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Artaphrenes, was the brother of Darius Hystaspis, and satrap of Sardis.

It was he who received the embassy from Athens sent probably by Cleisthenes in 497 BC, and subsequently warned the Athenians to receive back the tyrant Hippias.

Subsequently he took an important part in suppressing the Ionian revolt, and after the war compelled the cities to make agreements by which all differences were to be settled by reference. He measured out their territories in parasangs and assessed their tributes accordingly (Herodotus vi. 42). In 492 he was superseded in his satrapy by Mardonius (Herodotus V. 25, 30-32, 35, &c.; Diod. Sic. x. 25).

His son, of the same name, was appointed, together with Datis, to take command of the expedition sent by Darius to punish Athens and Eretria for their share in the Ionian revolt. Ten years later, he was in command of the Lydians and Mysians (Herod. vi. 94, 119; Vu. 4, sch. Persae, 21).

Aeschylus in his list of Persian kings (Persae, 775 ff.), which is quite unhistorical, mentions two kings with the name Artarenes, who may have been developed out of these two Persian commanders. [1]

Etymology

Old Persian: "Arta+Farnah"(endowed with the Glory of Righteousness [2]) ; Arta's equivalent in Middle Persian becomes Arda/Ard/Ord that could be seen in names such as Ardabil (Arta vila or Arta city) Ardavan( Protected or protecting Arta) and Ordibehesht (the best Arta) Arta is a common prefix of Achaemenid names meaning correctness, rightness, and ultimate truth not so similar to truth vs lie but truth in the way of the way things are and are designed by God. Farnah is the old Persian cognate of Avestan Xvarənah meaning splendor, glory. Farnah is an important concept to pre islamic Iranians as it signifies a mystic, divine force that is carried with some individuals of greatness.So ArtaFarnah means something like "splendid truth".

References

  1. ^ *This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica, Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain.
  2. ^ Lecoq, P.. "ARTAPHRENĒS". Encyclopedia Iranica. http://www.iranica.com/newsite/index.isc?Article=http://www.iranica.com/newsite/articles/unicode/v2f6/v2f6a010.html. Retrieved 2008-05-25.  
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