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Կիլիկիոյ Հայկական Թագաւորութիւն
Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia

1080–1375
Flag Coat of arms
Capital Tarsus (First capital), Sis
Language(s) Armenian, Latin, French
Religion Armenian Apostolic Church
Government Monarchy
King
 - 1080 Ruben I of Armenia
Historical era Middle Ages
 - Established 1080
 - Leon I becomes the first King of Armenian Cilicia. 1198
 - Disestablished 1375

The Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia (also known as Little Armenia, Kingdom of Lesser Armenia (incorrectly), Cilician Kingdom[1], New Armenia[2]; Classical Armenian: Կիլիկիոյ Հայկական Թագաւորութիւն, not to be confused with the Armenian Kingdom of Antiquity) was a state formed in the Middle Ages by Armenian refugees fleeing the Seljuk invasion of Armenia.[3] It was located on the Gulf of Alexandretta of the Mediterranean Sea in what is today southern Turkey. The kingdom remained independent from around 1078 to 1375.

The Kingdom of Cilicia was founded by the Rubenian dynasty, an offshoot of the larger Bagratid family that at various times held the thrones of Armenia and Georgia. Their capital was at first Tarsus, after Sis. Cilicia was a strong ally of the European Crusaders, and saw itself as a bastion of Christendom in the East. It also served as a focus for Armenian nationalism and culture, since Armenia was under foreign occupation at the time.

King Levon I of Armenia helped cultivate Cilicia's economy and commerce as its interaction with European traders grew.[4] Major cities and castles of the kingdom included the port of Korikos, Lampron, Partzerpert, Vahka (modern Feke), Hromkla, Tarsus, Anazarbe, Til Hamdoun, Mamistra (modern Yakapınar: the classical Mopsuestia), Adana and the port of Ayas (Aias) which served as a Western terminal to the East. The Pisans, Genoese and Venetians established colonies in Ayas through treaties with Cilician Armenia in the thirteenth century.[5] Marco Polo, for example, set out on his journey to China from Ayas in 1271.[5]

Contents

Early Armenian links with Cilicia

For a short time in the 1st century BC the powerful kingdom of Armenia was able to conquer a vast region in the Levant, including the area of Cilicia. In 83 BC, after a bloody strife for the throne of Syria, governed by the Seleucids, the Greek aristocracy of Syria decided to choose the Armenian ruler Tigranes the Great as the protector of their kingdom and offered him the crown of Syria.[6] Tigranes then conquered Phoenicia and Cilicia, effectively putting an end to the Seleucid Empire, though a few holdout cities appear to have recognized the shadowy boy-king Seleucus VII Philometor as the legitimate king during his reign. The southern border of his domain reached as far as Ptolemais (modern Acre). Many of the inhabitants of conquered cities were sent to his new metropolis of Tigranakert (Latin name, Tigranocerta).

At its height his empire extended from the Pontic Alps (in modern north-eastern Turkey) to Mesopotamia, and from the Caspian to the Mediterranean. Tigranes apparently invaded as far as Ecbatana and took the title king of kings which, at the time, according to their coins, even the Parthian kings did not assume. From the time of his conquests, some Armenian settlements are thought to have remained in the region of Cilicia.

Mass Armenian migration to Cilicia under the Byzantines

Since the 6th century, voluntarily or not, Armenian families relocated to Byzantine territories and contributed considerably in the Byzantine army either as soldiers or by holding top positions as generals. [7] Cilicia was reconquered from the Arabs by the Byzantine Emperor Nicephorus II Phocas around 965. He expelled the Muslims living there, and Christians from Syria and Armenia were encouraged to settle in the region. Emperor Basil II (976-1025) attempted to expand into Armenian Vaspurakan in the East and Arab-held Syria towards the south. As a result of the Byzantine military campaigns, the Armenians spread into Cappadocia and eastward from Cilicia into the mountainous areas of northern Syria and Mesopotamia.[8 ]

The Armenian immigration increased with the formal annexation of Greater Armenia to the Byzantine Empire in 1045 and the Seljuk conquest 19 years thereafter, giving two new waves of migration.[8 ] After the fall of Bagratid Armenia, and during the following centuries, the Armenian state was unable to re-establish itself and its sovereignty. It remained under the rule of Turkic tribes.

