Arkhangelsk: Wikis


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Arkhangelsk (English)
Архангельск (Russian)
—  Inhabited locality  —
Arkhangelsk view from Vysotka.jpg
View of Arkhangelsk at night
Map of Russia - Arkhangelsk Oblast (2008-03).svg
Location of Arkhangelsk Oblast on the map of Russia
Arkhangelsk is located in Arkhangelsk Oblast
Location of Arkhangelsk on the map of Arkhangelsk Oblast
Coordinates: 64°32′N 40°32′E / 64.533°N 40.533°E / 64.533; 40.533Coordinates: 64°32′N 40°32′E / 64.533°N 40.533°E / 64.533; 40.533
Coat of Arms of Arkhangelsk (Arkhangelsk oblast) (1998).png
Coat of arms
Holiday Last Sunday of June[citation needed]
Administrative status
Country Russia
Federal subject Arkhangelsk Oblast
In administrative jurisdiction of Arkhangelsk Oblast[citation needed]
Administrative center of Arkhangelsk Oblast,
Primorsky District[citation needed]
Municipal status
Municipal Status Urban okrug
Mayor[citation needed] Viktor Pavlenko[citation needed]
Representative body City Council of Deputies[citation needed]
Area 294.42 km2 (113.7 sq mi)[citation needed]
Population (2002 Census) 356,051 inhabitants[1]
Rank 48th
- Density 1,209 /km2 (3,100/sq mi)[2]
Time zone MSK/MSD (UTC+3/+4)
Founded 1584[citation needed]
Postal code(s) 163000 - 163071[citation needed]
Dialing code(s) +7 8182[citation needed]
Official website

Arkhangelsk (Russian: Арха́нгельск), or Archangel in English, is a city and the administrative center of Arkhangelsk Oblast, Russia. It lies on both banks of the Northern Dvina river near its exit into the White Sea in the far north of European Russia. City districts spread for over 40 kilometers (25 mi) along the banks of the river and numerous islands of its delta. Arkhangelsk was the chief seaport of medieval Russia. It is served by Talagi Airport and the smaller Vaskovo Airport. The city is located at the end of a 1,133 km (704 mi) long railroad, connecting it to Moscow via Vologda and Yaroslavl. Population: 356,051 (2002 Census);[3] 415,921 (1989 Census).[4]




Early history

The area where Arkhangelsk is situated was known to the Vikings as Bjarmaland. Ohthere from Hålogaland told from his travels circa 800 of an area by a river and the White Sea with many buildings. This was probably the place later known as Arkhangelsk. According to Snorri Sturluson there was a Viking raid on this area in 1027, led by Tore Hund.

In 1989, an unusually rich silver treasure was found by the mouth of Dvina, right next to present day Arkhangelsk. It was probably buried in the beginning of the 12th century, and contained articles that may have been up to 200 years old at that time.

Most of the findings are made up by a total of 1.6 kg (3.53 lb) of silver, mostly coins. Jewelry and pieces of jewelry hail from Russia or neighboring areas. Most coins were German, but there was also a smaller number of Kufan, English, Bohemian, Hungarian, Danish, Swedish, and Norwegian coins.

It is hard to place this find historically until further research is completed. There are at least two possible interpretations. It may be a treasure belonging to the society outlined by the Norse source material. Generally such finds, whether from Scandinavia, the Baltic area or Russia, are closely tied to well-established agricultural societies with considerable trade activity.

Alternatively, like the Russian scientists who published the find in 1992, one may see it as an evidence of a stronger force of Russian colonization than previously thought.

Novgorod Russians arrive

In the 12th century, the Novgorodians established the Archangel Michael Monastery in the estuary of the Northern Dvina.

The main trade center of the area at that time was Kholmogory, located slightly downstream where the rivers Dvina and Pinega meet. Written sources indicate that Kholmogory existed early in the 12th century, but there is no archeological material to illuminate the early history of the town. It is not known whether this settlement was originally Russian, or if it goes back to pre-Russian times. Centrally in the small town it is today, the so called Gorodok can be found, a large mound of building remains and river sand. However this has not been archeologically excavated.

Norwegian-Russian conflict


Arkhangelsk came to be important in the rivalry between Norwegian and Russian interests in the northern areas. From Novgorod, the Russian interest sphere was extended far north to the Kola peninsula in the 12th century. However, here Norway enforced taxes and rights to the fur trade. A compromise agreement entered in 1251 was soon broken.

