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The Articles of Confederation
Page I of the Articles of Confederation
Page I of the Articles of Confederation
Created November 15, 1777
Ratified January 1781
Location National Archives
Authors Continental Congress
Signers Continental Congress
Purpose Constitution for the United States, later replaced by the creation of the current United States Constitution in 1787
.The Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union, customarily referred to as the Articles of Confederation, was the first constitution of the United States of America and legally established the union of the states.^ Articles of Confederation and perpetual Union [ Articles of Confederation and perpetual Union ] [ Home ] [ Federal Constitutions ] [ State Constitutions ].

^ Before the Constitution....there was The Articles of Confederation-- in effect, the first constitution of the United States.

^ Article 1 of the Articles of Confederation confirms the name of the new nation as "The United States of America."
  • Articles of Confederation - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Original source]

.The Second Continental Congress appointed a committee to draft the Articles in June 1776 and sent the draft to the states for ratification in November 1777. The ratification process was completed in March 1781, legally federating the sovereign and independent states, already cooperating through the Continental Congress, into a new federation styled the "United States of America". Under the Articles the states retained sovereignty over all governmental functions not specifically relinquished to the central government.^ The Declaration of Independence is a document adopted by the Second Continental Congress on July 4, 1776.
  • SSC - TEKS and TAKS - TEKS Glossary - Grade 8 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.tea.state.tx.us [Source type: Original source]

^ However, ratification of the Articles of Confederation by all thirteen states did not occur until March 1, 1781.
  • Articles of Confederation; US Articles of Confederation Copy 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC thomaslegion.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Finally, in November 1777, Congress agreed on an amended version of the Articles.
  • CRF-USA - BRIA 21 4 b The Articles of Confederation 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.crf-usa.org [Source type: Academic]

.On June 12, 1776, a day after appointing a committee to prepare a draft declaration of independence, the Second Continental Congress resolved to appoint a committee of thirteen to prepare a draft of a constitution for a confederate type of union.^ On July 12, 1776, Dickinson’s committee presented its draft of a federal constitution to Congress.
  • CRF-USA - BRIA 21 4 b The Articles of Confederation 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.crf-usa.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Their unwritten Constitution can be found in the Declaration of Independence.
  • Declaration of Independence : EDRIVERA.COM 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.edrivera.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Declaration of Independence is a document adopted by the Second Continental Congress on July 4, 1776.
  • SSC - TEKS and TAKS - TEKS Glossary - Grade 8 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.tea.state.tx.us [Source type: Original source]

.The last draft of the Articles was written in the summer of 1777 and the Second Continental Congress approved them for ratification by the States on November 15, 1777, in York, Pennsylvania after a year of debate.^ Congress with ratification by all the state legislatures.

^ Congress approved the Articles of Confederation in 1777, and a copy was sent to each of the thirteen states for ratification.
  • Articles of Confederation, US Constitution, Constitution Day Materials, Pocket Constitution Book, Bill of Rights 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.constitutionfacts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Articles were written in 1776 and 1777 and adopted by the Second Continental Congress on November 15, 1777 after a year of debate.
  • Articles of Confederation - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Original source]

.In practice the final draft of the Articles served as the de facto system of government used by the Congress ("the United States in Congress assembled") until it became de jure by final ratification on March 1, 1781; at which point Congress became the Congress of the Confederation.^ Congress with ratification by all the state legislatures.

^ Congress approved the Articles of Confederation in 1777, and a copy was sent to each of the thirteen states for ratification.
  • Articles of Confederation, US Constitution, Constitution Day Materials, Pocket Constitution Book, Bill of Rights 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.constitutionfacts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ No member of the United States in Congress assembled under the Articles of Confederation has ever taken any oath of Office.
  • Articles of Confederation : EDRIVERA.COM 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.edrivera.com [Source type: Original source]

.The Articles set the rules for operations of the "United States" confederation.^ The Articles set the rules for operations of the United States government.
  • Articles of Confederation - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Article 6 of the Articles of Confederation places limits on the states.
  • Articles of Confederation - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The United States are sometimes called the confederation.
  • The Constitution did not Abolish the System of Government Established by the Articles of Confederation and Consolidate the States into One Nation By Robert Greenslade - Price of Liberty 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.thepriceofliberty.org [Source type: Original source]

.The confederation was capable of making war, negotiating diplomatic agreements, and resolving issues regarding the western territories.^ The confederation was capable of making war, negotiating diplomatic agreements, and resolving issues regarding the western territories.

