a monarchy, directed to the general good; but he preferred the monarchy of one man, pre-eminent in virtue above the rest, as the best of all governments (Nicomachean Ethics, viii.^ The best good is the all-inclusive end.
  • Nicomachean Ethics 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC www.uri.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Monarchy, as the word implies, is the constitution a in which one man has authority over all.
  • TheologyWebsite.com Etext Index: Rhetoric by Aristotle 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.theologywebsite.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Happiness is not merely a potential good but actual.
  • Ethics of Isocrates, Aristotle, and Diogenes by Sanderson Beck 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.san.beck.org [Source type: Original source]

10; Politics, F 14-18). .Moreover, by adding (Politics, H 7, 1327 b 29-33) that the Greek race could govern the world by obtaining one constitution (was Tvy X b.vov 7roXtmeias), he indicated some leaning to a universal monarchy under such a king as Alexander.^ For Nichols, Aristotle’s argument that political rule should govern the relations the between the sexes is based on his belief in their equality, making shared rule just, and in their differences, such as differences in virtue, making shared rule advantageous (Nichols, “Toward a New – and Old – Feminism” 177-80 and Citizens and Statesmen 29-33).
  • Mothering and the Sacrifice of Self: Women and Friendship in Aristotle's Nicomachean Ethics | Ward | thirdspace: a journal of feminist theory & culture 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC www.thirdspace.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ One could construe that to mean that had Ray Charles had eyesight it would have expanded his creative world and he would have been a "more complete" artist.
  • Villainous Company: The Womanliness Project: Nature versus Virtue 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC www.villainouscompany.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Perception does not include grasp of the universal as such; in grasping the universal, we recognize some feature of our experience as a ground for attributing the universal to a particular that we experience.

.On the whole, however, he adhered to the Greek city-state (7rOXts), partly perhaps out of patriotism to his own Stagira.^ Perhaps, however, contrary does not even aim at contrary by its own nature, but only incidentally, the desire being for what is intermediate; for that is what is good, e.g.
  • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Perhaps even in the lower creatures there is some natural power stronger than their own which seeks out the good appropriate to them.
  • Aristotle, Nicomachean Ethics [Abridged] 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC records.viu.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ Plato on the Economy.” in The Ancient Greek City-State , ed., M.H. Hansen (Copenhagen, 1993), 183–196.
  • Plato's Ethics and Politics in The Republic (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Averse at all events to the Athenian democracy, leaning towards Macedonian monarchy, and resting on Macedonian power, he maintained.^ But at all events what we are investigating is the justice which is a part of virtue; for there is a justice of this kind, as we maintain.
  • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ For although this part may be small in bulk, it is far more powerful and valuable than all the rest.
  • Aristotle, Nicomachean Ethics [Abridged] 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC records.viu.ca [Source type: Original source]

himself in his school at .Athens, so long as he was supported by the friendship of Antipater, the Macedonian regent in Alexander's absence.^ In 323 Alexander died; in the resulting outbreak of anti-Macedonian feeling in Athens Aristotle left for Chalcis, on the island of Euboea, where he died in 322.

^ When Alexander died in 323 BC and Athens led the revolt, Aristotle's friendship with Macedonian viceroy Antipater caused him to be charged with impiety for the elegy that had called Hermeias divine.
  • Ethics of Isocrates, Aristotle, and Diogenes by Sanderson Beck 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.san.beck.org [Source type: Original source]

^ But if the absence long it often makes men forget their friendship; hence the saying 'out of sight, out of mind'.
  • Aristotle of Stagira - Nicomachean Ethics - 'Squashed Philosophers' Abridged Edition 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.btinternet.com [Source type: Original source]

.But on Alexander's sudden death in 323, when Athens in the Lamian war tried to reassert her freedom against Antipater, Aristotle found himself in danger.^ In 323 Alexander died; in the resulting outbreak of anti-Macedonian feeling in Athens Aristotle left for Chalcis, on the island of Euboea, where he died in 322.

^ The Apology was apparently composed not long after Socrates' death; it presents itself as Socrates' defense against the charges levied against him, and his speech to the jury after he was found guilty.

^ Now Athens seemed to be waging war against the whole world, paying lawless and violent mercenaries to attack their allies.
  • Ethics of Isocrates, Aristotle, and Diogenes by Sanderson Beck 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.san.beck.org [Source type: Original source]

He was accused of impiety on the absurd charge of deifying the tyrant Hermias; and,. remembering the fate of Socrates, he retired to Chalcis in Euboea. There, away from his school, in 322 he died. .(A tomb has been found in our time inscribed with the name of Biote, daughter of Aristotle.^ Flavius says, an Italian found it out first, whose name was Amalphus , born in our Campania.
  • "Natural Magick" - "Glossery/Index - A" 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC homepages.tscnet.com [Source type: Original source]

But is this our Aristotle?) .Such is our scanty knowledge of Aristotle's life, which seems to have been prosperous by inheritance and position, and happy by work and philosophy.^ It should be evident that Aristotle's treatment of virtues as mean states endorses the idea that we should sometimes have strong feelings—when such feelings are called for by our situation.
  • Aristotle's Ethics (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Aristotle himself, in Poetics 13, seems to sanction this persistent misunderstanding with his remarks on Sophocles' most famous work, the Oedipus Tyrannus .

