Arrows: Wikis

Advertisements
  
  
  

Note: Many of our articles have direct quotes from sources you can cite, within the Wikipedia article! This article doesn't yet, but we're working on it! See more info or our list of citable articles.

Encyclopedia

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Arrows
Arrows logo.png
Full name Arrows Grand Prix International
Base Milton Keynes, UK, later Leafield, UK
Founder(s) Franco Ambrosio
Alan Rees
Jackie Oliver
Dave Wass
Tony Southgate
Noted staff Tom Walkinshaw
Noted drivers Riccardo Patrese
Derek Warwick
Eddie Cheever
Thierry Boutsen
Damon Hill
Formula One World Championship career
Debut 1978 Brazilian Grand Prix
Races competed 368
Constructors' Championships 0
Drivers' Championships 0
Race victories 0 (Best finish: 5 second places, last one at 1997 Hungarian Grand Prix)
Podiums 9
Points 164
Pole positions 1
Fastest laps 0
Final race 2002 German Grand Prix

Arrows Grand Prix International was a Formula One team active from 1978 to 2002. For a period of time, it was also known as Footwork.

Contents

Origins of the team

The Arrows Grand Prix International team was founded in 1977, by Italian financier Franco Ambrosio (A), Alan Rees (R), Jackie Oliver (O), Dave Wass (W) and Tony Southgate (S) when Rees, Oliver, Wass and Southgate left the Shadow team.

The team was started in Milton Keynes, England and produced their first Formula One car in just 53 days. Arrows signed up Riccardo Patrese who scored points in the US West Grand Prix at Long Beach in the car's third race.

Ambrosio left the team due to being jailed for financial irregularities in Italy. Shadow sued for copyright infringement, claiming that the Arrows FA/1 was just a copy of the Shadow DN9. The team decided to build a new car called the A1. This was completed in 52 days and appeared the day after the High Court in London banned the team from racing the FA/1.

Racing History

Advertisements

Arrows Grand Prix International

Equipped with the A10B chassis and a BMW-Megatron engine, drivers Eddie Cheever (pictured at the 2008 Goodwood Festival of Speed) and Derek Warwick ensured that 1988 was Arrows' most successful year in Formula One.

In September 1978, in the Italian Grand Prix at Monza, Patrese was involved in an accident which claimed the life of Ronnie Peterson and he was banned from racing at the following race (the United States Grand Prix) by his fellow drivers. In 1981, Patrese would score the team's only F1 pole position in Long Beach, which he led until retiring with mechanical problems. Arrows finished joint 8th in the Constructors Championship that year.

In 1984 with BMW M12 turbo engines and sponsorship from cigarette company Barclay things got much better. That year they were 9th in the Constructors Championship and 8th in 1985. In 1987, BMW removed support and the engines were badged Megatron, but the British team had their best seasons yet, finising 6th in 1987 and 4th in 1988 (the final year for turbocharged engines) thanks to frequent points finishes by drivers Eddie Cheever and Derek Warwick.

Footwork Arrows

Japanese businessman Wataru Ohashi invested in Arrows in 1990 and the cars started displaying the Footwork logo prominently. The team was officially renamed Footwork in 1991, and secured a deal to race with Porsche engines, with disastrous results, and in 1992 they switched to Mugen. Arrows retained the Footwork name until Ito pulled out before the 1996 season, whereupon the name of the team was changed back to Arrows. Regardless, Jackie Oliver had retained control throughout the entire period.

TWR Arrows

At the 1997 British GP, Hill scored his first point for the Arrows team.

In March 1996, Tom Walkinshaw bought a stake in the team, and in September Walkinshaw signed up World Champion Damon Hill and hired wealthy Brazilian Pedro Diniz to help pay for Hill's salary. The team nearly secured a maiden victory at the 1997 Hungarian Grand Prix where Hill started in third position and passed Michael Schumacher to take first place. A component failure in the final laps of the race saw him finish second. In the following years Walkinshaw would buy the rest of Oliver's shares. Brian Hart, who had been the engine supplier since 1995, was employed by the team, designing the Yamaha-badged engines, and later the Arrows-badged engine, in 1998.