^ The new nation was legally capable of making war, negotiating diplomatic agreements, and resolving issues regarding the western territories; it could print money and borrow inside and outside the US. .
  • Articles of Confederation - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Just as no issue can be resolved without an authority, there has never been a discussion, dialogue or agreement that has not been carried out without the free will of all the parties who are in conflict.
  • Peoples Confederation of Kurdistan PKK: Press Release 12.11.2009 - Anarkismo 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.anarkismo.net [Source type: Original source]

An important element of the Articles was that Article XIII stipulated that "their provisions shall be inviolably observed by every state" and "the Union shall be perpetual".
.The Articles were created by the chosen representatives of the states in the Second Continental Congress out of a perceived need to have "a plan of confederacy for securing the freedom, sovereignty, and independence of the United States."^ The Second Continental Congress approved the Articles for distribution to the states on November 15, 1777.

^ The Continental Congress had been careful to give the states as much independence as possible.
  • The Articles of Confederation - 1777 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.barefootsworld.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The Articles were created by the chosen representatives of the states in the Second Continental Congress out of a perceived need to have "a plan of confederacy for securing the freedom, sovereignty, and independence of the United States."

.Although serving a crucial role in the victory in the American Revolutionary War, a group of reformers,[1] known as "federalists", felt that the Articles lacked the necessary provisions for a sufficiently effective government.^ Although serving a crucial role in the victory in the American Revolutionary War , a group of reformers, [1] known as " federalists ", felt that the Articles lacked the necessary provisions for a sufficiently effective government.

^ The term "founding fathers" applies to those individuals who played a major role in declaring U.S. independence, fighting the Revolutionary War, or writing and adopting the U.S. Constitution.
  • SSC - TEKS and TAKS - TEKS Glossary - Grade 8 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.tea.state.tx.us [Source type: Original source]

^ All the land in Kentucky and Tennessee had already been granted to revolutionary war veterans, settlers, and land companies so the national government received no land but only political jurisdiction.
  • Articles of Confederation - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Original source]

.Fundamentally, a federation was sought to replace the confederation.^ Fundamentally, a federation was sought to replace the confederation .

^ For 220 years the federal government has hidden the fact that the Articles of Confederation were not replaced by the Constitution of the United States.
  • Declaration of Independence : EDRIVERA.COM 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.edrivera.com [Source type: Original source]

The key criticism by those who favored a more powerful central state (i.e. the federalists)[citation needed] was that the government (i.e. the Congress of the Confederation) lacked taxing authority; it had to request funds from the states. .Also various federalist factions wanted[citation needed] a government that could impose uniform tariffs, give land grants, and assume responsibility for unpaid state war debts ("assumption".) Those opposed to the Constitution, known as "anti-federalists," considered these limits on government power to be necessary and good.^ Those opposed to the Constitution because they feared the power of the national government in the new federal system were called Anti-Federalists.
  • SSC - TEKS and TAKS - TEKS Glossary - Grade 8 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.tea.state.tx.us [Source type: Original source]

^ Those seeking greater power for states were called Anti-Federalists.
  • SSC - TEKS and TAKS - TEKS Glossary - Grade 8 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.tea.state.tx.us [Source type: Original source]

^ A constitution is a document that outlines the powers of government.
  • SSC - TEKS and TAKS - TEKS Glossary - Grade 8 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.tea.state.tx.us [Source type: Original source]

[2] .Another criticism of the Articles was that they did not strike the right balance between large and small states in the legislative decision making process.^ Another criticism of the Articles was that they did not strike the right balance between large and small states in the legislative decision making process.

^ The state legislatures did not make the decision.

^ A primary reason they wanted it was the desire to escape the economic chaos spawned by debtor-friendly state laws during the period of the Articles of Confederation.
  • Chrysler and the Rule of Law - WSJ.com 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC online.wsj.com [Source type: News]

.Due to its one-state, one-vote plank, the larger states were expected to contribute more but had only one vote.^ Due to its one-state, one-vote plank, the larger states were expected to contribute more but had only one vote.

^ Each state had only one vote (but was required to have at least two representatives in Congress and could have as many as seven).
  • CRF-USA - BRIA 21 4 b The Articles of Confederation 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.crf-usa.org [Source type: Academic]

^ As the United States is only the territory owned by and ceded to the United States of America, no one in the federal government will challenge the voter registration of any person obviously born in the geographic United States of America.
  • Articles of Confederation : EDRIVERA.COM 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.edrivera.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Declaration of Independence : EDRIVERA.COM 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.edrivera.com [Source type: Original source]

The Articles were replaced by the United States Constitution on June 21, 1788.

Contents

Background

.The political push for the colonies to increase cooperation began in the French and Indian War in the mid 1750s.^ The political push for the colonies to increase cooperation began in the French and Indian Wars in the mid 1750s.

^ The French and Indian War was a small component of the Seven Years War, which proved to be a very costly adventure.

