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Republic of Armenia
Հայաստանի Հանրապետություն
Hayastani Hanrapetut’yun
Flag Coat of arms
AnthemՄեր Հայրենիք (Armenian)
Mer Hayrenik   (transcription)
"Our Fatherland"

Capital
(and largest city)
Yerevan coa.gif Yerevan
40°11′N 44°31′E / 40.183°N 44.517°E / 40.183; 44.517
Official language(s) Armenian[1]
Other language Russian[2][3]
Ethnic groups  97.9% Armenian,
1.3% Yazidis,
0.5% Russian,
0.3% others.[4]
Demonym Armenian
Government Presidential republic[5]
 -  President Serzh Sargsyan
 -  Prime Minister Tigran Sargsyan
 -  Speaker Hovik Abrahamyan
Formation and independence
 -  Democratic Republic of Armenia established
May 28, 1918 
 -  Independence
from the Soviet Union
Declared
Recognised
Finalised


August 23, 1990
September 21, 1991
December 25, 1991 
Area
 -  Total 29,743 km2 (141st)
11,484 sq mi 
 -  Water (%) 4.71
Population
 -  2008 estimate 3,238,000[6] (135th)
 -  Density 108.4/km2 (99th)
280.7/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2009 estimate
 -  Total $16.057 billion[7] 
 -  Per capita $4,916[7] 
GDP (nominal) 2009 estimate
 -  Total $8.683 billion[7] 
 -  Per capita $2,658[7] 
Gini (2003) 33.8 (medium
HDI (2007) 0.798 (medium) (84rd)
Currency Dram (դր.) (AMD)
Time zone UTC (UTC+4)
 -  Summer (DST) DST (UTC+5)
Drives on the right
Internet TLD .am
Calling code 374
Patron saint St. Bartholomew the Apostle, St. Gregory the Illuminator, St. Jude the Apostle, Virgin Mary
.Armenia en-us-Armenia.ogg /ɑrˈmiːniə/ (Armenian: Հայաստան, transliterated: Hayastan, IPA: [hɑjɑsˈtɑn]), officially the Republic of Armenia (Հայաստանի Հանրապետություն, Hayastani Hanrapetut’yun, [hɑjɑstɑˈni hɑnɾɑpɛtuˈtʰjun]), is a landlocked mountainous country in the Caucasus region of Eurasia.^ Appeals related to disputes over the results of the National Assembly majoritarian elections can be adjudicated to the Constitutional Court of the Republic of Armenia within seven days after the results are officially announced.
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^ Appeals related to disputes over the results of the National Assembly proportional elections can be adjudicated to the Constitutional Court of the Republic of Armenia within seven days after the results are officially announced.
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^ The Diplomatic and Consular Missions of the Republic of Armenia, in accordance with the procedures set by this Code and by Central Electoral Commission, guarantee the realization of the electoral right of Armenian citizens.
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Situated at the juncture of Western Asia and Eastern Europe,[8] it is bordered by Turkey to the west, Georgia to the north, the de facto independent Nagorno-Karabakh Republic and Azerbaijan to the east, and Iran and the Azerbaijani exclave of Nakhchivan to the south.
.A former republic of the Soviet Union, Armenia is a unitary, multiparty, democratic nation-state with an ancient and historic cultural heritage.^ Appeals related to disputes over the results of the National Assembly majoritarian elections can be adjudicated to the Constitutional Court of the Republic of Armenia within seven days after the results are officially announced.
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^ Appeals related to disputes over the results of the National Assembly proportional elections can be adjudicated to the Constitutional Court of the Republic of Armenia within seven days after the results are officially announced.
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^ For conducting the National Assembly majoritarian elections 75 constituencies are formed on the territory of the Republic of Armenia, which shall meet the following requirements: .
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The Kingdom of Armenia was the first state to adopt Christianity as its religion[9] in the early years of the 4th century (the traditional date is 301).[10] .The modern Republic of Armenia recognizes the Armenian Apostolic Church as the national church of Armenia, although the republic has separation of church and state with the Armenian Apostolic Church liable to the laws of the state.^ Appeals related to disputes over the results of the National Assembly majoritarian elections can be adjudicated to the Constitutional Court of the Republic of Armenia within seven days after the results are officially announced.
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^ Appeals related to disputes over the results of the National Assembly proportional elections can be adjudicated to the Constitutional Court of the Republic of Armenia within seven days after the results are officially announced.
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^ President of the Republic; in the cases envisaged by the law rejects, recognizes their registration as out of force or invalid; provides the registered candidates for Presidency or their proxies with a sufficient number of certificates; .
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[11]
.Armenia is a member of more than 40 international organisations, including the United Nations, the Council of Europe, the Asian Development Bank, the Commonwealth of Independent States, the World Trade Organization, the Organization of the Black Sea Economic Cooperation, and La Francophonie.^ Deputies of the National Assembly, members of the Constitutional Court, judges, employees of the Ministry of Internal Affairs and National Security, Ministry of Defense, Prosecutor's Office, proxies, observers, candidates, employees of banking system and foreign organizations cannot be members of electoral commissions.
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^ A candidate nominated to run for the President of the Republic has the right to use not more than 60 minutes of free airing time on state TV, and not more than 120 minutes of free airing time on state radio.
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^ The voting is considered as valid, if more than half of the members of the commission have participated in voting.
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It is a member of the CSTO military alliance, and also participates in NATO's Partnership for Peace (PfP) programme. In 2004 its forces joined KFOR, a NATO-led international force in Kosovo. It is also an observer member of the Eurasian Economic Community and the Non-Aligned Movement. The country is an emerging democracy. .Armenia is classified as a country with medium human development and 10.6% of the population live below the international poverty line of US$1.25 a day.^ Citizens of the Republic of Armenia who have the right to vote, that live or are in the foreign countries, can participate in the elections of the President of the Republic, the National Assembly proportional elections, at the diplomatic and consular missions of the Republic of Armenia.
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[12]

Contents

Etymology of name

The native Armenian name for the country is Hayk’. The name in the Middle Ages was extended to Hayastan, by addition of the Iranian suffix -stan (land). .The name has traditionally been derived from Hayk (Հայկ), the legendary patriarch of the Armenians and a great-great-grandson of Noah, who according to Moses of Chorene defeated the Babylonian king Bel in 2492 BC, and established his nation in the Ararat region.^ The Regional Electoral Commission is formed according to the procedure and within dates established for the formation of the Central Electoral Commission.
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^ Within 15 days after the day of voting, Chairmen of the Precinct and Regional Electoral Commissions, return the seals, according to the procedure established by the Central Electoral Commission.
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[13] The further origin of the name is uncertain.
The exonym Armenia is first attested in the Old Persian Behistun inscription (515 BC) as Armina (Old Persian a.pngOld Persian ra.pngOld Persian mi.pngOld Persian i.pngOld Persian na.png). Ancient Greek Αρμένιοι "Armenians" is attested from about the same time, perhaps the earliest reference being a fragment attributed to Hecataeus of Miletus (476 BC).[14] Herodotus (440 BC) has Ἀρμένιοι δὲ κατά περ Φρύγες ἐσεσάχατο, ἐόντες Φρυγῶν ἄποικοι. "the Armenians were equipped like Phrygians, being Phrygian colonists" (7.73).
Some decades later, Xenophon, a Greek general serving in some of the Persian expeditions, describes many aspects of Armenian village life and hospitality. He relates that the people spoke a language that to his ear sounded like the language of the Persians.[15] According to the histories of both Moses of Chorene and Michael Chamich, Armenia derives from the name of Aram, a lineal descendent of Hayk, son of Harma and father of Ara the Beautiful, who ruled around 900 BC and became widely acclaimed by the peoples of the region for his exploits.[16][17]

History

Antiquity

The Kingdom of Armenia at its greatest extent under Tigranes the Great, who reigned between 95 and 66 BC
Armenia lies in the highlands surrounding the Biblical mountains of Ararat, upon which, according to the Bible, Noah's Ark came to rest after the flood. (Gen. 8:4). In the Bronze Age, several states flourished in the area of Greater Armenia, including the Hittite Empire (at the height of its power), Mitanni (South-Western historical Armenia), and Hayasa-Azzi (1500–1200 BC). Then, the Nairi people (twelfth to ninth centuries BC) and the Kingdom of Urartu (1000–600 BC) successively established their sovereignty over the Armenian Highland. Each of the aforementioned nations and tribes participated in the ethnogenesis of the Armenian people.[18][19][20][21] Yerevan, the modern capital of Armenia, was founded in 782 BC by king Argishti I.
The historical Orontid site of Karmir Blur (Red Hill), Teishebaini, near Yerevan
Around 600 BC, the Kingdom of Armenia was established under the Orontid Dynasty. .The kingdom reached its height between 95 and 66 BC under Tigranes the Great, becoming one of the most powerful kingdoms of its time within the region.^ The Central Electoral Commission, based on the results of summarization protocols of elections in regions, in the procedure established by Article 60 of this Code summarizes the election results, and within the time frame established in point three of Article 63 takes one of the following decisions: .
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Throughout its history, the kingdom of Armenia enjoyed periods of independence intermitted with periods of autonomy subject to contemporary empires. Armenia's strategic location between two continents has subjected it to invasions by many peoples, including the Assyrians, Greeks, Romans, Byzantines, Arabs, Mongols, Persians, Ottoman Turks and Russians.
.Armenia was historically Mazdean Zoroastrian (as opposed to the Zurvanite Sassanid dynasty), particularly focused on the worship of Mihr (Avestan Mithra), and Christianity spread into the country as early as AD 40. King Tiridates III (AD 238–314) made Christianity the state religion in AD 301,[22][23] becoming the first officially Christian state, ten years before the Roman Empire granted Christianity an official toleration under Galerius, and 36 years before Constantine the Great was baptized.^ Republic of Armenia during the last ten years for the citizen nominated to run in Presidential elections; .
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^ The Central Electoral Commission ensures the preservation of the above-mentioned documentation, and two months after the election official results are announced - and in the case of a Court dispute, after the final decision has been made - submits them to the state archives of Armenia for preservation in the established procedure.
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^ Republic of Armenia for the last ten years for the citizen nominated to run in Presidential elections; .
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After the fall of the Armenian kingdom in AD 428, most of Armenia was incorporated as a marzpanate within the Sassanid Empire. Following an Armenian rebellion in AD 451, Christian Armenians maintained their religious freedom, while Armenia gained autonomy.

Middle Ages

After the Marzpanate period (428–636), Armenia emerged as the Emirate of Armenia, an autonomous principality within the Arabic Empire, reuniting Armenian lands previously taken by the Byzantine Empire as well. The principality was ruled by the Prince of Armenia, recognised by the Caliph and the Byzantine Emperor. It was part of the administrative division/emirate Arminiyya created by the Arabs, which also included parts of Georgia and Caucasian Albania, and had its center in the Armenian city Dvin. The Principality of Armenia lasted until 884, when it regained its independence from the weakened Arabic Empire.
The Kingdom of Cilician Armenia, 1199–1375
The re-emergent Armenian kingdom was ruled by the Bagratuni dynasty, and lasted until 1045. In time, several areas of the Bagratid Armenia separated as independent kingdoms and principalities such as the Kingdom of Vaspurakan ruled by the House of Artsruni, while still recognizing the supremacy of the Bagratid kings.
In 1045, the Byzantine Empire conquered Bagratid Armenia. Soon, the other Armenian states fell under Byzantine control as well. The Byzantine rule was short lived, as in 1071 Seljuk Turks defeated the Byzantines and conquered Armenia at the Battle of Manzikert, establishing the Seljuk Empire. To escape death or servitude at the hands of those who had assassinated his relative, Gagik II, King of Ani, an Armenian named Roupen went with some of his countrymen into the gorges of the Taurus Mountains and then into Tarsus of Cilicia. The Byzantine governor of the palace gave them shelter where the Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia was eventually established.
The Seljuk Empire soon started to collapse. In the early 1100s, Armenian princes of the Zakarid noble family established a semi-independent Armenian principality in Northern and Eastern Armenia, known as Zakarid Armenia, lasted under patronages of Seljuks, Georgian Kingdom, Atabegs of Azerbaijan and Khwarezmid Empire. The noble family of Orbelians shared control with the Zakarids in various parts of the country, especially in Syunik and Vayots Dzor.

Early Modern Era

During the 1230s, the Mongol Empire conquered the Zakaryan Principality, as well as the rest of Armenia. Armenian soldiers formed an important part of the military of the Ilkhanate..January 2009" style="white-space:nowrap;">[citation needed] The Mongolian invasions were soon followed by those of other Central Asian tribes (Kara Koyunlu, Timurid and Ak Koyunlu), which continued from the 1200s until the 1400s.^ The current Central and Regional Electoral Commissions continue their activity and perform the powers of the Central Electoral Commission and the Regional Electoral Commissions established by this Code until the formation of the new Central Electoral Commission and Regional Electoral Commissions.
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After incessant invasions, each bringing destruction to the country, Armenia in time became weakened. During the 1500s, the Ottoman Empire and Safavid Persia divided Armenia among themselves. The Russian Empire later incorporated Eastern Armenia (consisting of the Erivan[citation needed] and Karabakh khanates[citation needed] within Persia) in 1813 and 1828[citation needed].
Under Ottoman rule, the Armenians were granted considerable autonomy within their own enclaves and lived in relative harmony with other groups in the empire (including the ruling Turks). However, as Christians under a strict Muslim social system, Armenians faced pervasive discrimination. .When they began pushing for more rights within the Ottoman Empire, Sultan ‘Abdu’l-Hamid II, in response, organised state-sponsored massacres against the Armenians between 1894 and 1896, resulting in an estimated death toll of 80,000 to 300,000 people.^ A candidate nominated to run for the President of the Republic has the right to use not more than 60 minutes of free airing time on state TV, and not more than 120 minutes of free airing time on state radio.
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The Hamidian massacres, as they came to be known, gave Hamid international infamy as the "Red Sultan" or "Bloody Sultan".
As the Ottoman Empire began to collapse, the Young Turk Revolution (1908) overthrew the government of Sultan Hamid. Armenians living in the empire hoped that the Committee of Union and Progress would change their second-class status. Armenian reform package (1914) was presented as a solution by appointing an inspector general over Armenian issues.[24]

World War I and the Armenian Genocide

.
The United States contributed a significant amount of aid to the Armenians during the Armenian Genocide.
^ Contributions exceeding the established amount and the money left in the pre-election funds after the elections are transferred to the state budget.
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Shown here is a poster for the American Committee for Relief in the Near East vowing that they (the Armenians among others) "shall not perish."
When World War I broke out leading to confrontation of the Ottoman Empire and the Russian Empire in the Caucasus and Persian Campaigns, the new government in Constantinople began to look on the Armenians with distrust and suspicion. This was due to the fact that the Russian army contained a contingent of Armenian volunteers. On April 24, 1915, Armenian intellectuals were arrested by Ottoman authorities and, with the Tehcir Law (29 May 1915), eventually a large proportion of Armenians living in Anatolia perished in what has become known as the Armenian Genocide.
There was local Armenian resistance in the region, developed against the activities of the Ottoman Empire. The events of 1915 to 1917 are regarded by Armenians and the vast majority of Western historians to have been state-sponsored mass killings, or genocide.[25] Turkish authorities, however, maintain that the deaths were the result of a civil war coupled with disease and famine, with casualties incurred by both sides. According to the research conducted by Arnold J. Toynbee an estimated 600,000 Armenians died during the Armenian Genocide in 1915–16.[26]
.According to the International Association of Genocide Scholars, the death toll was "more than a million".[27] Armenia and the Armenian diaspora have been campaigning for official recognition of the events as genocide for over 30 years.^ In the event if only one candidate runs at the elections, he/she is considered as elected, if he/she has received more than half of the votes of the participants in the elections.
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^ In the event of one candidate running, he/she is considered as elected, if he/she has received more than half of the votes cast.
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^ In the event of being elected to the National Assembly, as well as receiving more than five per cent of the votes cast, the electoral deposit is paid back.
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These events are traditionally commemorated yearly on April 24, the Armenian Martyr Day, or the Day of the Armenian Genocide.