In the 2000 Season, Jos Verstappen returned to Arrows where he had driven in 1996 alongside teammate Pedro de la Rosa. The chassis was a Arrows A21 with a Supertec engine. The Supertec engine was not the most powerful, but was still very good, and had been developed further for this season. Allied to an excellent aerodynamic package, and good rear end stability, it allowed the Arrows A21 to consistently set the best straight line speeds around the circuits. Generally, both Verstappen and de la Rosa were competitive within a close midfield.

A switch to Asiatech V10s in 2001 and the loss of a lot of staff left the team rather weaker in 2001 when Tom Walkinshaw decided to replace de la Rosa with F1 debutant Enrique Bernoldi.The team struggled through the season and Verstappen scored the team's only point in Austria.

Heinz-Harald Frentzen and Enrique Bernoldi deliberately failed to qualify at the 2002 French Grand Prix as the team's financial problems worsened.

For 2002, Tom Walkinshaw did a deal to use Cosworth V10 engines and retained Bernoldi (with support from Red Bull) but dropped Verstappen in favour of Heinz-Harald Frentzen who became available when Prost Grand Prix closed down. This caused Verstappen to successfully sue for breach of contract. That year also saw a costly payout to Pedro Diniz after unsuccessfully suing the Brazilian, who had taken his funding to Sauber for 1999. The team faced a third litigation from Frentzen, who was on contract by a race-by-race basis and who had not yet been paid. Arrows ran out of money in the midseason and did not appear at all the races at the end of the year, their drivers deliberately failing to qualify for the French Grand Prix. As a result it went into liquidation at the end of the season, also forcing TWR to close.[1]

A consortium fronted by Phoenix Finance - run by Charles Nickerson, a friend of Walkinshaw - purchased part of the team's assets, specifically the engines, believing that together with their purchase of old Prost Grand Prix assets, it would gain them entrance for the 2003 season. However, their application was rejected by the FIA.

In its checkered history, Arrows set the unenviable record of 382 races without a win.

Complete Formula One World Championship results

(key) (results in bold indicate pole position)

Year Chassis Engine(s) Tyres Drivers 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 Points WCC
1978 Arrows FA1
Arrows A1
Ford V8 G ARG BRA RSA USW MON BEL ESP SWE FRA GBR GER AUT NED ITA USA CAN 11 10th
Riccardo Patrese 10 Ret 6 6 Ret Ret 2 8 Ret 9 Ret Ret Ret EX 4
Rolf Stommelen 9 9 Ret Ret 14 14 15 DNQ DSQ DNQ DNPQ DNPQ 16 DNQ
1979 Arrows A1
Arrows A2
Ford V8 G ARG BRA RSA USW ESP BEL MON FRA GBR GER AUT NED ITA CAN USA 5 9th
Riccardo Patrese DNS 9 11 Ret 10 5 Ret 14 Ret Ret Ret Ret 13 Ret Ret
Jochen Mass 8 7 12 9 8 Ret 6 15 Ret 6 Ret 6 Ret DNQ DNQ
1980 Arrows A3 Ford V8 G ARG BRA RSA USW BEL MON FRA GBR GER AUT NED ITA CAN USA 11 7th
Riccardo Patrese Ret 6 Ret 2 Ret 8 9 9 9 14 Ret Ret Ret Ret
Jochen Mass Ret 10 6 7 Ret 4 10 13 8 DNQ 11 Ret
Mike Thackwell DNQ
Manfred Winkelhock DNQ
1981 Arrows A3 Ford V8 M