^ During the global conflict of the Seven Years War - generally known as the French and Indian War - he was stationed in the American theater.
  • The Articles of Confederation - 1777 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.barefootsworld.net [Source type: Original source]

.The American Revolution in response to lack of elected representation in the British government, followed by the beginning of the American Revolutionary War in 1775 and a proclamation by the monarchy that Congress were traitors in rebellion, induced the various states to cooperate in declaring their independence from the British Empire.^ The opening of the American Revolutionary War in 1775 induced the various states to cooperate in seceding from the British Empire .

^ This first national "constitution" for the United States was not particularly innovative, and mostly put into written form how the Congress had operated since 1775.
  • Articles of Confederation [ushistory.org] 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.ushistory.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Also various federalist factions wanted a government that could impose uniform tariffs, give land grants, and assume responsibility for unpaid state war debts ("assumption".

.Starting 1775, the Second Continental Congress acted as the provisional national government that ran the war.^ The Second Continental Congress starting 1775 acted as the confederation organ that ran the war.

^ This first national "constitution" for the United States was not particularly innovative, and mostly put into written form how the Congress had operated since 1775.
  • Articles of Confederation [ushistory.org] 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.ushistory.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The U.S. Constitution was in fact the second national constitution; the Articles of Confederation, enacted in 1781 as the first national constitution, provided for a weak central government that was little more [...
  • Articles of Confederation : Milestone Documents Blog 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC blog.milestonedocuments.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Congress presented the Articles for enactment by the states in 1777, while prosecuting the American Revolutionary War.^ Congress presented the Articles for enactment by the states in 1777, while prosecuting the American Revolutionary war against the Kingdom of Great Britain .

^ The Articles supported the Congressional direction of the Continental Army , and allowed the 13 states to present a unified front when dealing with the European powers.

^ George Washington commander of the combined militias of the colonies; Washington continued to serve as commander after the Articles of Confederation took effect, until the Revolutionary War had ended."
  • FARK.com: (3408884) Today, let us not forget the first president of the United States, John Hanson 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.fark.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Ratification

Congress began to move for ratification of the Articles of Confederation in 1777:
."Permit us, then, earnestly to recommend these articles to the immediate and dispassionate attention of the legislatures of the respective states.^ "Permit us, then, earnestly to recommend these articles to the immediate and dispassionate attention of the legislatures of the respective states.

^ And Whereas it hath pleased the Great Governor of the World to incline the hearts of the legislatures we respectively represent in Congress, to approve of, and to authorize us to ratify the said Articles of Confederation and perpetual Union.

^ Unfunded mandates on the States were politically impossible when the US Senators were accountable to their State legislatures.
  • Amendment #28 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.nolanchart.com [Source type: Original source]

.Let them be candidly reviewed under a sense of the difficulty of combining in one general system the various sentiments and interests of a continent divided into so many sovereign and independent communities, under a conviction of the absolute necessity of uniting all our councils and all our strength, to maintain and defend our common liberties...^ Councils of the Indians, for the general Benefit of all the United Colonies.
  • http://gunshowonthenet.com/2ALEGAL/Origins/ContCongress08201776.html 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC gunshowonthenet.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Let them be candidly reviewed under a sense of the difficulty of combining in one general system the various sentiments and interests of a continent divided into so many sovereign and independent communities, under a conviction of the absolute necessity of uniting all our councils and all our strength, to maintain and defend our common liberties...

^ Henry Knox wrote Washington of the Shaysites that "their creed is that the property of the United States" having been freed from British exactions "by the joint exertions of all , ought to be the common property of all ."
  • Rethinking the Articles of Confederation - H.A. Scott Trask - Mises Institute 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC mises.org [Source type: Original source]

[3]
.The document could not become officially effective until it was ratified by all thirteen colonies.^ The document could not become officially effective until it was ratified by all of the thirteen colonies.

^ The result has been voluntary allegiance to a document which could not have been ratified under any other circumstances, and whose consensus for centuries has not been equaled by any other large group of sovereign states.

^ The Articles of Confederation, which were anyway not fully ratified until 1781 , established a military alliance of thirteen otherwise fairly autonomous states.

.The first state to ratify was Virginia on December 16, 1777.[4] The process dragged on for several years, stalled by the refusal of some states to rescind their claims to land in the West.^ The first state to ratify was Virginia on December 16, 1777.

^ The process dragged on for several years, stalled by the refusal of some states to rescind their claims to land in the West.