Democratic Republic of Armenia (DRA)

Although the Russian army succeeded in gaining most of Ottoman Armenia during World War I, their gains were lost with the Bolshevik Revolution of 1917[citation needed]. At the time, Russian-controlled Eastern Armenia, Georgia, and Azerbaijan attempted to bond together in the Transcaucasian Democratic Federative Republic. .This federation, however, only lasted from February to May 1918, when all three parties decided to dissolve it.^ If up to three parties run in the elections to the National Assembly by proportional system, then all the parties participate in the distribution of mandates.
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^ The decision of Central Electoral Commission on the denial or recognition as invalid of the registration of party list or a person in it may be appealed to Court within three days after it has been taken.
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As a result, Eastern Armenia became independent as the Democratic Republic of Armenia (DRA) on May 28.
Political divisions of Europe in 1919 showing the independent Armenian republic.
The DRA's short-lived independence was fraught with war, territorial disputes, a mass influx of refugees from Ottoman Armenia, spreading disease, and starvation. .Still, the Entente Powers, appalled by the actions of the Ottoman government, sought to help the newly found Armenian state through relief funds and other forms of support.^ A precinct center shall be formed at the premises of preschool education, academic, scientific, cultural, sports or other institutions under the subordination of state or local self-governing bodies.
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The government building of the DRA (1918–1920)
At the end of the war, the victorious Entente powers sought to divide up the Ottoman Empire. Signed between the Allied and Associated Powers and Ottoman Empire at Sèvres on August 10, 1920, the Treaty of Sèvres promised to maintain the existence of the DRA and to attach the former territories of Ottoman Armenia to it. Because the new borders of Armenia were to be drawn by United States President Woodrow Wilson, Ottoman Armenia is also referred to as "Wilsonian Armenia."
There was even consideration of possibly making Armenia a mandate under the protection of the United States. The treaty, however, was rejected by the Turkish National Movement, and never came into effect. .The movement, under Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, used the treaty as the occasion to declare itself the rightful government of Turkey, replacing the monarchy based in Istanbul with a republic based in Ankara.^ From the moment of registration the candidates for the President of the Republic who are in civil service or work in local self-governing bodies, are dismissed from the performance of their professional duties during the election period, and have no right to use the advantage of their office.
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Armenian civilians fleeing Kars after its capture by Kazım Karabekir's forces
In 1920, Turkish nationalist forces invaded the fledgling Armenian republic from the east and the Turkish-Armenian War began. Turkish forces under the command of Kazım Karabekir captured Armenian territories that Russia annexed in the aftermath of the 1877–1878 Russo-Turkish War and occupied the old city of Alexandropol (present-day Gyumri). The violent conflict finally concluded with the Treaty of Alexandropol (December 2, 1920).
.The treaty forced Armenia to disarm most of its military forces, cede more than 50% of its pre-war territory, and to give up all the "Wilsonian Armenia" granted to it at the Sèvres treaty.^ For that purpose, in the period of the pre-election campaign, the arrested and detained candidates have the right of having daily meetings, for up to two hours, with not more than three proxies, at the institutions that have the right to hold the arrested or the detained.
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.Simultaneously, the Soviet Eleventh Army under the command of Grigoriy Ordzhonikidze, invaded Armenia at Karavansarai (present-day Ijevan) on November 29. By December 4, Ordzhonikidze's forces entered Yerevan and the short-lived Armenian republic collapsed.^ Appeals related to disputes over the results of the National Assembly majoritarian elections can be adjudicated to the Constitutional Court of the Republic of Armenia within seven days after the results are officially announced.
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^ Appeals related to disputes over the results of the National Assembly proportional elections can be adjudicated to the Constitutional Court of the Republic of Armenia within seven days after the results are officially announced.
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^ The Diplomatic and Consular Missions of the Republic of Armenia, in accordance with the procedures set by this Code and by Central Electoral Commission, guarantee the realization of the electoral right of Armenian citizens.
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Soviet Armenia

The coat of arms of Soviet Armenia depicting Mount Ararat in the center.
Armenia was annexed by Bolshevist Russia and along with Georgia and Azerbaijan, it was incorporated into the Soviet Union as part of the Transcaucasian SFSR on March 4, 1922. With this annexation, the Treaty of Alexandropol was superseded by the Turkish-Soviet Treaty of Kars. In the agreement, Turkey allowed the Soviet Union to assume control over Adjara with the port city of Batumi in return for sovereignty over the cities of Kars, Ardahan, and Iğdır, all of which were part of Russian Armenia.
The TSFR existed from 1922 to 1936, when it was divided up into three separate entities (Armenian SSR, Azerbaijan SSR, and Georgian SSR). Armenians enjoyed a period of relative stability under Soviet rule. They received medicine, food, and other provisions from Moscow, and communist rule proved to be a soothing balm in contrast to the turbulent final years of the Ottoman Empire. The situation was difficult for the church, which struggled under Soviet rule. After the death of Vladimir Lenin, Joseph Stalin took the reins of power and began an era of renewed fear and terror for Armenians.[28] .As with various other ethnic minorities who lived in the Soviet Union during Stalin's Great Purge, tens of thousands of Armenians were either executed or deported.^ During the preparation and conduct of the elections, the citizens of the Republic of Armenia who live or are living outside Armenia, have the electoral right.
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[citation needed]
Fears decreased when Stalin died in 1953 and Nikita Khruschev emerged as the Soviet Union's new leader. Soon, life in Soviet Armenia began to see rapid improvement. The church which suffered greatly under Stalin was revived when Catholicos Vazgen I assumed the duties of his office in 1955. In 1967, a memorial to the victims of the Armenian Genocide was built at the Tsitsernakaberd hill above the Hrazdan gorge in Yerevan. This occurred after mass demonstrations took place on the tragic event's fiftieth anniversary in 1965.
Armenians gather at Theater Square in central Yerevan to protest Soviet policies and rule in 1988
During the Gorbachev era of the 1980s with the reforms of Glasnost and Perestroika, Armenians began to demand better environmental care for their country, opposing the pollution that Soviet-built factories brought. Tensions also developed between Soviet Azerbaijan and its autonomous district of Nagorno-Karabakh, a majority-Armenian region separated by Stalin from Armenia in 1923. The Armenians of Karabakh demanded unification with Soviet Armenia. Peaceful protests in Yerevan supporting the Karabakh Armenians were met with anti-Armenian pogroms in the Azerbaijani city of Sumgait. Compounding Armenia's problems was a devastating earthquake in 1988 with a moment magnitude of 7.2.[29]
Gorbachev's inability to solve Armenia's problems (especially Karabakh) created disillusionment among the Armenians and only fed a growing hunger for independence. In May 1990, the New Armenian Army (NAA) was established, serving as a defence force separate from the Soviet Red Army. .Clashes soon broke out between the NAA and Soviet Internal Security Forces (MVD) troops based in Yerevan when Armenians decided to commemorate the establishment of the 1918 Democratic Republic of Armenia.^ The Diplomatic and Consular Missions of the Republic of Armenia, in accordance with the procedures set by this Code and by Central Electoral Commission, guarantee the realization of the electoral right of Armenian citizens.
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The violence resulted in the deaths of five Armenians killed in a shootout with the MVD at the railway station. Witnesses there claimed that the MVD used excessive force and that they had instigated the fighting.
Further firefights between Armenian militiamen and Soviet troops occurred in Sovetashen, near the capital and resulted in the deaths of over 26 people, mostly Armenians. Pogrom of Armenians in Baku in January 1990 forced almost all of the 200,000 Armenians in the Azerbaijani capital Baku to flee to Armenia.[30] .On March 17, 1991, Armenia, along with the Baltic states, Georgia and Moldova, boycotted a union-wide referendum in which 78% of all voters voted for the retention of the Soviet Union in a reformed form.^ Every citizen of the Republic of Armenia that has the right to vote is eligible for inclusion in one voter list only.
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^ In the event of the absence of a Diplomatic or Consular Mission of the Republic of Armenia in the state, which is the country of residence or where the voter is, the citizen can apply to the Diplomatic or Consular Mission of the Republic of Armenia in the state bordering, or located close to the state of residence or the state where the voter is, for the inclusion in voter lists.
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^ All citizens of the Republic of Armenia that have the right to vote are included in voter lists.
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[31]

Restoration of independence

In 1991, the Soviet Union broke apart and Armenia re-established its independence. Declaring independence on August 23, it was the first non-Baltic republic to secede. However, the initial post-Soviet years were marred by economic difficulties as well as the break-out of a full-scale armed confrontation between the Karabakh Armenians and Azerbaijan. The economic problems had their roots early in the Karabakh conflict when the Azerbaijani Popular Front managed to pressure the Azerbaijan SSR to instigate a railway and air blockade against Armenia. This move effectively crippled Armenia's economy as 85% of its cargo and goods arrived through rail traffic.[32] In 1993, Turkey joined the blockade against Armenia in support of Azerbaijan.[33]
The Karabakh war ended after a Russian-brokered cease-fire was put in place in 1994. The war was a success for the Karabakh Armenian forces who managed to secure 14% of Azerbaijan's internationally recognised territory including Nagorno-Karabakh itself.[34] Since then, Armenia and Azerbaijan have held peace talks, mediated by the Organisation for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE). The status over Karabakh has yet to be determined. .The economies of both countries have been hurt in the absence of a complete resolution and Armenia's borders with Turkey and Azerbaijan remain closed.^ In the event of the absence of a Diplomatic or Consular Mission of the Republic of Armenia in the state, which is the country of residence or where the voter is, the citizen can apply to the Diplomatic or Consular Mission of the Republic of Armenia in the state bordering, or located close to the state of residence or the state where the voter is, for the inclusion in voter lists.
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By the time both Azerbaijan and Armenia had finally agreed to a ceasefire in 1994, an estimated 30,000 people had been killed and over a million had been displaced.[35]
As it enters the twenty-first century, Armenia faces many hardships. Still, it has managed to make some improvements. It has made a full switch to a market economy and as of 2009, is the 31st most economically free nation in the world.[36] Its relations with Europe, the Middle East, and the Commonwealth of Independent States have allowed Armenia to increase trade. Gas, oil, and other supplies come through two vital routes: Iran and Georgia. Armenia maintains cordial relations with both countries.

Government and politics

.Politics of Armenia takes place in a framework of a presidential representative democratic republic.^ Republic of Armenia during the last ten years for the citizen nominated to run in Presidential elections; .
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^ Republic of Armenia for the last ten years for the citizen nominated to run in Presidential elections; .
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.According to the Constitution of Armenia, the President is the head of government and of a multi-party system.^ The means of the election funds of the candidates for the President of the Republic and parties are accumulated in the Central Bank of the Republic of Armenia, and of the other candidates - in any bank, operating on the territory of the Republic of Armenia (on a special account).
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^ In accordance with Article 3 of the Constitution of the Republic of Armenia, elections of the President, elections to the National Assembly, elections of the local self-governing bodies of the Republic of Armenia are held through universal, equal, direct suffrage, by secret ballot.
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^ Parties registered in the Republic of Armenia have the right to nominate candidates for the National Assembly Deputies by majoritarian system.
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Executive power is exercised by the government. Legislative power is vested in both the government and parliament. .The unicameral parliament (also called the Azgayin Zhoghov or National Assembly) is controlled by a coalition of four political parties: the conservative Republican party, the Prosperous Armenia party, the Rule of Law party and the Armenian Revolutionary Federation.^ Appeals related to disputes over the results of the National Assembly majoritarian elections can be adjudicated to the Constitutional Court of the Republic of Armenia within seven days after the results are officially announced.
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^ Presidential candidates, parties running in the National Assembly proportional elections, and candidates registered for elections in majoritarian constituencies; .
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^ Women shall make at least five per cent of the candidates in the electoral lists presented by a party for the elections to the National Assembly by proportional system.
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The main opposition party is Raffi Hovannisian's Heritage party, which favors eventual Armenian membership in the European Union and NATO.
.The Armenian government's stated aim is to build a Western-style parliamentary democracy as the basis of its form of government.^ A precinct center cannot be formed at the premises of state and local self-governing bodies, military-academic institutions, military units and healthcare institutions.
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It has universal suffrage above the age of eighteen.
.International observers of Council of Europe and U.S. Department of State have questioned the fairness of Armenia's parliamentary and presidential elections and constitutional referendum since 1995, citing polling deficiencies, lack of cooperation by the Electoral Commission, and poor maintenance of electoral lists and polling places.^ Presidential elections, on the payment of the electoral deposit; .
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^ The disputes over the decision of the Central Electoral Commission on the results of the elections of the President of the Republic can be appealed to the Constitutional Court of the Republic of Armenia not later than within seven days after the official announcement of the results.
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^ The decision of the Regional Electoral Commission on the election results of the candidates nominated for the community council members can be appealed to court with three days after it has been adopted.
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.Freedom House categorized Armenia in its 2008 report as a "Semi-consolidated Authoritarian Regime" (along with Moldova, Kosovo, Kyrgyzstan, and Russia) and ranked Armenia 20th among 29 nations in transition, with a Democracy Score of 5.21 out of 7 (7 represents the lowest democratic progress).^ The Central Electoral Commission reports to the Audit Chamber of the National Assembly of the Republic of Armenia, within sixty days after the elections are conducted.
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[37]
Since 1999, Freedom House's Democracy Score for Armenia has been steadily on the decline (from 4.79 to 5.21).[38] .Furthermore, Freedom House ranked Armenia as "partly free" in its 2007 report, though it did not categorise Armenia as an "electoral democracy", indicating an absence of relatively free and competitive elections.^ They are provided to the candidates and parties, running in elections, on equal basis, free of charge, in accordance with the timetable and procedures established by the Central Electoral Commission.
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^ Three days before the elections of the President of the Republic and to the National Assembly the Central Electoral Commission publishes the total number of the voters in the Republic of Armenia.
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^ During the preparation and conduct of the elections, the citizens of the Republic of Armenia who live or are living outside Armenia, have the electoral right.
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[39] However, significant progress seems to have been made and the 2008 Armenian presidential election was hailed as largely democratic by OSCE and Western monitors.[40]

Foreign relations

The ministry of foreign affairs in Yerevan
Armenia presently maintains good relations with almost every country in the world, with two major exceptions being its immediate neighbours, Turkey and Azerbaijan. .Tensions were running high between Armenians and Azerbaijanis during the final years of the Soviet Union.^ Republic of Armenia during the last ten years for the citizen nominated to run in Presidential elections; .
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The Nagorno-Karabakh War dominated the region's politics throughout the 1990s.[41] .The border between the two rival countries remains closed up to this day, and a permanent solution for the conflict has not been reached despite the mediation provided by organisations such as the OSCE.^ In the event of the absence of a Diplomatic or Consular Mission of the Republic of Armenia in the state, which is the country of residence or where the voter is, the citizen can apply to the Diplomatic or Consular Mission of the Republic of Armenia in the state bordering, or located close to the state of residence or the state where the voter is, for the inclusion in voter lists.
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.Turkey also has a long history of poor relations with Armenia over its refusal to acknowledge the Armenian Genocide of 1915. The Karabakh conflict became an excuse for Turkey to close its land border with Armenia in 1993. It has not lifted its blockade despite pressure from the powerful Turkish business lobby interested in Armenian markets.^ In the event of the absence of a Diplomatic or Consular Mission of the Republic of Armenia in the state, which is the country of residence or where the voter is, the citizen can apply to the Diplomatic or Consular Mission of the Republic of Armenia in the state bordering, or located close to the state of residence or the state where the voter is, for the inclusion in voter lists.
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[41] Since 2001, however, the Armenian airline company Armavia regularly flies between the Zvartnots International Airport of Yerevan and Atatürk International Airport of Istanbul. .On October 10, 2009, Armenia and Turkey finally signed a peace deal, which sets a timetable for restoring diplomatic ties and reopening their joint border, which has yet to be approved by their parliaments.^ The Diplomatic and Consular Missions of the Republic of Armenia, in accordance with the procedures set by this Code and by Central Electoral Commission, guarantee the realization of the electoral right of Armenian citizens.
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[42]
.Due to its position between two unfriendly neighbours, Armenia has close security ties with Russia.^ If more than two candidates have been running for the position of the Chairman of the Central Electoral Commission, and none of them has received more than half of the votes cast, repeated voting is held between the candidates, that have received more votes.
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At the request of the Armenian government, Russia maintains a military base in the northwestern Armenian city of Gyumri[43] as a deterrent against Turkey.[citation needed] Despite this, Armenia has also been looking toward Euro-Atlantic structures in recent years. It maintains good relations with the United States especially through its Armenian diaspora. According to the U.S. Census Bureau, there are 427,822 Armenians living in the country.[44]
Because of the blockades by Azerbaijan and Turkey, Armenia continues to maintain solid relations with its southern neighbor Iran especially in the economic sector. Economic projects such a gas pipeline going from Iran to Armenia are in time being developed.
Armenia is also a member of the Council of Europe, maintaining friendly relations with the European Union, especially with its member states such as France and Greece. A 2005 survey reported that 64% of Armenia's population would be in favor of joining the EU.[45] Several Armenian officials have also expressed the desire for their country to eventually become an EU member state,[46] some predicting that it will make an official bid for membership in a few years.
Eduard Nalbandyan currently serves as the Armenian Minister of Foreign Affairs.[47]