Foundation of Armenian power in Cilicia

The coat of arms of the Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia, given to Leo I of Armenia of the Rubenid Dynasty by Pope Celestine III of Rome.
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The Armenians came to serve the Byzantines as military officers and governors; they were given control of important cities on the Byzantine Empire's eastern frontier. When Imperial power in the region weakened in the chaotic years after the Battle of Manzikert, some of them seized the opportunity to set themselves up as sovereign Lords, while others remained, at least in name, loyal to the Empire. The most successful of these early Armenian warlords was Philaretos Brachamios, a former general of Romanus IV Diogenes. Between 1078 and 1085 Philaretus built a principality stretching from Malatia in the north to Antioch in the south, and from Cilicia in the west to Edessa in the east. He invited many Armenian nobles to settle in his territory, and gave them land and castles.[8 ] The state that Philaretus had created had begun to crumble even before his death in 1090.[9] and after his death the remains of his dominion disintegrated into local lordships.

One of those princes was Ruben, who had close ties with the last Bagratuni Dynasty Armenian king, Gagik II. He thought that he would never be able to reinstate the Bagratid kingdom, so he rebelled against the Byzantine Empire in Cilicia. He rallied with him many other Armenian landlords and nobles. Thus, in 1080, the foundations of the independent Armenian princedom of Cilicia, and of the future kingdom, were laid under Ruben's leadership and that of his descendants (who would be called Rubenids) .[10 ]

By the end of the 11th century, upon Ruben's death in 1095, there were several important Armenian principalities in the area:[11]

  • Lampron (after Namrun, now Camliyayla) and Babaron (Candir Kale), located at the southern end of the Cilician Gates, were controlled by the former Byzantine general Oshin, the founder of the important Hethumid dynasty.
  • To the north east was the principality of Constantine I of Armenia, the son of Prince Rouben I. His power was based around the fortresses of Partzapert and Vahka.
  • Further to the north east, and outside of Cilicia, was the principality of Marash (modern Kahramanmaraş). It was ruled by Thatoul, a former Byzantine official.
  • East of Marash, the Armenian Gogh Vasil (Basil the Robber) held the fortresses of Raban (modern Altınaşkale) and Kesoun as a Seljuk vassal.
  • To the north of these, on the Upper Euphrates, lay the principality of Malatia (Melitene), held by Gabriel, one of Philaretus' former officers, under Seljuk overlordship.
  • Finally, beyond Malatia, was Edessa, controlled by Thoros, another of Philaretus' officers, and son-in-law of Gabriel of Malatia.

With the exception of Gogh Vasil and Constantine, these Armenian lords were alienated from most of their Armenian compatriots, and disliked by Syrian Christians, because they were either Greek Orthodox or held official titles conferred upon them by the Byzantine Emperor.[12]

The First Crusade and the Rubenid principality

Baldwin of Boulogne receiving the hommage of the Armenians in Edessa.

During the reign of Constantine I, the Crusaders, in order to restore to Christian rule territories that had recently been conquered by the Seljuk Turks, descended upon Anatolia and the Middle East. With the First Crusade, the Armenians in Cilicia gained powerful allies among the Frankish crusaders. With their help, they secured Cilicia from the Turks, both by direct military actions in Cilicia and by establishing Crusader states in Antioch and Edessa.[10 ] The Armenians also helped the Crusaders, as described by Pope Gregory XIII:

Among the good deeds which the Armenian people has done towards the church and the Christian world, it should especially be stressed that, in those times when the Christian princes and the warriors went to retake the Holy Land, no people or nation, with the same enthusiasm, joy and faith came to their aid as the Armenians did, who supplied the crusaders with horses, provision and guidance. The Armenians assisted these warriors with their utter courage and loyalty during the Holy wars.

