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Armoured regiment (United Kingdom): Wikis

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The Type 58 armoured regiment is one of two organisations currently provided by cavalry regiments of the British Army, and is a battalion-sized formation equipped with Challenger 2 main battle tanks. It is the descendant of traditional heavy cavalry, intended to provided massed armour for use in a major conflict. As the likelihood of a major Cold War confrontation died down, and the Army has been deployed to lower-intensity conflicts, the role of heavy armour has become less well-defined, focusing more on infantry co-operation and support rather than pure armoured conflict.

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Current use

Following the 2003 Defence Review, five regular army regiments are equipped for the heavy armoured role:

Two regiments of the Territorial Army, the Royal Wessex Yeomanry and the Royal Mercian and Lancastrian Yeomanry, provide replacement crews for the regular regiments.

Of the five regiments, three are currently assigned to 1st (UK) Armoured Division and two to 3rd (UK) Mechanised Division.

Organisation

The basic combat organisation of an armoured regiment is four armoured squadrons (or "Sabre squadrons"), each of four troops of three Challenger 2 tanks. The squadron headquarters has two tanks, for a total of fourteen per squadron, along with a Spartan APC and a utility truck; each squadron also has a medical detachment with a Samaritan ambulance and a fitter section with various recovery vehicles. The regimental headquarters has a further two Challenger 2 tanks, for a total of fifty-eight in the regiment, as well as five Sultan command vehicles and a small group of utility vehicles. In addition to this, each armoured regiment has a reconnaissance squadron with eight Scimitars.[1]

Of the five armoured regiments, two have the full four-squadrons structure, whilst three have the fourth squadron replaced by one equipped with an Interim Medium Armour Squadron, equipped with twelve Scimitars.[1]

History

The first armoured regiments - known at the time as "tank battalions" - were formed in the First World War, first in the Machine Gun Corps and later as the Tank Corps. Each battalion had three companies, each of three sections of four tanks, for a combat strength of thirty-six tanks; a further twelve were kept in reserve for training and replacement purposes.[2] A total of twenty-six battalions were formed during the war, quickly reduced to four battalions after the end of hostilities.

The 1998 Strategic Defence Review cut the number of armoured regiments to six, converting one of the existing regiments to the formation reconnaissance role and using the other to form the Joint Chemical, Biological, Radiation and Nuclear Regiment. As a part of this change, the six remaining regiments were expanded from a three-squadron structure with 38 tanks to a four-squadron one with 58.[3] This structure is also known as the "Type 58" regiment. Under the 2003 Defence White Paper, this was reduced to five armoured regiments - the sixth converting to the formation reconnaissance role - with three armoured squadrons to be converted to "light armoured" squadrons which would eventually be equipped with the Future Rapid Effect System.[4]

References

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