Military

.The Armenian Army, Air Force, Air Defence, and Border Guard comprise the four branches of the Armed Forces of the Republic of Armenia.^ The Diplomatic and Consular Missions of the Republic of Armenia, in accordance with the procedures set by this Code and by Central Electoral Commission, guarantee the realization of the electoral right of Armenian citizens.
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^ The depiction of the flag or the coat of arms of the Republic of Armenia on campaign posters is prohibited.
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^ In the event of the absence of a Diplomatic or Consular Mission of the Republic of Armenia in the state, which is the country of residence or where the voter is, the citizen can apply to the Diplomatic or Consular Mission of the Republic of Armenia in the state bordering, or located close to the state of residence or the state where the voter is, for the inclusion in voter lists.
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.The Armenian military was formed after the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 and with the establishment of the Ministry of Defence in 1992. The Commander-in-Chief of the military is the President of Armenia, Serzh Sargsyan.^ At least 100 citizens of the Republic of Armenia can form an initiative group for the nomination of a candidate for the President of the Republic.
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The Ministry of Defence is in charge of political leadership, currently headed by Colonel-General Mikael Harutyunyan, while military command remains in the hands of the General Staff, headed by the Chief of Staff, who is currently Lieutenant-General Seyran Ohanian.
Active forces now number about 81,000 soldiers, with an additional reserve of 32,000 troops. Armenian border guards are in charge of patrolling the country's borders with Georgia and Azerbaijan, while Russian troops continue to monitor its borders with Iran and Turkey. In the case of an attack, Armenia is able to mobilise every able-bodied man between the age of 15 and 59, with military preparedness.
The Treaty on Conventional Armed Forces in Europe, which establishes comprehensive limits on key categories of military equipment, was ratified by the Armenian parliament in July 1992. In March 1993, Armenia signed the multilateral Chemical Weapons Convention, which calls for the eventual elimination of chemical weapons. Armenia acceded to the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) as a non-nuclear weapons state in July 1993.
Armenia is member of Collective Security Treaty Organisation (CSTO) along with Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Russia, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan. It participates in NATO's Partnership for Peace (PiP) program and is in a NATO organisation called Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council (EAPC). Armenia has engaged in a peacekeeping mission in Kosovo as part of non-NATO KFOR troops under Greek command.[48] Armenia also had 46 members of its military peacekeeping forces as a part of the Coalition Forces in Iraq War until October 2008.[49]

Administrative divisions

Armenia is divided into ten provinces (marzer, singular marz), with the city (kaghak) of Yerevan (Երևան) having special administrative status as the country's capital. The chief executive in each of the ten provinces is the marzpet (marz governor), appointed by the government of Armenia. In Yerevan, the chief executive is the mayor, appointed by the president.
Within each province are communities (hamaynkner, singular hamaynk). Each community is self-governing and consists of one or more settlements (bnakavayrer, singular bnakavayr). Settlements are classified as either towns (kaghakner, singular kaghak) or villages (gyugher, singular gyugh). As of 2007, Armenia includes 915 communities, of which 49 are considered urban and 866 are considered rural. The capital, Yerevan, also has the status of a community.[50] Additionally, Yerevan is divided into twelve semi-autonomous districts.
Province Capital Area Population
Aragatsotn (Արագածոտն) Ashtarak (Աշտարակ) 2,753 km² 126,278
Ararat (Արարատ) Artashat (Արտաշատ) 2,096 km² 252,665
Armavir (Արմավիր) Armavir (Արմավիր) 1,242 km² 255,861
Gegharkunik (Գեղարքունիք) Gavar (Գավառ) 5,348 km² 215,371
Kotayk (Կոտայք) Hrazdan (Հրազդան) 2,089 km² 241,337
Lori (Լոռի) Vanadzor (Վանաձոր) 3,789 km² 253,351
Shirak (Շիրակ) Gyumri (Գյումրի) 2,681 km² 257,242
Syunik (Սյունիք) Kapan (Կապան) 4,506 km² 134,061
Tavush (Տավուշ) Ijevan (Իջևան) 2,704 km² 121,963
Vayots Dzor (Վայոց Ձոր) Yeghegnadzor (Եղեգնաձոր) 2,308 km² 53,230
Yerevan (Երևան) 227 km² 1,091,235

Geography

Armenia is landlocked in the southern Caucasus. Located between the Black and Caspian Seas, the country is bordered on the north and east by Georgia and Azerbaijan, and on the south and west by Iran and Turkey.

Topography

Armenia's topography is mountainous and volcanic
The Armenian Highland in the village of Fioletovo (Lori Province)
The Republic of Armenia, covering an area of 29,743 square kilometres (11,484 sq mi), is located in the north-east of the Armenian Highland (400,000 square kilometres (154,441 sq mi)), otherwise known as historical Armenia and considered as the original homeland of Armenians. The terrain is mostly mountainous, with fast flowing rivers and few forests. The climate is highland continental, which means that the country is subjected to hot summers and cold winters. The land rises to 4,090 metres (13,419 ft) above sea-level at Mount Aragats, and no point is below 390 metres (1,280 ft) above sea level.[51]
Mount Ararat, which was historically part of Armenia, is the highest mountain in the region. Now located in Turkey, but clearly visible in Armenia, it is regarded by the Armenians as a symbol of their land. Because of this, the mountain is present on the Armenian national emblem today.

Environment

Armenia has established a Ministry of Nature Protection and introduced taxes for air and water pollution and solid waste disposal, whose revenues are used for environmental protection activities. Waste management in Armenia is underdeveloped as no waste sorting or recycling takes place at Armenia's 60 landfills.
Despite the availability of abundant renewable energy sources in Armenia (especially hydroelectric and wind power) the Armenian Government is working toward building a new Nuclear Power Plant at Medzamor near Yerevan.[52]

Climate

The climate in Armenia is markedly continental. Summers are dry and sunny, lasting from June to mid-September. The temperature fluctuates between 22 and 36 degree Celsius (72 and 97 °F). However, the low humidity level mitigates the effect of high temperatures. Evening breezes blowing down the mountains provide a welcome refreshing and cooling effect. Springs are short, while falls are long. Autumns are known for their vibrant and colorful foliage.
Winters are quite cold with plenty of snow, with temperatures ranging between -10 and -5 °C (14 and 23 °F). Winter sports enthusiasts enjoy skiing down the hills of Tsakhkadzor, located thirty minutes outside Yerevan. Lake Sevan nestled up in the Armenian highlands, is the second largest lake in the world relative to its altitude, 1,900 metres (6,234 ft) above sea level.

Economy

The Armenian economy heavily relies on investment and support from Armenians abroad.[53] Before independence, Armenia's economy was largely industry-based – chemicals, electronics, machinery, processed food, synthetic rubber, and textile – and highly dependent on outside resources. The republic had developed a modern industrial sector, supplying machine tools, textiles, and other manufactured goods to sister republics in exchange for raw materials and energy.[22]
Agriculture accounted for less than 20% of both net material product and total employment before the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991. After independence, the importance of agriculture in the economy increased markedly, its share at the end of the 1990s rising to more than 30% of GDP and more than 40% of total employment.[54] This increase in agriculture's share was attributable to food security needs of the population in the face of uncertainty during the first phases of transition and the collapse of the non-agricultural sectors of the economy in the early 1990s. As the economic situation stabilized and growth resumed, the share of agriculture in GDP dropped to slightly over 20% (2006 data), although the share of agriculture in employment remained more than 40%.[55]
Modern companies in Yerevan.
Armenian mines produce copper, zinc, gold, and lead. The vast majority of energy is produced with fuel imported from Russia, including gas and nuclear fuel (for its one nuclear power plant); the main domestic energy source is hydroelectric. Small amounts of coal, gas, and petroleum have not yet been developed.
Like other newly independent states of the former Soviet Union, Armenia's economy suffers from the legacy of a centrally planned economy and the breakdown of former Soviet trading patterns. Soviet investment in and support of Armenian industry has virtually disappeared, so that few major enterprises are still able to function. In addition, the effects of the 1988 Spitak Earthquake, which killed more than 25,000 people and made 500,000 homeless, are still being felt. The conflict with Azerbaijan over Nagorno-Karabakh has not been resolved. The closure of Azerbaijani and Turkish borders has devastated the economy, because Armenia depends on outside supplies of energy and most raw materials. Land routes through Georgia and Iran are inadequate or unreliable. GDP fell nearly 60% from 1989 until 1993, and then resumed its robust growth.[54] The national currency, the dram, suffered hyperinflation for the first years after its introduction in 1993.
Nevertheless, the government was able to make wide-ranging economic reforms that paid off in dramatically lower inflation and steady growth. The 1994 cease-fire in the Nagorno-Karabakh conflict has also helped the economy. Armenia has had strong economic growth since 1995, building on the turnaround that began the previous year, and inflation has been negligible for the past several years. New sectors, such as precious stone processing and jewellery making, information and communication technology, and even tourism are beginning to supplement more traditional sectors in the economy, such as agriculture.
This steady economic progress has earned Armenia increasing support from international institutions. The International Monetary Fund (IMF), World Bank, European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD), and other international financial institutions (IFIs) and foreign countries are extending considerable grants and loans. Loans to Armenia since 1993 exceed $1.1 billion. These loans are targeted at reducing the budget deficit, stabilizing the currency; developing private businesses; energy; the agriculture, food processing, transportation, and health and education sectors; and ongoing rehabilitation in the earthquake zone. The government joined the World Trade Organization on February 5, 2003. But one of the main sources of foreign direct investments remains the Armenian diaspora, which finances major parts of the reconstruction of infrastructure and other public projects. Being a growing democratic state, Armenia also hopes to get more financial aid from the Western World.
A liberal foreign investment law was approved in June 1994, and a Law on Privatisation was adopted in 1997, as well as a program on state property privatisation. Continued progress will depend on the ability of the government to strengthen its macroeconomic management, including increasing revenue collection, improving the investment climate, and making strides against corruption. However unemployment still remains a major problem due to the influx of thousands of refugees from the Karabakh conflict, which currently stands at around 15%.
Armenia ranked 83rd on the 2007 UNDP Human Development Index, the highest among the Transcaucasian republics.[56] In the 2007 Transparency International Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI), Armenia ranked 99 of 179 countries.[57] In the 2008 Index of Economic Freedom, Armenia ranked 28th, ahead of countries like Austria, France, Portugal and Italy.[36]

Demographics

Armenian children at the UN Cup Chess Tournament in 2005.
Armenia has a population of 3,238,000 (2008 est.)[6] and is the second most densely populated of the former Soviet republics. There has been a problem of population decline due to elevated levels of emigration after the break-up of the USSR. The rates of emigration and population decline, however, have decreased drastically in the recent years, and a moderate influx of Armenians returning to Armenia have been the main reasons for the trend, which is expected to continue. In fact Armenia is expected to resume its positive population growth by 2010.
Ethnic Armenians make up 97.9% of the population. Yazidis make up 1.3%, and Russians 0.5%. Other minorities include Assyrians, Ukrainians, Greeks, Kurds, Georgians, and Belarusians. There are also smaller communities of Vlachs, Mordvins, Ossetians, Udis, and Tats. Minorities of Poles and Caucasus Germans also exist though they are heavily Russified.[58]
During the Soviet era, Azerbaijanis were historically the second largest population in the country (forming about 2.5% in 1989).[59] However, due to the conflict over Nagorno-Karabakh virtually all of them emigrated from Armenia to Azerbaijan. Conversely, Armenia received a large influx of Armenian refugees from Azerbaijan, thus giving Armenia a more homogeneous character.
Armenian is the only official language even though Russian is widely used, especially in education[3], and could be considered as de facto "second language". Besides, 94 % of adult Armenians considers that it's important their children learn Russian[60].

Diaspora

Armenia has a relatively large diaspora (8 million by some estimates, greatly exceeding the 3 million population of Armenia itself), with communities existing across the globe. The largest Armenian communities outside of Armenia can be found in Russia, France, Iran, the United States, Georgia, Syria, Lebanon, Argentina, Australia, Canada, Greece, Cyprus, Israel, Poland and Ukraine. 40,000 to 70,000 Armenians still live in Turkey (mostly in and around Istanbul).[61]
Also, about 1,000 Armenians reside in the Armenian Quarter in the Old City of Jerusalem in Israel, a remnant of a once-larger community.[62] Italy is home to the San Lazzaro degli Armeni, an island located in the Venetian Lagoon, which is completely occupied by a monastery run by the Mechitarists, an Armenian Catholic congregation.[63] In addition, approximately 139,000 Armenians live in the de facto country of Nagorno-Karabakh where they form a majority.[64]

Health

Life expectancy at birth was at 70 for males and at 76 for females in 2006. [65] Health expenditure was at about 5.6 % of the GDP in 2004.[65] Most of this was outside the private sector.[65] Government expenditure on health was at US$ 112 per person in 2006.[66]

Religion

The influence of St. Gregory the Illuminator led to the adoption of Christianity in Armenia in the year AD 301. He is the patron saint of the Armenian Apostolic Church
The 12th century Khor Virap monastery in the shadow of Mount Ararat, upon which Noah's Ark had supposedly once come to rest.
Armenia was the first nation to adopt Christianity as a state religion, an event traditionally dated to AD 301.[67][68][69][70]
The predominant religion in Armenia is Christianity. The roots of the Armenian Church go back to the first century. According to tradition, the Armenian Church was founded by two of Jesus' twelve apostlesThaddaeus and Bartholomew – who preached Christianity in Armenia between AD 40–60. Because of these two founding apostles, the official name of the Armenian Church is Armenian Apostolic Church.
Over 93% of Armenian Christians belong to the Armenian Apostolic Church, a form of Oriental (Non-Chalcedonian) Orthodoxy, which is a very ritualistic, conservative church, roughly comparable to the Coptic and Syriac churches.[71] Armenian Apostolic Church is in communion only with a group of churches within Oriental Orthodoxy.
Other religious denominations in Armenia are the Baptists[72][73][74] and Presbyterians.[75][76][77]
Catholics also exist in Armenia, both Roman Catholic and Mekhitarist Catholics. The Mechitarists (also spelled "Mekhitarists" Armenian: Մխիթարեան), are a congregation of Benedictine monks of the Armenian Catholic Church founded in 1712 by Mechitar of Sebaste. They are best known for their series of scholarly publications of ancient Armenian versions of otherwise lost ancient Greek texts.
The Armenian Catholic denomination is headquartered in Bzoummar, Lebanon.
The Yazidi Kurds, who live in the western part of the country, practice Yazidism. There is a Jewish community in Armenia diminished to 750 persons since independence with most emigrants leaving for Israel. There are currently two synagogues in Armenia – in the capital, Yerevan, and in the city of Sevan located near Lake Sevan.
There are also non-Yazidi Kurds who practice Sunni Islam.[citation needed]

Culture

Armenians have their own distinctive alphabet and language. The alphabet was invented in AD 405 by Saint Mesrob Mashtots and consists of thirty-eight letters, two of which were added during the Cilician period. 96% of the people in the country speak Armenian, while 75.8% of the population additionally speaks Russian although English is becoming increasingly popular.
Traditional Armenian Dance
The Armenian dance heritage has been one of the oldest, richest and most varied in the Near East. From the fifth to the third millennia B.C., in the higher regions of Armenia there are rock paintings of scenes of country dancing. These dances were probably accompanied by certain kinds of songs or musical instruments. In the fifth century Moses of Khorene (Movsés Khorenats'i) himself had heard of how the old descendants of Aram (that is Armenians) make mention of these things (epic tales) in the ballads for the lyre and their songs and dances.
The National Art Gallery in Yerevan has more than 16,000 works that date back to the Middle Ages, which indicate Armenia's rich tales and stories of the times. It houses paintings by many European masters as well. The Modern Art Museum, the Children’s Picture Gallery, and the Martiros Saryan Museum are only a few of the other noteworthy collections of fine art on display in Yerevan. Moreover, many private galleries are in operation, with many more opening every year, featuring rotating exhibitions and sales.

Music

The work Song of the Italian Girl by 19th century Armenian poet Mikael Nalbandian served as the inspiration for the Armenian national anthem Mer Hayrenik.
One of the most important parts of Armenian culture is the music, which has in recent years brought new forms of music, while maintaining traditional styles too. This is evidenced by the world-class Armenian Philharmonic Orchestra that performs at the beautifully refurbished Yerevan Opera House, where one can also attend a full season of opera and ballet performances performed by the staff of Armenian Opera Theater.
In addition, several chamber ensembles are highly regarded for their musicianship, including the National Chamber Orchestra of Armenia and the Serenade Orchestra. Classical music can also be heard at one of several smaller venues, including the Yerevan Komitas State Conservatory and the Chamber Orchestra Hall. Jazz is popular, especially in the summer when live performances are a regular occurrence at one of the city’s many outdoor cafés and parks. The traditional instrument is the duduk (pronounced doo-dook).

Art

Yerevan's Vernisage (arts and crafts market), close to Republic Square, bustles with hundreds of vendors selling a variety of crafts on weekends and Wednesdays (though the selection is much reduced mid-week). The market offers woodcarving, antiques, fine lace, and the hand-knotted wool carpets and kilims that are a Caucasus specialty. Obsidian, which is found locally, is crafted into assortment of jewellery and ornamental objects. Armenian gold smithery enjoys a long tradition, populating one corner of the market with a selection of gold items. Soviet relics and souvenirs of recent Russian manufacture—nesting dolls, watches, enamel boxes and so on, are also available at the Vernisage.
Across from the Opera House, a popular art market fills another city park on the weekends. Armenia’s long history as a crossroads of the ancient world has resulted in a landscape with innumerable fascinating archaeological sites to explore. Medieval, Iron Age, Bronze Age and even Stone Age sites are all within a few hours drive from the city. All but the most spectacular remain virtually undiscovered, allowing visitors to view churches and fortresses in their original settings.