^ Nowhere does the contrast between the philosophy of Plato and that of Aristotle appear so clearly as in their theories of knowledge.
  • History of Philosophy 11 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www2.nd.edu [Source type: Original source]

.His will, which was quoted by Hermippus, and, as afterwards quoted by Diogenes Laertius, has come down to us, though perhaps not complete, supplies some further details, as follows: - Antipater is to be executor with others.^ So, if living systems cannot be reductively defined in some other way, it will follow that no reductive account of life will be forthcoming.
  • Aristotle's Psychology (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ But further (E) it is agreed that pain is bad and to be avoided; for some pain is without qualification bad, and other pain is bad because it is in some respect an impediment to us.
  • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ If you come to a different one, do you think there is some further goal that you do each of those stopping points for (so that they're not really final stopping points at all.
  • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Nicanor is to marry Pythias, Aristotle's daughter, and to take charge of Nicomachus his son.^ Aristotle married the niece of Hermeias, and after her death he had a son Nicomachus by Herpyllis.
  • Ethics of Isocrates, Aristotle, and Diogenes by Sanderson Beck 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.san.beck.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Aristotle married Pythias, a niece of Hermeias, the ruler of Assos.

^ Aristotle's main ethical work, Nicomachaen Ethics , was named after his son Nicomachus, who probably edited it from the lecture course.
  • Ethics of Isocrates, Aristotle, and Diogenes by Sanderson Beck 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.san.beck.org [Source type: Original source]

.Theophrastus is to be one of the executors if he will and can, and if Nicanor should die to act instead, if he will, in reference to Pythias.^ For there is no reason why acts of friendship should not be undertaken partly for the good of one's friend and partly for one's own good.
  • Aristotle's Ethics (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • Aristotle's Ethics (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy/Spring 2004 Edition) 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC stanford.library.usyd.edu.au [Source type: Original source]

^ For there is no reason why acts of friendship should not be undertaken partly for the good of one’s friend and partly for one’s own good.

^ Thus one would judge that one should act in such a way when in fact the appropriate action is different.
  • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

.The executors and Nicanor are to take charge of Herpyllis, " because," in the words of the testator, " she has been good to me," and to allow her to reside either in the lodging by the garden at Chalcis or in the paternal house at Stagira.^ If the Republic takes this identity seriously, as the function argument of Book One does (354a), it says that virtuous activity is good not because it brings about success, but because it is success.
  • Plato's Ethics and Politics in The Republic (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ In other words, it was because the same people who were leading the charge against alcohol were the ones doing most of the talking about women and their role in society.
  • Villainous Company: The Womanliness Project: Nature versus Virtue 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC www.villainouscompany.com [Source type: Original source]

^ For this same reason justice, alone of the virtues, is thought to be 'another's good', because it is related to our neighbour; for it does what is advantageous to another, either a ruler or a copartner.
  • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

.They are to provide for the slaves, who in some cases are to be freed.^ Thus, those who are friendly with each other for reasons of utility do not love each other for themselves but because of some benefit they derive from one another.
  • Aristotle, Nicomachean Ethics [Abridged] 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC records.viu.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ The man of practical wisdom, they sometimes say, cannot be incontinent, while sometimes they say that some who are practically wise and clever are incontinent.
  • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Parties in a law-case aim at establishing the justice or injustice of some action, and they too bring in all other points as subsidiary and relative to this one.
  • TheologyWebsite.com Etext Index: Rhetoric by Aristotle 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.theologywebsite.com [Source type: Original source]

.They are to see after the dedication of four images by Gryllion of Nicanor, Proxenus, Nicanor's mother and Arimnestus.^ It seems to be sufficient for them to see their children prosper and to feel affection for them, even if the children do not render their mother her due, because they do not know her.
  • Mothering and the Sacrifice of Self: Women and Friendship in Aristotle's Nicomachean Ethics | Ward | thirdspace: a journal of feminist theory & culture 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC www.thirdspace.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ In other words, all mothers, to use Aristotle’s terms, give of themselves so that they will be able, in time, to give up their children and see them prosper.
  • Mothering and the Sacrifice of Self: Women and Friendship in Aristotle's Nicomachean Ethics | Ward | thirdspace: a journal of feminist theory & culture 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC www.thirdspace.ca [Source type: Original source]

.They are to dedicate an image of Aristotle's mother, and to see that the bones of his wife Pythias are, as she ordered, taken up and buried with him.^ As I have mentioned previously, Socrates’ proposal that biological mothers give up their children to communal “mothers” in order to unite the city into one “family,” as it were, resembles Aristotle’s praise of mothers who give up their children to others so that their children can prosper, feeling affection for their children even if they do not know her in return.
  • Mothering and the Sacrifice of Self: Women and Friendship in Aristotle's Nicomachean Ethics | Ward | thirdspace: a journal of feminist theory & culture 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC www.thirdspace.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ Aristotle apparently did not see the injustice of slavery but considered slaves as property and children as dependent until they are mature.
  • Ethics of Isocrates, Aristotle, and Diogenes by Sanderson Beck 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.san.beck.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Alexander seeing this, was much grieved for the Dog's death, and greatly amazed at his valor, that he would rather suffer his life, then his courage to be taken from him..."
  • "Natural Magick" - "Glossery/Index - A" 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC homepages.tscnet.com [Source type: Original source]