^ Virginia became the first State of the United States of America, when on December 16, 1777 it ratified the Articles of Confederation.
  • Articles of Confederation : EDRIVERA.COM 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.edrivera.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Declaration of Independence : EDRIVERA.COM 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.edrivera.com [Source type: Original source]

.Maryland was the last holdout; it refused to go along until Virginia and New York agreed to cede their claims in the Ohio River Valley.^ When New York and Virginia finally agreed to cede their claims to western territory, the three holdout states agreed to sign.
  • CRF-USA - BRIA 21 4 b The Articles of Confederation 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.crf-usa.org [Source type: Academic]

^ New York and Virginia ceded their claims in 1781 and 1783.
  • Articles of Confederation - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Maryland was the last holdout; it refused to go along until Virginia and New York agreed to cede their claims in the Ohio River valley.

A little over three years passed before Maryland's ratification on March 1, 1781.

Article summaries

.Even though the Articles of Confederation and the Constitution were established by many of the same people, the two documents are very different.^ Even though the Articles of Confederation and the Constitution were established by many of the same people, the two documents were very different.

^ W ith these facts in mind, Henry Steele Commager's remarks, prefacing the Articles of Confederation in Documents of American History, take on significant meaning.
  • Chp 6: The White Roots Reach Out, The Iroquois Confederacy urges the colonists to unite, "Exemplar Of Liberty" 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.ratical.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Even after this experience, the Southern Confederate States later adopted the same system of a central currency without a central government and really did lose their war.

.The original five-paged Articles contained thirteen articles, a conclusion, and a signatory section.^ The original five-paged Articles contained thirteen articles, a conclusion, and a signatory section.

^ The following list contains short summaries of each of the thirteen articles.

^ Enumerated and Implied Powers Section 8 of Article I of the Constitution contains the enumerated powers of Congress, and Section 9 contains some prohibitions of Congressional power.

.The following list contains short summaries of each of the thirteen articles.^ The following list contains short summaries of each of the thirteen articles.

^ The original five-paged Articles contained thirteen articles, a conclusion, and a signatory section.

^ The following information includes short biographies of each of the signers of the Articles of Confederation.
  • Articles of Confederation, US Constitution, Constitution Day Materials, Pocket Constitution Book, Bill of Rights 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.constitutionfacts.com [Source type: Original source]

  1. Establishes the name of the confederation as "The United States of America."
  2. Asserts the equality of the separate states with the confederation government, i.e. "Each state retains its sovereignty, freedom, and independence, and every power, jurisdiction, and right, which is not by this Confederation expressly delegated."
  3. Establishes the United States as a new nation, a sovereign union of sovereign states, united ". . . for their common defense, the security of their liberties, and their mutual and general welfare, binding themselves to assist each other, against all force offered to, or attacks made upon them . . . ," while declaring that the union is "perpetual," and can only be altered by approval of Congress with ratification by all the state legislatures.
  4. Establishes freedom of movement–anyone can pass freely between states, excluding "paupers, vagabonds, and fugitives from justice." All people are entitled to the rights established by the state into which he travels. .If a crime is committed in one state and the perpetrator flees to another state, he will be extradited to and tried in the state in which the crime was committed.
  5. Allocates one vote in the Congress of the Confederation (United States in Congress Assembled) to each state, which was entitled to a delegation of between two and seven members.^ Each Affiliate Member shall be entitled to a minimum of one (1) vote.
    • IWSF Articles of Association 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.iwsf.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ No member of the United States in Congress assembled under the Articles of Confederation has ever taken any oath of Office.
    • Articles of Confederation : EDRIVERA.COM 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.edrivera.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ If a crime is committed in one state and the perpetrator flees to another state, he will be extradited to and tried in the state in which the crime was committed.

    .Members of Congress were appointed by state legislatures; individuals could not serve more than three out of any six years.
  6. Only the central government is allowed to conduct foreign relations and to declare war.^ No one could be a member of Congress for more than three out of every six years.
    • CRF-USA - BRIA 21 4 b The Articles of Confederation 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.crf-usa.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ He left Congress in 1779 and served a few years in the Virginia state legislature.
    • Articles of Confederation, US Constitution, Constitution Day Materials, Pocket Constitution Book, Bill of Rights 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.constitutionfacts.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ No one could be president of Congress for more than one year out of any three.
    • CRF-USA - BRIA 21 4 b The Articles of Confederation 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.crf-usa.org [Source type: Academic]

