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State of Arizona
Flag of Arizona State seal of Arizona
Flag Seal
Nickname(s): The Grand Canyon State;
The Copper State
Motto(s): Ditat Deus
before statehood, known as
the Arizona Territory
Map of the United States with Arizona highlighted
Official language(s) English
Spoken language(s) English 74.1%,
Spanish 19.5%,
Navajo 1.9%
Demonym Arizonan, Arizonian[1]
Capital Phoenix
Largest city Phoenix
Largest metro area Phoenix Metropolitan Area
Area  Ranked 6th in the US
 - Total 113,998 sq mi
(295,254 km2)
 - Width 310 miles (500 km)
 - Length 400 miles (645 km)
 - % water 0.32
 - Latitude 31° 20′ N to 37° N
 - Longitude 109° 3′ W to 114° 49′ W
Population  Ranked 15th in the US
 - Total 6,595,778 (2009 est.)[2]
 - Density 55.8/sq mi  (21.54/km2)
Ranked 33rd in the US
Elevation  
 - Highest point Humphreys Peak[3]
12,637 ft  (3,851 m)
 - Mean 4,100 ft  (1,250 m)
 - Lowest point Colorado River[3]
70 ft  (22 m)
Admission to Union  February 14, 1912 (48th)
Governor Jan Brewer (R)
Lieutenant Governor None[4]
U.S. Senators John McCain (R)
Jon Kyl (R)
U.S. House delegation 5 Democrats, 3 Republicans (list)
Time zones  
 - Most of State Mountain: UTC-7
 - Navajo Nation Mountain: UTC-7/-6
Abbreviations AZ Ariz. US-AZ
Website http://www.az.gov
Arizona State Symbols
Flag of Arizona.svg
The Flag of Arizona.

Animate insignia
Amphibian Arizona Tree Frog
Bird(s) Cactus Wren
Butterfly Two-tailed Swallowtail
Fish Apache trout
Flower(s) Saguaro Cactus blossom
Mammal(s) Ring-tailed Cat
Reptile Arizona Ridge-Nosed Rattlesnake
Tree Palo verde

Inanimate insignia
Colors Blue, Old Gold
Fossil Petrified wood
Gemstone Turquoise
Mineral Fire Agate
Rock Petrified wood
Ship(s) USS Arizona
Slogan(s) The Grand Canyon State
Soil Casa Grande
Song(s) Arizona, Arizona March Song

Route marker(s)
Arizona Route Marker

State Quarter
Quarter of Arizona
Released in 2008

Lists of United States state insignia

The State of Arizona (Listeni /ærɪˈznə/) is a state located in the southwestern region of the United States. The capital and largest city is Phoenix. The second largest city is Tucson, followed in size by the four Phoenix metropolitan area cities of Mesa, Glendale, Chandler, and Scottsdale.

Arizona was the 48th and last of the contiguous states, admitted to the Union in February, 1912, the 50th anniversary of Arizona's recognition as a territory of the United States.[5] Arizona is noted for its desert climate, exceptionally hot summers, and mild winters, but the high country in the north features pine forests and mountain ranges with cooler weather than the lower deserts. Population figures for the year ending July 1, 2006, indicate that Arizona was, at that time, the fastest growing state in the United States in regards to its population, exceeding the growth of the previous leader, Nevada, and is currently the second. Arizona has had more female governors than any other U.S. state.

Arizona is one of the Four Corners states. It borders New Mexico, Utah, Nevada, California, touches Colorado, and has a 389-mile (626 km) international border with the states of Sonora and Baja California in Mexico. Because of its strong association with Southern California, it is sometimes considered a part of the West Coast region, despite not having a coastline. It is the largest landlocked US State by population. In addition to the Grand Canyon, many other national forests, parks, monuments, and Indian reservations are located in the state.

Contents

Geography

Littlefield located outside the Virgin River Gorge is an isolated community in the Mojave Desert.
See also lists of counties, rivers, lakes, state parks, National Parks and National Forests.

Arizona is located in the western United States as one of the Four Corners states. Arizona is the sixth largest state in area, after New Mexico and before Nevada. Of the state's 113,998 square miles (295,000 km2), approximately 15% is privately owned. The remaining area is public forest and park land, state trust land and Native American reservations.

Arizona is best known for its desert landscape, which is rich in xerophyte plants such as the cactus. It is also known for its climate, which presents exceptionally hot summers and mild winters. Less well known is the pine-covered high country of the Colorado Plateau in the north-central portion of the state, which contrasts with the desert Basin and Range region in the southern portions of the state.

View from Mogollon Rim

Like other states of the Southwest, Arizona has an abundance of topographical characteristics in addition to its desert climate. Mountains and plateaus are found in more than half of the state. Despite the state's aridity, 27% of Arizona is forest [6], a percentage comparable to modern day France or Germany. The largest stand in the world of Ponderosa pine trees is contained in Arizona.[7] The Mogollon Rim, a 1,998 feet (609 m) escarpment, cuts across the central section of the state and marks the southwestern edge of the Colorado Plateau, where the state experienced its worst forest fire ever in 2002. Arizona belongs firmly within the Basin and Range region of North America. The region was shaped by prehistoric volcanism, followed by a cooling-off and related subsidence. The entire region is slowly sinking.

The Grand Canyon is a colorful, steep-sided gorge, carved by the Colorado River, in northern Arizona. The canyon is one of the seven natural wonders of the world and is largely contained in the Grand Canyon National Park—one of the first national parks in the United States. President Theodore Roosevelt was a major proponent of designating the Grand Canyon area, visiting on numerous occasions to hunt mountain lion and enjoy the scenery. The canyon was created by the Colorado River cutting a channel over millions of years, and is about 277 miles (446 km) long, ranges in width from 4 to 18 miles (6 to 29 km) and attains a depth of more than 1 mile (1.6 km). Nearly 2 billion years of the Earth's history have been exposed as the Colorado River and its tributaries cut through layer after layer of sediment as the Colorado Plateaus have uplifted.

Arizona is home to one of the most well-preserved meteorite impact sites in the world. The Barringer Meteorite Crater (better known simply as "Meteor Crater") is a gigantic hole in the middle of the high plains of the Colorado Plateau, about 25 miles (40 km) west of Winslow. A rim of smashed and jumbled boulders, some of them the size of small houses, rises 150 feet (46 m) above the level of the surrounding plain. The crater itself is nearly a mile wide, and 570 feet (170 m) deep.

Arizona does not observe Daylight Saving Time, except in the Navajo Nation, located in the northeastern region of the state.

Climate

Due to its large area and variations in elevation the state has a wide variety of localized climate conditions. In the lower elevations, the climate is primarily desert, with mild winters and hot summers. Typically, from late fall to early spring, the weather is mild, averaging a minimum of 60 °F (16 °C). November through February are the coldest months with temperatures typically ranging from 40–75 °F (4–24 °C), although occasional frosts are not uncommon. About midway through February, the temperatures start to rise again with warm days, and cool breezy nights. The summer months of June through September bring a dry heat ranging from 90–120 °F (32–49 °C), with occasional high temperatures exceeding 125 °F (52 °C) having been observed in the desert area.

Due to the primarily dry climate, large temperature swings often occur between day and night in less developed areas of the desert. The swings can be as large as 50 °F (28 °C) in the summer months. In the state's urban centers, the effects of local warming result in much higher measured nighttime lows than in the recent past.

Arizona has an average annual rainfall of 12.7 inches (323 mm),[8] which comes during two rainy seasons, with cold fronts coming from the Pacific Ocean during the winter and a monsoon in the summer.[9] The monsoon season occurs towards the end of summer. In July or August, the dewpoint rises dramatically for a brief period. During this time, the air contains large amounts of water vapor. Dewpoints as high as 81°F (27 °C)[10] have been recorded during the Phoenix monsoon season. This hot moisture brings lightning, thunderstorms, wind, and torrential, if usually brief, downpours. It is rare for tornadoes and hurricanes to occur in Arizona, but there are records of both occurring.

However, the northern third of Arizona is a plateau at significantly higher altitudes than the lower desert, and has an appreciably cooler climate, with cold winters and mild summers. Extreme cold temperatures are not unknown; cold air systems from the northern states and Canada occasionally push into the state, bringing temperatures below 0 °F (−18 °C) to the Northern parts of the state.

Indicative of the variation in climate, Arizona is the state which has both the metropolitan area with the most days over 100 °F (38 °C) (Phoenix), and the metropolitan area in the lower 48 states with nearly the most days with a low temperature below freezing (Flagstaff).[11]

History

The North Rim of the Grand Canyon

There is some disagreement over the proper etymology of the name "Arizona." Possible origins supported by historians are the Basque phrase aritz ona, "good oak,"[12][13][14] and the O'odham phrase alĭ ṣonak, "small spring".[15] The Basque etymology is the one preferred by Arizona state historian Marshall Trimble, among other specialists. The name Arizonac was initially applied to the area near the silver mining camp of Planchas de Plata, Sonora, and later (shortened to Arizona) to the entire territory.

Marcos de Niza, a Spanish Franciscan, explored the area in 1539 and met its original native inhabitants, probably the Sobaipuri. The expedition of Spanish explorer Coronado entered the area in 1540–42 during its search for Cíbola. Society of Jesus Father Kino developed a chain of missions and taught the Indians Christianity in Pimería Alta (now southern Arizona and northern Sonora) in the 1690s and early 1700s. Spain founded presidios (fortified towns) at Tubac in 1752 and Tucson in 1775. When Mexico achieved its independence from Spain in 1821, what is now Arizona became part of the Mexican Territory Nueva California, also known as Alta California.[16] In the Mexican–American War (1847), the U.S. occupied Mexico City and forced the newly founded Mexican Republic to give up its northern territories, including what later became Arizona. The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo (1848) specified that the sum of $15 million US dollars in compensation (equivalent to about $376 million in present day terms[17]) be paid to the newly formed Republic of Mexico.[18] In 1853 the land below the Gila River was acquired from Mexico in the Gadsden Purchase. Arizona was administered as part of the Territory of New Mexico until southern New Mexico seceded[19] from the Union as the Confederate Territory of Arizona on March 16, 1861. Arizona was recognized as a Confederate Territory by presidential proclamation of Jefferson Davis on February 12, 1862. This is the first official use of the name. A new Arizona Territory, consisting of the western half of New Mexico Territory was declared in Washington, D.C. on February 24, 1863. The new boundaries would later form the basis of the state.

Other names including "Gadsonia", "Pimeria", "Montezuma", "Arizuma", and "Arizonia" had been considered for the territory,[20] however when President Lincoln signed the final bill, it read "Arizona", and the name became permanent. (Montezuma was not the Aztec Emperor, but the sacred name of a divine hero to the Pueblo people of the Gila valley, and was probably considered—and rejected—for its sentimental value before the name "Arizona" was settled upon.)

Brigham Young sent Mormons to Arizona in the mid-to-late 19th century. They founded Mesa, Snowflake, Heber, Safford and other towns. They also settled in the Phoenix Valley (or "Valley of the Sun"), Tempe, Prescott, among other areas. The Mormons settled what became known as Northern Arizona and northern New Mexico, but these areas were located in a part of the former New Mexico Territory.

During the Mexican Revolution from 1910 to 1920, a few battles were fought in the Mexican towns just across the border from Arizona border settlements. Throughout the revolution, Arizonans were enlisting in one of the several armies fighting in Mexico. The Battle of Ambos Nogales in 1918, other than Pancho Villa's 1916 Columbus Raid in New Mexico, was the only significant engagement on US soil between United States and Mexican forces. The battle resulted in an American victory. After US soldiers were fired on by Mexican Federal troops, the American garrison then launched an assault into Nogales Mexico. The Mexicans eventually surrendered after both sides sustained heavy casualties. A few months earlier, just west of Nogales, an Indian War battle occurred, thus being the last engagement in the American Indian Wars which lasted from 1775 to 1918. The participants in the fight were US soldiers stationed on the border and Yaqui Indians who were using Arizona as a base to raid the nearby Mexican settlements, as part of their wars against Mexico. As World War I raged in Europe, Frank Luke became America's 2nd best ace. Frank was born in Phoenix Arizona and was killed in combat over France in 1918.[citation needed]

Arizona became a U.S. state on February 14, 1912. The major result being the end to the territorial colonization of Continental America. Arizona was the 48th state admitted into the U.S. and the last of the contiguous states to be admitted. The admission, originally scheduled to coincide with that of New Mexico, was delayed by Democrats in the territorial legislature to commemorate the 50th anniversary of Arizona becoming a Confederate territory in 1862.[21]

A sunset in the Arizona desert near Scottsdale. The climate and imagery are two factors behind Arizona's tourism industry.

Cotton farming and copper mining, two of Arizona's most important statewide industries, suffered heavily during the Great Depression, but it was during the 1920s and 1930s that tourism began to be the important Arizona industry it is today. Dude ranches such as the K L Bar and Remuda in Wickenburg, along with the Flying V and Tanque Verde in Tucson, gave tourists the chance to experience the flavor and life of the "old West." Several upscale hotels and resorts opened during this period, some of which are still top tourist draws to this day; they include the Arizona Biltmore Hotel in central Phoenix (opened 1929) and the Wigwam Resort on the west side of the Phoenix area (opened 1936).

Arizona was the site of German and Italian POW camps during World War II and Japanese US-resident internment camps. The camps were abolished after World War II. The Phoenix area site was purchased after the war by the Maytag family (of major home appliance fame), and is currently utilized as the Phoenix Zoo. A Japanese American internment camp was located on Mount Lemmon, just outside of the state's southeastern city of Tucson. Another POW camp was located near the Gila River in eastern Yuma County. Because of wartime fears of Japanese invasion of the west coast, and all Japanese residents in western Arizona were required to reside in the war camps. Grand Avenue, a major thoroughfare in the Phoenix area and part of U.S. 60, was chosen as part of the boundary.[citation needed] This resulted in many extended Japanese families becoming separated; some were interned, some free—and some free families, in an odd bid for family unity, requested to be interned in order to be with their families at a camp built by the original Del Webb Co., a modern manufacturer of large housing developments.[citation needed]

Arizona was also home to the Phoenix Indian School, one of several federal institutions designed to assimilate native children into mainstream culture. Children were often enrolled into these schools against the wishes of their parents and families. Attempts to suppress native identities included forcing the children to cut their hair and take on western names.[22]

Arizona's population grew tremendously after World War II, in part because of the development of air conditioning, which made the intense summers more comfortable. According to the Arizona Blue Book (published by the Secretary of State's office each year), the state population in 1910 was 294,353. By 1970, it was 1,752,122. The percentage growth each decade averaged about 20% in the earlier decades and about 60% each decade thereafter.

The 1960s saw the establishment of retirement communities, special age-restricted subdivisions catering exclusively to the needs of senior citizens who wanted to escape the harsh winters of the Midwest and the Northeast. Sun City, established by developer Del Webb and opened in 1960, was one of the first such communities. Green Valley, south of Tucson, was another such community and was designed to be a retirement subdivision for Arizona's teachers. (Many senior citizens arrive in Arizona each winter and stay only during the winter months; they are referred to as snowbirds.)

In March 2000, Arizona was the site of the first legally binding election to nominate a candidate for public office ever held over the internet. In the 2000 Arizona Democratic Primary, under worldwide attention, Al Gore defeated Bill Bradley, and voter turnout increased more than 500% over the 1996 primary.

Three ships named USS Arizona have been christened in honor of the state, although only USS Arizona (BB-39) was so named after statehood was achieved.

Demographics

View of suburban development in Phoenix metropolitan area.

Until the latter half of the 19th century, almost all of central and northern Arizona remained sparsely settled. At the time of Arizona’s acquisition by the United States in 1848, fewer than 1,000 people of Hispanic origin lived in Arizona.[23] The 1860 census reported the population of "Arizona County" to be 6,482, of whom 4,040 were listed as "Indians", 21 as "free colored" and 2,421 as "white".[24] As of 2006, Arizona had an estimated population of 6,166,318.[25] Arizona's continued population growth is putting an enormous stress on the state's water supplies.[26]

The population of the Phoenix metropolitan area increased by 45.3% from 1991 through 2001, helping to make Arizona the second fastest growing state in the nation in the 1990s (the fastest was Nevada).[27] Currently the population of the Phoenix metropolitan area is estimated to be over 4.3 million.

According to the 2005-2007 American Community Survey conducted by the U.S. Census Bureau, White Americans made up 76.4% of Arizona's population; of which 59.6% were non-Hispanic whites. Hispanics and Latinos (of any race) made up 29.0% of Arizona's population.[28]

Religion

According to a 2007 survey conducted by The Pew Forum, the religious affiliation of the People of Arizona are:[29]

Economy

The 2006 total gross state product was $232 billion. If Arizona (and each of the other US states) were an independent country along with all existing countries (2005), it would have the 61st largest economy in the world (CIA - The World Factbook). This figure gives Arizona a larger economy than such countries as Ireland, Finland, and New Zealand. Arizona currently has the 21st largest economy among states in the United States. As a percentage of its overall budget, Arizona's projected 1.7 billion deficit for '09 is one of the largest in the country, behind such states as California, Michigan, and Florida, to name a few.[30]

The state's per capita income is $27,232, 39th in the U.S. Arizona had a median household income of $46,693 making it 27th in the country and just shy of the US national median. Early in its history, Arizona's economy relied on the "Five C's": copper (see Copper mining in Arizona), cotton, cattle, citrus, and climate (tourism). At one point Arizona was the largest producer of cotton in the country. Copper is still extensively mined from many expansive open-pit and underground mines, accounting for two-thirds of the nation's output.

Employment

The state government is Arizona's largest employer, while Wal-Mart is the state's largest private employer, with 17,343 employees (2008).

Taxation

Arizona collects personal income taxes in five brackets: 2.87%, 3.20%, 3.74%, 4.72% and 5.04%. The 'sales tax' is generally around 6.3%.

The state rate on transient lodging (hotel/motel) is 7.27%. The state of Arizona does not levy a state tax on food for home consumption or on drugs prescribed by a licensed physician or dentist. However, some cities in Arizona do levy a tax on food for home consumption.

All fifteen Arizona counties levy a tax. Incorporated municipalities also levy transaction privilege taxes which, with the exception of their hotel/motel tax, are generally in the range of 1-to-3%. These added assessments could push the combined sales tax rate to as high as 10.7%.