.On this will we may remark that Proxenus is said to have been Aristotle's guardian after the death of his father, and to have been the father of Nicanor; that Herpyllis of Stagira was the mother of Nicomachus by Aristotle; and that Arimnestus was the brother of Aristotle, who also had a sister, Arimneste.^ Aristotle married the niece of Hermeias, and after her death he had a son Nicomachus by Herpyllis.
  • Ethics of Isocrates, Aristotle, and Diogenes by Sanderson Beck 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.san.beck.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Although one may have many friends who are virtuous, it is practical to have only a few intimate friends, nor can one really be in love with more than one person according to Aristotle.
  • Ethics of Isocrates, Aristotle, and Diogenes by Sanderson Beck 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.san.beck.org [Source type: Original source]

^ We might trace his biological interests to the Academy (see Plato's Timaeus ); he may also have acquired them from his father Nicomachus, who was a doctor.

Every clause breathes the philosopher's humanity.
.II. Development From Platonism Turning now from the man to the philosopher as we know him best in his extant writings (see Aristoteles, ed.^ But if one accepts another man as good, and he turns out badly and is seen to do so, must one still love him?
  • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Dante now sees that the creature has the face of a man, the body of a serpent, and two hairy paws.
  • Inferno Summary at WikiSummaries: Free Book Summaries 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC www.wikisummaries.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Though a man may have many changes of fortune, the best man makes good use of what chance throws at him.
  • Aristotle of Stagira - Nicomachean Ethics - 'Squashed Philosophers' Abridged Edition 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.btinternet.com [Source type: Original source]

.Bekker, Berlin, 1831, the pages of which we use for our quotations), we find, instead of the general dialogues of Plato, special didactic treatises, and a fundamental difference of philosophy, so great as to have divided philosophers into opposite camps, and made Coleridge say that everybody is born either a Platonist or an Aristotelian.^ 'Law' is either special or general.
  • TheologyWebsite.com Etext Index: Rhetoric by Aristotle 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.theologywebsite.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This lesson is familiar from Plato's Socratic dialogues: the philosophical life is best, and if one lacks knowledge, one should prefer to learn from an expert.
  • Plato's Ethics and Politics in The Republic (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Those who say that the victim on the rack or the man who falls into great misfortunes is happy if he is good, are, whether they mean to or not, talking nonsense.
  • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Platonism is the doctrine that the individuals we call things only become, but a thing is always one universal form beyond many individuals, e.g. one good beyond seeming goods; and that.^ He forgot that 'good' is not one single thing.
  • Aristotle of Stagira - Nicomachean Ethics - 'Squashed Philosophers' Abridged Edition 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.btinternet.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Universals, Platonic Forms, mathematics .

^ He says: “it is necessary that friends bear good will to each other and wish good things for each other, without this escaping their notice, because of one of the reasons mentioned” (1156a4-5).
  • Aristotle's Ethics (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

without supernatural forms, which are models of individuals,. there is nothing, no being, no knowing, no good. Aristotelianism. is the contrary doctrine: a thing is always a separate individual, a .substance (obvia), natural such as earth or supernatural such.^ Natural organic 'substances', such as Socrates and this tree, turn out to be not genuine subjects, but mere configurations of the matter that is the real substance.

as .God; and without these individual substances, which have attributes and universals belonging to them, there is nothing, to be, to know, to be good.^ And that all these attributes belong most of all to the philosopher is manifest.
  • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Any good teacher knows how to teach certain topics especially well, but there are few easy ways for them to share that information effectively with others.
  • Edge: "ARISTOTLE " (THE KNOWLEDGE WEB) 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.edge.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the other forms of friendship, however, there is nothing to prevent these sorts of things from occurring.
  • Aristotle, Nicomachean Ethics [Abridged] 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC records.viu.ca [Source type: Original source]

.Philosophic differences are best felt by their practical effects: philosophically, Platonism is a philosophy of universal forms, Aristotelianism a philosophy of individual substances: practically, Plato makes us think first of the supernatural and the kingdom of heaven, Aristotle of the natural and.^ Natural philosophy and cosmology are combined in On the Heavens .

^ Aristotle the philosopher of nature / David Furley -- 2.

^ Universals, Platonic Forms, mathematics .

the whole world.
.So diametrical a difference could not have arisen at once_ For, though Aristotle was different from Plato, and brought with.^ Aristotle believes that there could be many different goals in a human life but all these should be guided by one best end.
  • Nicomachean Ethics 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC www.uri.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ To be sure, we can find in Plato's works important discussions of these phenomena, but they are not brought together and unified as they are in Aristotle's ethical writings.
  • Aristotle's Ethics (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • Aristotle's Ethics (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy/Spring 2004 Edition) 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC stanford.library.usyd.edu.au [Source type: Original source]

^ Guidance will be principally taken from works of Plato, Aristotle, and St. Thomas Aquinas, though some modern and contemporary conceptions of the virtues will be discussed by way of counterpoint.

him from .Stagira a Greek and Ionic but colonial origin, a medical descent and tendency, and a matter-of-fact worldly kind of character, nevertheless on coming to Athens as pupil of Plato he must have begun with his master's philosophy.^ Its methodology must match its subject matter - good action - and must respect the fact that in this field many generalizations hold only for the most part.