P

USW BRA ARG SMR BEL MON ESP FRA GBR GER AUT NED ITA CAN CPL 10 8th
Riccardo Patrese Ret 3 7 2 Ret Ret Ret 14 10 Ret Ret Ret Ret Ret 11
Siegfried Stohr DNQ Ret 9 DNQ Ret Ret Ret DNQ Ret 12 Ret 7 DNQ
Jacques Villeneuve DNQ DNQ
1982 Arrows A4
Arrows A5
Ford V8 P RSA BRA USW SMR BEL MON DET CAN NED GBR FRA GER AUT SUI ITA CPL 5 10th
Marc Surer WD 7 9 8 5 10 Ret 13 6 Ret 15 11 7
Brian Henton DNQ DNQ Ret
Mauro Baldi DNQ 10 DNQ WD Ret DNQ Ret 8 6 9 Ret Ret 6 DNQ 12 11
1983 Arrows A6 Ford V8 G BRA USW FRA SMR MON BEL DET CAN GBR GER AUT NED ITA EUR RSA 4 10th
Marc Surer 6 5 10 6 Ret 11 11 Ret 17 7 Ret 8 10 Ret 8
Chico Serra 9 Ret 8 7
Alan Jones Ret
Thierry Boutsen Ret 7 7 15 9 13 14 Ret 11 9
1984 Arrows A6
Arrows A7
Ford V8
BMW M12 S4 (t/c)
G BRA RSA BEL SMR FRA MON CAN DET DAL GBR GER AUT NED ITA EUR POR 6 9th
Marc Surer 7 9 8 Ret Ret DNQ Ret Ret Ret 11 Ret 6 Ret Ret Ret Ret
Thierry Boutsen 6 12 Ret 5 11 DNQ Ret Ret Ret Ret Ret 5 Ret 10 9 Ret
1985 Arrows A8 BMW M12 S4 (t/c) G BRA POR SMR MON CAN DET FRA GBR GER AUT NED ITA BEL EUR RSA AUS 14 8th
Gerhard Berger Ret Ret Ret Ret 13 11 Ret 8 7 Ret 9 Ret 7 10 5 6
Thierry Boutsen 11 Ret 2 9 9 7 9 Ret 4 8 Ret 9 10 6 6 Ret
1986 Arrows A8
Arrows A9
BMW M12 S4 (t/c) G BRA ESP SMR MON BEL CAN DET FRA GBR GER HUN AUT ITA POR MEX AUS 1 10th
Marc Surer Ret Ret 9 9 9
Christian Danner Ret 11 Ret Ret Ret 6 8 11 9 Ret
Thierry Boutsen Ret 7 7 8 Ret Ret Ret NC NC 10 Ret Ret 7 10 7 Ret
1987 Arrows A10 Megatron S4 (t/c) G BRA SMR BEL MON DET FRA GBR GER HUN AUT ITA POR ESP MEX JPN AUS 11 6th
Derek Warwick Ret 11 Ret Ret Ret Ret 5 Ret 6 Ret Ret 13 10 Ret 10 Ret
Eddie Cheever Ret Ret 4 Ret 6 Ret Ret Ret 8 Ret Ret 6 8 4 9 Ret
1988 Arrows A10B Megatron S4 (t/c) G BRA SMR MON MEX CAN DET FRA GBR GER HUN BEL ITA POR ESP JPN AUS 23 4th
Derek Warwick 4 9 4 5 7 Ret Ret 6 7 Ret 5 4 4 Ret Ret Ret
Eddie Cheever 8 7 Ret 6 Ret Ret 11 7 10 Ret 6 3 Ret Ret Ret Ret
1989 Arrows A11 Ford V8 G BRA SMR MON MEX USA CAN FRA GBR GER HUN BEL ITA POR ESP JPN AUS 13 7th
Derek Warwick 5 5 Ret Ret Ret Ret 9 6 10 6 Ret Ret 9 6 Ret
Martin Donnelly 12
Eddie Cheever Ret 9 7 7 3 Ret 7 DNQ 12 5 Ret DNQ Ret Ret 8 Ret
1990 Arrows A11
Arrows A11B
Ford V8 G USA BRA SMR MON CAN MEX FRA GBR GER HUN BEL ITA POR ESP JPN AUS 2 9th
Michele Alboreto 10 Ret DNQ DNQ Ret 17 10 Ret Ret 12 13 12 9 10 Ret DNQ
Bernd Schneider 12 DNQ
Alex Caffi Ret DNQ 5 8 DNQ Ret 7 9 9 10 9 13 9 DNQ
1991 Arrows A11C
Footwork FA12
Footwork FA12C
Porsche V12
Ford V8
G USA BRA SMR MON CAN MEX FRA GBR GER HUN BEL ITA POR ESP JPN AUS 0 NC
Alex Caffi DNQ DNQ DNQ DNQ DNPQ DNPQ DNQ DNPQ DNPQ DNPQ 10 15
Stefan Johansson Ret DNQ DNQ DNQ
Michele Alboreto Ret DNQ DNQ Ret Ret Ret Ret Ret DNQ DNQ DNPQ DNQ 15 Ret DNQ 13