Single Tax Rate Joint Tax Rate
0 – $10,000 2.870% 0 – $20,000 2.870%
$10,000 – $25,000 3.200% $20,001 – $50,000 3.200%
$25,000 – $50,000 3.740% $50,001 – $100,000 3.740%
$50,000 – $150,001 4.720% $100,000 – $300,001 4.720%
$150,001 + 5.040% $300,001 + 5.040%

Transportation

Entering Arizona on I-10 from New Mexico

Highways

Interstate Highways

I-8 (AZ).svg Interstate 8 | I-10 (AZ).svg Interstate 10 | I-15 (AZ).svg Interstate 15 | I-17 (AZ).svg Interstate 17 | I-19 (AZ).svg Interstate 19 | I-40 (AZ).svg Interstate 40

U.S. Routes

US 60.svg U.S. Route 60 | US 64.svg U.S. Route 64 | US 70.svg U.S. Route 70 | US 89.svg U.S. Route 89 | US 66.svg U.S. Route 66

US 91.svg U.S. Route 91 | US 93.svg U.S. Route 93 | US 95.svg U.S. Route 95 | US 160.svg U.S. Route 160 | US 163.svg U.S. Route 163

US 180.svg U.S. Route 180 | US 191.svg U.S. Route 191 | US 466.svg U.S. Route 466 | US 491.svg U.S. Route 491

Main interstate routes include Interstate 17, and Interstate 19 running north-south, Interstate 40, Interstate 8, and Interstate 10 running east-west, and a short stretch of Interstate 15 running northeast/southwest through the extreme northwestern corner of the state. In addition, the various urban areas are served by complex networks of state routes and highways, such as the Loop 101, which is part of Phoenix's vast freeway system.

Public transportation and intercity bus

The Phoenix and Tucson metropolitan areas are served by public bus transit systems. Yuma and Flagstaff also have public bus systems. Greyhound Lines serves Phoenix, Tucson, Flagstaff, Yuma, and several smaller communities statewide.

A light rail system called Valley Metro Rail has recently been completed in Phoenix; it connects Central Phoenix with the nearby cities of Mesa and Tempe. The system officially opened for service in December 2008.

In May 2006, voters in Tucson approved a Regional Transportation Plan (a comprehensive bus transit/streetcar/roadway improvement program), and its funding via a new half-cent sales tax increment. The centerpiece of the plan is a light rail streetcar system (possibly similar to the Portland Streetcar in Oregon) that will travel through the downtown area, connecting the main University of Arizona campus with the Rio Nuevo master plan area on the western edge of downtown.[31]

Aviation

Airports with regularly scheduled commercial flights include: Phoenix Sky Harbor International Airport (IATA: PHX, ICAO: KPHX) in Phoenix (the largest airport and the major international airport in the state); Tucson International Airport (IATA: TUS, ICAO: KTUS) in Tucson; Phoenix-Mesa Gateway Airport (IATA: AZA, ICAO: KIWA) in Mesa; Yuma International Airport (IATA: NYL, ICAO: KNYL) in Yuma; Prescott Municipal Airport (PRC) in Prescott; Flagstaff Pulliam Airport (IATA: FLG, ICAO: KFLG) in Flagstaff, and Grand Canyon National Park Airport (IATA: GCN, ICAO: KGCN, FAA: GCN), a small, but busy, single-runway facility providing tourist flights, mostly from Las Vegas. Phoenix Sky Harbor is currently 7th busiest airport in the world in terms of aircraft movements, and 17th for passenger traffic.[32][33]

Other significant airports without regularly scheduled commercial flights include Scottsdale Municipal Airport (IATA: SCF, ICAO: KSDL) in Scottsdale, and Deer Valley Airport (IATA: DVT, ICAO: KDVT, FAA: DVT) home to two flight training academies and the Nation's busiest general aviation airport.[34]

Law and government

Capitol complex

The state capital of Arizona is Phoenix. The original Capitol building, with its distinctive copper dome, was dedicated in 1901 (construction was completed for $136,000 in 1900), when the area was still a territory. Phoenix became the official state capital with Arizona's admission to the union in 1912.

The House of Representatives and Senate buildings were dedicated in 1960, and an Executive Office Building was dedicated in 1974 (the ninth floor of this building is where the Office of the Governor is located). The original Capitol building was converted into a museum.

The Capitol complex is fronted and highlighted by the richly landscaped Wesley Bolin Memorial Plaza, named after Wesley Bolin, a governor who died in office in the 1970s. Numerous monuments and memorials are on the site, including the anchor and signal mast from the USS Arizona (one of the U.S. Navy ships sunk in Pearl Harbor), a granite version of the Ten Commandments, and the Arizona Veterans Memorial Coliseum.

State legislative branch

The Arizona Legislature is bicameral (like the legislature of every other state except Nebraska) and consists of a thirty-member Senate and a 60-member House of Representatives. Each of the thirty legislative districts has one senator and two representatives. Legislators are elected for two-year terms.

Each Legislature covers a two-year period. The first session following the general election is known as the first regular session, and the session convening in the second year is known as the second regular session. Each regular session begins on the second Monday in January and adjourns sine die (terminates for the year) no later than Saturday of the week in which the 100th day from the beginning of the regular session falls. The President of the Senate and Speaker of the House, by rule, may extend the session up to seven additional days. Thereafter, the session can only be extended by a majority vote of members present of each house.

The current majority party is the Republican Party, which has held power in both houses since 1993.

Arizona state senators and representatives are elected for two year terms and are limited to four consecutive terms in a chamber, though there is no limit on the total number of terms. When a lawmaker is term-limited from office, it is not uncommon for him or her to run for election in the other chamber.

The fiscal year 2006–07 general fund budget, approved by the Arizona Legislature in June 2006, is slightly less than $10 billion. Besides the money spent on state agencies, it also includes more than $500 million in income- and property tax cuts, pay raises for government employees, and additional funding for the K–12 education system.

State executive branch

Arizona’s executive branch is headed by a governor, who is elected to a four-year term. The governor may serve any number of terms, though no more than two in a row. Arizona is one of the few states that does not maintain a governor’s mansion. During office the governors reside within their private residence, and all executive offices are housed in the executive tower at the state capitol. The current governor of Arizona is Jan Brewer (R). She assumed office after Janet Napolitano had her nomination by Barack Obama for Secretary of Homeland Security confirmed by the United States Senate.[35] Arizona has had four female governors including the current Governor Jan Brewer, more than any other state.

Other elected executive officials include the Secretary of State, State Treasurer, State Attorney General, Superintendent of Public Instruction, State Mine Inspector and a five member Corporation Commission. All elected officials hold a term of four years, and are limited to two consecutive terms (except the office of the state mine inspector, which is exempt from term limits).

Arizona is one of seven states that do not have a specified lieutenant governor. The secretary of state is the first in line to succeed the governor in the event of death, disability, resignation, or removal from office. The line of succession also includes the attorney general, state treasurer and superintendent of public instruction. Since 1977, four secretaries of state and one attorney general have risen to Arizona's governorship through these means.

Current elected officials

State judicial branch

The Arizona Supreme Court is the highest court in Arizona. The court currently consists of one chief justice, a vice chief justice, and three associate justices. Justices are appointed by the governor from a list recommended by a bi-partisian commission, and are re-elected after the initial two years following their appointment. Subsequent re-elections occur every six years. The supreme court has appellate jurisdiction in death penalty cases, but almost all other appellate cases go through the Arizona Court of Appeals beforehand. The court has original jurisdiction in a few other circumstances, as outlined in the state constitution. The court may also declare laws unconstitutional, but only while seated en banc. The court meets in the Arizona Supreme Court Building at the capitol complex (at the southern end of Wesley Bolin Plaza).

The Arizona Court of Appeals, further divided into two divisions, is the intermediate court in the state. Division One is based in Phoenix, consists of sixteen judges, and has jurisdiction in the Western and Northern regions of the state, along with the greater Phoenix area. Division Two is based in Tucson, consists of six judges, and has jurisdiction over the Southern regions of the state, including the Tucson area. Judges are selected in a method similar to the one used for state supreme court justices.

Each county of Arizona has a superior court, the size and organization of which are varied and generally depend on the size of the particular county.

Counties

Arizona is divided into political jurisdictions designated as counties. As of 1983 there were 15 counties in the state, ranging in size from 1,238 to 18,661 square miles.

ARIZONA COUNTIES
County name County seat Year founded 2000 population Percent of total Area (sq. mi.) Percent of total
Apache St. Johns 1879 69,423 1.17 % 11,218 9.84 %
Cochise Bisbee 1881 117,755 1.98 % 6,219 5.46 %
Coconino Flagstaff 1891 116,320 1.96 % 18,661 16.37 %
Gila Globe 1881 51,335 0.86 % 4,796 4.21 %
Graham Safford 1881 33,489 0.56 % 4,641 4.07 %
Greenlee Clifton 1909 8,547 0.14 % 1,848 1.62 %
La Paz Parker 1983 19,715 0.33 % 4,513 3.96 %
Maricopa Phoenix 1871 3,880,181 65.34 % 9,224 8.09 %
Mohave Kingman 1864 155,032 2.61 % 13,470 11.82 %
Navajo Holbrook 1895 97,470 1.64 % 9,959 8.74 %
Pima Tucson 1864 843,746 14.21 % 9,189 8.06 %
Pinal Florence 1875 179,727 3.03 % 5,374 4.71 %
Santa Cruz Nogales 1899 36,381 0.65 % 1,238 1.09 %
Yavapai Prescott 1865 167,517 2.82 % 8,128 7.13 %
Yuma Yuma 1864 160,026 2.69 % 5,519 4.84 %
Totals: 15 5,938,664 113,997

Federal representation

Arizona's two United States Senators are John McCain (R), the 2008 Republican Presidential Nominee, and Jon Kyl (R).

Arizona's representatives in the United States House of Representatives are Ann Kirkpatrick (D-1), Trent Franks (R-2), John Shadegg (R-3), Ed Pastor (D-4), Harry Mitchell (D-5), Jeff Flake (R-6), Raul Grijalva (D-7), and Gabrielle Giffords (D-8). Arizona gained two seats in the House of Representatives due to redistricting based on Census 2000.

Political culture

Presidential elections results
Year Republican Democratic
2008 53.60% 1,230,111 45.12% 1,034,707
2004 54.87% 1,104,294 44.40% 893,524
2000 50.95% 781,652 44.67% 685,341
1996 44.29% 622,073 46.52% 653,288
1992 38.47% 572,086 36.52% 543,050
1988 59.95% 702,541 38.74% 454,029
1984 66.42% 681,416 32.54% 333,854
1980 60.61% 529,688 28.24% 246,843
1976 56.37% 418,642 39.80% 295,602
1972 61.64% 402,812 30.38% 198,540
1968 54.78% 266,721 35.02% 170,514
1964 50.45% 242,535 49.45% 237,753
1960 55.52% 221,241 44.36% 176,781

From statehood through the late 1940s, Arizona was primarily dominated by the Democratic Party. During this time period, the Democratic candidate for the presidency carried the state each election, with the only exceptions being the elections of 1920, 1924 and 1928—all three of which were national Republican landslides.

Since the election of Dwight D. Eisenhower in 1952, however, the state has voted consistently Republican in national politics, with the Republican candidate carrying the state every time with the sole exception of Bill Clinton in United States presidential election, 1996. In recent years, the Republican Party has also dominated Arizona politics in general. The fast-growing Phoenix and Tucson suburbs became increasingly friendly to Republicans from the 1950s onward. During this time, many "Pinto Democrats," or conservative Democrats from rural areas, became increasingly willing to support Republicans at the state and national level. However, the previous Governor of Arizona, Janet Napolitano is a Democrat; she was handily reelected in 2006.

On March 4, 2008, John McCain effectively clinched the Republican nomination for 2008, becoming the first presidential nominee from the state since Barry Goldwater in 1964.

See also: United States presidential election, 2004, in Arizona, United States presidential election in Arizona, 2008

Arizona politics are dominated by a longstanding rivalry between its two largest counties, Maricopa County and Pima County--home to Phoenix and Tucson. The two counties have almost 80 percent of the state's population and cast almost three-fourths of the state's vote. They also elect a substantial majority of the state legislature.

Maricopa County is home to almost 60 percent of the state's population, and most of the state's elected officials live there. It has voted Republican in every presidential election since 1948. This includes the 1964 run of native son Barry Goldwater; he wouldn't have even carried his own state had it not been for a 20,000-vote margin in Maricopa County. Similarly, while McCain won Arizona by eight percentage points in 2008, the margin would have likely been far closer if not for a 130,000-vote margin in Maricopa County.

In contrast, Pima County, home to Tucson, and most of southern Arizona has historically been more Democratic. While Tucson's suburbs lean Republican, they hold to a somewhat more moderate brand of Republicanism than is common in the Phoenix area.

LGBT Rights

Arizona rejected an anti-gay marriage amendment in the 2006 midterm elections. Arizona was the first state in the nation to do so. Same-sex marriage was already illegal in Arizona, but this amendment would have denied any legal or financial benefits to unmarried homosexual or heterosexual couples.[36]

In 2009, Arizona passed an amendment to the state constitution to define marriage as a union of one man and one woman.[37]

Important cities and towns

Downtown Phoenix
Yuma
Flagstaff

Phoenix, located in Maricopa County, is the largest city in Arizona and also the state capital. Other prominent cities in the Phoenix metro area include Mesa (the third largest city in Arizona), Glendale, Peoria, Chandler, Sun City, Sun City West, Fountain Hills, Surprise, Gilbert, El Mirage, Avondale, Tempe, Tolleson and Scottsdale, with a total metropolitan population of just over 4 million.

Tucson is the state's second largest city, and is located in Pima County, approximately 110 miles (180 km) southeast of the Phoenix metropolitan area. The Tucson metropolitan area crossed the one-million-resident threshold in early 2007. It is home to the University of Arizona, which is considered a Public Ivy and, along with Arizona State University in Tempe, is considered the state's flagship university.

The Prescott metropolitan area includes the cities of Prescott, Sedona, Cottonwood, Camp Verde and numerous other towns spread out over the 8,123 square miles of Yavapai County area. With 212,635 residents, this cluster of towns form the third largest metropolitan area in the state. The city of Prescott (population 41,528) lies approximately 100 miles (160 km) northwest of the Phoenix metropolitan area. Situated in pine tree forests at an elevation of about 5,500 feet (1,700 m), Prescott enjoys a much cooler climate than Phoenix, with average summer highs in the upper 80s Fahrenheit and winter temperatures averaging 50 degrees Fahrenheit.

Yuma is center of the fourth largest metropolitan area in Arizona. It is located near the borders of California and Mexico. It is one of the hottest cities in the United States with the average July high of 107 °F (42 °C). (The same month's average in Death Valley is 115 °F (46 °C).) The city also features sunny days about 90% of the year. The Yuma Metropolitan Statistical Area has a population of 160,000. Yuma also attracts many winter visitors from all over the United States.

Flagstaff is the largest city in northern Arizona, and is situated at an elevation of nearly 7,000 feet (2,100 m). With its large Ponderosa Pine forests, snowy winter weather and picturesque mountains, it is a stark contrast to the desert regions typically associated with Arizona. It sits at the base of the San Francisco Peaks the highest mountain range in the state of Arizona, with Humphreys Peak, the highest point in Arizona at 12,633 feet (3,851 m). Flagstaff has a strong tourism sector, due to its proximity to numerous tourist attractions including: Grand Canyon National Park, Sedona, and Oak Creek Canyon. Historic U.S. Route 66 is the main east-west street in the town. Flagstaff is home to 57,391 residents and the main campus of Northern Arizona University.

Education

Elementary and secondary education

Public schools in Arizona are separated into about 220 local school districts which operate independently, but are governed in most cases by elected county school superintendents; these are in turn overseen by the Arizona State Board of Education (a division of the Arizona Department of Education) and the state Superintendent of Public Instruction (elected in partisan elections every even-numbered year when there is not a presidential election, for a four-year term). In 2005, a School District Redistricting Commission was established with the goal of combining and consolidating many of these districts.

Higher education

Arizona is served by three public universities: The University of Arizona, Arizona State University, and Northern Arizona University. These schools are governed by the Arizona Board of Regents.

Private higher education in Arizona is dominated by a large number of for-profit and "chain" (multi-site) universities.[38] Only one traditional (single-site, non-profit, four-year) private college exists in Arizona (Prescott College).[39] Arizona has a wide network of two-year vocational schools and community colleges. These colleges were governed historically by a separate statewide Board of Directors but, in 2002, the state legislature transferred almost all oversight authority to individual community college districts.[40] The Maricopa County Community College District includes 11 community colleges throughout Maricopa County and is one of the largest in the nation.

Public universities in Arizona

Private colleges and universities in Arizona

Community colleges

Professional sports teams

Club Sport League Championships
Arizona Cardinals Football National Football League 2 (1926, 1948)
Arizona Diamondbacks Baseball Major League Baseball 1 (2001)
Phoenix Coyotes Ice hockey National Hockey League 0
Phoenix Suns Basketball National Basketball Association 0
Arizona Rattlers Arena Football Arena Football League 2 (1994, 1997)
Arizona Sundogs Ice hockey Central Hockey League 1 (2007–08)
Phoenix Mercury Basketball Women's National Basketball Association 2 (2007, 2009)
Tucson Toros Baseball Minor League Baseball
Yuma Scorpions Baseball Golden Baseball League 1 (2007)

Due to its numerous golf courses, Arizona is home to several stops on the PGA Tour, most notably at the FBR Open, more commonly known as the Phoenix Open.

With three state universities and several community colleges, college sports are also prevalent in Arizona. The intense rivalry between Arizona State University and the University of Arizona predates Arizona's statehood, and is the oldest rivalry in the NCAA.[41] The thus aptly named Territorial Cup, first awarded in 1889 and certified as the oldest trophy in college football,[42] is awarded to the winner of the “Duel in the Desert,” the annual football game between the two schools. Arizona also hosts several bowl games in the Bowl Championship Series. The Fiesta Bowl, originally held at Sun Devil Stadium, will now be held at the University of Phoenix Stadium in Glendale. The University of Phoenix Stadium was also home to the 2007 BCS National Championship Game and hosted Super Bowl XLII on February 3, 2008. The Insight Bowl is also held at Sun Devil Stadium.