Armenian artists

Many famous names in the music world are of Armenian descent including Georgian-born classical composer Aram Khachaturian, French-born singer Charles Aznavour, Turkish-born percussionist Arto Tunçboyacıyan, and all the members of the alternative metal band System Of A Down, although only bassist Shavo Odadjian was born in the country.

Education

In its first years of independence, Armenia made uneven progress in establishing systems to meet its national requirements in social services.[78] Education, held in particular esteem in Armenian culture, changed fastest of the social services, while health and welfare services attempted to maintain the basic state-planned structure of the Soviet era.[78]
A literacy rate of 100% was reported as early as 1960.[78] In the communist era, Armenian education followed the standard Soviet model of complete state control (from Moscow) of curricula and teaching methods and close integration of education activities with other aspects of society, such as politics, culture, and the economy.[78] As in the Soviet period, primary and secondary education in Armenia is free, and completion of secondary school is compulsory.[78]
In the early 1990s, Armenia made substantial changes to the centralized and regimented Soviet system.[78] Because at least 98 % of students in higher education were Armenian, curricula began to emphasize Armenian history and culture.[78] Armenian became the dominant language of instruction, and many schools that had taught in Russian closed by the end of 1991.[78] Russian was still widely taught, however, as a second language.[78]
In the 1990–91 school year, the estimated 1,307 primary and secondary schools were attended by 608,800 students.[78] Another seventy specialized secondary institutions had 45,900 students, and 68,400 students were enrolled in a total of ten postsecondary institutions that included universities.[78] In addition, 35 % of eligible children attended preschools.[78] In the 1988–89 school year, 301 students per 10,000 population were in specialized secondary or higher education, a figure slightly lower than the Soviet average.[78] In 1989 some 58 % of Armenians over age fifteen had completed their secondary education, and 14 % had a higher education.[78] In 1992 Armenia's largest institution of higher learning, Yerevan State University, had eighteen departments, including ones for social sciences, sciences, and law.[78] Its faculty numbered about 1,300 teachers and its student population about 10,000 students.[78] The Yerevan Architecture and Civil Engineering Institute was founded in 1989.[78]
On the basis of the expansion and development of Yerevan State University a number of higher educational independent Institutions were formed including Medical Institute separated in 1930 which was set up on the basis of medical faculty. In 1980 Yerevan State Medical University was awarded one of the main rewards of the former USSR – the Order of Labor red Banner for training qualified specialists in health care and valuable service in the development of Medical Science. In 1995 YSMI was renamed to YSMU and since 1989 it has been named after Mkhitar Heratsi, the famous medieval doctor. Mkhitar Heratsi was the founder of Armenian Medical school in Cilician Armenia. The great doctor played the same role in Armenian Medical Science as Hypokratus in Old Greek, Galen in Roman, Ib Sina in Arabic medicine.
Foreign students' department for Armenian Diaspora established in 1957 later was enlarged and the enrollment of foreign students began. Nowadays the YSMU is a Medical Institution corresponding to international requirements, trains medical staff not only for Armenia and neighbor countries, i.e. Iran, Syria, Lebanon, Georgia but for many other leading countries all over the world. A great number of foreign students from India, Nepal, Sri Lanka, the USA and Russian Federation study together with Armenian students. Nowadays the university is ranked among famous higher Medical Institutions and takes its honorable place in the World Directory of Medical schools published by the WHO.
Other schools in Armenia include the American University of Armenia and the QSI International School of Yerevan. The American University of Armenia has graduate programs in Business and Law, among others. The institution owes its existence to the combined efforts of the Government of Armenia, the Armenian General Benevolent Union, U.S. Agency for International Development, and the University of California. The extension programs and the library at AUA form a new focal point for English-language intellectual life in the city.

Wedding ceremony

The elaborate Armenian wedding process begins when the man and woman get engaged. The man's immediate family (parents, grandparents, and often uncles and aunts) go over to the woman's house to ask for permission from the woman's father for the relationship to continue and hopefully prosper. Once permission is granted by the father, the man gives the woman an engagement ring to make it official. To celebrate the mutual family agreement, the woman's family opens a bottle of Armenian brandy. After getting engaged, most families elect to have a semi-large engagement party as well. The girl's family is the one who plans, organizes and pays for the party. There is very little involvement by the man's family.
At the party, a priest is summoned to pray for the soon-to-be husband and wife and give his blessings. Once the words of prayer have concluded, the couple slide wedding bands on each other's right hands (the ring is moved to the left hand once a formal marriage ceremony is conducted by the Armenian church). The customary time to wait for the marriage is about one year. Unlike other cultures, where bride's family pays for the wedding, in Armenia the man and his family pay for the wedding. The planning and organization process is usually done by the bride and groom to be.

Sport

Hrazdan Stadium in Yerevan, the largest sports venue in Armenia
A wide array of sports are played in Armenia, the most popular among them being wrestling, weightlifting, judo, football, chess, and boxing.[1]. Armenia's mountainous terrain provides great opportunities for the practice of sports like skiing and climbing. Being a landlocked country, water sports can only be practiced on lakes, notably Lake Sevan. Competitively, Armenia has been successful in chess, weightlifting and wrestling at the international level. Armenia is also an active member of the international sports community, with full membership in the Union of European Football Associations (UEFA) and International Ice Hockey Federation (IIHF). It also hosts the Pan-Armenian Games.
Prior to 1992, Armenians would participate in the Olympics representing the USSR. As part of the Soviet Union, Armenia was very successful, winning plenty of medals and helping the USSR win the medal standings at the Olympics on numerous occasions. The first medal won by an Armenian in modern Olympic history was by Hrant Shahinian (sometimes spelled as Grant Shaginian), who won two golds and two silvers in gymnastics at the 1952 Summer Olympics in Helsinki. To highlight the level of success of Armenians in the Olympics, Shahinian was quoted as saying:
“ Armenian sportsmen had to outdo their opponents by several notches for the shot at being accepted into any Soviet team. But those difficulties notwithstanding, 90 percent of Armenians athletes on Soviet Olympic teams came back with medals."[79]
Athletes taking part in the annual May 1 parade in Yerevan's Lenin Square, now known as the Republic Square.
Armenia first participated at the 1992 Summer Olympics in Barcelona under a unified CIS team, where it was very successful, winning three golds and one silver in weightlifting, wrestling and sharp shooting, despite only having 5 athletes. Since the 1994 Winter Olympics in Lillehammer, Armenia has participated as an independent nation.
Armenia participates in the Summer Olympic Games in boxing, wrestling, weightlifting, judo, gymnastics, track and field, diving, swimming and sharp shooting. It also participates in the Winter Olympic Games in alpine skiing, cross-country skiing and figure skating.
Armenia used to play as part of the USSR national football team at the international level. Their most successful team was Yerevan's FC Ararat, which had claimed most of the Soviet championships in the 70s and had also gone to post victories against professional clubs like FC Bayern Munich in the Euro Cup. Armenia played as part of the USSR until 1992, when the Armenian national football team played their first official match representing solely Armenia, against Moldova. The national team is controlled by the Football Federation of Armenia. The Armenian Premier League is the top football competition in Armenia. The league currently consists of eight teams, and relegates to the Armenian First League. Over the years, the league has evolved from a small competition consisting of only eight teams to two separate divisions. Armenia also has many football venues such as the Hrazdan Stadium and Hanrapetakan Stadium.
Armenia and the Armenian diaspora have produced many world class players, notably Youri Djorkaeff, Alain Boghossian, Andranik Eskandarian, Andranik Teymourian, Edgar Manucharyan, Nikita Simonyan, among others. Youri Djokaeff played for France (retired), Andranik Teymourian plays for Iran and Edgar Manucharyan plays for Ajax Amsterdam.
Wrestling has been a successful sport in the Olympics for Armenia. At the 1996 Summer Olympics in Atlanta, Armen Nazaryan won the gold in the Men's Greco-Roman Flyweight (52 kg) category and Armen Mkertchian won the silver in Men's Freestyle Paperweight (48 kg) category, securing Armenia's first two medals in its Olympic history.
Traditional Armenian wrestling is called Kokh and practiced in traditional garb; it was one of the influences included in the Soviet combat sport of Sambo, which is also very popular.
The government of Armenia budgets about $2.8 million annually for sports and gives it to the National Committee of Physical Education and Sports, the body that determines which programs should benefit from the funds.
Due to the lack of success lately on the international level, in recent years, Armenia has rebuilt 16 Soviet-era sports schools and furnished them with new equipment for a total cost of $1.9 million. The rebuilding of the regional schools was financed by the Armenian government. $9.3 million has been invested in the resort town of Tsaghkadzor to improve the winter sports infrastructure because of dismal performances at recent winter sports events. In 2005, a cycling center was opened in Yerevan with the aim of helping produce world class Armenian cyclists. The government has also promised a cash reward of $700,000 to Armenians who win a gold medal at the Olympics.[80]

See also

References

Notes

  1. ^ The Constitution of the Republic of Armenia, Article 12.
  2. ^ "Ethnologue report for language code: hye". Ethnologue.com. http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=hye. Retrieved 2010-01-25. 
  3. ^ a b "Problems of Bilingualism in Armenia" (PDF). http://www.lingref.com/isb/4/092ISB4.PDF. Retrieved 2010-01-25.  : "In 1999 the decision of the Government of Armenia that the Russian language would be used in the system of education and cultural and social life of the Republic of Armenia was approved and adopted. This decision contained the concept about a place and role of the Russian language in the system of education."
  4. ^ Asatryan, Garnik; Arakelova, Victoria (Yerevan 2002). The Ethnic Minorities in Armenia. Part of the OSCE
  5. ^ The Constitution of the Republic of Armenia, Article 55.
  6. ^ a b "Statistical Yearbook of Armenia, 2009: Population". ArmStat. http://www.armstat.am/file/doc/99458058.pdf. Retrieved 2010-02-09. 
  7. ^ a b c d "Armenia". International Monetary Fund. http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/weo/2009/02/weodata/weorept.aspx?sy=2006&ey=2009&scsm=1&ssd=1&sort=country&ds=.&br=1&c=911&s=NGDPD%2CNGDPDPC%2CPPPGDP%2CPPPPC%2CLP&grp=0&a=&pr.x=64&pr.y=11. Retrieved 2009-10-01. 
  8. ^ Armenia may be considered to be in Asia and/or Europe. The UN classification of world regions places Armenia in Western Asia; the CIA World Factbook [1], National Geographic, and Encyclopædia Britannica also place Armenia in Asia. Conversely, some sources place Armenia in Europe such as Oxford Reference Online [2], and www.worldatlas.com.
  9. ^ "The conversion of Armenia to Christianity was probably the most crucial step in its history. It turned Armenia sharply away from its Iranian past and stamped it for centuries with an intrinsic character as clear to the native population as to those outside its borders, who identified Armenia almost at once as the first state to adopt Christianity". (Garsoïan, Nina (1997). ed. R.G. Hovannisian. ed. Armenian People from Ancient to Modern Times. Palgrave Macmillan. pp. Volume 1, p.81. ).
  10. ^ Grousset, René (1947). Histoire de l'Arménie (1984 ed.). Payot. p. 122. . Estimated dates vary from 284 to 314. Garsoïan (op.cit. p.82), following the research of Ananian, favours the latter.
  11. ^ The Constitution of the Republic of Armenia, Article 8.1
  12. ^ Human Development Indices, Table 3: Human and income poverty, p. 34. Retrieved on 1 June 2009
  13. ^ Razmik Panossian, The Armenians: From Kings And Priests to Merchants And Commissars, Columbia University Press (2006), ISBN 978-0231139267, p. 106.
  14. ^ "Χαλύβοισι πρὸς νότον Ἀρμένιοι ὁμουρέουσι (The Armenians border on the Chalybes to the south)". Chahin, Mark (2001). The Kingdom of Armenia. London: Routledge. pp. fr. 203. ISBN 0-7007-1452-9. 
  15. ^ Xenophon. Anabasis. pp. IV.v.2–9. 
  16. ^ Moses of Chorene,The History of Armenia, Book 1, Ch. 12 (Russian)
  17. ^ History of Armenia by Father Michael Chamich from B.C. 2247 to the Year of Christ 1780, or 1229 of the Armenian era, Bishop's College Press, Calcutta, 1827, page 19: "[Aram] was the first to raise the Armenian name to any degree of renown; so that contemporary nations ... called them the Aramians, or followers of Aram, a name which has been corrupted into Armenians; and the country they inhabited, by universal consent, took the name of Armenia."
  18. ^ Kurkjian, Vahan (1958). History of Armenia (1964 ed.). Michigan: Armenian General Benevolent Union. http://penelope.uchicago.edu/Thayer/E/Gazetteer/Places/Asia/Armenia/_Texts/KURARM/home.html. Retrieved 2009-07-22. 
  19. ^ Armenian Soviet Encyclopedia. Yerevan: Armenian Encyclopedia. 1987. pp. v. 12. 
  20. ^ Movsisyan, Artak (2000). Sacred Highland: Armenia in the spiritual conception of the Near East. Yerevan. 
  21. ^ Kavoukjian, Martiros (1982). The Genesis of Armenian People. Montreal. 
  22. ^ a b "The World Factbook: Armenia". CIA. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/am.html. Retrieved 2007-11-15. 
  23. ^ Brunner, Borgna (2006). Time Almanac with Information Please 2007. New York: Time Home Entertainment. p. 685. ISBN 193340549X. 
  24. ^ Kirakosian, J. S. (1972) (in Armenian). Hayastane michazkayin divanakitut'yan ew sovetakan artakin kaghakakanut'yan pastateghterum, 1828–1923 (Armenia in the documents of international diplomacy and Soviet foreign policy, 1828–1923). Yerevan. pp. 149–358. 
  25. ^ Extensive bibliography by University of Michigan on the Armenian Genocide
  26. ^ Encyclopædia Britannica: Armenian massacres (Turkish-Armenian history)
  27. ^ Q&A: Armenian genocide dispute. BBC News. July 10, 2008.
  28. ^ Ronald G. Suny, James Nichol, Darrell L. Slider. Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia. Federal Research Division, Library of Congress. 1995. p.17 and following
  29. ^ Eastern Europe, Russia and Central Asia 2004 – Page 74 by Imogen Gladman, Taylor & Francis Group
  30. ^ Notes from Baku: Black January. Rufat Ahmedov. EurasiaNet Human Rights.
  31. ^ "The March Referendum". http://soviethistory.org/index.php?action=L2&SubjectID=1991march&Year=1991. Retrieved 2008-11-10. 
  32. ^ Croissant, Michael P. (1998). The Armenia-Azerbaijan Conflict: Causes and Implications. London: Praeger. ISBN 0-275-96241-5. 
  33. ^ "The Ties That Divide". Global Heritage Fund. 2006-06-17. http://www.globalheritagefund.org/news/GHF_in_the_news/economist_ties_that_divide_june_17_06.asp. Retrieved 2009-07-22. 
  34. ^ De Waal, Thomas (2004). Black Garden: Armenia And Azerbaijan Through Peace and War. New York: New York University Press. p. 240. ISBN 0-8147-1945-7. 
  35. ^ A Conflict That Can Be Resolved in Time: Nagorno-Karabakh. International Herald Tribune. November 29, 2003.
  36. ^ a b "Index of Economic Freedom 2009". The Heritage Foundation. http://www.heritage.org/Index/Ranking.aspx. 
  37. ^ "Nations in Transit 2008" (PDF). Freedom House. http://www.freedomhouse.hu/images/fdh_galleries/NIT2008/02_tables.pdf. Retrieved 2008-06-26. 
  38. ^ "Nations in Transit 2008: Armenia" (PDF). Freedom House. http://www.freedomhouse.hu/images/fdh_galleries/NIT2008/NT-Armenia-final.pdf. Retrieved 2008-06-26. 
  39. ^ "Freedom in the World 2007" (PDF). Freedom House. http://www.freedomhouse.org/uploads/press_release/fiw07_charts.pdf. Retrieved 2007-02-20. 
  40. ^ Danielyan, Emil (2008-02-20). "Armenian Vote 'Largely Democratic'". ArmeniaLiberty, Radio Free Europe. http://www.armenialiberty.org/armeniareport/report/en/2008/02/14B31960-C791-4274-B7F0-50B571D0EADD.asp. Retrieved 2008-02-20. 
  41. ^ a b "Nagorno-Karabakh: The Crisis in the Caucasus". http://www.cfr.org/publication/9148/. Retrieved 2007-04-06. 
  42. ^ [3]
  43. ^ "Baku and Moscow – 'One Hundred Percent Strategic Partners'". Hetq Online. 2006-02-27. http://archive.hetq.am/eng/politics/0602-az.html. Retrieved 2008-04-20. 
  44. ^ "Ancestry Data". U.S. Census Bureau. 2006. http://factfinder.census.gov/servlet/DTTable?_bm=y&-geo_id=D&-ds_name=D&-_lang=en&-redoLog=false&-mt_name=ACS_2006_EST_G2000_B04003. Retrieved 2009-07-22.  The 2001 Canadian Census determined that there are 40,505 persons of Armenian ancestry currently living in Canada. However, these are liable to be low numbers, since people of mixed ancestry, very common in North America tend to be under-counted: the 1990 census U.S. indicates 149,694 people who speak Armenian at home. The Armenian Embassy in Canada estimates 1 million ethnic Armenians in the U.S. and 100,000 in Canada. The Armenian Church of America makes a similar estimate. By all accounts, over half of the Armenians in the United States live in California.
  45. ^ "RFE/RL Caucasus Report". Armenian Ministry of Foreign Affairs. 2005-01-07. http://www.armeniaforeignministry.am/news/inthenews/050107_eu.html. Retrieved 2009-07-22. 
  46. ^ "Interview with RA National Assembly Speaker Artur Baghdasaryan". ArmInfo News Agency. 2005-10-26. http://www.arminfo.am/political-issue22.html. Retrieved 2009-07-22. 
  47. ^ "Sarkisian Appoints Key Ministers in Emerging Cabinet", Armenialiberty.org, April 15, 2008.
  48. ^ "KFOR Contingent: Armenia". Official Web Site of the Kosovo Force. 23 March 2007. http://www.nato.int/kfor/structur/nations/armenia.htm. Retrieved 2008-10-27. 
  49. ^ "Last shift of Armenian peacekeepers in Iraq returns home". Ministry of Defence. 7 October 2008. http://www.mil.am/eng/index.php?page=2&p=0&id=633&y=2008&m=10&d=29. Retrieved 29 October 2008. 
  50. ^ "Regional Administration Bodies". The Government of the Republic of Armenia. http://www.gov.am/en/regions/. Retrieved 2008-09-11. 
  51. ^ "Geographic Characteristic of The Republic of Armenia". Marzes of the Republic of Armenia in Figures, 2002–2006. National Statistical Service of the Republic of Armenia. 2007. http://www.armstat.am/file/article/marz_07_e_2.pdf. Retrieved 2009-07-22. 
  52. ^ Address by President Serzh Sargsyan to the People of Armenia and the National Assembly on 2 October 2008
  53. ^ "Armenian Eyes, Ears on US Genocide Vote". washingtonpost.com. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2007/10/19/AR2007101901471.html. Retrieved 2009-07-07. 
  54. ^ a b Z. Lerman and A. Mirzakhanian, Private Agriculture in Armenia, Lexington Books, Lanham, MD, 2001.
  55. ^ Statistical Yearbook 2007, Armenia National Statistical Service, Yerevan
  56. ^ "http://hdr.undp.org/en/statistics/". UNDP. http://hdr.undp.org/en/statistics/. Retrieved 2008-04-25. 
  57. ^ "Corruption Perceptions Index 2007". http://www.transparency.org/policy_research/surveys_indices/cpi/2007. Retrieved 2008-04-25. 
  58. ^ Asatryan, Garnik; Arakelova, Victoria (2002), The Ethnic Minorities of Armenia, Routledge , part of the OSCE
  59. ^ (Russian) The All-Union Population Census of 1989. Demoscope.ru
  60. ^ http://www.gallup.com/poll/109228/russian-language-enjoying-boost-postsoviet-states.aspx
  61. ^ Turay, Anna. "Tarihte Ermeniler". Bolsohays:Istanbul Armenians Like many other ethnicities Armenians in India too have played a role historically and had an impact historically. Today however the community has been reduced to about a hundred living in Calcutta.. Archived from the original on 2008-02-09. http://web.archive.org/web/20080209171028/http://www.bolsohays.com/webac.asp?referans=1. Retrieved 2007-01-04. 
  62. ^ "Jerusalem – The Old City: The Armenian Quarter". Jewish Virtual Library. http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/Society_&_Culture/geo/armenianq.html. Retrieved 2009-07-22. 
  63. ^ San Lazzaro degli Armeni – Venice for Visitors
  64. ^ "Population in Nagorno-Karabakh 2007". National Statistical Service of Nagorno-Karabakh Republic. http://www.stat-nkr.am/2002_2007/0_2%20himcuc_6-10.pdf. Retrieved 2009-07-22. 
  65. ^ a b c "Microsoft Word - cjl - ARM_MPSEURO_countryprofile.doc" (PDF). http://www.euro.who.int/document/MPS/ARM_MPSEURO_countryprofile.pdf. Retrieved 2010-01-25. 
  66. ^ "Human Development Report 2009 – Armenia". Hdrstats.undp.org. http://hdrstats.undp.org/en/countries/data_sheets/cty_ds_ARM.html. Retrieved 2010-01-25. 
  67. ^ "Armenia – Which Nation First Adopted Christianity?". Ancienthistory.about.com. 2009-10-29. http://ancienthistory.about.com/od/neareast/f/1stchristian.htm. Retrieved 2010-01-25. 
  68. ^ "Visit Armenia, It is Beautiful". Visitarmenia.org. http://www.visitarmenia.org/. Retrieved 2010-01-25. 
  69. ^ "Armenia Information – Welcome to Armenia". Welcomearmenia.com. http://www.welcomearmenia.com/main.php?page=armeniainformation&sid=104&lang=eng. Retrieved 2010-01-25. 
  70. ^ "Blog Archive » Which is the first country to adopt Christianity?". Did You Know it. http://www.didyouknow.it/religion/first-country-to-adopt-christianity/. Retrieved 2010-01-25. 
  71. ^ "The Armenian Apostolic Church (World Council of Churches)". http://www.oikoumene.org/?id=5211. 
  72. ^ http://armbaplife.am/ http://bwanet.org/default.aspx?pid=437
  73. ^ http://goodnewsadvertising.com/biblical_recorder.pdf
  74. ^ "By Location". Adherents.com. http://adherents.com/adhloc/Wh_18.html. Retrieved 2010-01-25. 
  75. ^ "Article: Armenian Presbyterian Church to Commemorate 1700th Anniversary of Christianity in Armenia with Concert and Khachkar Dedication – Armenian Reporter, The | HighBeam Research – FREE trial". Highbeam.com. 2001-10-20. http://highbeam.com/doc/1P1-79125406.html. Retrieved 2010-01-25. 
  76. ^ "PC(USA) – Presbyterian Peacemaking Program – International Peacemaking – Dr. Nazeli Vardanyan, Armenia". Pcusa.org. 2009-12-11. http://pcusa.org/peacemaking/intl/09peacemakers/armenia-nazeli.htm. Retrieved 2010-01-25. 
  77. ^ Slave missions and the Black church ... – Google Books. Books.google.com. http://books.google.com/books?id=aGGdyAlobAEC&pg=PA120. Retrieved 2010-01-25. 
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  79. ^ "Ambassadors in Sport?: Independent Armenia far below the glory of Soviet times on the pitch, mat – Features". ArmeniaNow.com. http://armenianow.com/?action=viewArticle&AID=1910&CID=1973&IID=&lng=eng. Retrieved 2010-01-25. 
  80. ^ Armenia Now