Ecclesia Romana, 1584

The Armenians and crusaders were partly allied, partly rivals for two centuries to come.

Eventually, there emerged some sort of centralized government in the area with the rise of the Roupenid princes. During the 12th century they were the closest thing to a ruling dynasty, and wrestled with the Byzantines for the power over the region. Prince Leo I integrated the Cilician coastal cities to the Armenian principality, thus consolidating Armenian commercial leadership in the region. He was eventually defeated by Emperor John II in 1137, who still considered Cilicia to be a Byzantine province, and was imprisoned with several other family members.[10 ] He died in prison three years later. Leon's son and successor, Thoros II, was also imprisoned, but escaped in 1141. He returned to lead the struggle with the Byzantines. Initially he was successful, but eventually, in 1158, he paid homage to Emperor Manuel I.

Cilicia had become so significant in these years, that in 1151, the head of the Armenian Church transferred his see to Hromkla.[8 ]

The Rubenid princes continued to rule Cilicia.

The Kingdom of Armenia

Little Armenia and its surrounding states in 1200.

King Leo I of the Rubenid dynasty started his reign as Prince Leo II in 1187. He became one of the most important figures of the Cilician Armenian state. During his reign, he had to face Konya's, Aleppo's, and Damascus' rulers. By doing so, he integrated new lands to Cilicia and doubled the state's ownership of the Mediterranean coast. He also put great effort into augmenting the state's military might.[10 ]

At that time, Saladin of Egypt greatly weakened the Crusader states, forcing the Europeans to launch another Crusade. Prince Leo II profited from the situation by improving relations with the Europeans. Thanks to the support given to him by the Holy Roman Emperors (Frederick Barbarossa, and his son, Henry VI), he was able to elevate the princedom's status to a kingdom. In 1198 Prince Leo II managed to secure his crown, becoming the first King of Armenian Cilicia as king Leo I.[10 ]

The crown later passed to the rival Hethumid dynasty through Leon's daughter Zabel. When she was Queen, her first husband was poisoned in 1225 by Constantine of Baberon, who then in 1226 forced Zabel to marry Constantine's son, who became co-ruler Hethum I.

A Cilician Armenian cavalryman
Fortress of Korikos in Cilician Armenia built ca. the 13th century.

During the rule of Zabel and Hethum, the Mongol Empire was rapidly expanding from Asia, and had reached the Middle East. The Mongols rapidly conquered Mesopotamia, Baghdad, and Syria, in their advance towards Egypt. The Mongol conquest was disastrous for Greater Armenia, but this wasn't the case for those in Cilicia, as Hethum chose to preemptively subject Cilicia to Mongol authority, sending his brother Sempad to the Mongol court in 1247 to negotiate an alliance.[13][14][15]

Campaigns with the Mongols

Hethum and his forces fought under the Mongol banner of Hulagu, in the conquest of Muslim Syria and the capture of Aleppo and Damascus in 1259-1260.[16] Armenia also engaged in an economic battle with the Egyptian Mamluks, for control of the spice trade.[17]

Coin of the Cilician Armenian kingdom, ca. 1080-1375.

In 1266, the Mamluk leader Baibars summoned Hethum I to abandon his allegiance to the Mongols, and instead accept Mamluk suzerainty, and remit to the Mamluks the territories and fortresses Hethum had acquired through his submission to the Mongols. Following these threats, Hethum I went to the Mongol court of the Il-Khan in Persia to obtain military support. During his absence however, the Mamluks marched on Cilician Armenia, led by Mansur II and the Mamluk commander Qalawun, and defeated the Armenians at the Disaster of Mari, killing Hethum's son Thoros , and capturing Hethum's son Leo along with tens of thousands of other Armenia soldiers. Hethum ransomed his son for a high price, paying the Mamluks a large sum and signing over to them many fortresses. Soon after, the huge 1268 Cilicia earthquake further devastated the country.