Besides being home to spring training, Arizona is also home to two other baseball leagues, Arizona Fall League and Arizona Winter League. The Fall League was founded in 1992 and is a minor league baseball league designed for players to refine their skills and perform in game settings in front of major and minor league baseball scouts and team executives, who are in attendance at almost every game. The league got exposure when Michael Jordan started his time in baseball with the Scottsdale Scorpions. The Arizona Winter League, founded in 2007, is a professional baseball league of four teams for the independent Golden Baseball League. The games are played in Yuma at the Desert Sun Stadium, but added two new teams in the California desert, and one more in Sonora for the 2008 season.

  • Note: The Arizona Heat is currently suspended from the NPF, with a possible return for the 2008 season.

Spring training

A spring training game between the two Chicago teams, the Cubs and the White Sox, at HoHoKam Park in Mesa

Arizona is a popular location for Major League Baseball spring training, as it is the site of the Cactus League. The only other location for spring training is in Florida with the Grapefruit League. The Los Angeles Dodgers have a new spring training facility in Glendale which opened in 2009, making them the 14th team in Arizona. Spring training has been somewhat of a tradition in Arizona since 1947 (i.e. the Cleveland Indians in Tucson until 1991, and the San Diego Padres in Yuma until 1992) despite the fact that the state did not have its own major league team until the state was awarded the Diamondbacks in Phoenix as an expansion team. The state hosts the following teams:

Miscellaneous topics

Art and pop culture

Arizona has featured a continuous string of dancing and performing groups of many ethnicities. The state is a recognized center of Native American art, with a number of galleries such as the Heard Museum showcasing historical and contemporary works. Sedona, Jerome, and Tubac are known as budding artist colonies, and small arts scenes exist in the larger cities and near the state universities.

Monument Valley in the northeastern part of the state is famous for its scenery and Hollywood Western films.

Many tourist souvenirs produced in Arizona or by its residents display characteristic images, such as sunsets, coyotes, and desert plants. Several major Hollywood films, such as Billy Jack, U-Turn, Waiting to Exhale, Just One of the Guys, Can't Buy Me Love, Bill & Ted's Excellent Adventure, The Scorpion King, The Banger Sisters, Used Cars, and Raising Arizona have been made there (as indeed have many Westerns). The 1993 science fiction movie Fire in the Sky, which was actually based on a reported alien abduction in Arizona, was set and filmed in the town of Snowflake. The climax of the 1977 Clint Eastwood film 'The Gauntlet' takes place in downtown Phoenix. The final segments of the 1984 film Starman take place at Meteor Crater outside Winslow. The Jeff Foxworthy comedy documentary movie Blue Collar Comedy Tour was filmed almost entirely at the Dodge Theatre. Arguably one of the most famous examples could be Alfred Hitchcock's classic film Psycho. Not only was some of the film shot in Phoenix, but the main character is from there as well. Some of the television shows filmed or set in Arizona include The New Dick Van Dyke Show, Medium, Alice, The First 48, Insomniac with Dave Attell, COPS, and America's Most Wanted. The 1974 film Alice Doesn't Live Here Anymore, for which Ellen Burstyn won the Academy Award for Best Actress, and also starred Kris Kristofferson, was set in Tucson, as was the TV sitcom Alice, which was based on the movie.

See also: List of films shot in Arizona

Arizona is prominently featured in the lyrics of many Country and Western songs, such as Jamie O'Neal's hit ballad "There Is No Arizona". George Strait's "Oceanfront Property" uses the offer of "ocean front property in Arizona" as a metaphor for a sucker proposition that is obviously false. The line "see you down in Arizona Bay" is used in a Tool song in reference to a Bill Hicks quote. The line refers to the hope that L.A. will one day fall into the ocean due to a major earthquake.

"Arizona" was the title of a popular song recorded by Mark Lindsay (formerly of Paul Revere and the Raiders) that was a hit during the winter of 1969–1970.

Arizona's budding music scene is helped by emerging bands, as well as some well-known artists. The Gin Blossoms, Chronic Future, Roger Clyne and the Peacemakers, Jimmy Eat World and others began their careers in Arizona. Also, a number of punk bands got their start in Arizona, including JFA, The Feederz, Sun City Girls, The Meat Puppets, and more recently Authority Zero. There is also an indie rock scene with artists such as blessthefall,Scary Kids Scaring Kids, Eyes Set To Kill, The Bled, Fine China, Greeley Estates, The Stiletto Formal, The Format.

Arizona also has its share of singers and other musicians. Singer, songwriter and guitarist Michelle Branch is from Sedona. Chester Bennington, the lead vocalist of Linkin Park, and mash-up artist DJ Z-Trip are both from Phoenix. One of Arizona's more infamous musicians would be shock rocker Alice Cooper, who helped define the genre. Maynard James Keenan, the lead singer of the bands, Tool, A Perfect Circle, and Puscifer, calls the town of Jerome his current home. Other notable singers include country singer Marty Robbins, folk singer Katie Lee, Fleetwood Mac's Stevie Nicks, CeCe Peniston, Rex Allen, 2007 American Idol winner Jordin Sparks, and Linda Ronstadt.

Arizona is also known for its Heavy metal scene, centered in and around Phoenix, which includes bands such as Job for a Cowboy, Knights of the Abyss, and Viraemia. The band Soulfly calls Phoenix home and Megadeth lived in Phoenix for about a decade. See also Music of Arizona

Notable people

Some famous Arizonans involved in politics and government are:

Arizona notables in culture and the arts include:

For a complete list, see List of people from Arizona.

State symbols

See also

References

  1. ^ http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/arizona
  2. ^ "Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for the United States, Regions, States, and Puerto Rico: April 1, 2000 to July 1, 2008". United States Census Bureau. http://www.census.gov/popest/states/tables/NST-EST2008-01.csv. Retrieved 2009-02-05. 
  3. ^ a b "Elevations and Distances in the United States". U.S Geological Survey. April 29, 2005. http://erg.usgs.gov/isb/pubs/booklets/elvadist/elvadist.html#Highest. Retrieved November 3, 2006. 
  4. ^ In the event of a vacancy in the office of Governor, the Secretary of State of Arizona is first in line for succession, unless not elected to the office (as with the current Secretary of State). See also: [1]
  5. ^ "America's Library - Arizona". http://www.americaslibrary.gov/cgi-bin/page.cgi/es/az. 
  6. ^ http://www.hardwoodforest.org/hff.asp?ID1=Experience&ID2=Arizona
  7. ^ Prescott Overview
  8. ^ Climate Assessment for the Southwest (December 1999). "The Climate of the Southwest". University of Arizona. http://www.ispe.arizona.edu/climas/pubs/CL1-99.html. Retrieved 2006-03-21. 
  9. ^ United States Geological Survey (September 2005). "Hydrologic Conditions in Arizona During 1999–2004: A Historical Perspective" (PDF). http://pubs.usgs.gov/fs/2005/3081/pdf/FS2005-3081WEB.pdf. Retrieved 2006-03-20. 
  10. ^ url=http://www.wunderground.com/history/airport/KPHX/2006/7/1/CustomHistory.html?dayend=31&monthend=8&yearend=2006&req_city=NA&req_state=NA&req_statename=NA
  11. ^ Mean number of Days with Minimum Temperature Below 32F National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Retrieved March 24, 2007
  12. ^ Thompson, Clay (2007-02-25). "A sorry state of affairs when views change". Arizona Republic. http://www.azcentral.com/news/columns/articles/0225clay0225.html. Retrieved 2007-03-03. 
  13. ^ Jim Turner. "How Arizona did NOT Get its Name". Arizona Historical Society. http://test.ahs.state.az.us/story/mar/az_name.htm. Retrieved 2007-03-03. 
  14. ^ Donald Garate, 2005, "Arizonac, a twentieth-century myth", Journal of Arizona History 46(2), pp. 161-184
  15. ^ Bright, William (2004). Native American Place Names of the United States. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, pg. 47
  16. ^ Timothy Anna et al., Historia de México. Barcelona: Critica, 2001, p. 10.
  17. ^ Consumer Price Index (estimate) 1800–2008. Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis. Retrieved March 8, 2010.
  18. ^ Mexican-American War as accessed on March 16, 2007 at 7:33 MST AM
  19. ^ Arizona Ordinance of secession presented by the Col. Sherod Hunter Camp 1525, SCV, Phoenix, Arizona
  20. ^ http://www.pima.gov/cmo/sdcp/Archives/reports/Cult.html
  21. ^ Paul Besceglia - U.S. Civil War - Confederate Occupation
  22. ^ Archaeology of the Phoenix Indian School
  23. ^ Arizona (state, United States). Encyclopædia Britannica Online.
  24. ^ "Arizona - Race and Hispanic Origin: 1860 to 1990." (PDF). U.S. Census Bureau.
  25. ^ "Table 1: Estimates of Population Change for the United States and States, and for Puerto Rico and State Rankings: July 1, 2005 to July 1, 2006". 2006 Population Estimates. U.S. Census Bureau, Population Division. December 22, 2006. http://www.census.gov/Press-Release/www/2006/statepopest_table1.xls. Retrieved December 22, 2006. 
  26. ^ "Arizona at a crossroads over water and growth". The Arizona Republic. March 9, 2008.
  27. ^ "Ranking Tables for Metropolitan Areas: 1990 and 2000." United States Census Bureau. April 2, 2001. Retrieved on July 8, 2006.
  28. ^ http://factfinder.census.gov/servlet/ACSSAFFFacts?_event=Search&geo_id=&_geoContext=&_street=&_county=&_cityTown=&_state=04000US04&_zip=&_lang=en&_sse=on&pctxt=fph&pgsl=010
  29. ^ "U.S. Religious Landscape Survey" (PDF). The Pew Forum. 2008-02. http://religions.pewforum.org/pdf/report-religious-landscape-study-full.pdf. Retrieved 2009-10-13. 
  30. ^ Arizona budget deficit labeled country's worst, The Business Journal of Phoenix
  31. ^ Tucson: Streetcar Plan Wins With 60% of Vote
  32. ^ World's busiest airports by traffic movements
  33. ^ World's busiest airports by passenger traffic
  34. ^ Deer Valley Airport
  35. ^ "Ariz. GOP would gain if Napolitano gets Obama post". Associated Press (KTAR). November 20, 2008. http://ktar.com/?nid=6&sid=994469. 
  36. ^ Arizona stands alone against marriage ban - Queer Lesbian Gay News - Gay.com
  37. ^ Ban on gay unions solidly supported in most of Arizona
  38. ^ College Navigator - Arizona National Center for Education Statistics, U.S. Department of Education
  39. ^ College Navigator - Four-Year Schools in Arizona National Center for Education Statistics, U.S. Department of Education
  40. ^ 2002 Legislature - HB 2710, which later became ARS 15-1444
  41. ^ Knauer, Tom (2006-11-22). "What is the Territorial Cup?". The Wildcat Online. http://media.wildcat.arizona.edu/media/storage/paper997/news/2006/11/22/UaVsAsu/What-Is.The.Territorial.Cup-2507222.shtml. Retrieved 2007-04-02. 
  42. ^ (PDF) Official 2007 NCAA Division I Football Records Book. National Collegiate Athletic Association. 2007. http://www.ncaa.org/library/records/football/football_records_book/2007/2007_d1_football_records_book.pdf. 

Further reading

  • Bayless, Betsy, 1998, Arizona Blue Book, 1997-1998. Phoenix, Arizona.
  • McIntyre, Allan J., 2008, The Tohono O'odham and Pimeria Alta. Arcadia Publishing, Charleston, South Carolina. (ISBN 978-0738556338).
  • Miller, Tom (editor), 1986, Arizona: The Land and the People. University of Arizona Press, Tucson. (ISBN 0-8165-1004-0).
  • Officer, James E., 1987, Hispanic Arizona, 1536-1856. University of Arizona Press, Tucson. (ISBN 0-8165-0981-6).
  • Thomas, David M. (editor), 2003, Arizona Legislative Manual. In Arizona Phoenix, Arizona, Arizona Legislative Council. Google Print. Retrieved January 16, 2006.
  • Trimble, Marshall, 1998, Arizona, A Cavalcade of History. Treasure Chest Publications, Tucson, Arizona. (ISBN 0-918080-43-6).
  • Woosley, Anne I., 2008, Early Tucson. Arcadia Publishing, Charleston, South Carolina. (ISBN 0738556467).

External links

Official State Government website

Other references

Tourism information

Preceded by
New Mexico
List of U.S. states by date of statehood
Admitted on February 14, 1912 (48th)
Succeeded by
Alaska

Coordinates: 34°N 112°W / 34°N 112°W / 34; -112


Travel guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikitravel

Grand Canyon National Park
Grand Canyon National Park

Arizona [1], also known as the Grand Canyon State, is located in the American Southwest. Admitted as the 48th State of the Union in 1912, Arizona is home to the Grand Canyon as well as a variety of terrain, climates and cultures. To the west is California and Nevada, to the north is Utah, to the east is New Mexico, to the northeast is Colorado, and to the south is the Mexican state of Sonora. It is one of the Four Corners states.


Eastern Arizona
Greater Phoenix
Northern Arizona
Including Grand Canyon and the "Arizona Strip".
South Central Arizona
Western Arizona

Other cities are listed in their regions.

Arizona National Parks
Arizona National Parks
Ravens, Petrified Forest National Park
Ravens, Petrified Forest National Park
  • Apache-Sitgreaves National Forest
  • Tonto National Forest
  • Coronado National Forest

State Parks

The Arizona State Parks [2] offer an array of options for outdoor enthusiasts:

Monument Valley
Monument Valley

Arizona covers 113,909 square miles, with about 350 square miles of water surface including Lake Havasu, Lake Powell, Lake Mead and the Colorado River. The state consists of three primary topographical features: a high plateau in the northeast of the state, averaging between 5,000 and 7,000 feet in elevation; a mountainous region which runs from the southeast to the northwest with peak elevations between 9,000 and 12,000 feet; and low mountain ranges and desert valleys in the southwestern of the state.

The state is defined by the Grand Canyon in the north, the Mogollon (pronounced MUG-ee-own) Rim in the central mountainous region and the Sonoran Desert to the south. Scattered among these regions, features such as the red rocks of Sedona, the tall, wind-swept towers of Monument Valley and the saguaro-filled desert valleys around Phoenix and Tucson add depth and character to the landscape of Arizona.

Another prominent feature of the Arizona landscape, a Ponderosa Pine forest stretches across the state from the White Mountain region around Greer and Alpine across the Mogollon Rim to the San Francisco Peaks north of Flagstaff. This strip of pine also extends beyond the Grand Canyon onto the Kaibab Plateau and into Southern Utah.

Humphreys Peak, part of the San Francisco Peaks, is the highest point in Arizona with an elevation of 12,611 feet. Baldy Peak, located in the White Mountains, is the second highest point with an elevation of 11,490 feet. In the southwest of the state, the Sonoran Desert stretches out of Mexico and into Arizona with elevations as low as about 100 feet above sea level in the Lower Colorado River Valley.

The Grand Canyon

One of the Seven Natural Wonders of the World, the Grand Canyon dominates the Northern Arizona landscape. Stretching 277 miles across the high plateaus and plunging up to 6,000 feet into the arid plateau, the canyon was shaped and carved by the constant motion of the Colorado River. The Grand Canyon features three or four eras of geological time as well several layers of fossil records, several variety rock types, numerous caves and several major ecosystems.

What To Wear

When visiting Arizona pack accordingly depending on the time of year and where you are traveling. Throughout the state dress is usually casual and comfortable, especially during the summer months. Very few restaurants require jackets and ties, however if you are planning on attending a cultural event or dining at a finer restaurant, consider bringing business casual attire as well.

During the summer, shorts and sandals are standard wear during the day, with a light sweater or jacket during the evenings at higher elevations. In the cooler months, temperatures can differ greatly from day to night, so consider bringing a sweater or jacket if traveling in the desert areas. At higher elevations in the north of the state, a winter jacket is recommended.

Hats, sunglasses and sunscreen should be used year-round.

A primary reason for travelers to visit to Arizona, specifically in the low desert regions around Phoenix and Tucson, is the state's mild climate during the fall, winter and spring. The warm weather and low precipitation provide travelers with an enjoyable climate for numerous outdoor activities such as hiking, biking, golf and sightseeing. At higher elevations during the winter, snowfall allows visitors to enjoy winter sports such as cross-country skiing.

During the summer months, temperatures in the low desert regions can reach well above 100 degrees F, however the climate at higher elevations, as in Flagstaff, stays mild and allows for enjoyable outdoor activities as well as a break from the summer heat.

Temperatures

High temperatures near or above 100-110 degrees F are common throughout the summer months at the lower elevations. During the winter, cold fronts can bring temperatures well below zero in the higher areas of central and northern Arizona, with lows averaging between 15 and 20 degrees F.

During drier portions of the year (traditionally the winter months), temperatures can differ greatly from day to night, sometimes as much as 40 to 50 degrees F. In the low desert valleys during the winter, temperatures during the day could average 70 degrees F, with night temperatures dropping to around 40 degrees F. During the summer, the central portion of the state along with the lower elevations can can experience temperature changes up to 30-40 degrees F from day to night.

Precipitation

Rainfall in Arizona is primarily determined by season and elevation. In the mountainous region, that runs from the southeast to the northwest, rainfall amounts will average between 25 and 30 inches (including melted snow) annually, while the low-lying desert region averages only three or four inches annually. The high plateau region in the northeast of the state averages 10 inches of rainfall annually.

During winter months, November through March, storms occur regularly at the higher elevations in central and northern Arizona and can produce heavy snowfall. Summer months, particularly early July through mid-September, bring the monsoon season to the desert region. Monsoons are strong thunderstorms, typically lasting a short time in certain area, that produce powerful winds and brief periods of blowing dust prior to the storm's arrival.

The average number of days with measurable rainfall per year ranges from around 70 in the northern part of the state to 15 in the desert regions. The air is usually dry and clear, with low relative humidity and a high percentage of sunshine. April, May and June usually produce the most clear days, while July and August (in lower elevations), as well as December, January and February (in higher elevations) have the cloudiest weather due to thunderstorms. Humidity, is low in comparison to other states, however it is typically higher during the monsoon season.

Despite the common perception of Arizona as a warm state, snowfall does occur annually in high altitude areas such as Flagstaff.