External links

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General information
Wikisource-logo.svg "Armenia". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). 1911. 
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Quotes

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikiquote

.Armenia (Armenian: Հայաստան Hayastan, Հայք Hayk‘), officially the Republic of Armenia, is a landlocked mountainous country in Eurasia between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea, located in the Southern Caucasus.^ Appeals related to disputes over the results of the National Assembly majoritarian elections can be adjudicated to the Constitutional Court of the Republic of Armenia within seven days after the results are officially announced.
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^ Appeals related to disputes over the results of the National Assembly proportional elections can be adjudicated to the Constitutional Court of the Republic of Armenia within seven days after the results are officially announced.
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^ The Diplomatic and Consular Missions of the Republic of Armenia, in accordance with the procedures set by this Code and by Central Electoral Commission, guarantee the realization of the electoral right of Armenian citizens.
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It shares borders with Turkey to the west, Georgia to the north, Azerbaijan to the east, and Iran and the Nakhchivan exclave of Azerbaijan to the south. .A transcontinental country located at the juncture of Eastern Europe and Western Asia, Armenia has extensive sociopolitical and cultural connections to Europe.^ In the event of the absence of a Diplomatic or Consular Mission of the Republic of Armenia in the state, which is the country of residence or where the voter is, the citizen can apply to the Diplomatic or Consular Mission of the Republic of Armenia in the state bordering, or located close to the state of residence or the state where the voter is, for the inclusion in voter lists.
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Quotes

  • Modern Armenia survived only because it was the single province controlled, and protected, by the Russian Empire. The rest of the territory within its historical borders is almost wholly devoid of ethnic Armenians.
    • John Shimkus
  • The conduct of Turkey in the war was marked by most atrocious treatment of the Armenians. Belgium on the north, Armenia on the south, are blood-stained chapters in the annals of war.
    • Kelly Miller
  • But at the beginning, our definition of the genocide was what happened to Armenia in 1917 or 1919, it's happened to the Jew in Europe, and we were not realizing - In our point of view, they have not the tools to do a genocide.
  • If Turkey is prepared to acknowledge the Armenian Genocide, then its leaders can proceed immediately to direct dialogue with its counterparts in Armenia to define a common vision for the future.
  • "The Hurrians had a history of their own. .Assyrian and Sumerian sources dating from the end of the third millenium B.C. supply our first information about this nation, people, and the land of Hurri, South of Caucasus.^ Printed campaign materials shall contain information about those organizations and people that are responsible for the publication, as well as the printing company and the quantity.
    • CONTENTS 17 September 2009 17:21 UTC www.eurasianet.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    We also know that they come from the region of Lake Van in Eastern Anatolia, and are referred to as Horrittes by the Bible. Still, later in the ninth-seventh centuries N.C. the highland of Armenia were inhabited by a people who were related to the Hurrians and whose country bore the name Urartu, the Biblical Ararat"
    • Dr. Johannes Lehman, "The Hittites,"
  • "The history of the Armenians goes back to the time of the Sumerians and Hurrians, the ancient inhabitants of Caucasia, are only thought to be the Armenians, since no other dominant race was present"
    • Narek Yegoyan
  • The Armenian Genocide is a historical fact, despite the efforts of some to minimize its scope and deny its occurrence.
    • Jerry Costello

External links

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Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikitravel

Europe : Caucasus : Armenia
For other places with the same name, see Armenia (disambiguation).
noframe
Location
noframe
Flag
Image:am-flag.png
Quick Facts
Capital Yerevan
Government Republic
Currency Dram (AMD)
Area 29,800 km2
Population 2,976,372 (July 2006 est.)
Language Armenian 98%; Yezidi Kurdish, Russian, other 2%
Religion Armenian Apostolic 94%, other Christian 4%, Yezidi (Zoroastrian/animist) 2%
Electricity 220V/50Hz (European plug)
Calling Code +374
Internet TLD .am
Time Zone UTC +4
.Armenia (Armenian: Hayastan) is the only country remaining from 3,000 year old maps of Anatolia.^ According to the National Statistical Service, during the January-August 2007 period, Armenia's industrial sector was the single largest contributor to the country's GDP, but remained largely stagnant with industrial output increasing only by 1.7 percent per year.
  • http://www.iloveyou.net76.net 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.iloveyou.net76.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Main article: Tourism in Armenia In 2007, a record-high 500,000 tourists visited Armenia — most of them ethnic Armenians from Europe, Russia, and the United States.
  • http://www.iloveyou.net76.net 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.iloveyou.net76.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Armenians call themselves hay and identify their homeland not by the term "Armenia" but as Hayastan or Hayasdan.
  • Culture of Armenia - History and ethnic relations, Urbanism, architecture, and the use of space 17 September 2009 17:21 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It became the world’s first Christian country 1,707 years ago in 301 AD, and has a large Diaspora all over the world.^ In 301 AD, Armenia became the first nation to adopt Christianity as a state religion, establishing a church that still exists independently of both the Roman Catholic and the Eastern Orthodox churches.
  • Armenia (10/09) 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.As a former Soviet republic lying in the Caucasus region, straddling Asia and Europe, Armenia has an ancient and rich culture.^ Republic of Armenia conventional short form: Armenia local long form: Hayastani Hanrapetut'yun local short form: Hayastan former: Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic, Armenian Republic .
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- Armenia 17 September 2009 17:21 UTC www.cia.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Armenia is interested in cooperating with other members of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS--a group of 12 former Soviet republics) and with members of the international community on environmental issues.
  • Armenia (10/09) 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Republic of Armenia recognizes the exclusive historical mission of the Armenian Apostolic Holy Church as a national church, in the spiritual life, development of the national culture and preservation of the national identity of the people of Armenia.
  • YCDI / Constitution of RA 17 September 2009 17:21 UTC democracy.am [Source type: Original source]

Armenia is very easy to experience, thanks to very hospitable people.
.Landlocked, Armenia is bordered by Turkey to the west, Georgia to the north, Iran to the south, Azerbaijan to the east, and Azerbaijan's Naxcivan exclave to the southwest.^ The plateau is bordered on the east by Iran, on the west by Asia Minor, on the north by the Transcaucasian plains, and on the south by the Mesopotamian plains.
  • Culture of Armenia - History and ethnic relations, Urbanism, architecture, and the use of space 17 September 2009 17:21 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is a landlocked country between the Black and the Caspian Seas, bordered on the north by Georgia, to the east by Azerbaijan, on the south by Iran, and to the west by Turkey.
  • Armenia (10/09) 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Border guards subject to the National Security Service patrol Armenia's borders with Georgia and Azerbaijan, while Russian Border Guards continue to monitor its borders with Iran and Turkey.
  • Armenia (10/09) 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Five percent of the country's surface area consists of Lake Sevan (Sevana Lich), the largest lake in the Lesser Caucasus mountain range.^ Armenian Highland · Ararat plain · Rivers and lakes · Mountains · Shikahogh State Preserve · Extreme points · Mount Aragats · Lake Sevan · more .
  • http://www.iloveyou.net76.net 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.iloveyou.net76.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The many mountains and mountain valleys create a great number of micro climates, with scenery changing from arid to lush forest at the top of a mountain ridge.^ Armenian Highland with mountains; little forest land; fast flowing rivers; good soil in Aras River valley .
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- Armenia 17 September 2009 17:21 UTC www.cia.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

On a trip to Armenia, you will frequently be reminded that Armenia was the world's first officially Christian country. .You will have a hard time forgetting this as a tourist, since countless monasteries are among Armenia's premier tourist attractions.^ With our calling cards to Armenia, you enjoy clear calls at any time of the day.
  • Armenia Calling Cards - Calling Cards For Armenia - Calling Cards From Armenia 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC armenia.callingcards.com [Source type: News]

^ Following these demonstrations, on 28 May 1988, the seventeenth anniversary of the independence of Armenia was celebrated for the first time since Soviet rule.
  • Culture of Armenia - History and ethnic relations, Urbanism, architecture, and the use of space 17 September 2009 17:21 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Armenia has been identified with the mountainous Armenian plateau since pre-Roman times.
  • Culture of Armenia - History and ethnic relations, Urbanism, architecture, and the use of space 17 September 2009 17:21 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Fortunately for those who might otherwise suffer monastery fatigue, many of these monasteries are built in places of incredible natural beauty, making the sites of monasteries like Tatev, Noravank, Haghartsin, Haghpat and Geghard well worth a visit even without the impressive, millennia old monasteries found there.
.Since 2001, when Armenia celebrated the 1,700th anniversary of the nation’s conversion to Christianity, the growth in the number of tourists has grown by about 25% every year.^ Armenia prides itself on being the first nation to formally adopt Christianity (early 4th century).
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- Armenia 17 September 2009 17:21 UTC www.cia.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Armenia has registered strong economic growth since 1995, building on the turnaround that began the previous year, and inflation has been negligible for the past several years.
  • http://www.iloveyou.net76.net 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.iloveyou.net76.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Every citizen of the Republic of Armenia, who has attained the age of 25 years, has been a resident of the given community for at least the last one year, and has the right to vote, can be elected as community head.
  • CONTENTS 17 September 2009 17:21 UTC www.eurasianet.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Straddling Europe and Asia in the lesser Caucasus Mountains, an ex-Soviet state, with a culture over 3,000 years old and examples of ancient architecture and art all over the countryside, this McDonald's-free country offers something exotic for many tourists.^ Another 3 million Armenians live in various countries of the ex-Soviet Union—mainly in Russia.
  • Culture of Armenia - History and ethnic relations, Urbanism, architecture, and the use of space 17 September 2009 17:21 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Citizens of the Republic of Armenia who have attained the age of eighteen years are entitled to participate in the government of the state directly or through their freely elected representatives.