    No states may have navies or standing armies, or engage in war, without permission of Congress (although the state militias are encouraged).
  7. When an army is raised for common defense, colonels and military ranks below colonel will be named by the state legislatures.
  8. Expenditures by the United States will be paid by funds raised by state legislatures, and apportioned to the states based on the real property values of each.
  9. Defines the powers of the central government: to declare war, to set weights and measures (including coins), and for Congress to serve as a final court for disputes between states.
  10. Defines a Committee of the States to be a government when Congress is not in session.
  11. Requires nine states to approve the admission of a new state into the confederacy; pre-approves Canada, if it applies for membership.
  12. Reaffirms that the Confederation accepts war debt incurred by Congress before the Articles.
  13. Declares that the Articles are perpetual, and can only be altered by approval of Congress with ratification by all the state legislatures.
.Still at war with Great Britain, the Founding Fathers were divided between those seeking a powerful, centralized national government, and those seeking a loosely-structured one.^ Because of their experience with Great Britain, the 13 states feared a powerful central government.
  • The Articles of Confederation - 1777 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.barefootsworld.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The U.S. Constitution was in fact the second national constitution; the Articles of Confederation, enacted in 1781 as the first national constitution, provided for a weak central government that was little more [...
  • Articles of Confederation : Milestone Documents Blog 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC blog.milestonedocuments.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The central government was subordinate to the member states, and no individual was likely to assume the power and prestige that come from serving long terms in office.
  • CRF-USA - BRIA 21 4 b The Articles of Confederation 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.crf-usa.org [Source type: Academic]

.Jealously guarding their new independence, members of the Continental Congress arrived at a compromise solution dividing sovereignty between the states and the federal government, with a unicameral legislature that protected the liberty of the individual states.^ He was a member of the Continental Congress from 1777-1778.
  • Articles of Confederation, US Constitution, Constitution Day Materials, Pocket Constitution Book, Bill of Rights 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.constitutionfacts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The "Great Compromise" related to representation of states in the federal government.
  • SSC - TEKS and TAKS - TEKS Glossary - Grade 8 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.tea.state.tx.us [Source type: Original source]

^ Federalism is the distribution of power between a federal government and the states within a union.
  • SSC - TEKS and TAKS - TEKS Glossary - Grade 8 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.tea.state.tx.us [Source type: Original source]

.While calling on Congress to regulate military and monetary affairs, for example, the Articles of Confederation provided no mechanism to force the states to comply with requests for troops or revenue.^ Congress of the Confederation ) lacked taxing authority; it had to request funds from the states.

^ While calling on Congress to regulate military and monetary affairs, for example, the Articles of Confederation provided no mechanism to force the states to comply with requests for troops or revenue.

^ While Congress could call on states to contribute specific resources and numbers of men for the army, it was not allowed to force states to obey the central government's request for aid.
  • Articles of Confederation [ushistory.org] 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.ushistory.org [Source type: Academic]

.At times, this left the military in a precarious position, as George Washington wrote in a 1781 letter to the governor of Massachusetts, John Hancock.^ After he was chosen President of the Continental Congress in 1775, Hancock became known beyond the borders of Massachusetts, and, having served as colonel of the Massachusetts Governor's Guards he hoped to be named commander of the American forces - until John Adams nominated George Washington.
  • The Articles of Confederation - 1777 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.barefootsworld.net [Source type: Original source]

^ By this time, John Hancock had succeeded him to its chair.
  • The Articles of Confederation - 1777 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.barefootsworld.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Morris was a delegate to the Constitutional Convention, and was later offered the position of Secretary of the Treasury under the administration of George Washington.
  • Articles of Confederation, US Constitution, Constitution Day Materials, Pocket Constitution Book, Bill of Rights 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.constitutionfacts.com [Source type: Original source]

The end of the war

.The Treaty of Paris (1783), which ended hostilities with Great Britain, languished in Congress for months because state representatives failed to attend sessions of the national legislature.^ The war with Great Britain had ended in 1783, and an economic depression followed.
  • CRF-USA - BRIA 21 4 b The Articles of Confederation 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.crf-usa.org [Source type: Academic]

^ In 1784, as President, he signed the treaty with Great Britain which ended the war.
  • The Articles of Confederation - 1777 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.barefootsworld.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The Secretary was also charged with transmitting Congress' instructions to U.S. agents abroad and was authorized to attend sessions of Congress.
  • Articles of Confederation, 1777-1781 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Yet Congress had no power to enforce attendance.^ As a consequence the prescribed duties of any law passed by Congress in pursuance of powers derived from the Articles of Confederation could not be enforced."