Average Temperature / Rainfall
Desert (1200 ft) Mountain (7000 ft)
Month Average Low Average High Average Rainfall Month Average Low Average High Average Rainfall
January 41.2F/5.1C 65.9F/18.8C 0.6" January 16F/-8.8C 43F/6.1C 2.18"
February 44.7F/7C 70.7F/21.5C 0.7" February 19F/-7.2C 46F/7.8C 2.56"
March 48.8F/9.3C 75.5F/24.2C 0.9" March 23F/-5C 50F/10C 2.63"
April 55.3F/12.9C 84.5F/29.2C 0.22" April 27F/-2.8C 58F/14.4C 1.29"
May 63.9F/17.7C 93.6F/34.2C 0.1" May 34F/1.1C 68F/20C 0.8"
June 72.9F/22.7C 103.5F/39.7C 0.1" June 41F/5C 79F/26.1C 0.43"
July 81.0F/27.2C 105.9F/41.1C 0.9" July 50F/10C 82F/27.8C 2.4"
August 79.2F/26.2C 103.7F/39.8C 1.0" August 49F/9.4C 80F/26.7C 2.89"
September 72.8F/22.6C 98.3F/36.8C 0.86" September 42F/9.4C 74F/23.3C 2.12"
October 60.8F/16C 88.1F/31.2C 0.7" October 31F/-0.5C 63F/17.2C 1.93"
November 48.9F/9.4C 74.9F/23.8C 0.7" November 22F/-5.5C 51F/10.6C 1.86"
December 41.8F/5.4C 66.2F/19C 1.0" December 17F/-8.3C 44F/6.6C 1.83"

Native American Culture

Arizona is home to 22 Native American Tribes that contribute to the history, culture and economy of the state. While most tribes welcome visitors to experience their proud history and culture, each tribe does have its own guidelines for visitors. In addition, the 22 reservations operate under their own governmental structure. Tribal laws should be viewed in the same manner as U.S. laws and regulations. Before visiting a tribe, you should consult or contact the individual tribe for additional visitor information.

Montezuma Castle National Monument
Montezuma Castle National Monument

When visiting a Native American Tribe or reservation, you should be aware that:

  • Each reservation operates under its own government and its own rules for visitors.
  • Photography and painting may not be allowed. Check with the individual tribe before taking photographs.
  • Dances are typically part of religious ceremonies. Think of these events as you would if you were visiting a holy site, such as a church. Also, be mindful that applause may not be welcome after a dance.
  • Do not climb walls or structures.
  • Sacred areas and graveyards are not usually open to visitors.
  • Reservations and villages should be treated with respect. While most reservations are open to visitors, individual homes are private and should be entered only by invitation.
  • Some arts and crafts sold around reservations may not be authentic. Consult the Indian Arts and Crafts Association[3] for more information about purchasing authentic Native American arts and crafts.

Time Zone

Arizona is always on Mountain Standard Time and does not observe daylight saving time, except for the Navajo Nation. This means that during the summer months, Arizona is a hour behind the rest of the Mountain Time Zone (or equivalent to the Pacific Time Zone). During the winter months Arizona has the same time as the rest of the Mountain Time Zone.

Talk

As with all states in the U.S., the primary spoken language in Arizona is English. However, due to the state's history and its proximity to Mexico, Arizona is home to a large population of Mexican-Americans as well as populations from several other Hispanic countries who typically speak the Spanish language (with some Hispanic cultures using a country-specific dialect) in addition to English. Most of the 22 Native American Tribes also have their own distinct language, however it is usually spoken between tribal members.

When To Go

Generally, the peak season in the desert areas (southern Arizona) lasts from January through March with the next most popular season is from April to May and September through December and the season when visitors can find the greatest values is June through August.

Peak and value seasons in the mountainous regions (northern Arizona) are the opposite of the desert areas. Generally, peak season is from June through August, shoulder season is April to May and September through December, and value season is January through March.

Peak season in some mid-climate areas of the state, such as Sedona, is from March to May and September through October, with shoulder season from January to February.

By Air

Arizona's main entry point by air is Phoenix Sky Harbor International Airport [4] (IATA: PHX, ICAO: KPHX). Located between downtown Phoenix and Tempe, Sky Harbor is served by most major airlines and provides non-stop service to over 100 cities worldwide.

The Tucson International Airport [5] (IATA: TUS, ICAO: KTUS), located south of downtown Tucson, is Arizona's second busiest airport. Served by several major airlines, TIA current provides non-stop service to 18 cities.

In addition to Sky Harbor and TIA, several regional airports are located throughout Arizona including Flagstaff Pulliam Airport [6] (IATA: FLG, ICAO: KFLG) in Flagstaff, Lake Havasu City Airport in Lake Havasu City,Laughlin/Bullhead International Airport [7] (IATA: IFP, ICAO: KIFP, FAA LID: IFP), in Bullhead City and Yuma International Airport [8] (IATA: YUM, ICAO: KYUM) in Yuma.

By Car

All parts of Arizona are accessible by federal or state highways as well as 22 'Ports of Entry' from surrounding states and Sonora, Mexico. The speed limit on most interstate freeways is 75 miles per hour, however this typically drops to 65 or 55 miles per hour near metropolitan areas. The speed limit on most state highways and U.S. routes in rural Arizona is 65 miles per hour.

Arizona law does require that each front-seat occupant wear a seat belt in a car is designed to carry ten or fewer passengers (i.e. not a bus). In addition, children under the age of five must be properly restrained as well.

  • Interstate 10 (I-10) runs east to west across southern Arizona and connects travelers with the major cities of Tucson and Phoenix. I-10 originates out of the east from Las Cruces, New Mexico and out of the west, from Palm Springs, California and Los Angeles. I-10 is a major interstate and does carry a large amount of car and truck traffic. During the week, portions of I-10 can experience very heavy traffic, usually around the Tucson and Phoenix metropolitan areas.
  • Interstate 8 (I-8) runs east to west, running from I-10 to Yuma. I-8 splits from I-10 south of Phoenix and provides the quickest access to Yuma as well as San Diego, California. However, in the other direction, it does not go to Phoenix directly. At Gila Bend, Hwy 85 connects I-8 with I-10, for travel to the west side of Phoenix and downtown (or Phoenix to San Diego). For the eastern suburbs, I-8 merges with I-10, and it's possible to reverse direction going from I-8 east to I-10 west (exit #178B) or vice versa (I-10 exit #199). Despite the signs, I-10 goes mostly north-south east of Phoenix, and backtracking is very minimal.
  • Interstate 40 (I-40) runs east to west across northern Arizona and connects travelers with the cities of Flagstaff, Williams and Kingman. I-40 comes into Arizona from east after passing through Albuquerque, New Mexico and from the west after passing through Barstow and Needles, California. I-40 is positioned above the Mollogon Rim and is affected by heavy snowfall during winter months.
  • Interstate 19 (I-19) runs south to north in south central Arizona and provides access from Tucson to Nogales as well as entry into Sonora, Mexico. I-19 splits from I-10 just south of Tucson. Because I-19 is a major route to and from Mexico, border patrol checkpoints are common along the interstate, however these checkpoints typically do not take long to pass through. The border crossing at Nogales can be a busy entry and exit point, be patient while waiting to cross the border and have proper documentation ready to present. See 'Stay safe' for additional information.
  • U.S. 93 runs southeast to northwest across northwest Arizona and connects travelers from Las Vegas to I-40 at Kingman. U.S. 93 is the route that the majority of local residents and tourists use to travel to and from Las Vegas and can become very busy on most weekends. On a side note, U.S. 93 also runs across the Hoover Dam on the Arizona / Nevada border.
  • U.S. 60 runs (in a general) east to west across central Arizona, entering the state just south of I-40 from New Mexico. U.S. 60 runs through the White Mountains and the towns of Eagar and Springerville on it's way to Globe and eventually, Phoenix.
  • U.S. 89 runs north to south through northern Arizona and connects travelers from Utah with Page and Flagstaff. In addition, U.S. 89 is the main route for travelers to access the South Rim, North Rim (via Alt-U.S. 89) and the east entrance of the Grand Canyon.
  • Alt-U.S. 89 runs through northern Arizona, starting near Fredonia, Arizona and Kanab, Utah, and connects to U.S. 89 south of Page. Alt-U.S. 89 is the main route to access to the North Rim of the Grand Canyon.

By Bus

Bus service to Arizona is available via Greyhound [9] with several stops available including Flagstaff, Glendale, Phoenix, Tucson and Yuma.

By Train

Amtrak, +1 800 USA-RAIL (+1 800 872-7245), [10] offer two routes through Arizona:

Get around

As with most western states, the easiest way to get around Arizona is via car. The federal and state highway system offers travelers easy access around Arizona whether you are driving your personal car or a rental car. While most major cities in Arizona do offer public transportation, including Greater Phoenix, Tucson, Flagstaff, and Sedona, state-wide public transportation is very limited.

By Car

Nearly all major attractions and tourist destinations in Arizona are accessible via car.

  • Interstate 17 (I-17) runs south to north across central Arizona and connects travelers with the major cities of Phoenix and Flagstaff. I-17 is the main route north to Sedona, Flagstaff and the Grand Canyon from Phoenix. It provides easy access to Sedona via AZ 179 as well as Prescott, Jerome and Montezuma Castle National Monument. Because I-17 is the major route north, it does a large amount of car and truck traffic, especially during busy weekends and holidays. During the week, portions of I-17 can experience very heavy traffic due to commuters.
  • The Apache Trail (Hwy. 88) is a 42-mile long scenic drive through the Sonoran Desert. It goes out to Theodore Roosevelt Lake and the mining town of Globe. Along the way are ample views of yuccas, saguaros and desert lakes.

Renting A Car

Renting a car in Arizona is very similar to any other state. Rental cars are available at most major airports, especially the main entry points of Phoenix Sky Harbor International Airport and Tucson International Airport.

By Bus

Bus service to Arizona is available via Greyhound [13] with several stops available including Flagstaff, Glendale, Phoenix, Tucson and Yuma.

Eat

Arizona is know for their great Southwestern style food, including everything from Mexican fusion dishes to street-side burrito stands. Cactus is also edible and can be eaten fried or in salads.

Stay safe

Arizona / Mexico Border

Due to Arizona's proximity to the International Boundary with Mexico, visitors should be cautious while in areas near the border.

  • Know where you are at all times, follow good safety procedures and use common sense when making decisions.
  • Do not pick-up hitch hikers.
  • Keep valuables, including spare change, out of sight and lock your vehicle.
  • Avoid traveling in well-marked but unofficial "trails."
  • Avoid hiking or camping in areas of major border activity. If you are visiting a national or state park, consult park staff to help plan backcountry travel in safer areas.
  • Report any suspicious behavior to the U.S. Border Patrol.

Crossing The Border

Thousands of U.S citizens visit the state of Sonora, Mexico from Arizona every year with the majority of travelers returning from an enjoyable experience. However, a minority of travelers do experience difficulties and serious inconveniences while traveling to Mexico. Before traveling to Mexico, ensure that you have the proper documentation and are familiar with the recommendations for foreign travel from the U.S. Department of State, Bureau of Consular Affairs [14]

Driving

Drivers in Arizona should follow the same rules and regulations that apply throughout the U.S. Auto Tours USA can provide you with all the information you need and more for your next road trip to Arizona [15]

Road Conditions

For information on road conditions or traffic information dial *511 from any phone. Road conditions and traffic information is also available online from the Arizona Department of Transportation[16] or the Federal Highway Administration[17].

Dust Storms

Dust storms are caused by high winds blowing dust onto highways. Usually brief, dust storms should be taken seriously because they can quickly decrease visibility. If you see a dust storm while driving:

  • Turn on your headlights and slow to an appropriate speed.
  • If you can safely avoid it, do not enter the dust storm.
  • If you need to pull off the road, get as far to the right as possible. Turn off the car, set the parking brake and keep your foot off the brake pedal – other drivers may think you’re a car in motion.

Rain

Typically during the summer monsoon season, Arizona does experience heavy rainstorms or monsoons. While these storms are usually brief, the heavy rain can cause flooding in low-lying areas. If you find yourself driving during one of these storms:

  • If you need to pull off the road, get as far to the right as possible. Turn off the car, set the parking brake and keep your foot off the brake pedal – other drivers may think you’re a car in motion.
  • Pay attention to hazard signs and roadblocks. If you see a sign that says "Do Not Cross When Flooded", take it seriously and find another way.
  • Don’t cross rain-swollen washes. You could get caught in a flash flood.
  • Most of these summer monsoon rain storms are accompanied by lightning. Take proper precautions.

Emergency Services

In the event of an emergency, dial 911. For non-emergency police or fire assistance, contact the local police or fire department directly.

Summer Weather

Summer temperatures in some areas of Arizona can surpass 100 F (38 C) and visitors should take extra precautions while visiting the state.

If outdoors:

  • Rest frequently in shady areas so that the body's temperature has a chance to recover.
  • If unaccustomed to working or exercising in a hot environment, gradually increase the pace and limit exercise or work time.
  • Wear lightweight, loose-fitting clothing; sunglasses to protect the eyes; and a wide-brimmed hat to provide shade and keep the head cool.
  • Take special precaution with infants and young children by dressing them in loose, cool clothing and shading their heads and faces with hats or an umbrella. Protect their feet with shoes.

Avoid heat-related illness:

  • Never leave infants, children or pets inside a parked vehicle.
  • Increase fluid intake, regardless of activity level. Don't wait until thirsty to drink fluids; drink more liquid than one's thirst indicates.
  • Avoid "heat hangover." Continue to drink fluids even after strenuous activity. This will enable the body to maintain optimum hydration, and help prevent the after effects of heat exposure such as headaches and fatigue.
  • Avoid beverages containing alcohol, caffeine or large amounts of sugar as they dehydrate the body.

Abandoned Mine Shafts

These are very numerous in Arizona, and many remain unmarked. The mine shafts can be as deep as tall buildings, creating an extreme hazard. Do not travel along unknown trails and primitive dirt roads by ATV, motorcycle, horseback, etc. or deviate (even by a few feet) from existing well-used ones. For more information, including safety tips, visit the Arizona State Mine Inspector[18] website.

Get out

Arizona's geographic location and the interstate system allow easy access to California, Nevada, Utah, New Mexico, Colorado (via Utah or New Mexico) and the state of Sonora in Mexico.

This is a usable article. It gives a good overview of the region, its sights, and how to get in, as well as links to the main destinations, whose articles are similarly well developed. An adventurous person could use this article, but please plunge forward and help it grow!

1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

ARIZONA (from the Spanish-Indian Arizonac, of unknown meaning, - possibly " few springs," - the name of an 18th-century mining camp in the Santa Cruz valley, just S. of the present border of Arizona), a state on the S.W. border of the United States of America, lying between 31° 20' and 37 0 N. lat. and 109° 2' and 1 r 4° 45' W. long. It is bounded N. by Utah, E. by New Mexico, S. by Mexico and W. by California and Nevada, the Colorado river separating it from California and in part from Nevada. On the W. is the Great Basin. Arizona itself is mostly included in the great arid mountainous uplift of the Rocky Mountain region, and partly within the desert plain region of the Gulf of California, or Open Basin region. The whole state lies on the south-western exposure of a great roof whose crest, along the continental divide in western New Mexico, pitches southward. Its altitudes vary from 13,000 ft. to less than loo ft. above the sea. Of its total area of 113,956 sq. m. (water surface, 116 sq. m.), approximately 39,000 lie below 3000 ft., 27,000 from 3000 to 5000 ft., and 47,000 above 5000 ft.

Table of contents

Physical Features

Three characteristic physiographic regions are distinctly marked: first the great Colorado Plateau, some 45, 00 0 sq. m. in area, embracing all the region N. and E. of a line drawn from the Grand Wash Cliffs in the N.W. corner of the state to its E. border near Clifton; next a broad zone of compacted mountain ranges with a southern limit of similar trend; and lastly a region of desert plains, occupying somewhat more than the S.W. quarter of the state. The plateau region has an average elevation of 6000-8000 ft. eastward, but it is much broken down in the west. The plateau is not a plain. It is dominated by high mountains, gashed by superb canyons of rivers, scarred with dry gullies and washes, the beds of intermittent streams, varied with great shallow basins, sunken deserts, dreary levels, bold buttes, picturesque mesas, forests and rare verdant bits of valley. In the N.W. there is a giddy drop into the tremendous cut of the Grand Canyon of the Colorado river. The surface in general is rolling, with a gentle slope northward, and drains through the Little Colorado (or Colorado Chiquito), Rio Puerco and other streams into the Grand Canyon. Along the Colorado is the Painted Desert, remarkable for the bright colours - red, brown, blue, purple, yellow and white - of its sandstones, shales and clays. Within the desert is a petrified forest, the most remarkable in the United States. The trees are of mesozoic time, though mostly washed down to the foot of the mesas in which they were once embedded, and lying now amid deposits of a later age. Blocks and logs of agate, chalcedony, jasper, opal and other silicate deposits lie in hundreds over an area of 60 sq. m. The forest is now protected as a national reserve against vandalism and commercialism. Everywhere are evidences of water and wind erosion, of desiccation and differential weathering. This is the history of the mesas, which are the most characteristic scenic feature of the highlands. The marks of volcanic action, particularly lava-flows, are also abundant and widely scattered.

Separating the plateau from the mountain region is an abrupt 'transition slope, often deeply eroded, crossing the entire state as has been indicated. In localities the slope is a true escarpment falling 150 and even 250 ft. per mile. In the Aubrey Cliffs and along the Mogollon mesa, which for about 200 m. parts the waters of the Gila and the Little Colorado, it often has an elevation of 1000 to 2000 ft., and the ascent is impracticable through long distances to the most daring climber. It is not of course everywhere so remarkable, or even distinct, and especially after its trend turns southward W. of Clifton, it is much broken down and obscured by erosion and lava deposits. The mountain region has a width of 70 to 150 m., and is filled with short parallel ranges trending parallel to the plateau escarpment. Many of the mountains are extinct volcanoes. In the San Francisco mountains, in the north central part of the state, three peaks rise to from io,000 to 12,794 ft.; three others are above 9000 ft.; all are eruptive cones, and among the lesser summits are old cinder cones. The S.E. corner of Arizona is a region of greatly eroded ranges and gentle aggraded valleys. This mountain zone has an average elevation of not less than 4000 ft., while in places its crests are 5000 ft. above the plains below. The line dividing the two regions runs roughly from Nogales on the Mexican border, past Tucson, Florence and Phoenix to Needles (California), on the W. boundary. These plains, the third or desert region of the state, have their mountains also, but they are lower, and they are not compacted; the plains near the mountain region slope toward the Gulf of California across wide valleys separated by isolated ranges, then across broad desert stretches traversed by rocky ridges, and finally there is no obstruction to the slope at all. Small parts of the desert along the Mexican boundary are shifting sand.