1992 Footwork FA13 Mugen Honda V10 G RSA MEX BRA ESP SMR MON CAN FRA GBR GER HUN BEL ITA POR JPN AUS 6 7th
Michele Alboreto 10 13 6 5 5 7 7 7 7 9 7 Ret 7 6 15 Ret
Aguri Suzuki 8 DNQ Ret 7 10 11 DNQ Ret 12 Ret Ret 9 Ret 10 8 8
1993 Footwork FA13B
Footwork FA14
Mugen Honda V10 G RSA BRA EUR SMR ESP MON CAN FRA GBR GER HUN BEL ITA POR JPN AUS 4 9th
Derek Warwick 7 9 Ret Ret 13 Ret 16 13 6 17 4 Ret Ret 15 14 10
Aguri Suzuki Ret Ret Ret 9 10 Ret 13 12 Ret Ret Ret Ret Ret Ret Ret 7
1994 Footwork FA15 Ford V8 G BRA PAC SMR MON ESP CAN FRA GBR GER HUN BEL ITA POR EUR JPN AUS 9 9th
Christian Fittipaldi Ret 4 13 Ret Ret DSQ 8 9 4 14 Ret Ret 8 17 8 8
Gianni Morbidelli Ret Ret Ret Ret Ret Ret Ret Ret 5 Ret 6 Ret 9 11 Ret Ret
1995 Footwork FA16 Hart V8 G BRA ARG SMR ESP MON CAN FRA GBR GER HUN BEL ITA POR EUR PAC JPN AUS 5 8th
Gianni Morbidelli Ret Ret 13 11 9 6 14 Ret Ret 3
Max Papis Ret Ret Ret Ret 7 Ret 12
Taki Inoue Ret Ret Ret Ret Ret 9 Ret Ret Ret Ret 12 8 15 Ret Ret 12 Ret
1996 Footwork FA17 Hart V8 G AUS BRA ARG EUR SMR MON ESP CAN FRA GBR GER HUN BEL ITA POR JPN 1 9th
Ricardo Rosset 9 Ret Ret 11 Ret Ret Ret Ret 11 Ret 11 8 9 Ret 14 13
Jos Verstappen Ret Ret 6 Ret Ret Ret Ret Ret Ret 10 Ret Ret Ret 8 Ret 11
1997 Arrows A18 Yamaha V10 B AUS BRA ARG SMR MON ESP CAN FRA GBR GER HUN BEL ITA AUT LUX JPN EUR 9 8th
Damon Hill DNS 17 Ret Ret Ret Ret 9 12 6 8 2 13 Ret 7 8 12 Ret
Pedro Diniz 10 Ret Ret Ret Ret Ret 8 Ret Ret Ret Ret 7 Ret 13 5 13 Ret
1998 Arrows A19 Arrows V10 B AUS BRA ARG SMR ESP MON CAN FRA GBR AUT GER HUN BEL ITA LUX JPN 6 7th
Pedro Diniz Ret Ret Ret Ret Ret 6 9 14 Ret Ret Ret 11 5 Ret Ret Ret
Mika Salo Ret Ret Ret 9 Ret 4 Ret 13 Ret Ret 14 Ret DNS Ret 14 Ret
1999 Arrows A20 Arrows V10 B AUS BRA SMR MON ESP CAN FRA GBR AUT GER HUN BEL ITA EUR MAL JPN 1 9th
Pedro de la Rosa 6 Ret Ret Ret 11 Ret 12 Ret Ret Ret 15 Ret Ret Ret Ret 13
Toranosuke Takagi 7 8 Ret Ret 12 Ret 11 16 Ret Ret Ret Ret Ret Ret Ret Ret
2000 Arrows A21 Supertec V10 B AUS BRA SMR GBR ESP EUR MON CAN FRA AUT GER HUN BEL ITA USA JPN MAL 7 7th
Pedro de la Rosa Ret 8 Ret Ret Ret 6 DNS Ret Ret Ret 6 16 16 Ret Ret 12 Ret
Jos Verstappen Ret 7 14 Ret Ret Ret Ret 5 Ret Ret Ret 13 15 4 Ret Ret 10
2001 Arrows A22 Asiatech V10 B AUS MAL BRA SMR ESP AUT MON CAN EUR FRA GBR GER HUN BEL ITA USA JPN 1 10th
Jos Verstappen 10 7 Ret Ret 12 6 8 10 Ret 13 10 9 12 10 Ret Ret 15
Enrique Bernoldi Ret Ret Ret 10 Ret Ret 9 Ret Ret Ret 14 8 Ret 12 Ret 13 14
2002 Arrows A23 Cosworth V10 B AUS MAL BRA SMR ESP AUT MON CAN EUR GBR FRA GER HUN BEL ITA USA JPN 2 11th
Heinz-Harald Frentzen DSQ 11 Ret Ret 6 11 6 13 13 Ret DNQ Ret
Enrique Bernoldi DSQ Ret Ret Ret Ret Ret 12 Ret 10 Ret DNQ Ret