^ In reality, however, the Articles gave the Congress no power to enforce its requests to the states for money or troops, and by the end of 1786 governmental effectiveness had broken down.
  • The Articles of Confederation - 1777 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.barefootsworld.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The Congress of the United States of America had no power under the Articles of Confederation to make laws; it still can’t.
  • Declaration of Independence : EDRIVERA.COM 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.edrivera.com [Source type: Original source]

Writing to George Clinton in September 1783, George Washington complained:
.Congress have come to no determination yet respecting the Peace Establishment nor am I able to say when they will.^ Besides if Indians say that they love Paksitan and for the sake of this love they want Pakistan to make a confederation with India, then they are bound to hear, "Thanks, but No Thanks."
  • Confederation of the subcontinent « Discuss 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC pkpolitics.com [Source type: Original source]

^ "Between 1783 and 1789, the Continental Congress year by year demanded of the people sums of money for a peace establishment far beyond what was necessary, and .
  • Rethinking the Articles of Confederation - H.A. Scott Trask - Mises Institute 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC mises.org [Source type: Original source]

^ But, in the autumn of the next year 1782 Congress receiving assurances that a general peace would be concluded in the winter and spring, they renewed my appointment on the 13th.
  • Articles of Confederation by Thomas Jefferson 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.juntosociety.com [Source type: Original source]

I have lately had a conference with a Committee on this subject, and have reiterated my former opinions, but it appears to me that there is not a sufficient representation to discuss Great National points.
[5]

Function

Military

.The Articles supported the Congressional direction of the Continental Army, and allowed the 13 states to present a unified front when dealing with the European powers.^ The Article VI oath is intended to bind the Congress and President to “to support this Constitution.” Neither the Congress nor the President of the United States is bound to a written Constitution, which is why neither Congress nor the President of the United States has taken and been bound to a written and subscribed oath that supports this Constitution.
  • Articles of Confederation : EDRIVERA.COM 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.edrivera.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Declaration of Independence : EDRIVERA.COM 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.edrivera.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Articles were in force from March 1, 1781, to March 4, 1789, when the present Constitution of the United States went into effect.
  • The Articles of Confederation - 1777 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.barefootsworld.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Because of their experience with Great Britain, the 13 states feared a powerful central government.
  • The Articles of Confederation - 1777 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.barefootsworld.net [Source type: Original source]

As a tool to build a centralized war-making government, they were largely a failure: Historian Bruce Chadwick wrote:
.
George Washington had been one of the very first proponents of a strong federal government.^ When George Washington takes the oral oath of Office to one Presidency, he can’t very well, also, take the written oath requiring subscription of the Office of President, which would adopt “this Constitution for the United States of America.” .
  • Declaration of Independence : EDRIVERA.COM 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.edrivera.com [Source type: Original source]

^ As the United States is only the territory owned by and ceded to the United States of America, no one in the federal government will challenge the voter registration of any person obviously born in the geographic United States of America.
  • Articles of Confederation : EDRIVERA.COM 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.edrivera.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Declaration of Independence : EDRIVERA.COM 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.edrivera.com [Source type: Original source]

^ George Washington as Father of his country deserves the blame for all the current problems with federal government including the omission of jury nullification.
  • Articles of Confederation : EDRIVERA.COM 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.edrivera.com [Source type: Original source]

.The army had nearly disbanded on several occasions during the winters of the war because of the weaknesses of the Continental Congress.^ The Supreme Court ruled in favor of the income tax several times before and during the Civil War.
  • Amendment #28 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.nolanchart.com [Source type: Original source]

^ During the final years of his life, Gorham was concerned with several speculative land deals which nearly cost him his entire fortune.
  • The Articles of Confederation - 1777 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.barefootsworld.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The Articles were written during the early part of the American Revolution by a committee of the Second Continental Congress of the now independent thirteen sovereign states.
  • The Articles of Confederation - 1777 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.barefootsworld.net [Source type: Original source]

... .The delegates could not draft soldiers and had to send requests for regular troops and militia to the states.^ Could only ask states to send soldiers.
  • CRF-USA - BRIA 21 4 b The Articles of Confederation 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.crf-usa.org [Source type: Academic]

^ After 5,000 adult males moved to the area, they could elect an assembly and send a nonvoting delegate to Congress, although the governor retained veto power over the assembly.
  • SSC - TEKS and TAKS - TEKS Glossary - Grade 8 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.tea.state.tx.us [Source type: Original source]

^ When 60,000 persons moved into one of the political subdivisions, that area could draft a constitution, submit it to Congress for approval, and become a state.
  • SSC - TEKS and TAKS - TEKS Glossary - Grade 8 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.tea.state.tx.us [Source type: Original source]

.Congress had the right to order the production and purchase of provisions for the soldiers, but could not force anyone to supply them, and the army nearly starved in several winters of war.^ While Congress could call on states to contribute specific resources and numbers of men for the army, it was not allowed to force states to obey the central government's request for aid.
  • Articles of Confederation [ushistory.org] 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.ushistory.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Charles II had written in the Charter that the Penns could have the land if they could maintain order there, retaining the legal right for the King to recover the land if they didn't.