^ This is why the activities we exhibit must be of a certain kind; it is because the states of character correspond to the differences between these.
  • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Without this type of complexity, generation would be impossible; since generation in fact occurs, form and matter must be genuine features of generated compounds.
  • Aristotle's Psychology (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

What then in more detail was the philosophy which the pupil learnt from the master? .When Aristotle at the age of eighteen came to Athens, Plato, at the age of sixty-two, had probably written all his dialogues except the Laws; and in the course of the remaining twenty years of his life and teaching, he expounded " the socalled unwritten dogmas " in his lectures on the Good.^ In 367 bc Aristotle came to Athens.

^ When he was eighteen years old, Aristotle went to Athens, where for twenty years he followed the lectures of Plato.
  • History of Philosophy 11 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www2.nd.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ There he studied under Plato , and, after twenty years at the school of Academe, by way of a spell as tutor to the future Alexander the Great, he returned to Athens to found his own school of philosophy at the Lyceum, whose colonnades, the 'peripatos' gave Aristotle's followers their name of the 'Peripatetics'.
  • Aristotle of Stagira - Nicomachean Ethics - 'Squashed Philosophers' Abridged Edition 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.btinternet.com [Source type: Original source]

.There was therefore a written Platonism for Aristotle to read, and an unwritten Platonism which he actually heard.^ Since there was no dogmatic system of 'Platonism', Aristotle was neither a disciple of such a system nor a rebel against it.

^ We saw that there are two kinds of right and wrong conduct towards others, one provided for by written ordinances, the other by unwritten.
  • TheologyWebsite.com Etext Index: Rhetoric by Aristotle 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.theologywebsite.com [Source type: Original source]

To begin with the written philosophy of the Dialogues. .Individual so-called things neither are nor are not, but become: the real thing is always one universal form beyond the many individuals, e.g. the one beautiful beyond all beautiful individuals; and each form (18a) is a model which causes individuals by participation to become like, but not the same as, itself.^ But it is from their likeness and their unlikeness to the same thing that they are thought both to be and not to be friendships.
  • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ On the other hand, he who thinks himself worthy of great things, being unworthy of them, is vain; though not every one who thinks himself worthy of more than he really is worthy of in vain.
  • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Although one may have many friends who are virtuous, it is practical to have only a few intimate friends, nor can one really be in love with more than one person according to Aristotle.
  • Ethics of Isocrates, Aristotle, and Diogenes by Sanderson Beck 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.san.beck.org [Source type: Original source]

.Above all forms stands the form of the good, which is the cause of all other forms being, and through them of all individuals becoming.^ Friendship based on pleasure is similar to this form of friendship, for good people are pleasant to each other.
  • Aristotle, Nicomachean Ethics [Abridged] 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC records.viu.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ Hence the full development of a human being requires concern for the good of others.

^ To show that A deserves to be our ultimate end, one must show that all other goods are best thought of as instruments that promote A in some way or other.
  • Aristotle's Ethics (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • Aristotle’s Ethics 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC stanford.library.usyd.edu.au [Source type: Original source]
  • Aristotle's Ethics (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy/Spring 2004 Edition) 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC stanford.library.usyd.edu.au [Source type: Original source]

.The creator, or the divine intellect, with a view to the form of the good, and taking all forms as models, creates in a receptacle (vir080x i, Plato, Timaeus, 49 A) individual impressions which are called things but really change and become without attaining the permanence of being.^ What belongs in common to the most people is accorded the least care: they take thought for their own things above all, and less about things common, or only so much as falls to each individually.
  • Mothering and the Sacrifice of Self: Women and Friendship in Aristotle's Nicomachean Ethics | Ward | thirdspace: a journal of feminist theory & culture 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC www.thirdspace.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ On the other hand, he who thinks himself worthy of great things, being unworthy of them, is vain; though not every one who thinks himself worthy of more than he really is worthy of in vain.
  • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Most people believe that the best thing they seek in all actions is happiness, conceived as a good life or doing well.
  • Ethics of Isocrates, Aristotle, and Diogenes by Sanderson Beck 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.san.beck.org [Source type: Original source]

.Knowledge resides not in sense but in reason, which, on the suggestion of sensations of changing individuals, apprehends, or (to be precise) is reminded of, real universal forms, and, by first ascending from less to more general until it arrives at the form of good and then descending from this unconditional principle to the less general, becomes science and philosophy, using as its method the dialectic which gives and receives questions and answers between man and man.^ Philosophy is the science of the universal essence o that which is actual .
  • History of Philosophy 11 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www2.nd.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Metaphysics, or first philosophy, is the science of Being as Being .
  • History of Philosophy 11 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www2.nd.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Art, he teaches, is traceable to the spirit of imitation, and consists in the realization in external form of the true idea, -- a realization which is not limited to mere copying, but extends also to the perfecting of the deficiencies of nature by grouping the individual phenomena under the universal type.
  • History of Philosophy 11 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www2.nd.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Happiness in this world consists proximately in virtue as a harmony between the three parts, rational, spirited and appetitive, of our souls, and ultimately in living according to the form of the good; but there is a far higher happiness, when the immortal soul, divesting itself of body and passions and senses, rises from earth to heaven and contemplates pure forms by pure reason.^ (Goods of the soul and of the body are internal.
  • TheologyWebsite.com Etext Index: Rhetoric by Aristotle 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.theologywebsite.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In Aristotle's view, the soul is the form of a living body.