In 1269, Hethum I abdicated in favour of his son Leo II, who was forced to pay large annual tributes to the Mamluks. Even with the tributes though, the Mamluks continued to attack Cilicia every few years.

Truce with the Mamluks (1281-1295)

In 1281, following the defeat of the Mongols and the Armenians under Möngke Temur, against the Mamluks at the Second Battle of Homs, a truce was forced on Armenia by the Mamluks. Further, in 1285, following a powerful offensive by Qalawun, the Armenians had to sign a 10 year truce, which left many Armenian fortresses to the Mamluks, prohibited the Armenians from rebuilding their defensive fortifications, had them pay tribute of one million dirhams,[18] and forced them to trade with the Mamluks, thereby circumventing the trade embargo imposed by the Pope.[19] The Mamluks kept raiding Cilician Armenia on numerous occasions however. In 1292 Cilician Armenia was invaded by Al-Ashraf Khalil, the Mamluk sultan of Egypt, who had conquered the remnant of the Kingdom of Jerusalem in Acre the year before, and Hromkla was sacked, forcing the Holy See to move to Sis. Hethum was forced to abandon Behesni, Marash and Tel Hamdoun to the Turks. In 1293, he abdicated in favour of his brother Thoros III and entered the monastery of Mamistra.

Campaigns with the Mongols (1299-1303)

Little Armenia, a Christian exclave in Anatolia, and its surrounding states in 1300.

In the summer of 1299, Hethum I's grandson, King Hethum II of Armenia, again facing threats of attack by the Mamluks, sent a message to the Mongol khan of Persia, Ghâzân to obtain his support. In response, Ghazan marched with his forces towards Syria and sent letters to the Franks of Cyprus (the King of Cyprus, and the heads of the Knights Templar, the Hospitallers and the Teutonic Knights), inviting them to come join him in his attack on the Mamluks in Syria.

Ghazan ordering the King Of Armenia Hethum II to accompany Kutlushka on the 1303 attack on Damascus.[20]

The Mongols successfully took the city of Aleppo, where they were joined by King Hethum, whose forces included some Templars and Hospitallers from the kingdom of Armenia, who participated in the rest of the offensive.[21] The combined force then defeated the Mamluks in the Battle of Wadi al-Khazandar, on December 23 or 24, 1299.[22] The bulk of the Mongol army then had to retreat, probably because their horses needing grazing room. In their absence, the Egyptian Mamluks regrouped, and then retook the area in May 1300.

In 1303, the Mongols tried again to capture Syria, this time in greater strength (about 80,000) together with the Armenians, but they were defeated at Homs on March 30, 1303, and at the decisive Battle of Shaqhab, south of Damas, on April 21, 1303.[23] It is considered to be the last major Mongol invasion of Syria.[24]

When the Mongol leader Ghazan died on May 10, 1304, dreams of a rapid reconquest of the Holy Land were destroyed.

Hethum II abdicated in favour of his nephew Levon III and became a Franciscan monk. In 1307 Hethum II, his nephew Levon III, and his entire entourage were murdered by Bularghu, the Mongol's representative in Armenian Cilicia and a recent convert to Islam, while visiting Bularghu's encampment just outside Anavarza.[25]

Religious rapprochement with Rome

In 1198, a Union was proclaimed between Rome and the Armenian Church by the Armenian catholicos of Sis Grigor VI Apirat. This was not followed in deeds however, as the local clergy and populace was strongly opposed to such a union.

Numerous Roman Catholic missions were also sent to Cilician Armenia to help with rapprochement, with limited results. The Franciscans were put in charge of this missions. John of Monte Corvino himself arrived in Cilician Armenia in 1288.[26] The Armenian king Hethum II would himself become a Franciscan monk upon his abdication. The Armenian historian Nerses Balients was a Franciscan and a member of the "Unitarian" mouvement advocating unification with the Latin Church.