In 1411, Yakov Stepanovitch from Novogorod went to attack Northern Norway. This was the beginning of a series of clashes, and in 1419 Norwegian ships with 500 soldiers entered the White Sea. The "Murmaners", as the Norwegians were called (cf. Murmansk), plundered many Russian settlements along the coast, among them the Archangel Michael monastery.

Novgorod managed to drive the Norwegians back. However, in 1478 the area was taken over by Ivan III and passed to Muscovy with the rest of Novgorod Republic.

Trade with England, Scotland and the Netherlands

In 1553, three English ships set out to find the Northeast passage to China in 1553; two disappeared, and one ended up in the White Sea, eventually coming across Arkhangelsk. Ivan the Terrible found out about this, and brokered a trade agreement with the ship's captain. Trade privileges were officially granted to English merchants in 1555, leading to the founding of the Company of Merchant Adventurers, which began sending ships annually into the estuary of the Northern Dvina. Dutch merchants also started bringing their ships into the White Sea from the 1560s. Scottish and English merchants dominated in the 16th century; however, by the 17th century it was mainly the Dutch that sailed to the White Sea area.

Founding and further development

Plan of New Dvina Fort in Arkhangelsk

In 1584, Ivan ordered the founding of New Kholmogory (which would later be renamed after the nearby Archangel Michael Monastery).

At the time access to the Baltic Sea was still mostly controlled by Sweden, so while Arkhangelsk was icebound in winter, it remained Moscow's almost sole link to the sea-trade. Local inhabitants, called Pomors, were the first to explore trade routes to Northern Siberia as far as the trans-Ural city of Mangazeya and beyond.

In 1693, Peter I ordered the creation of a state shipyard in Arkhangelsk. A year later the ships Svyatoye Prorochestvo (Holy Prophecy), Apostol Pavel (Apostle Paul) and the yacht Svyatoy Pyotr (Saint Peter) were sailing in the White Sea. However he also realized that Arkhangelsk would always be limited as a port due to the five months of ice cover, and after a successful campaign against Swedish armies in the Baltic area, he founded Saint Petersburg in 1704.

Icon of Archangel Michael, shown as protector of Arkhangelsk

In 1722 Peter I decreed that Arkhangelsk should no longer accept goods more than it was sufficient for the town itself (for the so-called domestic consumption). It was due to the tsar's will to shift all international marine trade to St. Petersburg. This factor contributed a lot to the deterioration of Arkhangelsk that continued up to 1762 when this decree was canceled.

Arkhangelsk declined in the 18th century as the Baltic trade became ever more important. In the early years of the 19th Century, the arrest and prolonged detention by the Russian authorities of John Bellingham, an English export representative based at Arkhangelsk, was the indirect cause of Bellingham later assassinating British Prime Minister Spencer Perceval.

Arkhangelsk's economy revived at the end of the 19th century when a railroad to Moscow was completed and timber became a major export. The city resisted Bolshevik rule from 1918 to 1920 and was a stronghold of the anti-Bolshevik White Army supported by the military intervention of Entente forces along an Allied expedition including Canadian and American soldiers, known as the Polar Bear Expedition.[5]

During both World Wars, Arkhangelsk was a major port of entry for Allied aid. During World War II, the city became known in the West as one of the two main destinations (along with Murmansk) of the Arctic Convoys bringing supplies to assist the Russians who were cut off from their normal supply lines.

Today, Arkhangelsk remains a major seaport, now open year-round due to improvements in icebreakers. The city is primarily a timber and fishing center.

On March 16, 2004, 58 people were killed in an explosion at an apartment block in the city.

Architecture and monuments

"Sutyagin House", claimed to be the world's tallest wooden single-family house

Mikhail Lomonosov came from a Pomor village near Kholmogory. A monument to him was installed to a design by Ivan Martos in 1829. A monument to Peter I was designed by Mark Antokolsky in 1872 and installed in 1914.

A maritime school, technical university, and a regional museum are located in the city. After its historical churches were destroyed during Stalin's rule, the city's main extant landmarks are the fort-like Merchant Yards (1668–84) and the[6] (1701–05). The Assumption Church on the Dvina embankment (1742–44) was rebuilt in 2004.