^ It consists in those lifelong activities that actualize the virtues of the rational part of the soul.
  • Aristotle's Ethics (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • Aristotle’s Ethics 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC stanford.library.usyd.edu.au [Source type: Original source]
  • Aristotle's Ethics (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy/Spring 2004 Edition) 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC stanford.library.usyd.edu.au [Source type: Original source]

.Such in brief is the Platonism of the written dialogues; where the main doctrine of forms is confessedly advanced never as a dogma but always as a hypothesis, in which there are difficulties, but without which Plato can explain neither being, nor truth nor goodness, because throughout he denies the being of individual things.^ Thus the truthful man is another case of a man who, being in the mean, is worthy of praise, and both forms of untruthful man are culpable, and particularly the boastful man.
  • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ A human being is a 'political animal', because essential human capacities and aims are completely fulfilled only in a political community; hence (given the connection between the human function and the human good) the individual's happiness must involve the good of fellow members of a community.

^ He says: “it is necessary that friends bear good will to each other and wish good things for each other, without this escaping their notice, because of one of the reasons mentioned” (1156a4-5).
  • Aristotle's Ethics (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

In the unwritten lectures of his old age, he developed this formal into a mathematical metaphysics. .In order to explain the unity and variety of the world, the one universal form and the many individuals, and how the one good is the main cause of everything, he placed as it were at the back of his own doctrine of forms a Pythagorean mathematical philosophy.^ Universals, Platonic Forms, mathematics .

^ The assumption that goodness is unity also explains why mathematics is so important to the ascent to the good (through mathematics an account of the one over the many is learned), why the good is superior to other forms (the good is the unity or coherence of them, and not another alongside them), why the other forms are good (by being part of the unified or coherent order), and why goodness secures the intelligibility of the other forms (they are fully known teleologically).
  • Plato's Ethics and Politics in The Republic (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Starting from the concept of individual human ends ethics turns into a study of how many individual ends are to be achieved within society and what are those ends.
  • Nicomachean Ethics 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC www.uri.edu [Source type: Original source]

.He supposed that the one and the two, which is indeterminate, and is the great s and little, are opposite principles or causes.^ But Socrates later rewords the principle of non-opposition's “same respect” condition as a “same part” condition (439b), which explicitly allows one thing to experience one opposite in one of its parts and another in another.
  • Plato's Ethics and Politics in The Republic (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The most natural way of relating these two articulations of the principle is to suppose that experiencing one opposite in one part and another in another is just one way to experience opposites in different respects.
  • Plato's Ethics and Politics in The Republic (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Hence one term becomes too great, the other too small, as indeed happens in practice; for the man who acts unjustly has too much, and the man who is unjustly treated too little, of what is good.
  • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Identifying the form of the good with the one, he supposed that the one, by combining with the indeterminate two, causes a plurality of forms, which like every combination of one and two are numbers but peculiar in being incommensurate with one another, so that each form is not a mathematical number (pa077pa-1.6s apt°pos), but a formal number (EDBnTLKOS apiepos). Further he supposed that in its turn each form, or formal number, is a limited one which, by combining again with the indeterminate two, causes a plurality of individuals.^ On the other hand, he who thinks himself worthy of great things, being unworthy of them, is vain; though not every one who thinks himself worthy of more than he really is worthy of in vain.
  • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Every man believes that the activity which matches his own characteristic disposition is the best one to choose, and thus the good man choose to act virtuously.
  • Aristotle, Nicomachean Ethics [Abridged] 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC records.viu.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ But if one accepts another man as good, and he turns out badly and is seen to do so, must one still love him?
  • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Hence finally he concluded that the good as the one combining with the indeterminate two is directly the cause of all forms as formal numbers, and indirectly through them all of the multitude of individuals in the world.^ The good life for a human being must be good for a being with the essential activity of a human being; hence it must be a good life guided by practical reason, and hence it must be a life in accordance with the virtue ( aret ) that is needed for achieving one's good.

^ To show that A deserves to be our ultimate end, one must show that all other goods are best thought of as instruments that promote A in some way or other.
  • Aristotle's Ethics (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • Aristotle’s Ethics 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC stanford.library.usyd.edu.au [Source type: Original source]
  • Aristotle's Ethics (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy/Spring 2004 Edition) 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC stanford.library.usyd.edu.au [Source type: Original source]

^ All goods must therefore be measured by some one thing, as we said before.
  • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Aristotle knew Plato, was present at his lectures on the Good, wrote a report of them (7rEpi Ta yaBoii), and described this latter philosophy of Plato in his Metaphysics. Modern critics, who were not present and knew neither, often accuse Aristotle of misrepresenting Plato.^ The challenge that Glaucon and Adeimantus present has baffled modern readers who are accustomed to carving up ethics into deontologies that articulate a theory of what is right independent of what is good and consequentialisms that define what is right in terms of what promotes the good.
  • Plato's Ethics and Politics in The Republic (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Aristotle often contrasts the form with the compound of form and matter, and describes particulars as compounds; hence he apparently does not regard particulars as forms.