^ The state shall guarantee the existence and activities of an independent and public radio and television service offering a variety of informational, cultural and entertaining programs.
  • YCDI / Constitution of RA 17 September 2009 17:21 UTC democracy.am [Source type: Original source]

Map of Armenia's regions
Map of Armenia's regions
.Central Armenia
The political center of Armenia contains much of the country's museums and cultural venues in Yerevan, the religious center of Echmiadzin, the 4100 m high volcano Aragats and the Monasteries of Geghard and Khor Virap.^ Political parties represented in the National Assembly: Republican Party of Armenia, Prosperous Armenia, Armenian Revolutionary Federation (ARF) Dashnaktsutyun, Country of Law (Orinats Yerkir), and the Heritage Party.
  • Armenia (10/09) 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Much of this region consists of the flat and dry Ararat valley, though the hidden beauty of Khosrov Preserve is rarely visited.
.Lake Sevan Region
This region is centered around beautiful, 2,000 meter high Lake Sevan, which itself is surrounded by ancient monuments, churches, and monasteries, as well as popular beaches.^ Surrounding Lake Sevan, it has an area of approximately 11,600 square miles (30,000 square kilometers).
  • Culture of Armenia - History and ethnic relations, Urbanism, architecture, and the use of space 17 September 2009 17:21 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Highlights include the largest khachkar cemetery in the world, the beaches near Sevanavank Monastery, and the countless fish and crayfish restaurants along the shores. Recently windsurfing was reintroduced to the list of recreational activities.
.Northern Armenia
Bordering Georgia to the north, this mountainous region includes numerous, wonderfully beautiful, and isolated churches and monasteries.^ Upper Lars is the only land border crossing that does not go through Georgia's Russian-backed breakaway regions of South Ossetia and Abkhazia .
  • http://www.iloveyou.net76.net 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.iloveyou.net76.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is a landlocked country between the Black and the Caspian Seas, bordered on the north by Georgia, to the east by Azerbaijan, on the south by Iran, and to the west by Turkey.
  • Armenia (10/09) 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is situated between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea , bordered on the north and east by Georgia and Azerbaijan and on the south and west by Iran and Turkey .
  • http://www.iloveyou.net76.net 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.iloveyou.net76.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The Debed River Canyon contains many of these, and the remote Shamshadin region is a glimpse of a virtually unvisited and beautiful Armenia.
Southern Armenia
A particularly beautiful section of Armenia stretching south to the Iranian border with interesting caves and more remote, beautiful Christian monuments. Highlights include Tatev Monastery, Noravank Monastery, Mozrov Cave, Selim Caravanserai and the thousands of petroglyphs atop Ughtasar Mountain.
.Nagorno-Karabakh
Although internationally recognized as part of Azerbaijan, Nagorno-Karabakh is de facto independent from Azerbaijan, comprised mostly by ethnic Armenians and only accessible via Armenia.^ All Armenian governments have thus far resisted domestic pressure to recognize the self-proclaimed independence of the "Nagorno-Karabakh Republic," while at the same time announcing they would not accept any peace accords that returned the enclave to Azerbaijani rule.
  • Armenia (10/09) 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In February 1988 there were impressive demonstrations in Yerevan and Stepanakert (the capital of Nagorno-Karabakh, an Armenian enclave in Azerbaijan) requesting the reunification of Karabakh with Armenia on the basis of self-determination rights.
  • Culture of Armenia - History and ethnic relations, Urbanism, architecture, and the use of space 17 September 2009 17:21 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ By May 1994, when a cease-fire took hold, ethnic Armenian forces held not only Nagorno-Karabakh but also a significant portion of Azerbaijan proper.
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- Armenia 17 September 2009 17:21 UTC www.cia.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Aside from the rolling green hills, high mountains, hiking trails and excellent monasteries, tourists are drawn to the vast ruined city of Aghdam, and the partially repopulated city of Shushi - both ruined during and after the Karabakh war. Its capital is Stepanakert, home to approximately 40,000 of the region's 140,000 residents.
Map of Armenia
.Map of Armenia
  • Yerevan - The capital, and by far the largest city
  • Gyumri (Shirak Marz) - Second city
  • Vanadzor (Lori Marz) - Third city
  • Dilijan (Tavush Marz) - Popular forest resort known as the "Little Switzerland" of Armenia.
  • Jermuk (Vayots Dzor Marz) - famous for its mineral waters, which come out at very high temperature and can be enjoyed at the spas.^ Terrain: High plateau with mountains, little forest land.
    • Armenia (10/09) 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Half of its inhabitants live in the Ararat plain, which constitutes only 10 percent of its territory and includes the capital city of Yerevan.
    • Culture of Armenia - History and ethnic relations, Urbanism, architecture, and the use of space 17 September 2009 17:21 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Cities: Capital --Yerevan.
    • Armenia (10/09) 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Ski lifts are under construction.
  • Tsaghkadzor (Kotayk Marz) - Armenia's ski destination.
  • Bike Armenia Tour Route [1] - Great route mapped out to see Armenia (and optionally Karabakh) by bike.
  • Karabakh - Although this self-declared republic lies officially in neighboring Azerbaijan, your only access to this Armenian enclave is via Armenia.^ The state language of the Republic of Armenia is the Armenian.
    • YCDI / Constitution of RA 17 September 2009 17:21 UTC democracy.am [Source type: Original source]

    ^ All Armenian governments have thus far resisted domestic pressure to recognize the self-proclaimed independence of the "Nagorno-Karabakh Republic," while at the same time announcing they would not accept any peace accords that returned the enclave to Azerbaijani rule.
    • Armenia (10/09) 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ In February 1988 there were impressive demonstrations in Yerevan and Stepanakert (the capital of Nagorno-Karabakh, an Armenian enclave in Azerbaijan) requesting the reunification of Karabakh with Armenia on the basis of self-determination rights.
    • Culture of Armenia - History and ethnic relations, Urbanism, architecture, and the use of space 17 September 2009 17:21 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    The exotic Karabakh visa is available at the representative office of Karabakh in Yerevan, or in Stepanakert upon arrival.

Understand

History

Armenian history extends for over 3,000 years. .Armenians have historically inhabited the "Armenian Highlands", a vast section of mountains and valleys across eastern Anatolia and the Southern Caucasus.^ Armenian Highland with mountains; little forest land; fast flowing rivers; good soil in Aras River valley .
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- Armenia 17 September 2009 17:21 UTC www.cia.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Armenian vassal states, principalities, kingdoms and empires would rise and fall in different parts of this highland during history.^ Armenian Highland · Ararat plain · Rivers and lakes · Mountains · Shikahogh State Preserve · Extreme points · Mount Aragats · Lake Sevan · more .
  • http://www.iloveyou.net76.net 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.iloveyou.net76.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The designation "Armenia" applies to different entities: a "historical" Armenia, the Armenian plateau, the 1918–1920 U.S. State Department map of an Armenia, and the current republic of Armenia.
  • Culture of Armenia - History and ethnic relations, Urbanism, architecture, and the use of space 17 September 2009 17:21 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

They were only unified once, just before the time of Christ in the empire of Tigran the Great, stretching from the Caspian to the Mediterranean Sea. Much of the history was spent under the domination of the great powers of the region. .The western parts of Armenia were for long periods under Byzantine or Ottoman Turkish rule, while the eastern parts were under Persian or Russian rule.^ Between the 4th and 19th centuries, Armenia was conquered and ruled by, among others, Persians, Byzantines, Arabs, Mongols, and Turks.
  • Armenia (10/09) 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Despite periods of autonomy, over the centuries Armenia came under the sway of various empires including the Roman, Byzantine, Arab, Persian, and Ottoman.
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- Armenia 17 September 2009 17:21 UTC www.cia.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The eastern area of Armenia was ceded by the Ottomans to Russia in 1828; this portion declared its independence in 1918, but was conquered by the Soviet Red Army in 1920.
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- Armenia 17 September 2009 17:21 UTC www.cia.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

These empires often fought their wars on Armenian territory, using Armenian soldiers. It was a rough neighborhood, but Armenians managed to hold on to their language and church, and prosper whenever given a chance. Being located on the silk road, Armenians built a network of merchant communities and ties extending from eastern Asia to Venice. Eventually, with the onslaught of nationalism, Armenians paid a heavy price for their religion and their envy-inducing wealth.

Armenian Genocide

.After a number of protests by Western powers over their poor treatment of Armenians, Ottoman Turkey decided they did not want Armenians in Anatolia any longer, seeing the risk of foreign intervention or an independent nation rising in the middle of Anatolia.^ During World War I in the western portion of Armenia, Ottoman Turkey instituted a policy of forced resettlement coupled with other harsh practices that resulted in an estimated 1 million Armenian deaths.
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- Armenia 17 September 2009 17:21 UTC www.cia.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Their decision to kill and deport the entire Armenian population created the huge Armenian Diaspora community that exists all over the world today, and since that time has locked Turks and Armenians in conflict as one seeks to deny the crimes for which the other demands international recognition.^ Armenia is interested in cooperating with other members of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS--a group of 12 former Soviet republics) and with members of the international community on environmental issues.
  • Armenia (10/09) 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ No one shall be held guilty for a crime on account of any act which did not constitute a crime under the law in effect at the time when it was committed.
  • YCDI / Constitution of RA 17 September 2009 17:21 UTC democracy.am [Source type: Original source]

^ Within the framework of the principles and norms of the international law the Republic of Armenia shall contribute to fostering relations with the Armenian Diaspora, protecting the Armenian historical and cultural values located in other countries, advancing the Armenian education and culture.
  • YCDI / Constitution of RA 17 September 2009 17:21 UTC democracy.am [Source type: Original source]

To this day Turkey refuses to establish diplomatic relations with its neighbor over this, and the Karabakh Conflict (see below).

Soviet Armenia

In many ways, the Soviet period was a golden one for Armenians. .The price they paid for it was extraordinarily high, with arbitrary borders being drawn between Armenia and Azerbaijan (setting the stage for future conflict), with hundreds of thousands dying in WWII, defending Russia and with countless Armenians lost to the gulag and KGB. Economically however, the country boomed, and culturally, within the strict limits, there were heavily subsidized cultural education and activities.^ Within the framework of principles and norms of international law, the Republic of Armenia shall promote the protection of Armenian historical and cultural values located in other countries, and shall support the development of Armenian educational and cultural life.

^ Within the framework of the principles and norms of the international law the Republic of Armenia shall contribute to fostering relations with the Armenian Diaspora, protecting the Armenian historical and cultural values located in other countries, advancing the Armenian education and culture.
  • YCDI / Constitution of RA 17 September 2009 17:21 UTC democracy.am [Source type: Original source]

^ Border guards subject to the National Security Service patrol Armenia's borders with Georgia and Azerbaijan, while Russian Border Guards continue to monitor its borders with Iran and Turkey.
  • Armenia (10/09) 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Those who did not toe the government line however were often victims of car crashes or worse. Yerevan mushroomed from a dusty garrison town of 20,000 to a metropolis of 1 million.

Karabakh Conflict

.In the early 1990s Armenians in Karabakh fought for independence from Azerbaijan with support from Armenia, and the Armenian Diaspora.^ By May 1994, when a cease-fire took hold, ethnic Armenian forces held not only Nagorno-Karabakh but also a significant portion of Azerbaijan proper.
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- Armenia 17 September 2009 17:21 UTC www.cia.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Armenia is not a significant exporter of conventional weapons, but it has provided substantial support, including materiel, to ethnic Armenian separatists in the disputed enclave of Nagorno-Karabakh located within Azerbaijan's borders.
  • Armenia (10/09) 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Peace talks in early 1993 were disrupted by the seizure of Azerbaijan's Kelbajar district by Nagorno-Karabakh Armenian forces and the forced evacuation of thousands of ethnic Azeris.
  • Armenia (10/09) 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The war was won militarily, but with no diplomatic solution reached. .A ceasefire has been held since 1994, with minor exceptions.^ (Azerbaijan) IDPs: 8,400 (conflict with Azerbaijan over Nagorno-Karabakh, majority have returned home since 1994 ceasefire) (2007) .
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- Armenia 17 September 2009 17:21 UTC www.cia.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The two countries are still technically at war. This should not affect the average traveler who should avoid contact lines (obviously!). .The only way to reach Karabakh is via Armenia, but if you plan to travel on to Azerbaijan after a visit to Karabakh, get the Karabakh visa on a separate piece of paper.^ Nagorno-Karabakh In 1988, the territory of Nagorno-Karabakh, a predominantly ethnic Armenian enclave within Azerbaijan, voted to secede and join Armenia.
  • Armenia (10/09) 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Armenian/Karabakh borders with Azerbaijan are closed, and Turkey has closed its land border with Armenia in support of its Turkic-Azeri neighbors and both countries have imposed a strict economic embargo against Armenia.^ Turkey in protest then followed with an embargo of its own against Armenia.
  • Armenia (10/09) 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ U.S. Humanitarian Assistance Over the past 16 years, the U.S. has provided nearly $2 billion in assistance to Armenia, the highest per capita amount in the NIS. Humanitarian aid originally accounted for up to 85% of this total, reflecting the economic paralysis caused by closed borders with Turkey and Azerbaijan related to the Nagorno-Karabakh conflict, destruction in northern Armenia left from the devastating 1988 earthquake, and the closure of most of the country's factories.
  • Armenia (10/09) 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ By May 1994, when a cease-fire took hold, ethnic Armenian forces held not only Nagorno-Karabakh but also a significant portion of Azerbaijan proper.
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- Armenia 17 September 2009 17:21 UTC www.cia.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Culture

As Armenia straddles Europe and Asia, East and West, so does the culture. Armenians without a doubt view themselves as European, but their social conservatism in some realms hasn't been seen in Europe proper for a few decades. .The collapse of the Soviet Union has opened up many of these channels again, and change is coming rapidly, but much more so in Yerevan than in the rest of the country.^ The community with a population of more than 3000 inhabitants is divided into majoritarian constituencies by the relevant Governor (Mayor of Yerevan), upon the recommendation of the community head (district head).
  • CONTENTS 17 September 2009 17:21 UTC www.eurasianet.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The small and very homogeneous (about 99% Armenian) population is strongly family oriented. The people are across the land very hospitable, and place a lot of pride in their hospitality. Show up in a village without a penny, and food and a place to stay will flow - along with drinks and endless toasts.

Religion

.Many visitors will be surprised to know that Armenia is not just a Christian nation but it is the first country in the world to adopt Christianity as a state religion.^ Armenia prides itself on being the first nation to formally adopt Christianity (early 4th century).
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- Armenia 17 September 2009 17:21 UTC www.cia.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 301 AD, Armenia became the first nation to adopt Christianity as a state religion, establishing a church that still exists independently of both the Roman Catholic and the Eastern Orthodox churches.
  • Armenia (10/09) 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The National Assembly shall adopt the state budget upon its submission by the Government.
  • YCDI / Constitution of RA 17 September 2009 17:21 UTC democracy.am [Source type: Original source]

.It took place in 301 AD. One can find thousands of churches and monasteries in Armenia.^ In 301 AD, Armenia became the first nation to adopt Christianity as a state religion, establishing a church that still exists independently of both the Roman Catholic and the Eastern Orthodox churches.
  • Armenia (10/09) 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Armenians are Apostolic Christians and have their own Catholicos (religious leader, like the Pope for Catholics).^ Armenian Apostolic 94.7%, other Christian 4%, Yezidi (monotheist with elements of nature worship) 1.3% .
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- Armenia 17 September 2009 17:21 UTC www.cia.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Geography

A small and mountainous, landlocked country, Armenia almost never fails to surprise visitors. .The mountain passes, valleys and canyons make it feel much larger, and Lake Sevan provides a welcome sight, with endless water in sight when you're on the southern shores.^ Lesser Caucasus Mountains; Sevana Lich (Lake Sevan) is the largest lake in this mountain range .
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- Armenia 17 September 2009 17:21 UTC www.cia.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

With all of the geographic variation, the climate varies a great deal as well - be ready for everything from barren lunar landscapes to rain forests to snow-capped peaks and a vast alpine lake. There are places where a few of these are visible at once.
Sanahin Monastery in Northern Armenia.
Sanahin Monastery in Northern Armenia.
.Almost all visitors arrive by plane, though some trickle at the border points with Georgia and Iran.^ Border guards subject to the National Security Service patrol Armenia's borders with Georgia and Azerbaijan, while Russian Border Guards continue to monitor its borders with Iran and Turkey.
  • Armenia (10/09) 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is a landlocked country between the Black and the Caspian Seas, bordered on the north by Georgia, to the east by Azerbaijan, on the south by Iran, and to the west by Turkey.
  • Armenia (10/09) 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Land routes through Azerbaijan and Turkey are closed, though air connections to Turkey exist; land routes through Georgia and Iran are inadequate or unreliable.
  • Armenia (10/09) 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Visas

Citizens of Australia, Canada, Japan, USA and EU countries can buy a visa when they arrive at any entry point to Armenia. A 21 day visa costs 3,000 dram (about USD8/EUR6).
Visitors from the CIS do not need a visa for up to 90 days. .Visitors from other countries must apply for a visa at their nearest embassy/consulate before arriving[2].^ The Department of State encourages all U.S. citizens traveling or residing abroad to register via the State Department's travel registration website or at the nearest U.S. embassy or consulate abroad.
  • Armenia (10/09) 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

For convenience at the Yerevan airport, there is a change booth and ATM before customs and immigration. There is also a hefty surcharge of approximately USD $10 for changing traveler's checks, which in general are not widely used in Armenia. You have to pay the Visa in Dram and can not pay in USD, therefore change at the change booth or ATM before customs.

By plane

The national carrier is Armavia [3]. In addition a variety of other airlines fly to Yerevan, amongst which are European airlines BMI (based in the UK), airBaltic, Czech Airlines, Air Arabia, Air France, Lufthansa, Aeroflot & Austrian Airlines. Syrian Airways and Caspian airline from the Middle East also has direct flights.

By train

There is a train once a day to Tbilisi, Georgia. The train links with Turkey and Azerbaijan are severed.