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Climate

As may be inferred from the physical description, Arizona has a wide variety of local climates. In general it is characterized by wonderfully clear air and extraordinarily low humidity. The scanty rainfall is distributed from July to April, with marked excess from July to September and a lesser maximum in December. May and June are very dry. Often during a month, sometimes for several months, no rain falls over the greatest part of Arizona. Very little rain comes from the Pacific or the Gulf of California, the mountains and desert, as well as the adverse winds, making it impossible. Rain and snow fall usually from clouds blown from the Gulf of Mexico and not wholly dried in Texas. The mountainous areas are the only ones of adequate precipitation; the northern slope of the Colorado Plateau is almost destitute of water; the region of least precipitation is the " desert " region. The mean annual rainfall varies from amounts of 2 to 5.5 in. at various points in the lower gulf valley, and on the western border to amounts of 25 to 30 in. in the mountains. The highest recorded maximum in Arizona is 35 in. The proportion of perfectly clear days in the year varies at different points from a half to two-thirds; of the rest not more than half are without brilliant sunshine part of the day. Local thunderstorms and cloud-bursts are a characteristic phenomenon, inundating limited areas and transforming dried-up streams into muddy torrents carrying boulders and debris. Often in the plateau country the dry underair absorbs the rain as it falls; and rarely in the Hopi country do flooded gullies " run through " to the Little Colorado. The country of the cliff-dwellers in the N.E. is desert-like. Only points high in altitude catch much rain. Mountain snows feed the Gila, the Little Colorado, and the Colorado rivers. The Colorado, apart from the Gila, draws little water from Arizona. The mountain zone W. of Prescott drains into the Colorado, and to the S. and E. into the Gila; and the latter is by far the heavier drainage in volume. The floods come in May and June, and during the wet season the rivers, all with steep beds in their upper courses, wash along detritus that lower down narrows, and on smaller streams almost chokes, their courses. These gradients enable the inconstant streams tributary to the Colorado to carve their canyons, some of which are in themselves very remarkable, though insignificant beside the Grand Canyon. Many streams that are turned in spring or by summer cloud-bursts into torrents are normally mere water films or dry gulches. Even the Gila is dry in its bed part of the year at its mouth near Yuma. From the Gila to the southern boundary the parched land gives no water to the sea, and the international boundary runs in part through a true desert. In the hot season there is almost no surface water. Artesian wells are used in places, as in the stock country of the Baboquivari valley.

The temperature of Arizona is somewhat higher than that of points of equal latitude on the Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico coasts. In the mountains on the plateau it ranges from that of the temperate zone to that of regions of perpetual snow; S. of the mountains it ranges from temperate heats in the foothills to semi-tropic heat in the lower valleys of the Gila and Colorado. The average annual temperature over the region N. of 34° N. is about 55 0; that of the region S. is about 68°. The warmest region is the lower Gila valley. Here the hottest temperature of the year hovers around 130°, the mean for the hottest month (July) is about 98°, and the mean for the year is from 68.9°- 74.4° F. at different points. Some parts of the Santa Cruz valley are equally hot. In the hottest (western) portions of the true desert on the Mexican border the daily maximum temperature is about IIo° F.; but owing to the rapid radiation in the dry, clear, cloudless air the temperature frequently falls 40-50° in the night. The coldest points on the high plateau have annual means as low as 45-48°, and a mean for the coldest month at times below 20° F. The range from high to low extreme on the plateau may be as great as 1 2 5°, but in the S.W. it is only about 70-80° F. The daily variation (not uncommonly 60° F.) is of course greatest in the most arid regions, where radiation is most rapid. And of all Arizona it should be said that owing to the extreme dryness of the air, evaporation from moist surfaces is very rapid,' so that the high temperatures here are decidedly less oppressive than much lower temperatures in a humid atmosphere. The great difference between absolute and sensible temperature is a very important climatic characteristic of Arizona. Generally speaking, during two-thirds of the year the temperature is really delightful; the nights are cool, the mornings bracing, the days mild though splendid. Intense heat prevails in July, August and September. In lowness of humidity (mean annual relative humidity at Yuma about 39, at Phoenix 36.7, at Tucson 37.8) and clarity of atmosphere, southern Arizona rivals Upper Egypt and other famous arid health resorts.

==Fauna and Flora== Within the borders of Arizona are areas representative of every life zone save the humid tropical. From ' At Yuma, Phoenix and Tucson, the records of twenty-six, eighteen and fifteen years respectively show a rate of evaporation 35.2, 12.7, and 7.7 times as great as the mean annual rainfall, which was 2.84 in., 7.06 in. and 11.7 in. for the places named.

the summit of the San Francisco Mountains one may pass rapidly through all these down into the Painted Desert. The BorealCanadian, Transition and Upper Sonoran embrace the highlands. Coyotes are very common; wild cats and mountain lions are fairly plentiful. Deer and antelope are represented by various species. Prairie-dogs, jack-rabbits, crows and occasional ravens, quail, grouse, pheasants and wild turkeys are also noteworthy in a rather scant animal life. Characteristic forms of the Upper Sonoran zone are the burrowing owl, Nevada sage-thrush, sagethrasher and special species of orioles, kangaroo rats, mice, rabbits and squirrels. The Lower Sonoran covers the greatest part of southern and western Arizona, as well as the immediate valleys of the Colorado and Little Colorado rivers. Its animal life is in the main distinguished in species only from that of the Upper Sonoran belt, including among birds, the desert sparrow, desert thrasher, mocking-bird, hooded oriole; and among mammals small nocturnal species of kangaroo rats, pocket mice, mice and bats. Jaguars occasionally stray into Arizona from Mexico. Lizards and toads are conspicuous in the more desert areas. Snakes are not numerous. The Gila-monster, tarantula, the scorpion and thelyphonus, scolopender and julus occur in some localities in the rainy season. The Arid-Tropical zone is represented by a narrow belt along the lower Colorado river, with a short arm extending into the valley of the Gila. The country is so arid that it supports only desert birds and mammals. Camels were very successfully employed as pack animals on the Tule desert in the palmy days of Virginia City, Nevada, before the advent of railways.

The general conditions of distribution of the fauna of Arizona are shown even more distinctly by the flora. There are firs and spruces on the mountains, characteristic of the Boreal zone; pines characteristic of the Transition zone; pinon juniper, greasewood and the universally conspicuous sage-brush, characteristic of the Upper Sonoran zone. In the Lower Sonoran belt, soapweed, acacias (Palo Verde or Parkinsonia torreyana), agaves, yuccas and dasylirions, the creosote bush and mesquite tree, candle wood, and about seventy-five species of cactuses - among them omnipresent opuntiae and great columnar " Chayas " - make up a striking vegetation, which in its colours of dull grey and olive harmonizes well with the rigidity and forbidding barrenness of the plains. It has exercised profound influence upon the industries, arts, faiths and general culture of the Indians. In places the giant cactus grows in groves, attaining a height of 40 and even 50 ft. The mesquite varies in size from a tangled thorny shrub to a spreading tree as much as 3 ft. in diameter and 50 ft. high; it is normally perhaps half as high, and 6-8 in. in diameter. Enduring hardily great extremes of heat and moisture, it is throughout the arid South-west the most important, and in many localities the only important, native tree. From the great juicy, leafless, branchless stalk of the yucca, soap is prepared, and strong fibres useful in making paper, rope and fabrics. The fibre of the agave is also made into rope and its juice into pulque. The canaigre grows wild and is also cultivated. It is easy to exaggerate greatly the barrenness of an arid country. There are fine indigenous grasses that spring up over the mesas after the summer rains, furnishing range for live-stock; some are extraordinarily independent of the rainfall. In the most arid regions there is a small growth of green in the rainy season, and a rich display of small wild-flowers, as well as the enormous flower clusters of the yucca, and blooms in pink and orange, crimson, yellow and scarlet of the giant cactus and its fellows. Even in the Mexican border, desert oak, juniper and manzanita cover the mountains, and there is a vigorous though short-lived growth of grasses and flower from July to October. The cliff-dweller country supports a scant vegetation - a few cottonwood in the washes, a few cedars on the mesas.

Continuous forest areas are scant. A fair variety of trees - cottonwood, sycamore, ash, willow, walnut and cherry - grow in thickets in the canyons, and each mountain range is a forest area. Rainfall varying with the altitude, the lower timber line below which precipitation is insufficient to sustain a growth of trees is about 7000 ft., and the upper timber line about I I,Soo ft.

II. 18 Oaks, juniper, pinon, cedars, yellow pine, fir and spruce grow on the mountains and over large areas of the plateau country.' The Coconino forest is one of the largest unbroken pine forests (about 6000 sq. m.) in the United States. Since 1898 about 86% of the wooded lands have been made reservations, and work has been done also to preserve the forest areas in the mountains in the south-east, from which there are few streams of permanent flow to the enclosing arid valleys.

Soil

The soils in the southern part of Arizona are mainly sandy loams, varying from light loam to heavy, close adobe; on the plateaus is what is known as " mesa " soil; and along the rivers are limited overflow plains of fine sediment - especially along the Colorado and the river Verde. These soils are in general rich, but deficient in nitrogen and somewhat in humus; and in limited areas white alkaline salts are injuriously in excess. Virgin soils are densely compact. By far the most useful crops are leguminous green manures, especially alfalfa, which grows four to seven cuttings in a year and as a soil flocculator and nitrogen-storer has proved of the greatest value. The greatest obstacle to agriculture is lack of water. Artesian wells are much used in the south-east. For the reservation of the water-partings in the past considerably denuded by lumbermen and ranchmen the increase of the forest areas, and the creation of reservoirs along the rivers, to control their erratic flow 2 and impound their flood waste for purposes of irrigation, much has been done by the national government. The irrigated areas are only little spots along the permanent streams. In 190o the farm area was only 2.7% of the total area of the state and only 0.31% was actually improved (including Indian reservations, o 35%; in 1906, 0.92% was cultivated); of the land actually under crops, 88.5% was irrigated. The improved acreage more than quintupled from 1880 to 1900. The total irrigated area in 1900 was 185,000 acres and in 1902, 247,250 acres. The increase in land values by irrigation from 1890 to 1900 is estimated at $3,500,000.

A reservoir was begun in 1904 just below the junction of the Tonto and the Salt with capacity to store 1,330,000 acre-ft. for irrigation, and develop also an electric power sufficient to pump underground water for an additional 50,000 acres at the lowest estimate' of lands lying too high for supply by gravity. Another important undertaking begun about the same time was the throwing of an East Indian weir dam (the only one in the United States) across the Colorado near Yuma, and the confinement of both sides of the lower Gila and Colorado with levees.

Agriculture

Strawberries and Sahara dates; alfalfa, wheat, barley, corn and sorghum; oranges, lemons, wine grapes, limes, olives, figs, dates, peanuts and sweet potatoes; yams and sugar beets, show the range of agricultural products. The date palm fruits well; figs grow luxuriantly, though requiring much irrigation; almonds do well if protected from spring frosts; seaisland cotton grows in the finest grades, but is not of commercial importance. The country about Yuma is particularly suited to subtropical fruits. Temperate fruits - peaches, pears, apples, apricots and small fruits - do excellently; as do all important vegetables. The fruit industry is becoming more and more important. Farming is very intensive, and crop follows crop in swift succession; in 1905 the yield of barley per acre, 44 bushels, was greater than in any other state or territory, as was the farm price per bushel on the 1st of December, 81 cents; the average yield per acre of hay was the highest in the Union in 1903, 3.46 tons, the general average being 1 54 tons,was fourth in 1904, 2 71 tons (Utah 3.54, Idaho 3 07, Nevada 3.04), the general average being I 52 tons, and was highest in 1905, 3.75 tons, the general average for the country being 1 54 tons; and in the same three years the average value per acre of hay was greater in Arizona than in any other state of the Union, being $35.78 in 1 The San Francisco yellow pine forest, with an area of some 4700 sq. m., is the finest forest of the arid south-west.

The combined flow of the Salt and Verde varies from loo to more than 10,000 cub. ft. per second.

The dam locks a narrow canyon. The height is 284 ft., the water rising 230 ft. against it. The storage capacity is exceeded by probably but one reservoir in the world - the Wachusett reservoir near Boston.

1903, $40.22 in 1904, and $46.39 in 1905, the general averages for the country being $13.93, $13.23 and $13.11 respectively, for the three years. Of the total farm acreage of the state 97.6% were held in 1900 by the whites; and of these 80 2% owned in whole or in part the land they cultivated.

Stock-raising is a leading industry, but it has probably attained its full development. The over-stocking of the ranges has caused much loss in the past, and the almost total eradication of fine native grasses over extended areas. Of the neat cattle (7,042,635) almost 98%, and of the sheep (861,761) almost Too %, were in 1900 pastured wholly or in part upon the public domain. The extension of national forest reserves and the regulations enforced by the United States government for the preservation of the ranges have put limits to the industry. In 1900 the value of live-stock represented 1 5.7% of the capital invested in agriculture; the value of animals sold or slaughtered for food ($3,204,758) was half the total value of all farm products ($ 6 ,997, 0 97). Ostrich farms have been successfully established in the Salt river valley since 1893; in 1 9 07 there were six farms in the Salt river valley, on which there were about 1354 birds; the most successful food for the ostrich is alfalfa.

Minerals

Mining is the leading industry of Arizona. Contrary to venerable traditions there is no evidence that mining was practised beyond the most inconsiderable extent by aborigines, Spanish conquistadores, or Jesuits. In 1738 an extraordinary deposit of silver nuggets, quickly exhausted (1741), was discovered at Arizonac. At the end of the 18th century the Mexicans considerably developed the mines in the south-east. The second half of the 19th century witnessed several great finds; first, of gold placers on the lower Gila and Colorado (1858-1869); later, of lodes at Tombstone, which flourished from 1879-1886, then decayed, but in 1905 had again become the centre of important mining interests; and still later the development of copper mines at Jerome and around Bisbee. Several of the Arizona copper mines are among the greatest of the world. The Copper Queen at Bisbee from 1880-1902 produced 378,047,210 lb of crude copper, which was practically the total output of the territory till after 1900, when other valuable mines were opened; the Globe, Morenci and Jerome districts are secondary to Bisbee. Important mines of gold and silver, considerable deposits of wolframite, valuable ores of molybdenum and vanadium, and quarries of onyx marble, are also worked. Low-grade coal deposits occur in the east central part of the state and near the junction of the Gila and San Pedro rivers. Some fine gems of peridot, garnet and turquoise have been found. The mineral products of Arizona for 1907 were valued at $5 6 ,753, 6 5 0;of which$51,355,687(more than that of anyotherstate) was the value of copper; $2,664,000, gold; and $1,916,000, silver. In 1907 the legislature passed an elaborate act providing for the taxation of mines, its principal clause being that the basis of valuation for taxation in each year be one-fourth of the output of the mines in question for the next preceding year.

Manufactures

The manufacturing industries are of relatively slight importance, though considerable promise attends the experiments with canaigre as a source of tannin. The Navaho and Moqui Indians make woollen blankets and rugs and the Pimas baskets. Onyx marbles of local source are polished at Phoenix. The capital invested in manufacturing industries increased from $9,517,573 in 1900 to $14,395,654 in 1905, or 5 1 3%, and the value of products from $20,438,987 in 1900 to $28,083,192 in 1905, or 37.4%. Of the total product in 1905 the product of the principal industry, the smelting and refining of copper ($22,761,981), represented 81.1%; it was 9.4% of all the smelting and refining of copper done in the United States in that year. The other manufactures were of much less importance, the principal ones being cars and general shop construction, including repairs by steam railway companies ($1,329,308), lumber and timber products ($960,778), and flour and grist mill products ($743,124).

Two transcontinental railway systems, the Southern Pacific and Santa Fe, were built across Arizona in 1878-1883. They are connected by one line, and a feeder runs S. into Sonora.

The railway mileage of Arizona on the 1st of January 1908 was 1935.35 m.

Population

The population of Arizona in 1880 was 40,440; in 1890, 59,620; in 1900, 122,931 (including 28,623 reservation Indians not counted in previous censuses). The native population is of the most diverse origin; the foreign element is equally heterogeneous, but more than half (in 1900, 14,172 out of 24,283 foreign-born) are Mexicans, many of whom are not permanent residents; after 1900, immigrants were largely mine labourers, and included Slavonians and Italians. The largest towns in 1900 were Tucson, Phoenix, which is the capital, Prescott (pop. 3559), Jerome (pop. 1890, 250; in 1900, 2861); Winslow (pop. 1890, 363; in 1900, 1305), Nogales (pop. 1900, 1761), and Bisbee. The last was an insignificant mining camp in 1880, still unincorporated in 1900, but with an estimated population of 6000 in 1904. It is crowded picturesquely into several narrow confluent ravines. Railway connexion with El Paso was established in 1902. Douglas is another growing camp.

Over thirty Indian tribes are represented in the Indian schools of Arizona. The more important are the Hualapais or ApacheYumas; the Mohaves; the Yavapais or Apache-Mohaves; the Yumas, whose lesser neighbours on the lower Colorado are the most primitive Indians of the United States in habits; the Maricopas; the Pimas and Papagoes, who figure much in early Arizona history, and who are superior in intelligence, adaptability, application and character; the Hopis or Moquis, possessed of the same good qualities and notably temperate and provident, famous for their prehistoric culture (Tusuyan); the Navaho, and the kindred Apaches, perhaps the most relentless and savage of Indian warriors. All the Indians of Arizona live on reservations save the few non-tribal Indians taxed and treated as active citizens. Even the Apaches after being whipped by relentless war into temporary submission have been bound by treaties which the gifts, vices and virtues of the reservation system have tempted them to observe. The Pimas and Papagoes were early converted by the Spaniards, and retain to-day a smattering of Christianity plentifully alloyed with paganism. Apaches, Pimas, Papagoes have been employed by the United States on great irrigation works, and have proved industrious and faithful labourers. In 1900 there were 1836 taxed Indians, 26,480 reservation Indians not taxed, and in addition many friendly Papagoes unenumerated.

In 1906 the Indian population was estimated as being 14% of the whole population of Arizona, and that they are singularly lawabiding is argued from the fact that in the same year the Indians furnished only 3% of the convicts in the territorial prison.