^ Those who are defective in character may have the rational skill needed to achieve their ends -- the skill Aristotle calls cleverness (1144a23-8) -- but often the ends they seek are worthless.

But Heracleides and Hestiacus, Speusippus and Xenocrates were also present and wrote similar reports. .What is more, both Speusippus and Xenocrates founded their own philosophies on this very Pythagoreanism of Plato.^ These names, both loss and gain, have come from voluntary exchange; for to have more than one's own is called gaining, and to have less than one's original share is called losing, e.g.
  • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ These theories form a tradition going back to Plato and Aristotle leading up to the (in some ways very different) concerns of recent philosophy.
  • LPSG Ethics 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC www.ucl.ac.uk [Source type: Academic]

^ Aristotle is, however, more inclined than Plato was to attach a theoretical value to philosophy.
  • History of Philosophy 11 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www2.nd.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Speusippus as president of the Academy from 347 to 339 taught that the one and the many are principles, while abolishing forms and reducing the good from cause to effect.^ For men are good in but one way, but bad in many.
  • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Yet there are many ways to fail, but only one way to succeed, for evil, as Pythagoras taught, is limitless, while good is limited.
  • Aristotle of Stagira - Nicomachean Ethics - 'Squashed Philosophers' Abridged Edition 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.btinternet.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Internal conflict will make one less of a good person because one's reason isn't capable of consistently causing one to do what is right.
  • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Xenocrates as president from 339 onwards taught that the one and many are principles, only without distinguishing mathematical from formal numbers.^ Although one may have many friends who are virtuous, it is practical to have only a few intimate friends, nor can one really be in love with more than one person according to Aristotle.
  • Ethics of Isocrates, Aristotle, and Diogenes by Sanderson Beck 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.san.beck.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Yet there are many ways to fail, but only one way to succeed, for evil, as Pythagoras taught, is limitless, while good is limited.
  • Aristotle of Stagira - Nicomachean Ethics - 'Squashed Philosophers' Abridged Edition 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.btinternet.com [Source type: Original source]

^ But as regards good friends, should we have as many as possible, or is there a limit to the number of one's friends, as there is to the size of a city?
  • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Aristotle's critics hardly realize that for the rest of his life he had to live and to struggle with a formal and a mathematical Platonism, which exaggerated first universals and attributes and afterwards the quantitative attributes, one and many, into substantial things and real causes.^ Universals, Platonic Forms, mathematics .

^ On the other hand, he who thinks himself worthy of great things, being unworthy of them, is vain; though not every one who thinks himself worthy of more than he really is worthy of in vain.
  • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The first is straightforward: psychology considers all animate entities, and the nutritive soul belongs to all naturally living things, since it is “the first and most common capacity of soul, in virtue of which life belongs to all living things” ( De Anima ii 4, 415a24-25).
  • Aristotle's Psychology (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

Aristotle had no sympathy with the unwritten dogmas of Plato. .But with the written dialogues of Plato he always continued to agree almost as much as he disagreed.^ Although Aristotle agreed with his teacher Plato that poetry and drama are imitations, he disagreed in finding redeeming value for these arts and did not wish to censor or ban them.
  • Ethics of Isocrates, Aristotle, and Diogenes by Sanderson Beck 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.san.beck.org [Source type: Original source]

.Like Plato, he believed in real Universals, real essences, real causes; he believed in the unity of the universal, and in the immateriality of essences; he believed in the good, and that there is a good of the universe; he believed that God is a living being, eternal and best, who is a supernatural cause of the motions and changes of the natural world, and that essences and matter are also necessary causes; he believed in the divine intelligence and in the immortality of our intelligent souls; he believed in knowledge going from sense to reason, that science requires ascent to principles and is descent from principles, and that dialectic is useful to science; he believed in happiness involving virtue, and in moral virtue being a control of passions by reason, while the highest happiness is speculative wisdom.^ He defined wisdom as knowledge of principles and causes.
  • Ethics of Isocrates, Aristotle, and Diogenes by Sanderson Beck 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.san.beck.org [Source type: Original source]

^ What does this principle really involve?
  • LPSG Ethics 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC www.ucl.ac.uk [Source type: Academic]

^ But goodness itself, the Good, transcends the natural world; it is a supernatural property.
  • Plato's Ethics and Politics in The Republic (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

.All these inspiring metaphysical and moral doctrines the pupil accepted from his master's dialogues, and throughout his life adhered to the general spirit of realism without materialism pervading the Platonic philosophy.^ (For further reading about issues concerning truth and realism in general see the relevant sections under Logic & Metaphysics .
  • LPSG Ethics 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC www.ucl.ac.uk [Source type: Academic]

^ The neighboring presence of Islam had an enduring influence on medieval Christian theology, philosophy, medical knowledge, literature, culture, imagination, art, and material life.