A remarkable structure is also Arkhangelsk TV Mast, a 151 meters (495 ft) tall guyed mast for FM-/TV-broadcasting built in 1964. This tubular steel mast has six crossbars equipped with gangways, which run in two levels from the mast structure to the crossbars. On these crossbars there are also several antennas installed (image).

An unusual example of local "vernacular architecture" was the so-called Sutyagin house (Небоскрёб Сутягина, 'Sutyaguin's skyscraper'). This 13-story, 144-ft tall[7][8] residence of the local entrepreneur Nikolai Petrovich Sutyagin was reported to be the world's, or at least Russia's, tallest wooden house. Constructed by Mr. Sutyagin and his family over 15 years (starting in 1992), without formal plans or a building permit, the structure deteriorated while Mr. Sutyagin spent a few years in prison on racketeering charges. In 2008 it was condemned by the city as a fire hazard, and the courts ordered it to be demolished by February 1, 2009.[7][9]

On December 26, 2008, the tower was pulled down,[10][11] and the remainder of the building was dismantled manually by the early February.[12][13]


Climate data for Arkhangelsk
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 5.0
Average high °C (°F) -9.6
Average low °C (°F) -16.6
Record low °C (°F) -45.2
Precipitation mm (inches) 33
Source:[14] 8.09.2007

Education and Culture

Archangelsk is home the following education institutes:

  • Pomorskiy State University
  • Northern State Medical University
  • Arkhangelsk State Technical University
  • Makarov state Maritime Academy
  • A branch of the All-Russian Distance Institute of Finance and Economics

The cultural life of Archangelsk includes

  • The Archangelsk Lomonosov Drama Theatre
  • Arkhangelsk Philarmonia
  • Arkhangelsk Youth Theatre
  • Arkhangelsk Oblast Museum
  • Arkhangelsk Art Museum
  • Stepan Pisakhov Museum


Bandy is the biggest sport in the city. Vodnik was the best team in the Russian Bandy League for almost a decade. Arkhangelsk hosted the Bandy World Championships in 1999 and 2003.[15]

Notable people from Archangelsk

International relations

Twin towns — sister cities

Arkhangelsk is twinned with:[16]



  1. ^ Федеральная служба государственной статистики (Federal State Statistics Service) (2004-05-21). "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек (Population of Russia, its federal districts, federal subjects, districts, urban localities, rural localities—administrative centers, and rural localities with population of over 3,000)" (in Russian). Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года (All-Russia Population Census of 2002). Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved 2009-08-19. 
  2. ^ The value of density was calculated automatically by dividing the 2002 Census population by the area specified in the infobox. Please note that this value may not be accurate as the area specified in the infobox does not necessarily correspond to the area of the entity proper or is reported for the same year as the Census (2002).
  3. ^ Федеральная служба государственной статистики (Federal State Statistics Service) (2004-05-21). "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек (Population of Russia, its federal districts, federal subjects, districts, urban localities, rural localities—administrative centers, and rural localities with population of over 3,000)" (in Russian). Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года (All-Russia Population Census of 2002). Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved 2008-07-25. 
  4. ^ "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров. (All Union Population Census of 1989. Present population of union and autonomous republics, autonomous oblasts and okrugs, krais, oblasts, districts, urban settlements, and villages serving as district administrative centers.)" (in Russian). Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года (All-Union Population Census of 1989). Demoscope Weekly (website of the Institute of Demographics of the State University—Higher School of Economics. 1989. Retrieved 2007-12-13. 
  5. ^ "Detroit's Polar Bears and their confusing war". The Detroit News. Retrieved July 12, 2007. 
  6. ^ New Dvina Fortress
  7. ^ a b Sutyagin House, Arkhangelsk, Russia: Standing tall., Wednesday 07 Mar 2007. (Includes photo)
  8. ^ According to other sources, 12 stories, 38 m (124.67 ft)
  9. ^ Ponomaryova, Hope (26 June 2008). "Гангстер-хаус: Самый высокий деревянный дом в России объявлен вне закона [Gangster house: Russia's tallest wooden house is now outlawed]" (in Russian). Rossiiskaya Gazeta. Moscow, Russia. Retrieved 2009-08-15. 
  10. ^ "В Архангельске провалилась первая попытка снести самое высокое деревянное здание в мире [Arkhangelsk The first attempt to demolish the tallest wooden building in the world failed in Arkhangelsk]" (in Russian). Realty (Недвижимость). Moscow, Russia. 26 December 2008. Retrieved 2009-08-15. 
  11. ^ mihai055 (December 26, 2008). "Сутягин, снос дома [Demolition of Sutyagin's house]" (in Russian) (Flash video). YouTube. Retrieved 2009-08-15. 
  12. ^ "В Архангельске разрушено самое высокое деревянное здание в мире [The tallest wooden building in the world has been destroyed in Arkhangelsk]" (in Russian). Realty (Недвижимость). Moscow, Russia. 6 February 2009. Retrieved 2009-08-15. 
  13. ^ "От самого высокого деревянного строения в мире осталась груда мусора [Only a heap of debris is left from the world's tallest wooden building]" (in Russian) (flash video and text). Channel One Russia. Moscow, Russia: Web-службой Первого канала. 6 February 2009. Retrieved 2009-12-29. 
  14. ^ "" (in Russian). Retrieved September 8, 2007. 
  15. ^ Video from a home game against Baykal-Energiya from Irkutsk:
  16. ^ "Информация о городах-побратимах" (in (Russian)). 2007-10-26. Retrieved 2009-09-17. 
  17. ^ "Twin towns". Retrieved 2009-11-07. 