Again in 1441, long after the fall of the Kingdom, the Armenian Catholicos of Sis Grigor IX Musabekiants proclaimed the union of the Armenian and Latin churches at the Council of Florence, but this was countered by an Armenian schism under Kirakos I Virapetsi, who installed the Catholicos see at Edjmiatzin, and maginalized Sis.[27]

Culture and society

Contact with crusaders from Western Europe, particularly France, brought important new influences on Armenian culture. The Cilician nobility eagerly adopted many aspects of Western European life, including chivalry, fashions in clothing and the use of French Christian names. The linguistic influence was so great that two new letters (Ֆ ֆ = "f" and Օ օ = "o") were added to the Armenian alphabet. The structure of Cilician society became closer to Western feudalism than to the traditional nakharar system of Armenia in which the king was merely "first among equals" among the nobility. In other areas, there was more hostility to the new trends. Above all, most ordinary Armenians frowned on conversion to Roman Catholicism or Greek Orthodoxy. It is worth noting that cultural influence was not merely one-way. Cilician Armenians, most notably with their architectural traditions, had an important impact on crusaders who returned to the West with their newfound knowledge. Europeans thus borrowed and incorporated elements of Armenian castle-building thanks to the contributions of skilled Armenian masons in the crusader states of the Middle-East, as well as some elements of church architecture.[28] Most Armenian castles made clever use of rocky heights and featured curved walls and round towers such as those featured at Krak des Chevaliers and Marqab of the Hospitallers. [29] The Cilician period also produced some important examples of Armenian art, notably the illuminated manuscripts of Toros Roslin, who was at work in Hromkla in the 13th century.[30]

Decline with the Lusignan dynasty

Constantin III of Armenia on his throne with the Hospitallers. "Les chevaliers de Saint-Jean-de-Jerusalem rétablissant la religion en Arménie", 1844 painting by Henri Delaborde.

The Hethumids ruled Cilicia until the murder of Leo IV in 1341. In spite of his alliance with the Christian Kingdom of Cyprus, Leo IV was unable to resist the attacks of the Egyptian Mameluks.[31]

In 1341, his cousin Guy Lusignan was elected king. The Lusignan dynasty was of French origin, and already had a foothold in the area, the Island of Cyprus. There had always been close relations between the Lusignans of Cyprus and the Armenians. However, when the pro-Latin Lusignans took power, they tried to impose Catholicism and the European way of life. The Armenian leadership largely accepted this, but the peasantry opposed the changes. Eventually, this led way to civil strife.[10 ]

In the late 14th century, Cilicia was invaded by the Mameluks. In the years leading up to this, frequent Armenian appeals for help to their co-religionists in Europe meant that the Armenian Kingdom had an important role in crusade planing, both because of the need to defend the Kingdom and because of its potential as a base for crusaders to reconquer Syria and Palestine. [32] The fall of Sis in April, 1375 put an end to the kingdom; its last King, Leo V, was granted safe passage and died in exile in Paris in 1393 after calling in vain for another Crusade. The title was claimed by his cousin, James I of Cyprus, uniting it with the titles of Cyprus and Jerusalem.[10 ] Thus ended the last fully independent Armenian entity of the Middle Ages after three centuries of sovereignty and bloom. The title was then held through the centuries down to the modern day by the House of Savoy.

Dispersion of the Armenian population of Cilicia

Cilicia retained a substantial Armenian population until the Armenian genocide.

Although the Egyptian Mameluks had taken over Cilicia, they were unable to maintain their hold on it. Turkic tribes eventually made their way to the region and established themselves there, leading to the conquest of Cilicia by Tamerlane. As a result, 30000 wealthy Armenians left Cilicia and settled in Cyprus, which continued to be ruled by the Lusignan dynasty until 1489. Only the humbler Armenians remained in Cilicia, and by doing so, conserved the Armenian foothold in the region until the Armenian genocide of 1915. Their descendants are now dispersed in the Armenian diaspora, and the Holy See of Cilicia is now based in Antelias, Lebanon.[10 ]