^ The class works through the generally accepted theories for resolving moral and ethical conflicts.

.But what he refused to believe with Plato was that reality is not here, but only above; and what he maintained against Plato was that it is both, and that universals and forms, one and many, the good, are real but not separate realities.^ Yet they do not form a single overarching good (as Plato believed).
  • Nicomachean Ethics 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC www.uri.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The denial of separation in (1) allows the reality of universals.

^ Plato believes that good is an absolute.
  • philosophy of ethics - papers 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC www.ethicspapers.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

This deep metaphysical divergence was the prime cause of the transition from Platonism to Aristotelianism.
Table of contents

Fragmenta Aristotelis

.Aristotle's originality soon asserted itself in early writings, of which fragments have come down to us, and have been collected by Rose (see the Berlin edition of Aristotle's works, or more readily in the Teubner series, which we shall use for our quotations).^ Aristotle then uses all these forms of feedback to adjust the lesson, and in the process it learns more about you.
  • Edge: "ARISTOTLE " (THE KNOWLEDGE WEB) 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.edge.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When these have been studied we shall perhaps be more likely to see with a comprehensive view, which constitution is best, and how each must be ordered, and what laws and customs it must use, if it is to be at its best.
  • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Aristotle infers that contemplation is the happiest life available to us, in so far as we have the rational intellects we share with gods (see §16).

.Many, no doubt, are spurious; but some are genuine, and a few perhaps cited in Aristotle's extant works.^ Although one may have many friends who are virtuous, it is practical to have only a few intimate friends, nor can one really be in love with more than one person according to Aristotle.
  • Ethics of Isocrates, Aristotle, and Diogenes by Sanderson Beck 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.san.beck.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Aristotle's account of causation and explanation is expressed in the content and argument of many of his biological works (including those connected with psychology).

^ Aristotle was aware that some people believed there is no difference in the nature of slaves and that as a form of rule based on force it is wrong.
  • Ethics of Isocrates, Aristotle, and Diogenes by Sanderson Beck 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.san.beck.org [Source type: Original source]

Some are dialogues, others didactic works. .A special interest attaches to the dialogues written after the manner of Plato but with Aristotle as principal interlocutor; and some of these,
e.g.^ Read in this way, Aristotle is engaged in a project similar in some respects to the one Plato carried out in the Republic .
  • Aristotle's Ethics (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • Aristotle’s Ethics 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC stanford.library.usyd.edu.au [Source type: Original source]

^ The Magna Moralia is widely agreed not to have been written by Aristotle; some believe, with good reason, that it contains a student's notes on an early course of lectures by Aristotle.

^ Some areas of inquiry in which Aristotle makes a fundamental contribution are these: .

the 7repi 7roL7)Trov and the Eudemus, seem to have been published. .It is not always certain which were dialogues, which didactic like Aristotle's later works; but by comparing those which were certainly dialogues with their companions in the list of Aristotle's books as given by Diogenes Laertius, we may conclude with Bernays that the books occurring first in that list were dialogues.^ The section numbers are no part of Aristotle's work, but the addition of later editors; we have followed the system of Hugh Tredennick's 1976 revision of the Thompson translation, but corrected a minor misnumbering in book four.
  • Aristotle of Stagira - Nicomachean Ethics - 'Squashed Philosophers' Abridged Edition 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.btinternet.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Aristotle's account of causation and explanation is expressed in the content and argument of many of his biological works (including those connected with psychology).

^ The answer to this question may be that Aristotle does not intend Book VI to provide a full answer to that question, but rather to serve as a prolegomenon to an answer.
  • Aristotle's Ethics (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • Aristotle’s Ethics 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC stanford.library.usyd.edu.au [Source type: Original source]
  • Aristotle's Ethics (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy/Spring 2004 Edition) 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC stanford.library.usyd.edu.au [Source type: Original source]

Hence we may perhaps accept as genuine the following: - 1. Dialogues: 7repi BLKacocruvrls: On justice.
7rEpi 7roorraw: On poets (perhaps cited in Poetics, 15, 1 454 b Tols Ek6e50/2 Poi.S X670L3).
.7repi aXoaoOlas: On philosophy (perhaps cited in Physics, ii.^ II. PHILOSOPHY OF SCIENCE Return to Top (A) General and Miscellaneous Bolton, R. “Aristotle’s Method in Natural Science: Physics I.” [Judson].

2, 1 94 a 35-36).
irEpi 7roX LTLKoi: A politician.
7rEpi prITOpLKa?S ij Fpt »Xos: On rhetoric.
.7rpoTpE7rTLKOS: An exhortation to philosophy (probably in dialogue, because it is the model of Cicero's dialogue Hortensius). Ei uos ij 7rEpi. 'Yvxijs: On soul (perhaps cited Anima, 1.4, 407 b 29, Kai Tols Ev yEVOIAPOLS 2. Didactic writings: (1) Metaphysical: - rep: TayaBou: On the good (probably not a dialogue but a report of Plato's lectures).^ In this lecture course we will explore these questions about the nature of obligation through the writings of Plato, Cicero, Maimonides, and Kant.