External links

Travel guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikitravel

Arkhangelsk (pop. 390 000) is a regional center in Northwestern_Russia, located on both banks of Northern Dvina river near it's inlow into the White Sea, about 1100 km to the north from Moscow, and about 1500 km to the north-east from St Petersburg.

The city was founded in 1584 A.D. and became the first Russian port playing the key role in trade with Europe until the foundation of Saint_Petersburg_(Russia). Now it's a provincial city, claimed as the capital of Russian North, and keeping that role, at least in matter of cultural life.

The economy of Arkhangelsk is based on timber trade and paper industry. The city has a large commercial and fishing port.

Situated outside of major tourist flow, Arkhangelsk can be a transit point during a travel to Solovetsky_Islands, but also worth a separate visit. The most comfortable time to see Arkhangelsk is summer. During May, June, and July the sun seems to spend 24/7 in the sky. This is actually not so: Arkhangelsk is 300 km south from Northern Polar Circle, that is why it hasn't polar days or polar nights. But prepare to be awaked by sun looking at you window at 2 AM in summer. The other side of this is 2-3-4 hours of light per day in winter.

Spring is late (snowfalls in May are quite usual), summer is relatively warm (+20-25C), first snow comes in October or November, winters are harsh (-20-30C, windy). November to May Northern Dvina and White Sea are covered with ice, and ship navigation is possible with icebreakers only.

Get in

By air:

Getting to Arkhangelsk is most comfortably done by air. There are 1-2 daily flights from Moscow, and 1-2 weekly flights from Saint_Petersburg_(Russia). A one-way flight from Moscow Sheremetyevo-1 airport costs around 3500-4000 roubles (2009) and takes about an hour and forty minutes. There are also direct connections with Murmansk (Russia), Kirkenes (Norway) and Rovaniemi (Finland), but these could have irregular and seasonal basis. Arkhangelsk has two airports: Talagi for interregional flights and Vaskovo (Васьково) for flights within Arkhangelsk region. Talagi airport is about 25 minutes drive from the city centre. The going rate for a taxi to the airport is about 150-200 roubles at the time of writing (2008) although in the opposite direction enterprising cab drivers ask for around 400. There is also a bus connection with the city center costing 15 roubles, but you can wait long and don't enjoy the quality of service.

By train:

A slightly more adventurous traveller will probably opt for the train which from Moscow's Yaroslavsky Vokzal takes about 23 hours (1-2 trains per day). A train journey from St Petersburg is around 27 hours (2 trains per week). Book tickets in advance. The station in Arkhangelsk is situated on the eastern edge of town. Buses and taxis are available and will whisk you to the city centre in a just few minutes.

By car:

1200 km by M8 road from Moscow via Yaroslavl and Vologda, and you are in Arkhangelsk (couple of hundreds km more if you drive from St Petersburg). The road is paved, but it's quality wishes to be much better.

By ship:

Archangelsk is a significant commercial and fishing port acting as well as a gateway to Northern Sea Path (Северный морской путь). But there are no any regular ship connections with Arkhangelsk excluding river commuter ships.

Get around

Arkhangelsk is spread for 42 km via Northern Dvina river and has even several islands with no bridge connection included into its metropolitan zone. So, getting around certain districts can be complicated. But all main attractions are located in the center and can be explored by foot.