Further use of Arrows chassis

The chassis and intellectual property rights for the chassis were later bought by Paul Stoddart, the then-head of the Minardi team as a potential replacement for his own team's chassis. The new Super Aguri F1 team bought the 2002 cars and ran them (with some modifications) as the SA05 during the first races of the 2006 season. One of these cars was said to have been on display at Melbourne airport before being acquired by Super Aguri. After being returned to the factory to be updated to comply with the 2006 regulations, the car was taken back to Melbourne for the Australian Grand Prix. An update still based on the same chassis was designated the SA06 and made its début at the 2006 German Grand Prix. The SA05 and SA06 did not score a single point in the 2006 season.

External links

References


Bible wiki

Up to date as of January 23, 2010

From BibleWiki

At first made of reeds, and then of wood tipped with iron. Arrows are sometimes figuratively put for lightning (Deut 32:23, Deut 32:42; Ps 713; Ps 1814; Ps 1446; Zech 9:14). They were used in war as well as in the chase (Gen 27:3; Gen 49:23). They were also used in divination (Ezek 21:21).

The word is frequently employed as a symbol of calamity or disease inflicted by God (Job 6:4; Job 34:6; Ps 382; Deut 32:23. Comp. Ezek 5:16), or of some sudden danger (Ps 915), or bitter words (Ps 643), or false testimony (Prov 25:18).

This entry includes text from Easton's Bible Dictionary, 1897.

what mentions this? (please help by turning references to this page into wiki links)

Facts about ArrowsRDF feed

Advertisements






Got something to say? Make a comment.
Your name
Your email address
Message