Government and Education

Arizona became a territory of the first (or practically autonomous) class in 1863. Her organic law thereafter until 1910 consisted of various sections of the Revised Statutes of the United States. From the beginning she had a territorial legislature. Congress retained ultimately direct control of all government, administration being in the hands of resident officials appointed by the president and Senate. Special mention must be made of the secret police, the Arizona Rangers, organized in 1901 to police the cattle ranges; they are " fearless men, trained in riding, roping, trailing and shooting," a force whose personnel is not known to the general public. The legislature repealed the law licensing public gambling in 1907; enacted a law requiring the payment of $300 per annum as licence fee by retail liquor dealers; and provided for juvenile courts and probationary control of children. In 1907 the total tax valuation of property was $77,705,251; the net debt of the territory $1,022,972, and that of counties and towns $3,123,275. The receipts of the territorial treasury for the year ending on the 30th of June 1907 were $687,386, and the disbursements for the same period were $601,568. A homestead provision (1901) exempts from liability for debts (except mortgages or liens placed before the homestead claim) any homestead belonging to the head of a family, existing in one compact body and valued at not more than $2500; such a homestead a married man may not sell, lease or put a lien on without his wife's consent. Personal property to the value of $500 is exempt from the same liability, The public school system was established in 1871. A compulsory attendance law applies to children between 6 and 14 years of age, but it is not generally obeyed by the Mexican element of population. In 1907 there was an enrolment of 2 4 ,962 out of 33,167 children of school age; there were six high schools - three new in 1906; and the average number of school days was 128.4. In the fiscal year ending June 1907, the total receipts for schools were $697,762, and the expenditures were $701,102. Illiteracy is high, amounting in 1900 to 23.1% of native males, above 21 years of age, and 30 5% of foreign males, principally because of the large number of Indians, Chinese, Japanese and Mexicans in the state. There are two normal schools at Tempe (1886) and Flagstaff (1899), a university at Tucson with an agricultural experiment station that has done much for the industries of Arizona; there is a considerable number of Indian schools, the largest of which are maintained by the national government, and the funds of the university come largely from the same source. The first juvenile reform school, called the Territorial Industrial school, was opened in 1903 at Benson. The territorial prison, formerly at Yuma, was abandoned for a modern building at Florence, Pinal county; and a hospital for the insane is 3 m. from Phoenix. k History. - The history of the South-west is full of interest to the archaeologist. A prehistoric culture widely distributed has left abundant traces. Pueblo ruins are plentiful in the basins of the Gila and Colorado rivers and their tributaries. Geographical conditions and a hard struggle against nature fixed the character of this " aridian " culture, and determined its migrations; the onslaughts of nomad Indians determined the sedentary civilization of the cliff dwellers. A co-operative social economy is evidenced by the traces of great public works, such as canals many miles in length. The pueblos of the Gila valley are held to be older than those of the Colorado. Casa Grande, 15 m. S.E. of a railway station of the same name on the Southern Pacific railway, is the most remarkable of plain ruins in the South-west, the only one of its type in the United States. It resembles the Casa Grande ruin of Chihuahua, Mexico, with its walls of sundried puddled clay, and its area of rooms, courts and plazas, surrounded by a wall. It was already a ruin when discovered in 1694 by the Jesuit father Kino. John Russel Bartlett described it in 1854, and in 1889 Congress voted that it be protected as a government reservation; in 1892 it was set apart by the government. Excavations were made there in 1906-1907 by Dr J. Walter Fewkes. Migration was northward. The valleys of the Salt river and its affluents, the Agua Fria, Verde and Tonto, are strewn with aboriginal remains; but especially important in migrations of culture was the Little Colorado. A very considerable population must have lived once in this valley. It is represented to-day by the still undeserted habitats of Zuni (in New Mexico) and Tusayan; the Moquis, after the Zunis, are in customs and traditions the best survival of the ancient civilization.

Arizona north of the Gila, save for a very limited and intermittent missionary effort and for scant exploring expeditions, was practically unknown to the, whites until well after the beginning of American rule. The Santa Cruz valley, however, has much older annals of a past that charms by its picturesque contrasts with the present. Arizona history begins with the arrival in Sonora in 1536 of Alvar Nunez Cabeza de Vaca, who, although he had not entered Arizona or New Mexico, had heard of them, and by his stories incited the Spaniards to explore the unknown north in hope of wealth. Marcos de Niza, a Franciscan friar to whom the first reconnaissance was entrusted, was the first Spaniard to enter the limits of Arizona. He crossed the south-eastern corner to Zuni in 1539, passing through the Santa Cruz valley; and F. V. de Coronado was led by Fray Marcos over the same route in 1540; while Hernando Alarcon explored the Gulf of California and the lower Colorado river. Members of Coronado's expedition explored the Moqui country and reached the Grand Canyon, and after this a succession of remarkable and heroic explorations followed through the century; which however accomplished little forgeography,further confusing and embellishing rather than clearing up its mysteries. All this has left traces in still living myths about the early history of the South-west. Early in the 17th century considerable progress had been made in Christianizing the Pimas, Papagoes and Moquis. Following 1680 came a great Indian revolt in New Mexico and Arizona, and thereafter the Moquis remained independent of Spanish and Christian domination, although visited fitfully by rival Jesuits and Franciscans. In 1732 (possibly in 1720) regular Jesuit missions were founded at Bac (known as an Indian rancheria since the 17th century) and at Guevavi. The region south of the Gila had already been repeatedly explored. In the second half of the century there was a presidio at Tubac (whose name first appears 1752) and some half-dozen pueblos de visita, including the Indian settlement of Tucson.

A few errors should be corrected and some credit given with reference to this early period. The Inquisition never had any jurisdiction whatever over the Indians; compulsory labour by the Indians was never legalized except on the missions, and the law was little violated; they were never compelled to work mines; of mining by the Indians for precious metals there is no evidence; nor by the Jesuits (expelled in 1767, after which their missions and other properties were held by the Franciscans), except to a small extent about the presidio of Tubac, although they did some prospecting. Persistent traditions have greatly exaggerated the former prosperity of the old South-west. The Spaniards probably provoked some inter-tribal intercourse among the Indians, and did something among some tribes for agriculture. Their own farms and settlements, save in the immediate vicinity of the presidio, were often plundered and abandoned, and such settlement as there was was confined to the Santa Cruz valley. From about 1790 to 1822 was a period of peace with the Apaches and of comparative prosperity for church and'state. The fine Indian mission church at Bac, long abandoned and neglected, dates from the last decade of the 18th century. The establishment of a presidio at Tucson in 1776 marks its beginning as a Spanish settlement.

The decay of the military power of the presidios during the Mexican war of independence, the expulsion of loyal Spaniards - notably friars - and the renewal of Apache wars, led to the temporary abandonment of all settlements except Tubac and Tucson. The church practically forsook the field about 1828.

American traders and explorers first penetrated Arizona in the first quarter of the 19th century. As a result of the Mexican War, New Mexico, which then included all Arizona north of the Gila, was ceded to the United States. California gold discoveries drew particular attention to the country south of the Gila, which was wanted also for a transcontinental railway route. This strip, known as the " Gadsden Purchase " (see Gadsden, James), was bought in 1854 by the United States, which took possession in 1856. This portion was also added to New Mexico. The Mexicans, pressed by the Apaches, had, in 1848, abandoned even Tubac and Tamacacori, first a visita of Guevavi, and after 1784 a mission. The progress of American settlement was interrupted by the Civil War, which caused the withdrawal of the troops and was the occasion for the outbreak of prolonged Indian wars.

Meanwhile a convention at Tucson in 1856 sent a delegate to Congress and petitioned for independent territorial government. This movement and others that followed were ignored by Congress owing to its division over the general slavery question, and especially the belief of northern members that the control of Arizona was an object of the pro-slavery party. A convention held in April 1860 at Tucson undertook to " ordain and establish," of its own motion, a provisional constitution until Congress should " organize a territorial government." This provisional territory constituted all New Mexico south of 34° 40' N. Officials were appointed and New Mexican legislation for the Arizona counties ignored, but nothing further was done. In 1861 it was occupied by a Texan force, declared for the Confederacy, and sent a delegate (who was not admitted) to the Confederate congress. That body in January 1862 passed a formal act organizing the territory, including in it New Mexico, but in May 1862 the Texans were driven out by a Union force from California. By act of the 24th of February 1863 Congress organized Arizona territory as the country west of 109° W. long. In December an itinerant government sent out complete from Washington crossed the Arizona line and effected a formal organization. The territorial capital was first at Prescott (1863-1867), then at Tucson (1867-1877), again at Prescott (1877-1889), and finally, at Phoenix (since 1889).

There have been boundary difficulties with every contiguous state or territory. The early period of American rule was extremely unsettled. The California gold discoveries and overland travel directed many prospecting adventurers to Arizona. For some years there was considerable sentiment favouring filibustering in Sonora. The Indian wars, breeding a habit of dependence on force, and the heterogeneous elements of cattle thieves, Sonoran cowboys, mine labourers and adventurers led to one of the worst periods of American border history. But since about 1880 there is nothing to chronicle but a continued growth in population and prosperity. Agitation for statehood became prominent in territorial politics for some years. In accordance with an act of Congress, approved on the 16th of June 1906, the inhabitants of Arizona and New Mexico voted on the 6th of November 1906 on the question of uniting the territories into a single state to be called Arizona; the vote of New Mexico was favourable to union and statehood, but these were defeated by the vote of Arizona (16,265 against, and 3141 for statehood). In June 1910 the President approved an enabling act providing for the admission of Arizona and New Mexico as separate states.

Bibliography

For the Colorado river and the Grand Canyon see those articles; for the Sonoran boundary region, Report of the Boundary Commission upon the Boundaries between the United States and Mexico (3 vols., Washington, 1898-1899, also as Senate Document No. 247, vols. 2 32 5, 55 Congress, 2 Session); for the petrified forest of the Painted Desert, L. F. Ward in Smithsonian Institution Annual Rep., 1899; for the rest of the area, various reports in the U.S. Geological Survey publications, bibliography in Bulletin Nos. 100, 177. - Fauna and Flora: U.S. Department of Agriculture, North American Fauna, No. 3 (1890), No. 7 (1893); U.S. Biological Survey, Bulletin No. 10 (1898); publications of the Desert Botanical Laboratory at Tucson; also titles under archaeology below, particularly Bandelier's " Final Report." - Climate, Soil, Agriculture: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Climate and Crop Service, Arizona, monthly reports, annual summaries; Arizona Agricultural Experiment Station, Bulletins. - [[Mineral Industries: U.S]]. Geological Survey publications, consult bibliographies; The Mineral Industry, annual (New York and London). - Government Arizona Revised Statutes (Phoenix, 1887); Report of the Governor of Arizona Territory to the Secretary of the Interior, annual. - ARcHAEOLOGY: An abundance of materials in the Annual Report, U.S. Bureau of Ethnology for different years; consult also especially A. F. A. Bandelier, " Contributions to the' History of the Southwestern Portion of the United States," in Archaeological Institute of America, Papers, American Series, vol. 5 (Cambridge, 1890); " Final Report of Investigations among the Indians of the Southwestern United States," ib. vols. 3 and 4 (Cambridge, 1890-1892); other material may be found in Smithsonian Institution, Annual Report, 1896, 1897, &c, and many important papers by J. W. Fewkes, F. W. Hodge, C. Mendeleff and others in the American Anthropologist and Journal of American Ethnology. - [[History : H. H]]. Bancroft, History of Arizona and New Mexico (San Francisco, 1887); A. F. A. Bandelier, " Historical Introduction to Studies among the Sedentary Indians of New Mexico," in Archaeological Institute of America, Papers, American Series, vol. 1 (Boston, 1881); The Gilded Man (El Dorado) and other Papers (New York, 1893); G. P. Winship, " The Coronado Expedition," in U.S. Bureau of Ethnology, z4th Annual Report (1892-1893), pp. 33961 3, with an abundant literature to which this may be the guide. The traditional errors respecting the early history of the Spanish South-west are fully exposed in the works of Bancroft and Bandelier, whose conclusions are supported by E. Coues, On the Trail of a Spanish Pioneer, Francisco Garces (2 vols. New York, 1900).


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Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

Contents

English

Map of US highlighting Arizona
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Etymology

EB1911A-pict1.png This entry lacks etymological information. If you are familiar with the origin of this word, please add it to the page as described here.

Pronunciation

Proper noun

Singular
Arizona

Plural
-

Arizona

  1. A state of the United States of America. Postal code: AZ, capital: Phoenix.

Derived terms

Translations

See also

Anagrams


Polish

Proper noun

Arizona f.

  1. Arizona

Declension

Singular only
Nominative Arizona
Genitive Arizony
Dative Arizonie
Accusative Arizonę
Instrumental Arizoną
Locative Arizonie
Vocative Arizono

Derived terms

  • arizoński

Vietnamese

Proper noun

Arizona

  1. Arizona

Wikispecies

Up to date as of January 23, 2010

From Wikispecies

Arizona elegans occidentalis

Taxonavigation

Main Page
Cladus: Eukaryota
Supergroup: Unikonta
Cladus: Opisthokonta
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Cladus: Deuterostomia
Phylum: Chordata
Subphylum: Vertebrata
Infraphylum: Gnathostomata
Superclassis: Tetrapoda
Classis: Reptilia
Subclassis: Diapsida
Infraclassis: Lepidosauromorpha
Superordo: Lepidosauria
Ordo: Squamata
Subordo: Serpentes
Infraordo: Caenophidia
Superfamilia: Colubroidea
Familia: Colubridae
Subfamilia: Colubrinae
Genus: Arizona
Species: A. elegans

Name

Arizona Kennicott, 1859

Type species: Arizona elegans Kennicott, 1859

References

  • Kennicott, 1859. In Baird, U.S: Mexican Bound. Surv. 2, Rept., Pt. 2, p. 14, 16,18, pl.13.
  • Arizona at the New Reptile Database. Accessed on 20 August 2008.

Vernacular names

Deutsch: Arizonanatter
English: Glossy Snakes

Genealogy

Up to date as of February 01, 2010

From Familypedia

State of Arizona
Flag of Arizona State seal of Arizona
Flag of Arizona SealImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif
Nickname(s)Image:Wp_globe_tiny.gif: The Grand Canyon State,
The Copper State
Motto(s)Image:Wp_globe_tiny.gif: Ditat Deus
Map of the United States with Arizona highlighted
Official language(s)Image:Wp_globe_tiny.gif English
Spoken language(s)Image:Wp_globe_tiny.gif English 74.1%,
Spanish 19.5%,
Navajo 1.9%
CapitalImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif Phoenix
Largest cityImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif Phoenix
Largest metro areaImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif Phoenix Metropolitan Area
AreaImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif  Ranked 6thImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif
 - Total 113,998 sq miImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif
(295,254 km²Image:Wp_globe_tiny.gif)
 - Width 310 miles (500 kmImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif)
 - Length 400 miles (645 km)
 - % water 0.32
 - Latitude 31° 20′ N to 37° N
 - Longitude 109° 3′ W to 114° 49′ W
PopulationImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif  Ranked 16thImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif
 - Total (2000Image:Wp_globe_tiny.gif) 5,130,632
 - DensityImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif 45.2/sq mi 
17.43/km² (36th)
ElevationImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif  
 - Highest point Humphreys Peak[1]
12,633 ft  (3,851 m)
 - Mean 4,100 ft  (1,250 m)
 - Lowest point Colorado River[1]
70 ft  (22 m)
Admission to UnionImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif  February 14, 1912 (48th)
GovernorImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif Janet Napolitano (D)
U.S. SenatorsImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif John McCain (R)
Jon Kyl (R)
Congressional DelegationImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif ListImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif
Time zonesImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif  
 - Most of State Mountain: UTC-7/
 - Navajo Nation Mountain: UTC-7/-6
Abbreviations AZImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif Image:Wp_globe_tiny.gif US-AZImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif
Web site www.az.gov
Arizona State Symbols
Living Symbols
 -Animal Ringtail Cat
 -Bird Cactus Wren
 -Butterfly Two-Tailed Swallowtail
 -Fish Apache Trout
 -Flower Saguaro Blossom
 -Furbearer Ringtail Cat
 -Grass None
 -Insect Two-Tailed Swallowtail
 -Reptile Ridgenose Rattlesnake
 -Tree Palo verde
 -Wildflower None
Beverage None
Capital Phoenix
Colors Blue, Old Gold
Dance Unknown
Fossil Petrified wood
Gemstone Turquoise
Mineral Fire Agate
Motto Ditat Deus (God Enriches)
Musical Instrument None
Neckwear Bolo Tie
Nickname Grand Canyon State
Rock Petrified wood
Game Unknown
Ship(s) (3) Navy ships named USS Arizona
Song "Arizona March Song"
"Arizona"
Soil Arizona Casa-Grande
Tartan None
Waltz None


The State of Arizona (IPA: /ˌærɪˈzoʊnə/) is a state located in the southwestern region of the United States of America. The capital and largest city is Phoenix. The three next largest cities are Tucson, Mesa and Glendale. Arizona was the 48th and last of the contiguous states admitted to the Union on February 14, 1912[2]. Arizona is noted for its desert climate, exceptionally hot summers and mild winters, but the high country in the north features pine forests and mountain ranges which contrast with the lower deserts.

Arizona is one of the Four Corners states. It borders New Mexico, Utah, Nevada, California, touches Colorado, and has a 389 mi (626 km) international border with the states of Sonora and Baja California in Mexico. Aside from the Grand Canyon, many other National Forests, Parks, Monuments, and Indian reservations are located in the state.

Contents

Geography

Arizona is located in the Western United States as one of the Four Corners states. Arizona is the sixth largest state in area, after New Mexico and before Nevada. Of the state's 118,000 square miles (306,000 km2), approximately 15% is privately owned. The remaining area is government forest and park land, recreation areas and Native American reservations.

Arizona is best known for its desert landscape, which is rich in xerophyte plants such as cactus. It is also known for its climate, which presents exceptionally hot summers and mild winters. Less well known is the pine-covered high country of the Colorado Plateau in the north-central portion of the state, which contrasts with the desertic Basin and Range region in the southern portions of the state.