Public transportation is represented with buses, trolleybuses, and marshrutki (shared minibuses). The price for a ride within the city is 10 roubles (as of 2009). It's difficult to navigate without knowledge of Russian.

River transport is active during the summer season to connect river island vicinities with the city center.

Commuter trains service connects several suburbs with the city, but is interesting mainly for locals keeping their dachas. Each destination usually have one train in the morning and one in the evening. It's possible to get to Severodvinsk by such a train, but the bus service is faster, more frequent, and more preferrable.

Getting around by car or taxi is probably the best way to explore Arkhangelsk. Taxis are inexpensive and could be found near most attractions. Car rental service is represented by local providers only.

All means of transport including taxis reduce their activity significantly after evening rush-hours. This can be especially sensitive in winter, so do not allow yourself to stay half an hour on a -30C frost - order taxi by phone.


City Center:

View of Northern Dvina in winter
View of Northern Dvina in winter

Arkhangelsk had been founded in 1584, but until 20th century nearly all buildings were wooden. That is why there are not so many examples of old architecture here. Outside of the center buildings become very typical, but the core part of the city has some diversity.

Orientation is easy from Lenin Square, where the only Arkhangelsk's skyscraper is built. This 24-floor administrative building is seen from many parts of the city and can act as a lighthouse for a traveller. Streets called ulitsa (улица) are positioned perpendicularly to the river, those are called prospekt (проспект) are parallel to the river. Area of interest is limited by Dvina's embankment (Naberezhnaya) in the west, Kuznechevsky Bridge in the north, Obvodny Kanal prospekt in the east, and the Sea and River Station (Морской и Речной Вокзал) in the south. Most of attractions e.g. views, buildings, museums, restaurants, theatres etc are located within this shape.

View of Chumbarova-Luchinskogo street
View of Chumbarova-Luchinskogo street
  • Northern Dvina's embankment and around. Arkhangelsk is the theme of Russian 500 roubles banknote, and walking through the embankment you can find all the sites printed on it. For example, the monument of Peter The Great (photo below). Other monuments are generally belong to Soviet period, including the canonical Lenin's monument at the relevant square. There is also a couple of interesting churches around Naberezhnaya, including the former German Kirche (now used as city concert hall). River views and ships also compensate Arkhangelsk's architectural scarsity. Most of Arkhangelsk's street events are organized at Naberezhnaya, in summer the embankment is the favorite place of walking for locals. To find places for eating / drinking go to Troitsky prospekt. Natural history museum and the gallery of arts are located at Lenin Square.  edit
  • Wooden Arkhangelsk. Wooden buildings are being gradually moved out of the city, but still Arkhangelsk contains many sections of such 1-2 floor houses. Some of them look beautiful, others are more like slums, but anyway wooden Arkhangelsk is a certain point of interest and worth a walking visit. Even some sidewalks are still made of wood, crunching under feet. Most beautiful and well-maintained wooden buildings are concentrated at Chumbarova-Luchinskogo street (улица Чумбарова-Лучинского) which is planned as a "museum street" by the city authorities.  edit
Monument to Peter The Great
Monument to Peter The Great

Outside of center:

  • Solombala Island (Соломбала). Northern Dvina's delta is full of flat islands, several of them form parts of Arkhangelsk, and Solombala is the most known of such parts. Traditional port district, it's filled with the mixture of old wooden houses and modern blocks, unkempt, but colorful. Arkhangelsk competes with Veliky_Ustyug to be called the home of Ded Moroz (Farther Frost, Russian version of Santa), and in Solombala you can find "Ded Moroz's village": a kind of entertainment area with Russian traditional facilities for family leisure (like winter snow-coasts for kids).  edit
  • Malye Korely (Малые Корелы). Tue-Sun 10AM-5PM. An open-air museum of Russian North's wooden architecture. The museum area is situated on the high bank of a small picturesque river and is filled with impressive wooden houses, churches etc. Malye Korely is claimed to be the European-largest open-air architectural museum. Located in a village just outside the city, it's an easy target for a day or a half-day trip. You can also stay there for a night or two in a recently built hotel complex performed in traditional Russian style. Winter gives the opportunity of skiing and sledging in Malye Korely (rent of equipment is possible). The easiest way to reach Malye Karely is to catch a taxi, but you can also try to go by a local bus No. 104 from Sea and River Station (Морской и Речной Вокзал). Admission: 250 roubles.  edit
A wooden church in Malye Korely
A wooden church in Malye Korely
  • Walk through Northern Dvina embankment, see kilometres of water and feel strong wind in any season.
  • Have some drink in city caffees.
  • Visit one of the city festivals (summer: street theatres from all Europe, winter: ice sculpture festivals)
  • Arkhangelsk is called to be cultural capital of Russian North, so plunge into local culture: pay attention to the natural history museum and the gallery of arts, spend an evening at a classical organ concert in a music hall inside a former kirche.
  • Try Northern Dvina's beach in summer (bathing is not recommended due to environmental reasons, but still allowed and possible).
  • Spend a couple of hours on a skating-rink or take a skiing day-off in winter
  • Get out to see severe Northern nature, rural settlements, and wooden temples.