^ The certificates were noninterest bearing notes issued for supplies purchased or impressed, and to pay soldiers and officers.
  • Rethinking the Articles of Confederation - H.A. Scott Trask - Mises Institute 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC mises.org [Source type: Original source]

[6]
.The Continental Congress, before the Articles were approved, had promised soldiers a pension of half pay for life.^ Congress approved the Articles of Confederation in 1777, and a copy was sent to each of the thirteen states for ratification.
  • Articles of Confederation, US Constitution, Constitution Day Materials, Pocket Constitution Book, Bill of Rights 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.constitutionfacts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The General, by this account, was known to be humiliated by the way the Continental Congress mistreated his troops with worthless pay.

^ The Articles were written during the early part of the American Revolution by a committee of the Second Continental Congress of the now independent thirteen sovereign states.
  • The Articles of Confederation - 1777 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.barefootsworld.net [Source type: Original source]

.However Congress had no power to compel the states to fund this obligation, and as the war wound down after the victory at Yorktown the sense of urgency to support the military was no longer a factor.^ The central government was subordinate to the member states, and no individual was likely to assume the power and prestige that come from serving long terms in office.
  • CRF-USA - BRIA 21 4 b The Articles of Confederation 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.crf-usa.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The American victory over the British and the defeat of the British did not confer British power and authority to the thirteen American States.
  • Articles of Confederation : EDRIVERA.COM 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.edrivera.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Declaration of Independence : EDRIVERA.COM 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.edrivera.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The States ratified “this Constitution,” the written Constitution of September 17, 1787, however, that ratification does not bind the Congress of the United States.
  • Articles of Confederation : EDRIVERA.COM 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.edrivera.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Declaration of Independence : EDRIVERA.COM 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.edrivera.com [Source type: Original source]

.No progress was made in Congress during the winter of 1783-1784. General Henry Knox, who would become the first Secretary of War under the Constitution, blamed the weaknesses of the Articles of the inability of the government to fund the military.^ Identifying Defects in the Confederation This portion of congressional documents at the Library of Congress focuses on the weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation, including the inability of congress to raise funds and regulate trade.
  • Articles of Confederation [ushistory.org] 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.ushistory.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Furthermore, the whole national government consisted entirely of the unicameral (one body) Congress with no executive and no judicial organizations.
  • Articles of Confederation [ushistory.org] 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.ushistory.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The first members of the Congress of the United States, which shall consist of a Senate and House of Representatives, never take the Article VI oath necessary to form a government, so one is never formed.
  • Articles of Confederation : EDRIVERA.COM 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.edrivera.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Declaration of Independence : EDRIVERA.COM 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.edrivera.com [Source type: Original source]

The army had long been supportive of a strong union.[7] Knox wrote:
The army generally have always reprobated the idea of being thirteen armies. Their ardent desires have been to be one continental body looking up to one sovereign. ... It is a favorite toast in the army, “A hoop to the barrel” or “Cement to the Union.”[8]
As Congress failed to act on the petitions, Knox wrote to Gouverneur Morris, four years before the Philadelphia Convention was convened, “As the present Constitution is so defective, why do not you great men call the people together and tell them so; that is, to have a convention of the States to form a better Constitution.”[8]
Once the war was won, the Continental Army was largely disbanded. .A very small national force was maintained to man frontier forts and protect against Native American attacks.^ Two small sections, Eight and Nine of Article One, list the national requirements in very sparing language.

^ It looked to Washington as though the Articles of Confederation had left the new nation unable to maintain order along thousands of miles of western frontier.

^ The British clearly seemed reluctant to give up their frontier forts as agreed by the Treaty of Paris, and very likely the British were both arming the Indians and agitating them.

Meanwhile, each of the states had an army (or militia), and 11 of them had navies. The wartime promises of bounties and land grants to be paid for service were not being met. In 1783, Washington defused the Newburgh conspiracy, but riots by unpaid Pennsylvania veterans forced the Congress to leave Philadelphia temporarily.[9]

Foreign policy

.Even after peace was achieved, the weakness of the government frustrated the ability of the government to conduct foreign policy.^ Civil disobedience is the process of defying codes of conduct within a community or ignoring the policies and government of a state or nation when the civil laws are considered unjust.
  • SSC - TEKS and TAKS - TEKS Glossary - Grade 8 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.tea.state.tx.us [Source type: Original source]

^ The Articles created a sovereign, national government, and as such limited the rights of the states to conduct their own diplomacy and foreign policy.
  • Articles of Confederation, 1777-1781 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It established a weak central government that mostly, but not entirely, prevented the individual states from conducting their own foreign diplomacy.
  • Articles of Confederation, 1777-1781 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In 1786 Thomas Jefferson, concerned over the failure to fund a naval expedition against the Barbary pirates, wrote to James Monroe, "It will be said there is no money in the treasury.^ Thomas Jefferson wrote the majority of the declaration.
  • SSC - TEKS and TAKS - TEKS Glossary - Grade 8 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.tea.state.tx.us [Source type: Original source]