Like other states of the Southwest, Arizona has an abundance of topographical characteristics in addition to its desert climate. More than half of the state features mountains and plateaus and contains the largest stand of Ponderosa pine in the United States. The Mogollon Rim, a 2000-foot (600 m) escarpment, cuts across the central section of the state and marks the southwestern edge of the Colorado Plateau, where the state experienced its worst forest fire ever in 2002. Arizona belongs firmly within the Basin and Range region of North America. The region was shaped by prehistoric volcanism, followed by a cooling-off and related subsidence. The entire region is slowly sinking.

The Grand Canyon is a colorful, steep-sided gorge, carved by the Colorado River, in northern Arizona. The canyon is one of the seven natural wonders of the world and is largely contained in the Grand Canyon National Park—one of the first national parks in the United States. President Theodore Roosevelt was a major proponent of designating the Grand Canyon area, visiting on numerous occasions to hunt mountain lion and enjoy the scenery.

The Canyon was created by the Colorado River cutting a channel over millions of years, and is about 277 miles (446 km) long, ranges in width from 4 to 18 miles (6 to 29 kilometers) and attains a depth of more than 1 mile (1.6 km). Nearly 2 billion years of the Earth's history has been exposed as the Colorado River and its tributaries cut through layer after layer of sediment as the Colorado Plateaus have uplifted.

Arizona is home to one of the largest and most well-preserved meteorite impact sites in the world. The Barringer Meteorite Crater (better known simply as "Meteor Crater") is a gigantic hole in the middle of the high plains of the Colorado Plateau, about 25 miles (40 km) west of Winslow. A rim of smashed and jumbled boulders, some of them the size of small houses, rises 150 feet (46 m) above the level of the surrounding plain. The crater itself is nearly a mile wide, and 570 feet (174 m) deep.

Arizona does not observe Daylight Saving Time, except in the Navajo Nation, located in the northeastern region of the state.

Climate

A view of an Arizona sunset looking over a lake.
Horsethief Lake near Crown King, Arizona.
The North Rim of the Grand Canyon.

Due to its large area and variations in elevation, the state has a wide variety of localized climate conditions. In the lower elevations, the climate is primarily desert, with mild winters and hot summers. Typically, from late fall to early spring, the weather is mild, averaging a minimum of 60 degrees Fahrenheit (15 °C). November through February are the coldest months with temperatures typically ranging from 40–75 °F (4–24 °C), although occasional frosts are not uncommon. About midway through February, the temperatures start to rise again with warm days, and cool breezy nights. The summer months of May through August bring a dry heat ranging from 90–120 °F (32–48 °C), with occasional high temperatures exceeding 125 °F (52 °C) having been observed in the desert area. Due to the primarily dry climate, large temperature swings often occur between day and night, with some as large as 50 °F (28 °C) in the summer months.

However, the northern third of Arizona is a plateau at significantly higher altitudes than the lower desert, and has an appreciably cooler climate, with cold winters and mild summers. Extreme cold temperatures are not unknown; cold air systems from the northern states and Canada occasionally push into the state, bringing temperatures below 0 °F (–18 °C) to the higher parts of the state.

Arizona has an average annual rainfall of 12.7 inches (322 mm),[3] which comes during two rainy seasons, with cold fronts coming from the Pacific Ocean during the winter and a monsoon in the summer.[4] The monsoon season occurs from the middle of July through August and brings lightning, thunderstorms, wind, and torrential, if usually brief, downpours. It is rare for tornadoes and hurricanes to occur in Arizona, but there are records of both occurring.

Indicative of the variation in climate, Arizona is the state which has both the metropolitan area with the most days over 100 °F (37.8 °C) (Phoenix), and the metropolitan area in the lower 48 states with nearly the most days with a low temperature below freezing (Flagstaff) [5].

Monthly Normal High and Low Temperatures For Various Arizona Cities
City Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
Flagstaff 43/17 46/19 50/23 58/27 68/34 79/41 82/50 80/49 74/42 63/31 51/22 44/17
Phoenix 65/43 69/47 74/51 83/58 92/66 102/75 104/81 102/80 97/75 86/63 73/50 65/44
Tucson 65/39 68/42 73/45 82/51 90/59 100/68 100/73 97/72 94/68 84/57 72/45 65/39
Winslow 47/21 54/26 62/31 70/37 79/45 90/54 93/62 90/61 84/53 72/40 58/29 47/21
Yuma 69/43 74/47 79/51 86/57 94/64 103/72 107/80 105/80 101/73 90/62 77/49 68/42
Source: US National Climatic Data Center[1]

History

Main article: History of Arizona


There is some disagreement over the proper etymology of the name "Arizona." The two most likely explanations are that it derives from a Basque phrase aritz onak, "good oaks,"[6][7] or that it comes from an O'odham phrase alĭ ṣonak, "small spring"[8]. The former etymology is the one preferred by Arizona state historian Marshall Trimble, among other specialists. The name Arizonac was initially applied to the silver mining camp, and later (shortened to Arizona) to the entire territory.

Meeting its original native inhabitants, probably the Sobaipuri, Marcos de Niza, a Spanish Franciscan, explored the area in 1539. The expedition of Spanish explorer Coronado entered the area in 1540–42 during its search for Cíbola. Father Kino developed a chain of missions and taught the Indians Christianity in Pimería Alta (now southern Arizona and northern Sonora) in the 1690s and early 1700s. Spain founded fortified towns (presidios) at Tubac in 1752 and Tucson in 1775. When Mexico achieved its independence from Spain in 1821, what is now Arizona became part of the Mexican State Nueva California, also known as Alta California.[9] In the Mexican–American War (1847), the U.S. occupied Mexico City and forced the newly founded Mexican Republic to give up its northern territories, including the later Arizona. The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo (1848) specified that the U.S. pay Mexico the sum of $15 Million US in compensation.[10] In 1853 the land below the Gila River was acquired from Mexico in the Gadsden Purchase. Arizona was administered as part of the Territory of New Mexico until southern New Mexico seceded[11] from the Union as the Confederate Territory of Arizona on March 16, 1861. This is the first official use of the name. A new Arizona Territory, consisting of the western half of New Mexico Territory was declared in Washington, D.C. on February 24, 1863. The new boundaries would later form the basis of the state.

Other names including "Gadsonia", "Pimeria", "Montezuma", "Arizuma", and "Arizonia" had been considered for the territory [12], however when President Lincoln signed the final bill, it read "Arizona", and the name became permanent. (Montezuma was not the Mexican Emperor, but the sacred name of a divine hero to the Pueblo people of the Gila valley, and was probably considered — and rejected — for its sentimental value, before the name "Arizona" was settled upon.)

Brigham Young sent Mormons to Arizona in the mid-to-late 19th century. They founded Mesa, Snowflake, Heber, Safford and other towns. They also settled in the Phoenix Valley (or "Valley of the Sun"), Tempe, Prescott, among other areas. The Mormons settled what became known as Northern Arizona and northern New Mexico, but these areas were located in a part of the former New Mexico Territory. The largest ancestry of these settlers is German American.

Arizona became a U.S. state on February 14, 1912. Arizona was the 48th state admitted into the U.S. and the last of the contiguous states admitted.

A sunset in the Arizona desert near Scottsdale. The climate and imagery are two factors behind Arizona's tourism industry.

Cotton farming and copper mining, two of Arizona's most important statewide industries, suffered heavily during the Great Depression, but it was during the 1920s and 1930s that tourism began to be the important Arizona industry it is today. Dude ranches such as the K L Bar and Remuda in Wickenburg, along with the Flying V and Tanque Verde in Tucson, gave tourists the chance to experience the flavor and life of the "old West." Several upscale hotels and resorts opened during this period, some of which are still top tourist draws to this day; they include the Arizona Biltmore Hotel in central Phoenix (opened 1929) and the Wigwam Resort on the west side of the Phoenix area (opened 1936).

Arizona was the site of German and Italian POW camps during World War II and Japanese US-resident internment camps (for national security during the time of martial law). The Phoenix area site was purchased after the war by the Maytag family (of major home appliance fame), and is currently utilized as the Phoenix Zoo. A Japanese American internment camp was located on Mount Lemmon, just outside of the state's southeastern city of Tucson. Another POW camp was located near the Gila River in eastern Yuma County. Because of California's proximity to Japan, a line was drawn somewhat parallel to the California border, and all Japanese residents west of that line were required to reside in the war camps. Grand Avenue, (perhaps because of its similarity to the California border) was chosen as part of that boundary, which resulted in many extended Japanese families being separated; some interned, some free--and some free families, in and odd bid for family values, requested to be interrned to stay with their families at a camp built by the original Del Webb Co., a modern manufacturer of large housing developments).

Arizona's population grew tremendously after World War II, in part because of the development of air conditioning, which made the intense summers more comfortable. According to the Arizona Blue Book (published by the Secretary of State's office each year), the state population in 1910 was 294,353. By 1970, it was 1,752,122. The percentage growth each decade averaged about 20% in the earlier decades and about 60% each decade thereafter.

The 1960s saw the establishment of retirement communities, special age-restricted subdivisions catering exclusively to the needs of senior citizens who wanted to escape the harsh winters of the Midwest and the Northeast. Sun City, established by developer Del Webb and opened in 1960 was one of the first such communities. Green Valley, south of Tucson, was another such community designed to be a retirement subdivision for Arizona's teachers. (Many of these senior citizens arrive in Arizona each winter and stay only during the winter months; they are referred to as snowbirds.)

Three ships named USS Arizona have been named in honor of the state, although only USS Arizona (BB-39) was so named after statehood was achieved.

Demographics

As of 2006, Arizona had an estimated population of 6,166,318,[13] which is an increase of 213,311, or 3.6%, from the prior year and an increase of 1,035,686, or 20.2%, since the year 2000. This includes a natural increase since the last census of 297,928 people (that is 564,062 births minus 266,134 deaths) and an increase due to net migration of 745,944 people into the state. Immigration from outside the United States resulted in a net increase of 204,661 people, and migration within the country produced a net increase of 541,283 people. New population figures for the year ending July 1, 2006, indicate that Arizona is the fastest growing state in the United States, with 3.6% population growth since 2005, exceeding the growth of the previous leader, Nevada.[14]

The center of population of Arizona is located in Maricopa County, in the town of Gilbert [15]. {{US DemogTable|Arizona|03-04.csv|= | 89.29| 3.74| 5.81| 2.36| 0.28|= | 24.13| 0.41| 0.73| 0.19| 0.07|= | 88.74| 4.20| 5.63| 2.75| 0.31|= | 27.20| 0.58| 0.72| 0.23| 0.08|= | 15.05| 30.11| 12.25| 35.27| 25.02|= | 9.32| 25.75| 11.85| 34.75| 22.33|= | 30.51| 65.92| 15.01| 41.10| 32.89}}  

Arizona Population Density Map

According to 2003 U.S. Census estimates, Arizona has the third highest number (and the sixth highest percentage) of Native Americans of any state in the Union. 286,680 were estimated to live in Arizona, representing more than 10% of the country's total Native American population of 2,752,158. Only California and Oklahoma [16] have more Native Americans. The perimeters of Phoenix, Tucson, Prescott, and Yuma abut Native American reservations.

The largest ancestry groups in Arizona are Mexican (21%), German, English, Irish, and Native American. The southern and central parts of the state are heavily Mexican-American, especially in Santa Cruz County and Yuma County near the Mexican border. The north-central and northwestern counties are largely inhabited by residents of English ancestry. The northeastern part of Arizona has many American Indians. African Americans have had a relatively small presence in Arizona, but their numbers are increasing due to in-migration from other states, especially California, the Midwest and the Northeast. The African American population of the Phoenix metropolitan area doubled between 1990 and 2005. [17]

Arizona is projected to become a minority-majority state by the year 2035, if current population growth trends continue. In 2003, for the first time, there were more Hispanic births in the state than white (non-Hispanic) births.

As of 2000, 74.16% of Arizona residents age 5 and older speak only English at home and 19.52% speak Spanish. Navajo is the third most spoken language at 1.89% [18].

49.9% of the population is male, 50.1% is female.

See also the list of native peoples.

Religion

A 2000 survey by the Association of Religion Data Archives found that 45.3% of Arizonans were active adherents to a particular religion. Those adherents break down as follows: [19]

Economy

The 2004 total gross state product was $187 billion. If Arizona (and each of the other US states) were an independent country along with all existing countries (2005), it would have the 61st largest economy in the world (CIA - The World Factbook). This figure gives Arizona a larger economy than such countries as Ireland, Finland, and New Zealand. Arizona currently has the 21st largest economy among states in the United States.

The state's per capita income is $27,232, 39th in the U.S. Early in its history, Arizona's economy relied on the "Five C's": copper (see Copper mining in Arizona), cotton, cattle, citrus, and climate (tourism). At one point Arizona was the largest producer of cotton in the country. Copper is still extensively mined from many expansive open-pit and underground mines, accounting for two-thirds of the nation's output.

Employment

The state government is Arizona's largest employer, while Wal-Mart is the state's largest private employer, with 17,343 employees (2003).

In 2001, 161,166 Arizonans were employed in the high-tech sector, accounting for about 8.3% of total private-sector employment of more than 1.9 million. High-tech payroll in 2001 was $2.2 billion, or 14.7% of the private-sector total. High-tech employment was led by software and computers, with 34,314; electronics components manufacturing, 30,358; aerospace manufacturing, 25,641; architectural and engineering services, 21,378; telecommunications, 21,224; and instruments manufacturing, 13,056.

Taxation

Arizona collects personal income taxes in five brackets: 2.87%, 3.20%, 3.74%, 4.72% and 5.04%.

Single Tax Rate Joint Tax Rate
0 - $10,000 2.870% 0 - $20,000 2.870%
$10,000 - $25,000 3.200% $20,001 - $50,000 3.200%
$25,000 - $50,000 3.740% $50,001 - $100,000 3.740%
$50,000 - $150,001 4.720% $100,000 - $300,001 4.720%
$150,001 + 5.040% $300,001 + 5.040%

Arizona Transaction Privilege Tax (sales) and Use tax rates generally are 6.3%.

The state rate on transient lodging (hotel/motel) is 7.27%. The state of Arizona does not levy a state tax on food for home consumption or on drugs prescribed by a licensed physician or dentist. However, some cities in Arizona do levy a tax on food for home consumption.

All fifteen Arizona counties levy a tax.

Incorporated municipalities also levy transaction privilege taxes which, with the exception of their hotel/motel tax, are generally in the range of 1-to-3%. These added assessments could push the combined sales tax rate to as high as 10.7%.

Transportation

Main article: Transportation in Arizona
Entering Arizona on I-10 from New Mexico

Highways

Main interstate routes include I-17, and I-19 running north-south, I-40, I-8, and I-10 running east-west, and a short stretch of I-15 running northeast/southwest through the extreme northwestern corner of the state. In addition, the various urban areas are served by complex networks of state routes and highways, such as the Loop 101.

Public transportation and intercity bus

The Phoenix and Tucson metropolitan areas are served by public bus transit systems. Yuma and Flagstaff also have public bus systems. Greyhound Lines serves Phoenix, Tucson, Flagstaff, Yuma, and several smaller communities statewide.

A light rail system called Valley Metro Rail is currently being built in Phoenix. When completed, it will connect Central Phoenix with the nearby cities of Mesa and Tempe. The system is projected to be operational by December of 2008.

In May 2006, voters in Tucson approved a Regional Transportation Plan (a comprehensive bus transit/streetcar/roadway improvement program), and its funding via a new half-cent sales tax increment. The centerpiece of the plan is a light rail streetcar system (possibly similar to the Portland Streetcar in Oregon) that will travel through the downtown area, connecting the main University of Arizona campus with the Rio Nuevo master plan area on the western edge of downtown.[20]

Aviation

See also: List of airports in Arizona

Airports with regularly scheduled commercial flights include: Phoenix Sky Harbor International Airport (IATA: PHX, ICAO: KPHX) in Phoenix (the largest airport and the major international airport in the state); Tucson International Airport (IATA: TUS, ICAO: KTUS) in Tucson; Phoenix-Mesa Gateway Airport (IATA: AZA, ICAO: KIWA) in Mesa; Yuma International Airport (IATA: YUM, ICAO: KYUM) in Yuma; Prescott Municipal Airport (PRC) in Prescott; Flagstaff Pulliam Airport (IATA: FLG, ICAO: KFLG) in Flagstaff, and Grand Canyon National Park Airport (GCP), a small, but busy, single-runway facility providing tourist flights, mostly from Las Vegas. Phoenix Sky Harbor is the 7th busiest airport in the world in terms of aircraft movements, and regularly in the top 15 for passengers.

Other significant airports without regularly scheduled commercial flights include Scottsdale Municipal Airport (IATA: SCF, ICAO: KSDL) in Scottsdale.

Law and government

See also Arizona Constitution, List of Arizona Congressmen and List of Arizona Governors

Arizona State Capitol, Phoenix

Capitol complex

The state capital of Arizona is Phoenix. The original Capitol building, with its distinctive copper dome, was dedicated in 1901 (construction was completed for $136,000 in 1900), when the area was still a territory. Phoenix became the official state capital with Arizona's admission to the union in 1912.

The House of Representatives and Senate were dedicated in 1960, and an Executive Office Building was dedicated in 1974 (the ninth floor of this building is where the Office of the Governor is located). The original Capitol building was converted into a museum.

The Capitol complex is fronted and highlighted by the richly landscaped Wesley Bolin Memorial Plaza, named after Wesley Bolin, a governor who died in office in the 1970s. Numerous monuments and memorials are on the site, including the anchor and signal mast from the USS Arizona (one of the U.S. Navy ships sunk in Pearl Harbor), a granite version of the Ten Commandments, and the Arizona Vietnam Veterans' Memorial.

State legislature

The Arizona Legislature is bicameral (like the legislature of every other state except Nebraska) and consists of a thirty-member Senate and a 60-member House of Representatives. Legislators are elected for two-year terms.

Each Legislature covers a two-year period. The first session following the general election is known as the first regular session, and the session convening in the second year is known as the second regular session. Each regular session begins on the second Monday in January and adjourns sine die (terminates for the year) no later than Saturday of the week in which the 100th day from the beginning of the regular session falls. The President of the Senate and Speaker of the House, by rule, may extend the session up to seven additional days. Thereafter, the session can only be extended by a majority vote of members present of each house.

The current majority party is the Republican Party, which has held power since 1950.

Arizona state senators and representatives are elected for two year terms and are limited to four consecutive terms in a chamber, though there is no limit on the total number of terms. When a lawmaker is term-limited from office, it is not uncommon for him or her to run for election in the other chamber.