By car

It is possible to drive to Armenia via Iran or Georgia. The borders with Turkey and Azerbaijan are closed. Local travel agents can arrange transport to the border; some Georgian agents can arrange transport all the way through to Tbilisi. .Although more expensive than train or bus, private car may be more comfortable and combined with sightseeing along the way.^ The same person may not be elected for the post of the President of the Republic for more than two consecutive terms.
  • YCDI / Constitution of RA 17 September 2009 17:21 UTC democracy.am [Source type: Original source]

^ The same person may not be elected for the post of Chairman of the Control Chamber for more than two consecutive terms.
  • YCDI / Constitution of RA 17 September 2009 17:21 UTC democracy.am [Source type: Original source]

^ The same person may not be elected to the office of Chairman of the Central Bank for more than two consecutive terms.
  • YCDI / Constitution of RA 17 September 2009 17:21 UTC democracy.am [Source type: Original source]

By bus

Georgia

There is minibus (Marshrutka) service from Tbilisi for about $17. Minibus services from Tbilisi to Yerevan take this same route and cost about $35. From this service it is also possible to get out at Alaverdi (closest major town to Haghpat and Sanahin monasteries).

Iran

There is daily modern bus service to Yerevan available from Tehran or Tabriz for about $60/$50; check travel agencies for that. Otherwise the only Iran/Armenia land border at Nuduz/Agarak is very badly served by public transport. On the Armenian side you can get as far as Meghri by one Marschrutka a day from Yerevan. In both directions the Marshrutka leaves quite early in the morning. Kapan and Kajaran are more frequently served by marschrutkas but it is a long and mountainous (and therefore expensive) stretch to the border from there. From Meghri it is around 8 km to the border and hitching or taking a taxi is the only option. On the Iranian side the closest public transport can be found around 50 km to the west in Jolfa, so a taxi (around 10-15$) again is the only (commercial) choice. The border is not busy at all, so when hitching you have to mainly stick with the truck drivers and Russian or Farsi helps a lot here. Consider for yourself whether this is a safe option.
Noravank Monastery in Southern Armenia.
Noravank Monastery in Southern Armenia.

By day tour

One of the best options for getting to the major tourist sites - some of which have infrequent public transport - are the many day tours advertised throughout Yerevan. Starting at $6, you can choose from a variety of half to full day trips which include a good number of the country’s major attractions. Some of the more remote and exotic destinations, such as the Petroglyphs of Ughtasar and many of the caves for example require special planning.

By mini-bus or bus

Public transportation is very good and inexpensive in Armenia. It can also be tough to get to more remote sites outside of populated areas. .The system could be described as a hub and spoke system, with each city offering local transportation to its surrounding villages and each city offering connections to Yerevan.^ The bodies of the local self-government in the City of Yerevan shall be formed not later than within two years after the adoption of the appropriate law.
  • YCDI / Constitution of RA 17 September 2009 17:21 UTC democracy.am [Source type: Original source]

^ Before that the local self-government and territorial administration in the city of Yerevan shall be exercised in conformity with the procedure defined in the current legislation.
  • YCDI / Constitution of RA 17 September 2009 17:21 UTC democracy.am [Source type: Original source]

^ The peculiarities of local self-government and formation of local self-government bodies in the City of Yerevan shall be defined by the law.
  • YCDI / Constitution of RA 17 September 2009 17:21 UTC democracy.am [Source type: Original source]

Most inter-city travel is by minibuses or buses. .Yerevan has a few bus stations that serve the whole country so depending on where you want to go you must find out what bus station services the area to which you wish to go.^ Please fill out the following information to help us serve you in the most efficient way!
  • Green Card lottery Information and Registration Service 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC html3.usagc.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Note, that unlike many countries in Eastern Europe, Armenian mini-buses do not sell tickets beforehand, and do not issue tickets at all. You simply pay the driver, at any point in the trip (though some will collect at the beginning). Exact change is never required, but a 20,000 note for a 1,000 dram ride might present a problem. Tips are unheard of on public transportation.

By taxi or car

For the average western tourist, you can hire a taxi to go most anywhere in the country on very short notice. If you have decided to travel heavy by bringing big bags, then going by taxi will be the best option. Prices are about 100 drams (33 cents) a kilometer. Most taxis have meters, and for day trips might negotiate a slightly lower rate.
You can rent cars, but if you are used to driving in the West and have not driven outside of America, Western or Central Europe, you should hire a driver when you rent your car. Driving in Armenia for the average tourist can be a different undertaking. But if you are decided to rent a car, there are a growing number of car rental companies, including Europacar (office at Hotel Yerevan), Lemon Rent-a-car, Hertz, and others throughout the central Yerevan.

By thumb

Not as common as in the days of the post-Soviet collapse, hitching is still perfectly safe and acceptable. Drivers often don't expect anything, but offer anyway, and sometimes they'll take the marshutni fare. Flag cars down by holding your arm in front of you and patting the air. This is how taxis are flagged and buses and marshutnis as well.

By bicycle

Bicycling is not a that common mode of transport as it is in the rest of Europe. Otherwise it's a great way to see and experience much of the countryside if you can handle the inclines.

By train

There are trains that move around Armenia, although they are Soviet style trains and a little slow means of transport to move around the country. Trains can be taken up to Gyumri and from there on to Alaverdi and Georgia, or they can be taken up to Lake Sevan, all the way to the far side.

By plane

Domestic flights are not an option as there are only two working airports in the country and there are no internal flights in this small country. Intermittent service to Karabakh has been available in the past.

By tour operator

Aside from the plentiful day tours, you can take a package tour of Armenia.

Talk

.Armenian is the only official language in Armenia, which is one of the most unique languages in the world.^ The state language of the Republic of Armenia is the Armenian.
  • YCDI / Constitution of RA 17 September 2009 17:21 UTC democracy.am [Source type: Original source]

^ If until the last day of the submission of the official lists of support of the candidates, lists are not submitted for any candidate or are submitted for one candidate only, the deadline for the submission of the official lists of support and the registration of the candidates is extended for five days.
  • CONTENTS 17 September 2009 17:21 UTC www.eurasianet.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Every citizen of the Republic of Armenia that has the right to vote is eligible for inclusion in one voter list only.
  • CONTENTS 17 September 2009 17:21 UTC www.eurasianet.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

However, the vast majority of Armenians are conversational in Russian, due to Armenia formerly being part of the Soviet Union. English is becoming more widely spoken, particularly in Yerevan, however, most people will still not speak much or any English.
Garni Temple in Central Armenia.
Garni Temple in Central Armenia.
  • Hiking
  • Rock Climbing
  • Wind Surfing
  • Sun Baking
  • Camping
  • Skiing
  • Monastery hopping
Carpets for sale at a Yerevan market.
Carpets for sale at a Yerevan market.
Armenian carpets, cognac, fruits, handicrafts and Soviet memorabilia are some of the most popular things people take home from Armenia. .Most of these are plentiful at Vernissage, a seemingly never-ending weekend flea market next to Republic Square with the more touristy stuff in the back half, further from Republic Square.^ The candidate who has received more than half of the votes shall be elected President of the Republic.
  • YCDI / Constitution of RA 17 September 2009 17:21 UTC democracy.am [Source type: Original source]

^ The Central Electoral Commission adopts a decision on electing the President of the Republic the candidate, who has received more than half of the votes cast for candidates.
  • CONTENTS 17 September 2009 17:21 UTC www.eurasianet.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Currency

.The Armenian currency is known as the ‘’dram’’, and the currency is abbreviated as AMD (Armenian Dram).^ The Central Bank shall issue the currency of the Republic of Armenia – the Armenian Dram.
  • YCDI / Constitution of RA 17 September 2009 17:21 UTC democracy.am [Source type: Original source]

The dram is accepted everywhere, and often the dollar will be accepted for larger purchases - though the dram is the only legal currency for commerce. Dollars, Euros and Rubles can be exchanged almost anywhere in the country, with other major currencies also easy to exchange. Exchange booths do not charge a commission and rates are almost always quite competitive.
ATMs (Bankomats) are widely available in larger towns, though outside of Yerevan you should have a major system such as Visa Electron on your card for it to work.
Credit cards are not widely accepted yet, though they will get you pretty far in Yerevan.

Exchange rates

Exchange rates (approximate, June 17, 2009):
  • €1 = 579 dram
  • US$1 = 385 dram
  • CAN$1 = 361 dram
  • £1 = 599 dram
  • RUB 1 = 13.20 dram

Trading hours

Most shops/restaurants are open every day and offices and schools are open Monday to Saturday. Mornings usually are slow, and places don't tend to open early, or even on time.

Tax

Included in prices (except sometimes hotels).

Purchasing customs

Bargaining is uncommon in Armenian stores, though when purchasing expensive items or bulk, they may be amenable to it. In markets however, bargaining is a must!
Tipping is increasingly common in Armenia, especially at cafes and restaurants. Many Armenians will simply round up their checks, or leave ten percent. Some café staff are only compensated in the tips they earn, though you cannot always tell by the service they provide. Many restaurants have begun to charge a ten percent “service fee” which they usually do not share with the waiters, and it is not clear for what it is used. This fee is often not clearly stated on the menu, so you should ask if you want to know. Tipping is usually not expected in taxis, but again, rounding up is not uncommon.

Markets

Vernissage - every Saturday near Republic Square there is an open market with great shopping for tourists and locals alike. You can buy everything from a 300-year-old carpet to a 1970s Soviet phone to Russian nesting dolls.
The "covered market" on Mashtots Street has fresh fruits and vegetables along with great dried fruits.
For Armenian- and Russian-speaking visitors, a visit to the underground book market can be quite interesting. Located in an underground passageway under Abovyan Street, close to the medical school and the Yeritasardakan Metro Station, vendors sell thousands upon thousands of books. Bargaining is a must!

Eat

Khorovats (BBQ) which can be pork, lamb, chicken or beef. Usually it is flavored with onions and other Armenian spices. Tomatoes, eggplant and bell peppers are also part of the khorovats meal.
Borscht is a vegetable soup. It is traditionally made with beetroot as a main ingredient which gives it a strong red color. It is usually served warm with fresh sour cream.
Khash is a traditional dish, originating in the Shirak region. Formerly a nutritious winter food for the rural poor, it is now considered a delicacy, and is enjoyed as a festive winter meal.
Dolma (stuffed grape leaves; a variety with stuffed cabbage leaves, bell peppers and eggplants also exists).
Armenian fruits and vegetables are special. One should definitely try them and will never forget the taste of Armenian apricot, peach, grapes, pomegranate, etc.
Armenian bread is very tasty as well. There is a vide range of different types of bread, starting from black and white till lavash (a soft, thin flatbread) and matnaqash.
Don’t miss trying milk products! Along with ordinary milk products, there are some traditional and really tasty and refreshing ones. Matsun (yogurt) is a traditional Armenian dairy product that has centuries of history. It contains a number of natural microelements which have high biochemical activity. It’s really refreshing, especially when you try it cold during hot summers. Okroshka - cold soup with kefir and cucumber and dill. It is a healthy and refreshing dairy product. Spas is really tasty hot kefir soup with grains in it.
.Café culture rules in Armenia, and the best places to have a cup of coffee and people-watch are sidewalk cafés.^ The Republic of Armenia recognizes the exclusive historical mission of the Armenian Apostolic Holy Church as a national church, in the spiritual life, development of the national culture and preservation of the national identity of the people of Armenia.
  • YCDI / Constitution of RA 17 September 2009 17:21 UTC democracy.am [Source type: Original source]

Any place near the Opera is certain to be jumping late into the summer nights. A popular chain is "Jazzve" (several locations throughout the city, including near the Opera and off Mesrop Mashtots Avenue), which offers many varieties of tea and coffee as well as great desserts.

Drink

Alcoholic: Vodka, tutti oghi (mulberry vodka), honi oghi (cornelian cherry vodka), Tsirani oghi (apricot vodka), local beer (Kilikia, Kotayk, Gumri), wine (can also be made of pomegranate), brandy.
Other: Tan (yogurt combined with water and salt), Jermuk (Mineral water), masuri hyut (rose hip juice), chichkhani hyut (sea buckthorne juice), bali hyut (sour cherry juice), Armenian coffee, herbal teas.

Smoke

Smoking is illegal in many public places. But bear that in mind that Armenia has the highest rate of cigarette smoking in Europe.

Sleep

.Across Armenia, you can find bed and breakfasts that are pleasant and will give you a true taste of Armenian culture.^ The Republic of Armenia recognizes the exclusive historical mission of the Armenian Apostolic Holy Church as a national church, in the spiritual life, development of the national culture and preservation of the national identity of the people of Armenia.
  • YCDI / Constitution of RA 17 September 2009 17:21 UTC democracy.am [Source type: Original source]

.The language barrier will be significant in the rural areas of Armenia if you do not speak Armenian or Russian but if you take a phrase dictionary with you, you should have no trouble, as people are patient.^ The state language of the Republic of Armenia is the Armenian.
  • YCDI / Constitution of RA 17 September 2009 17:21 UTC democracy.am [Source type: Original source]

^ The Republic of Armenia recognizes the exclusive historical mission of the Armenian Apostolic Holy Church as a national church, in the spiritual life, development of the national culture and preservation of the national identity of the people of Armenia.
  • YCDI / Constitution of RA 17 September 2009 17:21 UTC democracy.am [Source type: Original source]

The best way to access the true Armenia, away from the westernized hotels and "Armenian branded" hotels is to find a reliable travel agent based in Armenia. Sidon Travel & Tourism is a reputable organization, located in The Ani Plaza Hotel. As well as many others in Yerevan. Other local agents such as Menua Tours, Hyur Service and 7Days can arrange serviced apartment stays.
In Yerevan, there is a hostel called Envoy which offers reasonably cheap accommodation.
Outside Yerevan, there are a few main recreational areas that offer very reasonable accommodations but you will be required to live without some western conveniences. At the high end are the Tufenkian Heritage Hotels on Lake Sevan and in Northern Lori Marz (50 kilometers from the Georgian border). Here you will miss nothing, but you will pay western prices for the accommodations. Around Lake Sevan, there are numerous types of cottages and hotels. .Prices are reasonable and start at about $10 per day for a cottage with electricity and within walking distance from Lake Sevan.^ The community head, not later than five days after the start of the pre-election campaign, allocates special places within the community for display of campaign posters.
  • CONTENTS 17 September 2009 17:21 UTC www.eurasianet.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The community head, based on applications from citizens, proxies and members of the Commission, makes corrections starting forty days before the voting day and within 35 days.
  • CONTENTS 17 September 2009 17:21 UTC www.eurasianet.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The city of Sevan, due to its proximity to Yerevan, is the most popular place on Lake Sevan but the history, culture and non-western feel of the accommodations change as you go south on Lake Sevan.
Tavush Marz is a wonderful place to summer. Dilijan and Ijevan are wonderful towns in which to be based, with day trips to the many ancient churches that pepper this remote region. Costs are very reasonable and Dilijan is known for its sanatoriums from the Soviet era. Do not expect hot water all hours of the day but you can have a lovely room that will accommodate a family including food for about $20 a day. Take another $20 to hire a car for the day to visit the surrounding historical sites.
Tzaghkadzor is a well-known winter retreat. It has many lovely hotels and is popular year round. Check with a travel agent to find the best deal depending on what activity you are looking to undertake. Jermuk, made famous by the bottled water of the same name, is a wonderful get away but will again require you to leave your western expectations behind.

Work

Career Center [4] has job listings. For volunteer work see these links: [5], [6], [7].
Sevanavank in Lake Sevan Region.
Sevanavank in Lake Sevan Region.
Overall, Yerevan is not a particularly dangerous city. Theft and pickpocketing are on the increase, particularly targeting foreigners, utmost care is essential. Use common sense when walking on the street at night, especially after drinking. There are well knows scams operating on some ATM machines, particularly those acepting VISA cards, where no money is issued but the cash is nonetheless withdrawn from the account.
Female visitors should be aware that unaccompanied women are an unusual sight after dark. A single woman walking alone at night may attract attention.

Stay healthy

As with any traveling experience, eat well but do not overeat. If you are dining with Armenians, they will feed you until you cannot eat any more. The food is generally safe even from the roadside khorovats stands. There is little worry about food safety in Armenia.
The tap water is generally safe but you may also purchase bottled water. You can get both mineral water with gas and normal spring water on almost every street corner. This water is available in both the rural areas and the capital.

Respect

Armenians are much like any other Europeans in their manners and lifestyle.
.The issue of the Armenian Genocide, in which the Armenian people and a majority of Western scholars believe up to one and a half million Armenians were killed by the Young Turk government during World War One, is a sensitive one, and respect should be shown when discussing the subject.^ A community with a population of up to 3000 inhabitants is considered as one multi-mandate majoritarian constituency for the elections to local self-governing bodies.
  • CONTENTS 17 September 2009 17:21 UTC www.eurasianet.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Although widely taught at school for years, the Soviet Union officially recognized the genocide of the people of one of its republics in 1965.
One can find out more about the Armenian Genocide by visiting the Genocide Memorial 'Tzitzernakabert'. There is also a museum near the memorial.
Having been liberated by the then-Russian Empire in 1916, Armenians are partly Slavophiles; ask as many questions as you like about soccer and Soviet TV programs. Respect is generally shown for Slavs, including Russians. People often have no problem talking about the Soviet Union. Most Armenians will not be offended if you speak to them in Russian, although it is not a standard.
It is very common to give up your seat for an elderly passenger on the public transport. It is also considered polite to let women first to the bus or train or to enter a room, the "Lady's first" rule.
When visiting churches, women are expected to dress modestly and cover their heads with a scarf, although this is not strictly enforced for tourists. Lighting a candle is always a nice gesture.