See also

References

  1. ^ Dictionary of the Middle Ages
  2. ^ Internet Archive - "Landmarks in Armenian history" "1080 A.D. Rhupen, cousin of the Bagratonian kings, sets up on Mount Taurus (over looking the Mediterranean Sea) the kingdom of New Armenia which lasts 300 years."
  3. ^ (Armenian) Poghosyan, S.; Katvalyan, M.; Grigoryan, G. et al. Cilician Armenia (Կիլիկյան Հայաստան). Soviet Armenian Encyclopedia. vol. v. Yerevan, Armenian SSR: Armenian Academy of Sciences, 1979, pp. 406-428
  4. ^ Bournoutian, George A (2006). A Concise History of the Armenian People. Costa Mesa, CA: Mazda. p. 99. ISBN 1-5685-9141-1.  
  5. ^ a b Abulafia, David (1999). The New Cambridge Medieval History. Cambridge University Press. p. 440. ISBN 052136289X.  
  6. ^ "King Tigran II - The Great". Hye Etch. http://www.hyeetch.nareg.com.au/armenians/prominent_p5.html. Retrieved 2007-01-17.  
  7. ^ Ghazarian, Jacob G. (2000). The Armenian kingdom in Cilicia during the Crusades: the integration of Cilician Armenians with the Latins, 1080 - 1393. England: Curzon Press. p. 40.  
  8. ^ a b c d Donal Stewart, Angus (2001). The Armenian Kingdom and the Mamluks: War and Diplomacy During the Reigns of Het'um II. Netherlands: Brill Academic Publishers. pp. 33–34.  
  9. ^ Runciman, Steven (1987). A History of the Crusades Vol. I: The First Crusade and the Foundations of the Kingdom of Jerusalem. Cambridge University Press. p. 195. ISBN 0-5213-5997-X.  
  10. ^ a b c d e f g h (Armenian) Kurdoghlian, Mihran (1996). Badmoutioun Hayots, Volume II. Athens, Greece: Hradaragoutioun Azkayin Oussoumnagan Khorhourti. pp. 29–56.  
  11. ^ Runciman. A History of the Crusades, pp. 195-201
  12. ^ Runciman. A History of the Crusades, p. 196
  13. ^ Claude Mutafian in Le Royaume Arménien de Cilicie describes "the Mongol alliance" entered into by the king of Armenia and the Franks of Antioch ("the King of Armenia decided to engage into the Mongol alliance, an intelligence that the Latin barons lacked, except for Antioch"), and "the Franco-Mongol collaboration" (Mutafian, p. 55).
  14. ^ Claude Lebedel in Les Croisades describes the alliance of the Franks of Antioch and Tripoli with the Mongols: (in 1260) "the Frank barons refused an alliance with the Mongols, except for the Armenians and the Prince of Antioch and Tripoli".
  15. ^ Amin Maalouf in The Crusades through Arab eyes is extensive and specific on the alliance (page numbers refer to the French edition): “The Armenians, in the person of their king Hetoum, sided with the Mongols, as well as Prince Bohemond, his son-in-law. The Franks of Acre however adopted a position of neutrality favourable to the muslims” (p. 261), “Bohemond of Antioch and Hethoum of Armenia, principal allies of the Mongols” (p.265), “Hulagu (…) still had enough strength to prevent the punishment of his allies [Bohemond and Hethoum]” (p. 267).
  16. ^ "The king of Armenia and the Prince of Antioch went to the military camp of the Tatars, and they all went off to take Damascus". Le Templier de Tyr. Quoted in "Histoire des Croisades III", Rene Grousset, p586
  17. ^ Cambridge Medieval History, Volume IV, p. 634
  18. ^ American Council of Learned Societies (1989). "Cilician Kingdom". Dictionary of the Middle Ages. Reproduced in History Resource Center. Farmington Hills, MI: Gale: Charles Scribner's Sons. http://0-galenet.galegroup.com.iii.slcl.org:80/servlet/History/.  
  19. ^ (French) Luisetto, Frédéric. Arméniens et autres Chrétiens d'Orient sous la domination Mongole. Geuthner pp. 128-129
  20. ^ Mutafian. Le Royaume Armenien de Cilicie, pp. 74-75
  21. ^ Demurger, Alain (2005). The Last Templar: The Tragedy of Jacques de Molay, Last Grand Master of the Temple. London: Profile Books, p. 93. ISBN 1-8619-7529-5. "He was soon joined by King Hethum, whose forces seem to have included Hospitallers and Templars from the kingdom of Armenia, who participate to the rest of the campaign."
  22. ^ Ibid., p. 93
  23. ^ Demurger. Tragedy of Jacques de Molay, 109
  24. ^ Nicolle, David (2001). The Crusades. Oxford: Osprey, p. 80 ISBN 1-8417-6179-6
  25. ^ Angus, Stewart, "The assassination of King Het'um II". Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, 2005 pp. 45-61.
  26. ^ Luisetto. Arméniens et autres Chrétiens d'Orient, p. 98
  27. ^ (French) Mahé, Jean-Pierre (2005). L'Arménie à l'épreuve des Siècles. Découvertes Gallimard, pp. 71-72
  28. ^ "Cilician Kingdom". Globe Weekly News. http://www.globeweeklynews.com/cilician_kingdom.htm. Retrieved 2009-12-28.  
  29. ^ Kennedy, Hugh N. (2006). Muslim military architecture in greater Syria: from the coming of Islam to the Ottoman Period. Netherlands: Brill Academic Publishers. p. 293.  
  30. ^ Hovannisian, Richard G. (ed.) (1998). The Armenian People from Ancient to Modern Times, Volume I: From Antiquity to the Fourteenth Century. New York: Palgrave, p. 283, pp. 289-90
  31. ^ Mahé. L'Arménie, p. 77
  32. ^ Housley, Norman (1992). The later Crusades, 1274-1580: from Lyons to Alcazar. New York: Oxford University Press. p. 21.  