The fiscal year 2006-07 general fund budget, approved by the Arizona Legislature in June 2006, is slightly less than $10 billion. Besides the money spent on state agencies, it also includes more than $500 million in income- and property tax cuts, pay raises for government employees, and additional funding for the K-12 education system.

State executive branch

Arizona's executive branch is headed by a governor elected for a four-year term. The governor may serve any number of terms, though no more than two in a row. The current governor of Arizona is Janet Napolitano, a Democrat. She was first elected in 2002 and again in 2006 (she was officially sworn in on her second term on January 4, 2007).

Due to the state of Arizona not having a governor's mansion, the governors reside within their private places of residence during their terms in office.

Federal representation

The two U.S. Senators from Arizona are Senator John McCain (Republican) and Senator Jon Kyl (Republican).

Arizona's representatives in the United States House of Representatives are Rick Renzi (R-1), Trent Franks (R-2), John Shadegg (R-3), Ed Pastor (D-4), Harry Mitchell (D-5), Jeff Flake (R-6), Raul Grijalva (D-7), and Gabrielle Giffords (D-8). Jim Kolbe announced his retirement from Congress in 2006, creating one of the few open seats in the nation in Arizona's Congressional District 8. Arizona gained two seats in the House of Representatives due to redistricting based on Census 2000.

Political culture

Presidential elections results
Year Republican Democratic
2004 54.87% 1,104,294 44.40% 893,524
2000 50.95% 781,652 44.67% 685,341
1996 44.29% 622,073 46.52% 653,288
1992 38.47% 572,086 36.52% 543,050
1988 59.95% 702,541 38.74% 454,029
1984 66.42% 681,416 32.54% 333,854
1980 60.61% 529,688 28.24% 246,843
1976 56.37% 418,642 39.80% 295,602
1972 61.64% 402,812 30.38% 198,540
1968 54.78% 266,721 35.02% 170,514
1964 50.45% 242,535 49.45% 237,753
1960 55.52% 221,241 44.36% 176,781

In more recent years, the Republican Party has generally dominated Arizona politics. Arizona narrowly voted for Bill Clinton in 1996, who was the first Democrat to take the state since Harry Truman in 1948. In 2004, George W. Bush won the state's ten electoral votes by a margin of 10 percentage points with 54.87% of the vote.

The state's concentration of Democrats is strongest in the city of Tucson (excluding Tucson's historically Republican-dominated suburbs) and the counties of Santa Cruz and Apache.

Maricopa County, home of Phoenix and the fourth-most populous in the country, has voted Republican in every presidential election since at least 1952. However, the current mayor of Phoenix, Phil Gordon, is a Democrat. The current state attorney general and governor are also both Democrats.

Arizona became the first U.S. state to reject an anti-gay amendment in the 2006 midterm elections. Gay marriage was already illegal in Arizona, but this amendment would have denied any legal or financial benefits to unmarried homosexual or heterosexual couples.

Despite the dominance of the Republican party in the state many political insiders describe the overall additude in the state as being that of a libertarian viewpoint.(Conservative on fiscal matters but more moderate or Live and let live on social issues.)

See also : United States presidential election

Important cities and towns

File:National-atlas-arizona.png
Map of Arizona - PDF
Downtown Phoenix
Tucson
See also: List of cities in Arizona, List of cities in Arizona (by population), and List of Arizona counties

Phoenix, the largest city in the state, is the capital. The Phoenix metro area includes Mesa (the third largest city in Arizona and the most populous suburban city in the United States), Glendale, Peoria, Chandler, Sun City, Sun City West, Fountain Hills, Surprise, Gilbert, El Mirage, Avondale, Tempe and Scottsdale, with a total population of nearly 3.9 million.

Tucson is the state's second largest city, located 110 miles (180 km) southeast of the Phoenix metropolitan area. The Tucson metropolitan area crossed the one-million-resident threshold in early 2007. It is home to the University of Arizona, one of only three public universities in Arizona.

Yuma is center of the third largest metropolitan area in Arizona. It is located near the borders of California and Mexico. It is one of the hottest cities in the United States with the average July high of 107 degrees Fahrenheit. (The same month's average in Death Valley is 115 degrees.) The city also features sunny days about 90% of the year. The Yuma Metropolitan Statistical Area has a population of 160,000.

Flagstaff is the largest city in northern Arizona, and at nearly 7000ft elevation, is a stark contrast to the desert regions typically associated with Arizona. Flagstaff is home to 57,391 residents and the main campus of Northern Arizona University.

Education

Elementary and secondary education

Public schools in Arizona are separated into about 220 local school districts which operate independently, but are governed in most cases by elected county school superintendents; these are in turn overseen by the Arizona State Board of Education (a division of the Arizona Department of Education) and the state Superintendent of Public Instruction (elected in partisan elections every even-numbered year when there is not a presidential election, for a four-year term). In 2005, a School District Redistricting Commission was established with the goal of combining and consolidating many of these districts.

Colleges and universities

Higher education in Arizona is governed at the university level by the Arizona Board of Regents or the ABOR, a 12-member body. According to information published by the ABOR office and available on their Web site, eight volunteer members are appointed by the Governor to staggered eight-year terms; two students serve on the Board for two-year appointments, with the first year being a nonvoting apprentice year. The Governor and the Superintendent of Public Instruction serve as voting ex-officio members. The ABOR provides "policy guidance" and oversight to the three major degree-granting universities, as provided for by Title 15 of the Arizona Revised Statutes.

Community colleges in Arizona were governed historically by a separate statewide Board of Directors, but a bill passed in the 2002 regular session of the Legislature (HB 2710, which later became ARS 15-1444) transferred almost all oversight authority to individual community college districts. The Maricopa County Community College District includes 11 community colleges throughout Maricopa County and is one of the largest in the nation. The community college systems in Arizona are among the best in the United States.



Public colleges and universities

Private four-year colleges and universities (non-profit)

For-Profit Private Colleges, Trade, and Professional Schools

Public two-year colleges

Professional sports teams

Club Sport League
Arizona Cardinals Football National Football League
Arizona Diamondbacks Baseball Major League Baseball
Arizona Heat* Softball National Pro Fastpitch
Arizona Rattlers Arena Football Arena Football League
Arizona Sting Lacrosse National Lacrosse League
Arizona Sundogs Ice hockey Central Hockey League
Phoenix Coyotes Ice hockey National Hockey League
Phoenix Mercury Basketball Women's National Basketball Association
Phoenix Roadrunners Ice hockey East Coast Hockey League
Phoenix Suns Basketball National Basketball Association
Tucson Sidewinders Baseball Minor League Baseball
Yuma Scorpions Baseball Golden Baseball League

Due to its numerous golf courses, Arizona is home to several stops on the PGA Tour, most notably at the FBR Open, more commonly known as the Phoenix Open.

With three universitites and several community colleges, college sports are also prevalent in Arizona. Arizona is home to the oldelst rivalry in the NCAA[21]. The Territorial Cup is given to the winner of the Duel in the Desert, an annual game between intense rivals the Arizona State Sun Devils and the Arizona Wildcats. Arizona also hosts several bowl games in the Bowl Championship Series. The Fiesta Bowl, originally held at Sun Devil Stadium, will now be held at the University of Phoenix Stadium in Glendale. The University of Phoenix Stadium was also home to the 2007 BCS National Championship Game. The Insight Bowl is also held at Sun Devil Stadium.

Besides being home to spring training, Arizona is also home to two other baseball leagues, Arizona Fall League and Arizona Winter League. The Fall League was founded in 1992 and is a minor league baseball league designed for players to refine their skills and perform in game settings in front of major and minor league baseball scouts and team executives, who are in attendance at almost every game. The league got exposure when Michael Jordan started his time in baseball with the Scottsdale Scorpions. The Winter League, founded in 2007, is a professional baseball league for the independent Golden Baseball League. The games are played in Yuma at the Desert Sun Stadium.

  • Note: The Arizona Heat is currently suspended from the NPF, with a possible return for the 2008 season.

Spring training

A spring training game between the two Chicago teams, the Cubs and the White Sox, at HoHoKam Park in Mesa

Arizona is a popular location for Major League Baseball spring training, as it is the site of the Cactus League. The only other location for spring training is in Florida with the Grapefruit League. Spring training has been somewhat of a tradition in Arizona since 1947 despite the fact that the state did not have its own major league team until the state was awarded the Diamondbacks as an expansion team. The state hosts the following teams:

Miscellaneous topics

Art and pop culture

Arizona has featured a continuous string of dancing and performing groups of many ethnicities. The state is a recognized center of Native American art, with a number of galleries such as the Heard Museum showcasing historical and contemporary works. Sedona, Jerome, and Tubac are known as budding artist colonies, and small arts scenes exist in the larger cities and near the state universities.

Monument Valley on the Navajo Reservation is famous for its scenery and Hollywood Westerns.

Many tourist souvenirs produced in Arizona or by its residents display characteristic images, such as sunsets, coyotes, and desert plants. Several major Hollywood films, such as Billy Jack, U-Turn, Waiting to Exhale, Just One of the Guys, Can't Buy Me Love, Bill & Ted's Excellent Adventure, The Scorpion King, The Banger Sisters, Used Cars, and Raising Arizona have been made there (as indeed have many Westerns). The 1993 science fiction movie Fire in the Sky, which was actually based on a reported alien abduction in Arizona, was set and filmed in the town of Snowflake. The climax of the 1977 Clint Eastwood film The Gauntlet takes place in downtown Phoenix. The final segments of the 1984 film Starman take place at Meteor Crater outside Winslow. The Jeff Foxworthy comedy documentary movie Blue Collar Comedy Tour was filmed almost entirely at the Dodge Theatre. Arguably one of the most famous examples could be Alfred Hitchcock's classic film Psycho. Not only was some of the film shot in Phoenix, but the main character is from there as well. Some of the television shows filmed or set in Arizona include The New Dick Van Dyke Show, Alice, The First 48, Insomniac with Dave Attell, COPS, and America's Most Wanted. The 1974 film Alice Doesn't Live Here Anymore, for which Ellen Burstyn won the Academy Award for Best Actress, and also starred Kris Kristofferson, was set in Phoenix, as was the TV sitcom Alice, which was based on the movie.

See also List of films shot in Arizona

Arizona is prominently featured in the lyrics of many Country and Western songs. Jamie O'Neal's hit ballad "There is No Arizona" uses Arizona's popularity as a vacation spot to illustrate high hopes that can be dashed by disillusionment. George Strait's "Oceanfront Property" uses the offer of "ocean front property in Arizona" as a metaphor for a sucker proposition that is obviously false. The line "see you down in Arizona Bay" is used in a Tool song in reference to a Bill Hicks quote. The line refers to the hope that L.A. will one day fall into the ocean due to a major earthquake.

"Arizona" was the title of a popular song recorded by Mark Lindsay (formerly of Paul Revere and the Raiders) that was a hit during the winter of 1969-1970.

Arizona's budding music scene is helped by emerging bands, as well as some well-known artists. The Gin Blossoms, Chronic Future, Roger Clyne and the Peacemakers, Jimmy Eat World and others began their careers in Arizona. Also, a number of punk bands got their start in Arizona, including JFA, The Feederz, Sun City Girls, The Meat Puppets, and more recently Authority Zero. There is also an indie rock scene with artists such as Scary Kids Scaring Kids, The Bled, Fine China, Greeley Estates, The Stiletto Formal, The Format.

Arizona also has its share of singers and other musicians. Singer, songwriter and guitarist Michelle Branch is from Sedona. Chester Bennington, the lead vocalist of Linkin Park, and mash-up artist DJ Z-Trip are both from Phoenix. One of Arizona's more infamous musicians would be shock rocker Alice Cooper, who helped define the genre. Other notable singers include country singer Marty Robbins, folk singer Katie Lee, Fleetwood Mac's Stevie Nicks, CeCe Peniston, Rex Allen, 2007 American Idol winner Jordin Sparks, and Linda Ronstadt.

See also Music of Arizona

Notable people

Some famous Arizonans involved in politics and government are:

Arizona notables in culture and the arts include:

For a complete list, see List of people from Arizona.

See also

References

  1. ^ a b Elevations and Distances in the United States. U.S Geological Survey (29 April 2005). Retrieved on November 3, 2006.
  2. ^ http://www.americaslibrary.gov/cgi-bin/page.cgi/es/az
  3. ^ Climate Assessment for the Southwest (December 1999). The Climate of the Southwest. {{subst:#ifexist:University of Arizona|[[University of Arizona|]]|[[Wikipedia:University of Arizona|]]}}. Retrieved on 2006-03-21.
  4. ^ {{subst:#ifexist:United States Geological Survey|[[United States Geological Survey|]]|[[Wikipedia:United States Geological Survey|]]}} (September 2005). Hydrologic Conditions in Arizona During 1999–2004: A Historical Perspective. Retrieved on 2006-03-20.
  5. ^ Mean number of Days with Minimum Temperature Below 32F National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Retrieved March 24, 2007
  6. ^ Thompson, Clay ({{subst:#ifexist:2007-02-25|[[2007-02-25|]]|[[Wikipedia:2007-02-25|]]}}). A sorry state of affairs when views change. {{subst:#ifexist:Arizona Republic|[[Arizona Republic|]]|[[Wikipedia:Arizona Republic|]]}}. Retrieved on 2007-03-03.
  7. ^ Jim Turner. How Arizona did NOT Get its Name. Arizona Historical Society. Retrieved on 2007-03-03.
  8. ^ Bright, William (2004). Native American Place Names of the United States. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, pg. 47
  9. ^ Timothy Anna et al., Historia de México. Barcelona: Critica, 2001, p. 10.
  10. ^ {{subst:#ifexist:Mexican-American War|[[Mexican-American War|]]|[[Wikipedia:Mexican-American War|]]}} as accessed on March 16th, 2007 at 7:33 MST AM
  11. ^ http://members.tripod.com/~azrebel/page9.html
  12. ^ http://www.pima.gov/cmo/sdcp/Archives/reports/Cult.html
  13. ^ Table 1: Estimates of Population Change for the United States and States, and for Puerto Rico and State Rankings: July 1, 2005 to July 1, 2006. 2006 Population Estimates. U.S. Census Bureau, Population Division (December 22 2006). Retrieved on December 22, 2006.
  14. ^ Christie, Les. "Growth states: Arizona overtakes Nevada." {{subst:#ifexist:CNN|[[CNN|]]|[[Wikipedia:CNN|]]}}. December 22, 2006. Retrieved on December 22, 2006.
  15. ^ http://www.census.gov/geo/www/cenpop/statecenters.txt
  16. ^ http://eire.census.gov/popest/data/states/ST-EST2002-ASRO-03.php
  17. ^ http://www.azcentral.com/arizonarepublic/news/articles/0218blackprofile-main.html
  18. ^ http://www.mla.org/map_data_results&state_id=4& county_id=&mode=state_tops&zip=&place_id=&cty_id=&ll=&a=&ea=&order=r
  19. ^ The Association of Religion Data Archives Religious Affiliations 2000 - Arizona.
  20. ^ Tucson: Streetcar Plan Wins With 60% of Vote
  21. ^ Knauer, Tom. "What is the Territorial Cup?", The Wildcat Online, {{subst:#ifexist:2006-11-22|[[2006-11-22|]]|[[Wikipedia:2006-11-22|]]}}. Retrieved on 2007-04-02. 

Further reading

  • David M. Thomas (Ed.) (2003). Arizona Legislative Manual. In [2]. Phoenix, AZ, Arizona Legislative Council. Google Print. Retrieved January 16 2006.
  • Trimble, Marshall (1998). Arizona, A Cavalcade of History. Tucson, Treasure Chest Publications. (ISBN 0-918080-43-6)
  • Bayless, Betsy, Secretary of State (1998). Arizona Blue Book, 1997-1998. Phoenix, State of Arizona.

External links

All wikimedia projects
Articles on this topic in other Wikimedia projects can be found at: Arizona

Official State Government website

Other references

Tourism information


Preceded by
New Mexico
List of U.S. states by date of statehood
Admitted on February 14, 1912 (48th)
Succeeded by
Alaska

CoordinatesImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif: 34° N 112° W

This page uses content from the English language Wikipedia. The original content was at Arizona. The list of authors can be seen in the page history. As with this Familypedia wiki, the content of Wikipedia is available under the Creative Commons License.
Facts about ArizonaRDF feed
Subdivision of country United States  +

This article uses material from the "Arizona" article on the Genealogy wiki at Wikia and is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike License.

Simple English

State of Arizona
File:Flag of [[File:|100px|State seal of Arizona]]
Flag of Arizona Seal of Arizona
Also called: The Grand Canyon State,
The Copper State
Saying(s): Ditat Deus
[[File:|center|Map of the United States with Arizona highlighted]]
Official language(s) English
Capital Phoenix
Largest city Phoenix
Area  Ranked 6th
 - Total 113,998 sq mi
(295,254 km²)
 - Width 310 miles (500 km)
 - Length 400 miles (645 km)
 - % water 0.32
 - Latitude 31°20'N to 37°N
 - Longitude 109°3'W to 114°50'W
Number of people  Ranked 16th
 - Total (2010) 6,392,017[1]
 - Density 56.3/sq mi 
21.7/km² (35th)
Height above sea level  
 - Highest point Humphreys Peak
12,633 ft  (3,851 m)
 - Average 4,100 ft  (1,250 m)
 - Lowest point Colorado River
70 ft  (21 m)
Became part of the U.S.  February 14, 1912 (48th)
Governor Jan Brewer (R)
U.S. Senators John McCain (R)
Jon Kyl (R)
Time zone Mountain: UTC-7
Abbreviations AZ US-AZ
Web site www.az.gov

Arizona is a state in the United States of America. It is considered part of the Southwestern United States and is bordered by New Mexico to the east, Utah to the north, Nevada to the northwest, California to the west, its northeast corner touches part of Colorado, this area is known as the Four Corners. To the south of Arizona is the country Mexico with which it shares a border of 389 miles. The state is called the "Grand Canyon State" and the "Copper State" as it is the home of the Grand Canyon and has produced large amounts of copper from its mineral deposits.

Arizona became a state on February 14, 1912 and became the 48th state accepted into the United States. The state capital is Phoenix, which also is the largest city in the state. Phoenix is the largest capital city in the US.

Arizona's climate can be very hot. In Phoenix, the average temperature is about 107 degrees Fahrenheit in summer.

References

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