Contact

Yerevan is full of internet cafes and internet phone offices. These are beginning to pop up in a number of towns outside of Yerevan as well. International calling is available through prepaid mobile phone cards. Short-term mobile phone rental is also possible. Regular calls can always be made from the post office, and is cheap within Armenia, but a bit expensive for international calls. Try to find a phone office that uses the internet for much cheaper rates. There are 2 Mobile Operators: Viva Cell(dominant in this field) and BeeLine (former ArmenTel), also video call is available. The third operator Orange is the key brand of France Telecom, one of the world's leading telecommunications operators, is coming soon. Armenia uses GSM 900/1800, UMTS(video call) GSM Coverage Maps for Armenia [8]
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1911 encyclopedia

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Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

Wikipedia-logo.png
Wikipedia has an article on:
See also armenia, Armenía, Arménia, Armênia, and Armènia

Contents

English

Armenia (1)
Armenia (2)

Etymology

.From Old Persian 𐎠𐎼𐎷𐎡𐎴 (Armina) (late 6th century BC), Ancient Greek Ἀρμενία (Armenia) (early 5th century BC).^ BC This state was a Persian satrapy from the late 6th cent.
  • Armenia Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Armenia 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Armenia (Akkadian Uraštu ; Old Persian Armina ): ancient kingdom, situated along the river Araxes (modern Aras), the Upper Tigris and the Upper Euphrates .
  • Armenia 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.livius.org [Source type: Original source]

^ This not only the first ever Christian state but also one of the earliest countries on the earth - already in the 9 th 6 th centuries BC the powerful state of Urartu existed on the territory of Armenia.
  • Armenia Travel Guide - Cities, History, Government 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.advantour.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The further etymology of the Persian name is uncertain, but may be connected to the Akkadian Armânum, Armanî and/or the Biblical Minni. .See Name of Armenia article for theories.^ Little Armenia Book article from: The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition Little Armenia see Cilicia .
  • Armenia – Dictionary definition of Armenia | Encyclopedia.com: FREE online dictionary 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Academic]

.The Old Persian name is an exonym: see հայ (hay) for the native name and Urartu for the Biblical Ararat.^ In the 6th century B.C. , Armenians settled in the kingdom of Urartu (the Assyrian name for Ararat), which was in decline.
  • Armenia: History, Geography, Government, and Culture — FactMonster.com 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.factmonster.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the 6th century B.C.E., Armenians settled in the kingdom of Urartu (the Assyrian name for Ararat), which was in decline.
  • Discover Armenia 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.armeniaemb.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Very occasionally, where one would like to see a standard English spelling — as in Parthian, Persian and Greek names — I've added a footnote.
  • History of Armenia by Vahan Kurkjian 17 September 2009 17:21 UTC penelope.uchicago.edu [Source type: Original source]

Pronunciation

Proper noun

Singular
Armenia
Plural
-
Armenia
.
  1. (historical) Ancient kingdom in the Armenian Highland southeast of Black Sea and southwest of Caspian Sea; area now divided between Turkey, Republic of Armenia, Azerbaijan and Iran.
  2. A small country in Western Asia.^ Armenia, republic in the Transcaucasia region of western Asia, bordered by Georgia to the north, Azerbaijan to the east, Turkey to the west and south, and Iran to the south.
    • Freegk.com : Worldatlas : Armenia Map, Data and Currency 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.freegk.com [Source type: News]

    ^ (Republic of Armenia) country in southwestern Asia .
    • Armenia definition by Babylon's free dictionary 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC dictionary.babylon.com [Source type: Reference]

    ^ A country beyond compare Armenia is a small country that connects Europe to Asia.
    • Armenia Photos 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC armeniaphotos.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Official name: Republic of Armenia.^ Full name: Republic of Armenia.
    • Armenia 17 September 2009 17:21 UTC www.atlasgeo.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Armenia Armenia ( ), officially the Republic of Armenia , is a landlocked mountainous country in Eurasia between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea , located in the Southern Caucasus .
    • Armenia definition by Babylon's free dictionary 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC dictionary.babylon.com [Source type: Reference]

    ^ According to Wikipedia.org: Armenia, officially the Republic of Armenia, is a landlocked mountainous country in Eurasia between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea, located...
    • Armenia - Zimbio 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.zimbio.com [Source type: General]

    .Official language: Armenian.^ Armenian is the official language.
    • Culture of Armenia - History and ethnic relations, Urbanism, architecture, and the use of space 17 September 2009 17:21 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Eastern Armenian is the official language of the Republic of Armenia and in enclaves in Azerbaijan and Iran.

    ^ Armenias official state language is Armenian, a distinct Indo-European language.
    • Armenia  -  Travel Photos by Galen R Frysinger, Sheboygan,Wisconsin 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.galenfrysinger.com [Source type: Original source]

    Capital: Yerevan.

Related terms

Translations

See also

Anagrams


Finnish

Wikipedia-logo.png
Finnish Wikipedia has an article on:
Armenia
Wikipedia fi

Pronunciation

  • IPA: /ˈɑrmeːniɑ/ (common pronunciation)
  • IPA: /ˈɑrmeniɑ/ (spelling pronnunciation, perceived as more correct by some)
  • Hyphenation: Ar‧me‧ni‧a

Proper noun

Armenia (stem Armeni-*)
  1. Armenia

Italian

Wikipedia-logo.png
Italian Wikipedia has an article on:
Armenia
Wikipedia it

Proper noun

Armenia f.
  1. Armenia

Derived terms

Anagrams


Latin

Proper noun

Armenia (genitive Armeniae); f, first declension
  1. Armenia
    Armenia MaiorGreater Armenia
    Armenia MinorLesser Armenia
    • 1st century BC, Horace, Odes, 2.9
      Non semper imbres nubibus hispidos
      manant in agros aut mare Caspium
      vexant inaequales procellae
      usque nec Armeniis in oris,
      amice Valgi, stat glacies iners
      mensis per omnis...
      The rain, it rains not every day
      On the soak'd meads; the Caspian main
      Not always feels the unequal sway
      Of storms, nor on Armenia's plain,
      Dear Valgius, lies the cold dull snow
      Through all the year...
    • 1st century AD, Pliny the Elder, Natural History, 6.9
      armenia autem maior incipit a parihedris montibus, euphrate amne, ut dictum est, aufertur cappadociae et, qua discedit euphrates, mesopotamiae haut minus claro amne tigri. utrumque fundit ipsa et initium mesopotamiae facit inter duos amnes exiturae.
      Greater .Armenia, beginning at the mountains known as the Paryadres, is separated, as we have already stated, from Cappadocia by the river Euphrates, and, where that river turns off in its course, from Mesopotamia, by the no less famous river Tigris.^ Among the important rivers that take their rise in Armenia are the Euphrates, the Tigris, and the Araxes.
      • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Armenia 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

      ^ The largest rivers are the Euphrates, Tigris and Araxes.
      • ARMENIA in the Bible Encyclopedia - ISBE (Bible History Online) 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC bible-history.com [Source type: Original source]

      ^ Armenia (Akkadian Uraštu ; Old Persian Armina ): ancient kingdom, situated along the river Araxes (modern Aras), the Upper Tigris and the Upper Euphrates .
      • Armenia 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.livius.org [Source type: Original source]

      .Both of these rivers take their rise in Armenia, which also forms the commencement of Mesopotamia, a tract of country which lies between these streams.^ Among the important rivers that take their rise in Armenia are the Euphrates, the Tigris, and the Araxes.
      • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Armenia 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

      ^ The Debed River Canyon contains many of these, and the remote Shamshadin region is a glimpse of a virtually unvisited and beautiful Armenia.
      • Armenia - FlexiJourney Travel 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC flexijourney.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      ^ Since Armenia was selected as one of the 16 countries eligible for participation in the programs of the MCC, this report may take on greater significance than originally anticipated.
      • Science and Technology in Armenia: Toward a Knowledge-Based Economy 17 September 2009 17:21 UTC www.nap.edu [Source type: Academic]

    • 5th century AD, Saint Jerome, Latin Vulgate, Genesis 8.4
      requievitque arca mense septimo vicesima septima die mensis super montes Armeniae
      The ark rested in the seventh month, on the seventeenth day of the month, on Armenia's mountains.

Inflection

nominative Armenia
genitive Armeniae
dative Armeniae
accusative Armeniam
ablative Armeniā
vocative Armenia
locative Armeniae

Related terms

Descendants


Norwegian

Pronunciation

  • IPA: /ɑɾmɛːnjɑ/

Proper noun

Armenia
  1. Armenia

Related terms


Polish

Pronunciation

  • IPA: /arˈmɛɲja/

Proper noun

Armenia f.
  1. Armenia

Declension

Singular Plural
Nominative Armenia Armenie
Genitive Armenii Armenii
Dative Armenii Armeniom
Accusative Armenię Armenie
Instrumental Armenią Armeniami
Locative Armenii Armeniach
Vocative Armenio Armenie

Derived terms

  • Ormianin m., Ormianka f.
  • (rare) Armeńczyk m., Armenka f. (Armenia dwellers)
  • (adjective): (of the nation) ormiański, (of the country) armeński

Romanian

Pronunciation

  • IPA: [ar'me.ni.a]

Proper noun

Armenia f.
  1. Armenia

Declension

gender f. uncountable
Nom/Acc Armenia
Gen/Dat Armeniei

Spanish

Wikipedia-logo.png
Spanish Wikipedia has an article on:
Armenia
Wikipedia es

Proper noun

Armenia f.
  1. Armenia

Related terms


Wikispecies

Up to date as of January 23, 2010
(Redirected to Satyrium (Lycaenidae) article)

From Wikispecies

Taxonavigation

Main Page
Cladus: Eukaryota
Supergroup: Unikonta
Cladus: Opisthokonta
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Cladus: Protostomia
Cladus: Ecdysozoa
Phylum: Arthropoda
Subphylum: Hexapoda
Classis: Insecta
Cladus: Dicondylia
Cladus: Pterygota
Cladus: Metapterygota
Cladus: Neoptera
Cladus: Eumetabola
Cladus: Endopterygota
Superordo: Panorpida
Cladus: Amphiesmenoptera
Ordo: Lepidoptera
Subordo: Glossata
Infraordo: Heteroneura
Divisio: Ditrysia
Sectio: Cossina
Subsection: Bombycina
Superfamilia: Papilionoidea
Series: Papilioniformes
Familia: Lycaenidae
Subfamilia: Theclinae
Tribus: Eumaeini
Genus: Satyrium
Species: S. abdominalis - S. acaciae - S. acadica - S. acaudata - S. armenum - S. auretorum - S. austrina - S. behrii - S. calanus - S. californica - S. caryaevorum - S. dejeani - S. edwardsii - S. esakii - S. esculi - S. eximia - S. fuliginosum - S. goniopterum - S. grandis - S. guichardi - S. herzi - S. hyrcanicum - S. ilicis - S. inouei - S. iyonis - S. jebelia - S. khowari - S. kingi - S. kongmingi - S. kuboi - S. lais - S. latior - S. ledereri - S. liparops - S. lunulata - S. mackwoodi - S. marcidus - S. mera - S. minshanicum - S. myrtale - S. neoeximia - S. oenone - S. ornata - S. patrius - S. percomis - S. persimilis - S. phyllodendri - S. pruni - S. prunoides - S. pseudopruni - S. redae - S. runides - S. saepium - S. sassanides - S. siguniangshanicum - S. spini - S. sylvinus - S. tamikoae - S. tanakai - S. tetra - S. thalia - S. v-album - S. xumini - S. zabni

Name

Satyrium Scudder, 1876

Synonyms

References

  • Charmeux, Jean-François, 2004: A new species in the subgenus Superflua from Pakistan (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae): Phegea 32 (1): 9-16. Full article: [1]
  • Lamas, Gerardo, 2004, Atlas of Neotropical Lepidoptera; Checklist: 4A; Hesperioidea-Papilionoidea
  • Kheil, N. M., 1884. Die Rhopalocera del Insel Nias. 37 pp., 5 pls. Berlin.
  • Koiwaya, S., 2002: A new species of the genus Fixsenia Tutt (Lycaenidae) from China. Futoa 40: 12-13.
  • Oorschot van, H. & H. van den Brink, 1991, Rhopalocera of Turkey 6. On the geographical variation of Satyrium ilicis (Esper) with description of S. ilicis zabni n. ssp. from .South East Turkey (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae).^ Armenia, republic in the Transcaucasia region of western Asia, bordered by Georgia to the north, Azerbaijan to the east, Turkey to the west and south, and Iran to the south.
    • Armenian translation, English to Armenian translation, Armenian to English translation, Armenian web site translation, Armenian typesetting and desktop publishing 16 October 2009 3:17 UTC www.wintranslation.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ In the north and east it borders upon the republics of Georgia and Azerbaijan, in the west and south upon Turkey and Iran.
    • Armenia :: Emblem and Flag of Armenia. Republic of Armenia. Information on Armenia. Armenia language 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC armenia.orexca.com [Source type: General]

    ^ It shares borders with Turkey to the west, Georgia to the north, Azerbaijan to the east, and Iran and the Nakhichevan exclave of Azerbaijan to the south.
    • Armenia - Zimbio 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.zimbio.com [Source type: General]

    Entomologische Berichten 51 (3): 38-43.
  • Oorschot van, H. ; H. van den Brink & J.G. Coutsis, 2004, Rhopalocera of Turkey 17. Satyrium ilicis zabni raised to species level (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae). Phegea 32 (4): 137-145. Full article: [2]

Bible wiki

Up to date as of January 23, 2010

From BibleWiki

high land, occurs only in Authorized Version, 2Kg 19:37; in Revised Version, "Ararat," which is the Hebrew word. A country in western Asia lying between the Caspian and the Black Sea. Here the ark of Noah rested after the Deluge (Gen 8:4). It is for the most part high table-land, and is watered by the Aras, the Kur, the Euphrates, and the Tigris. Ararat was properly the name of a part of ancient Armenia. Three provinces of Armenia are mentioned in Jer 51:27, Ararat, Minni, and Ashchenaz. Some, however, think Minni a contraction for Armenia. (See ARARAT.)
This entry includes text from Easton's Bible Dictionary, 1897.
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This article needs to be merged with ARMENIA (Jewish Encyclopedia).
This article needs to be merged with Armenia (Catholic Encyclopedia).
Facts about ArmeniaRDF feed

Simple English

Republic of Armenia

Hayastani Hanrapetutyun

File:Flag of File:Coat of arms of
Official flag Coat of Arms
National information
National motto: One Nation, One Culture
National anthem: Our Fatherland
About the people
Official languages: Armenian
Population: (# of people)
  - Total: 3,016,000 (ranked 136)
  - Density: 73 per km²
Geography / Places
[[Image:|250px|none|country map]] Here is the country on a map.
Capital city: Yerevan
Largest city: Yerevan
Area
  - Total: 29,800 (ranked 139)
  - Water:n/a km² (n/a%)
Politics / Government
Established: September 21, 1991
Leaders: President: Robert Kocharian
Prime Minister: Serzh Sargsyan
Economy / Money
Currency:
(Name of money)
Dram (AMD)
International information
Time zone: +05:00
Telephone dialing code: 374
Internet domain: .am

Armenia is a country in the Caucasus region of Europe. Its capital city is Yerevan. Armenia received its independence from the Soviet Union in 1991.

Armenia touches Turkey, Georgia, Azerbaijan, and Iran.

There are some minorities living in Armenia, such as Greek, Russian, and other minorities, and more than 90% of the people are ethnic Armenians. Also, the Armenian Apostolic Church, is by far the largest religion in the country. There are a small amount of other Christians, Muslims and atheists.

Armenia is the place that some Christians believe Noah's Ark landed, and Noah's family settled. The Armenian name for Armenia (Hayastan) means Land of Haik. Haik was the name of a great-great-grandson of Noah.

Throughout history, Armenia's size has changed many times. Today Armenia is much smaller than it was once. In 80 BC, the Kingdom of Armenia covered parts of what is today Turkey, Syria, Lebanon, Iran, Iraq, Azerbaijan, and, of course, Armenia.

From 1920 to 1991, Armenia was a Communist country. (Communism is a political idea.) It was a member of the Soviet Union.

Today, Armenia's borders are locked with Turkey and Azerbaijan, due to conflicts. In 1992, Armenia and Azerbaijan had a war over the land of Nagorno-Karabakh. The fighting stopped in 1994, and Armenia has had control over this land, but Azerbaijan still disputes about the land.

Filmographi

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Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 03, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Armenia, which are similar to those in the above article.








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