^ But he rejects Plato's idea that a training in the sciences and metaphysics is a necessary prerequisite for a full understanding of our good.
  • Aristotle's Ethics (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ (It also comports with the evidence concerning Plato's lecture on the good (e.g., Aristoxenus, Elementa Harmonica II 1; cf.
  • Plato's Ethics and Politics in The Republic (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

7rEpi iBEC:ov: On forms.
(2) Political: 7rEpi 13acLX€Las: On monarchy.
'AX avapos i) &w p On colonies.
in De T42(vn]s Quvayceyri: The Theodectea (cited in the Preface to the Rhetoric to Alexander (chap. i.), and as Ta in the Rhetoric (iii. 9, 1410 b 2), TEXvWV vuvayoryrl: A historical collection of arts of rhetoric.
.Difficult as it is to determine when Aristotle wrote all these various works, some of them indicate their dates.^ Aristotle then uses all these forms of feedback to adjust the lesson, and in the process it learns more about you.
  • Edge: "ARISTOTLE " (THE KNOWLEDGE WEB) 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.edge.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If Aristotle did have such cognitive abilities, then Aristotle could simply teach *itself* all these scholarly achievements, 24-7-365, at broadband speed.
  • Edge: "ARISTOTLE " (THE KNOWLEDGE WEB) 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.edge.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Averroes composed 38 treatises on the various works of Aristotle , as well as original tracts on astronomy, physics, and medicine.
  • "Natural Magick" - "Glossery/Index - A" 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC homepages.tscnet.com [Source type: Original source]

.Gryllus, celebrated in the dialogue on rhetoric, was Xenophon's son who fell at Mantineia in 362; and Eudemus of Cyprus, lamented in the dialogue on soul, died in Sicily in 352. These then were probably written before Plato died in 3 47; and so probably were most of the dialogues, precisely because they were imitations of the dialogues of Plato.^ Aristotle's main ethical work, Nicomachaen Ethics , was named after his son Nicomachus, who probably edited it from the lecture course.
  • Ethics of Isocrates, Aristotle, and Diogenes by Sanderson Beck 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.san.beck.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Although these individuals have not yet died on Earth, their crimes were so great that their souls were obliged to enter Hell before their time; devils occupy their living bodies aboveground.
  • Inferno Summary at WikiSummaries: Free Book Summaries 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC www.wikisummaries.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Those who wish good things to their friends for the sake of the latter are friends most of all, because they do so because of their friends themselves, and not coincidentally” (1156b9-11).
  • Aristotle's Ethics (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Among the didactic writings, the 7rEpi TayaOoii would probably belong to the same time, because it was Aristotle's report of Plato's lectures.^ Judged on the basis of their content, Aristotle's most important psychological writings probably belong to his second residence in Athens, and so to his most mature period.
  • Aristotle's Psychology (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ It would, however, be a serious mistake to represent Aristotle as reducing all reality to form, and ending as Plato had begun, with the doctrine of monism.
  • History of Philosophy 11 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www2.nd.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Were someone to combine both careers, practicing politics at certain times and engaged in philosophical discussion at other times (as Plato's philosopher-kings do), he would lead a life better than that of Aristotle's politician, but worse than that of Aristotle's philosopher.
  • Aristotle's Ethics (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • Aristotle's Ethics (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy/Spring 2004 Edition) 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC stanford.library.usyd.edu.au [Source type: Original source]

.On the other hand, the two political works, if written for Alexander, would be after 343-34 2 when Philip made Aristotle his tutor.^ In 343 he was summoned by Philip of Macedon to become the tutor of Alexander, who was then in his thirteenth year.
  • History of Philosophy 11 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www2.nd.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The state of the art in AI, learning theory, epistemology and other relevant areas is far short of what is needed to make an artificial tutor that will be smart enough to warrant the trust that would justify entering the kind of relationship Danny evokes in his reference to Alexander and Aristotle.
  • Edge: "ARISTOTLE " (THE KNOWLEDGE WEB) 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.edge.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ashes, or dry earth that has just been quarried, would share one color with his robe, and from beneath that robe he drew two keys; the one was made of gold, the other was of silver; first with the white, then with the yellow key, he plied the gate so as to satisfy me."
  • Inferno Summary at WikiSummaries: Free Book Summaries 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC www.wikisummaries.org [Source type: Original source]

.So probably were the rhetorical works, especially the Theodectea; since both politics and oratory were the subjects which the father wanted the tutor to teach his son, and, when Alexander came to Phaselis, he is said by Plutarch (Alexander, 17) to have decorated the statue of Theodectes in honour of his association with the man through Aristotle and philosophy.^ Aristotle argues that if we are to signify a subject, it is impossible for each of its properties both to belong and not to belong to it.

^ Ethics and International Relations explores diverse international issues through normative political philosophy and case studies.

^ Now we have said generally that he will associate with people in the right way; but it is by reference to what is honourable and expedient that he will aim at not giving pain or at contributing pleasure.
  • Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 9 February 2010 15:36 UTC philosophy.csusb.edu [Source type: Original source]

.On the whole, then, it seems as