Shopping infrastructure in Arkhangelsk is being developed, but yet hasn't achieved the level of 400 000 people regional center. Most of goods are brought from Moscow or St. Petersburg, so they cost more expensive than in these cities. There are some local tourist goods to buy:

  • Local wooden souvenirs made of birchbark
  • Northern sweets named kozuli (козули)
  • Picked berries (cranberries, blackberries etc.) and mushrooms. Check local markets in autumn.
  • Biblio-cafe, Lenin square. A nice caffeterie in the heart of the city. Shared with a library and performed with old books and writers' portraits on walls. Lovely place for a cup of coffee.  edit
  • Amadey, Voskresenskaya street, 17. A stylish restaurant with live jazz in evenings.  edit
  • Irish Pub, Shubina street, 9 (inside Modern cinema), [1].  edit



  • Belomorskaya Hotel, [2]. Built for budget tourists during Soviet times, still offers typical Soviet way of service. Located between city center and the railway station. Cheapest rooms have shared bathrooms. from 990 roubles per night.  edit
  • Hotel Meridian, [3]. Located between city center and Solombala, with shared bathrooms in cheepest rooms. from 1040 roubles per night.  edit


  • Hotel Dvina, [4]. A Soviet-time 12-floor building was renovated in 2000-s. Best location right in the center, but still lack in service and comfort. 3 stars. From 2300 roubles per night.  edit
  • Pur-Navolok Hotel, [5]. Probably, the most comfortable and expat-friendly hotel in the city, located in the center on the embankment of Northern Dvina. 4 stars. From 3000 roubles per night.  edit
  • Business Center Hotel. A new 4-star hotel, located in the center of the city.  edit
  • Malye Karely, [6]. Located near the Malye Korely museum, 24 km from city center, this hotel offers both room and cottage accomodation, as well as handful of daily activities like skiing in winter etc. From 2100 roubles per night..  edit

Get out

Solovetsky_Islands is a group of islands in the White Sea, about 200 km northwest from Arkhangelsk, famous because of it's national-wide monastery (Solovetsky Monastery). It's massive stone walls together with severe northern nature form stunning views. The site is included into UNESCO World Heritage List. During the Stalin times Solovetsky Monastery was used as a concentration camp and acted as a cornerstone of GULAG empire. Now the monastery role is returned but you still need a permit to visit islands. Expect at least 3-4 days to spend there, and take a lot of anti-mosquito spray with you during summer. There is a direct flight from Arkhangelsk's Vaskovo (Васьково) airport to Solovki (1-2 times a week). During the summer season there is also irregular ship connection. Ask local travel agents for more information.

Pinega (Пинега) is a river in Arkhangelsk region (say 300 km from the city), locally known for beautyful gypsum caves on its banks. Pinega is reachable by bus, extreme lovers can try local train No. 666 (the road to hell as it is), but most probably the best way is to organize the trip via local travel agents.

Siyskiy Monastery is about 200 km to the south from Arkhangelsk, accessible by car. Beautiful site inside taiga.

Severodvinsk, pop. 200 000 is the capital of Russian nuclear submarine production. The city is 35 km away from Arkhangelsk and is easily reachable by car or by bus. If you're not a Russian citizen, you probably need a permit to enter Severodvinsk. It's nothing exceptional in the city's typically Soviet view unless you have a governmental pass to see submarine wharf. White Sea coast is packed into an ugly embankment.

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Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary



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Proper noun




  1. a city in northwestern Russia on the White Sea.




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