Arrowhead: Wikis

  
  
  

Did you know ...


More interesting facts on Arrowhead

Include this on your site/blog:

Encyclopedia

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

A Native American arrowhead
An arrowhead is a tip, usually sharpened, added to an arrow to make it more deadly or to fulfil some special purpose. Historically arrowheads were made of stone; as human civilisation progressed other materials were used. Arrowheads are important archaeological artifacts; they are a subclass of projectile points.

Contents

Design

Arrowheads are attached to arrow shafts and may be fired from a bow, similar types of projectile points may be attached to spears and "thrown" by means an Atlatl (spear thrower).
The arrowhead or projectile point is the primary functional part of the arrow, and plays the largest role in determining its purpose. Some arrows may simply use a sharpened tip of the solid shaft, but it is far more common for separate arrowheads to be made, usually from metal, horn, or some other hard material.
Arrowheads may be attached to the shaft with a cap, a socketed tang, or inserted into a split in the shaft and held by a process called hafting.[1] Points attached with caps are simply slid snugly over the end of the shaft, or may be held on with hot glue. Split-shaft construction involves splitting the arrow shaft lengthwise, inserting the arrowhead, and securing it using a ferrule, sinew, or wire.[2]

Variants

Japanese arrowheads of several shapes and functions
Arrowheads are usually separated by function:
  • Bodkin points are short, rigid points with a small cross-section. They were made of unhardened iron and may have been used for better or longer flight, or for cheaper production. It has been mistakenly suggested that the bodkin came into its own as a means of penetrating armour, but research[3] has found no hardened bodkin points, so it is likely that it was first designed either to extend range or as a cheaper and simpler alternative to the broadhead. In a modern test, a direct hit from a hard steel bodkin point penetrated Damascus chain armour.[4] However, archery was not effective against plate armour, which became available to knights of fairly modest means by the late 1300s.[5]
  • Blunts are unsharpened arrowheads occasionally used for types of target shooting, for shooting at stumps or other targets of opportunity, or hunting small game when the goal is to stun the target without penetration. Blunts are commonly made of metal or hard rubber. They may stun, and occasionally, the arrow shaft may penetrate the head and the target; safety is still important with blunt arrows.
  • Judo points have spring wires extending sideways from the tip. These catch on grass and debris to prevent the arrow from being lost in the vegetation. Used for practice and for small game.
  • Broadheads were used for war and are still used for hunting. Medieval broadheads could be made from steel,[3] sometimes with hardened edges. They usually have two to four sharp blades that cause massive bleeding in the victim. Their function is to deliver a wide cutting edge so as to kill as quickly as possible. They are expensive, damage most targets, and are usually not used for practice. There are two main types of broadheads used by hunters: The fixed-blade and the mechanical types. While the fixed-blade broadhead keeps its blades rigid and unmovable on the broadhead at all times, the mechanical broadhead deploys its blades upon contact with the target, its blades swinging out to wound the target. The mechanical head flies better because it is more streamlined, but has less penetration as it uses some of the kinetic energy in the arrow to deploy its blades.[6]
  • Target points are bullet-shaped with a sharp point, designed to penetrate target butts easily without causing excessive damage to them.
  • Field tips are similar to target points and have a distinct shoulder, so that missed outdoor shots do not become as stuck in obstacles such as tree stumps. They are also used for shooting practice by hunters, by offering similar flight characteristics and weights as broadheads, without getting lodged in target materials and causing excessive damage upon removal.
  • Safety arrows are designed to be used in various forms of reenactment combat, to reduce the risk when shot at people. These arrows may have heads that are very wide or padded. In combination with bows of restricted draw weight and draw length, these heads may reduce to acceptable levels the risks of shooting arrows at suitably armoured people. The parameters will vary depending on the specific rules being used and on the levels of risk felt acceptable to the participants. For instance, SCA combat rules require a padded head at least 1 1/4" in diameter, with bows not exceeding 28 inches (710 mm) and 50 lb (23 kg) of draw for use against well-armoured individuals.[1]

History

Arrowheads made of bone and antle found in Nydam Mose (3rd - 5th century)
In the Stone age people used sharpened or flintknapped stones, flakes, and chips of rock as weapons and tools. Such items remained in use throughout human civilisation, with new materials used as time passed. As archaeological artifacts such objects are classed as projectile points.[7]
Such artifacts can be found all over the world. Archaeologically they are usually made of stone, primarily being flint, obsidian, or cherts; however in many excavations bone, wooden and metal arrowheads have been found.

See also

References

  1. ^ a b http://www.sca.org/officers/marshal/docs/marshal_handbook.pdf
  2. ^ Parker, Glenn (1992). "Steel Points". The Traditional Bowyer's Bible - Volume Two. Guilford: The Lyons Press. ISBN 1-58574-086-1. 
  3. ^ a b "6. Armour-piercing arrowheads". Royal Armouries. http://www.royalarmouries.org/what-we-do/research/analytical-projects/armour-piercing-arrowheads. Retrieved 2010-02-17. 
  4. ^ Pope, Saxton. Hunting with the Bow and Arrow. http://www.gutenberg.org/dirs/etext05/8hbow10.txt. "To test a steel bodkin pointed arrow such as was used at the battle of Cressy, I borrowed a shirt of chain armor from the Museum, a beautiful specimen made in Damascus in the 15th Century. It weighed twenty-five pounds and was in perfect condition. One of the attendants in the Museum offered to put it on and allow me to shoot at him. Fortunately, I declined his proffered services and put it on a wooden box, padded with burlap to represent clothing. Indoors at a distance of seven yards (6 m), I discharged an arrow at it with such force that sparks flew from the links of steel as from a forge. The bodkin point and shaft went through the thickest portion of the back, penetrated an inch of wood and bulged out the opposite side of the armor shirt. The attendant turned a pale green. An arrow of this type can be shot about two hundred yards, and would be deadly up to the full limit of its flight." 
  5. ^ Strickland M, Hardy R. The Great Warbow. Sutton Publishing 2005. Page 272
  6. ^ "Mechanical vs. Fixed Broadheads". Huntingblades.com. http://www.huntingblades.com/mevsfiblbr.html. Retrieved 2010-02-17. 
  7. ^ "Glossary M - P". Uwlax.edu. http://www.uwlax.edu/MVAC/educators/Glossary/MP.htm. Retrieved 2010-02-17. 

Simple English

The English Wiktionary has a dictionary definition (meanings of a word) for:


An arrowhead is point of an arrow, or a shape resembling such a point.[1]

Arrowheads are found all over the United States. Archaeologically they are usually made of stone: primarily being flint, obsidian, or cherts; but in many excavations bone, wooden and metal arrowheads have been found.

In North America, Arrowheads are sometimes mistakenly attributed to the Historic Period American Indians, but are actually from North America's prehistoric ancestors; some arrowheads date back to over 15,000+ years old (Paleo-Clovis Culture).

In Scandinavia during the Viking age a wide range of arrowheads were used for a variety of tasks.

Arrowheads are attached to arrow shafts and may be "thrown" (similar to a spear thrower), or fired from a bow.

Other pages

Stone tool

Other websites


Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 07, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Arrowhead, which are similar to those in the above article.








Got something to say? Make a comment.
Your name
Your email address
Message