Bibliography

  • Boase, T. S. R. (1978). The Cilician Kingdom of Armenia. Edinburgh: Scottish Academic Press. p. 206. ISBN 0-7073-0145-9.  
  • Redgate, Anne Elizabeth (2000). The Armenians (First ed.). Massachusetts: Blackwell Publishers Inc.. p. 356. ISBN 0-631-22037-2.  
  • Hovannisian, Richard G. (1997). The Armenian people from ancient to modern times: from antiquity to the fourteenth century. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 493. ISBN 0-312-10168-6.  
  • Ghazarian, Jacob G. (2000). The Armenian kingdom in Cilicia during the Crusades. Routledge. p. 256. ISBN 0700714189.  
  • Luisetto, Frédéric (2007). Arméniens et autres Chrétiens d'Orient sous la domination Mongole. Geuthner. p. 262. ISBN 9782705337919.  
  • Mahé, Jean-Pierre. L'Arménie à l'épreuve des siècles, Découvertes Gallimard, 2005, ISBN 9782070314096

External links


Simple English

File:Armenianmeds.gif
The Kingdom of Cilician Armenia, 1199-1375.

The Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia was a state formed in the Middle Ages by Armenian refugees fleeing the Seljuk invasion of Armenia. It was located near the Mediterranean Sea in what is today southern Turkey. The country was independent from around 1078 to 1375.

Contents

Crusades

The Armenians were the most important of the Crusaders allies, from the local troops recruited within the Crusader States.[1] Many Armenian mercenaries became available in the early 12th century.

Thoros II was a powerful Armenian prince who offered the transfer of 30,000 Armenian warriors with their families to the Kingdom of Jerusalem the king and barons were interested.[2]

King Thoros of Armenia proposed that King Amalric of Jerusalem evict the Saracen peasants of his realm and replace them with 30,000 trustworthy Armenian warriors, who would come with there families to populate and defend the country.[3]

Other pages

References

  1. The Crusades - Page 20 by Dr David Nicolle
  2. Comparative Studies in Society and History - Page 417 by Society for the Comparative Study of Society and History
  3. The Crusades: The Essential Readings - Page 244 by Thomas F. Madden

Other websites








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