^ Founding fathers include Thomas Jefferson, George Washington, and James Madison.
  • SSC - TEKS and TAKS - TEKS Glossary - Grade 8 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.tea.state.tx.us [Source type: Original source]

^ In reality, however, the Articles gave the Congress no power to enforce its requests to the states for money or troops, and by the end of 1786 governmental effectiveness had broken down.
  • The Articles of Confederation - 1777 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.barefootsworld.net [Source type: Original source]

There never will be money in the treasury till the confederacy shows its teeth. .The states must see the rod.” [10] Also, the Jay-Gardoqui Treaty with Spain in 1786 also showed weakness in foreign policy.^ This effort grew out of general perception that the Articles of Confederation were too weak to be effective, so the federal government must be made supreme over the states.

^ The Articles created a sovereign, national government, and as such limited the rights of the states to conduct their own diplomacy and foreign policy.
  • Articles of Confederation, 1777-1781 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It established a weak central government that mostly, but not entirely, prevented the individual states from conducting their own foreign diplomacy.
  • Articles of Confederation, 1777-1781 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In the treaty (which was never ratified due to its immense unpopularity) the US had to give up rights to the Mississippi River for 20 years which would have economically strangled the settlers west of the Appalachian Mountains.^ Just give us all the official heads-up so I can move you into my "Dynamic Duos" section.
  • Making Light: Articles of confederation 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC nielsenhayden.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Declaration of Independence or not, they tried to fight a war for seven years before they would even ratify the Articles of Confederation.

^ Paris by the time stipulated, the treaty would become void; that if ratified by 7 states, it would go under our seal without it's being known to Gr.
  • Articles of Confederation by Thomas Jefferson 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.juntosociety.com [Source type: Original source]

.Finally, due to the Confederation's military weakness, they could not force the British out of the frontier forts (which the British promised they would leave in 1783).^ They deny the Articles of Confederation, because the people would be free of all written law were it not for the Constitution of September 17, 1787.
  • Articles of Confederation : EDRIVERA.COM 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.edrivera.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Proposed amendments of the Constitution shall not receive final consideration in either House of the confederation Legislature until two weeks after they have first been presented.
  • Israel-Palestine-Jordan Confederation 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.harhoma.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In addition, the new nation was unable to defend its borders from British and Spanish encroachment because it could not pay for an army when the states would not contribute the necessary funds.
  • The Articles of Confederation - 1777 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.barefootsworld.net [Source type: Original source]

.This violation of the Treaty of Paris was amended with Jay's Treaty in 1795 under the new constitution.^ Paris by the time stipulated, the treaty would become void; that if ratified by 7 states, it would go under our seal without it's being known to Gr.
  • Articles of Confederation by Thomas Jefferson 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.juntosociety.com [Source type: Original source]

Taxation and commerce

.Under the articles, Congress could make decisions, but had no power to enforce them.^ The Congress of the United States of America had no power under the Articles of Confederation to make laws; it still can’t.
  • Declaration of Independence : EDRIVERA.COM 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.edrivera.com [Source type: Original source]

^ As President of the United States of America, under the authority of the Articles of Confederation, Washington had the executive power to appoint anyone he wanted to the Office of President of the United States.
  • Articles of Confederation : EDRIVERA.COM 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.edrivera.com [Source type: Original source]

^ They answered candidly that no funds could be obtained until the new government should get into action, and have time to make it's arrangements.
  • Articles of Confederation by Thomas Jefferson 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.juntosociety.com [Source type: Original source]

.There was a requirement for unanimous approval before any modifications could be made to the Articles.^ The Articles required unanimous approval from the states.
  • Articles of Confederation, 1777-1781 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Any amendment to the articles required the unanimous approval of all 13 states.
  • The Articles of Confederation - 1777 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.barefootsworld.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Unless provided otherwise in the Constitution, decisions of the Legislature require the approval of each House of the Legislature, except for rules pertaining only to one House and declarations made by it.
  • Israel-Palestine-Jordan Confederation 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.harhoma.com [Source type: Original source]

.Because the majority of lawmaking rested with the states, the central government was also kept limited.^ Congress could not pass needed measures because they lacked the nine-state majority required to become laws.
  • The Articles of Confederation - 1777 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.barefootsworld.net [Source type: Original source]

^ In addition this new form of government distributed the power between a central government and the states.
  • SSC - TEKS and TAKS - TEKS Glossary - Grade 8 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.tea.state.tx.us [Source type: Original source]

^ Even after this experience, the Southern Confederate States later adopted the same system of a central currency without a central government and really did lose their war.

.Congress was denied the power of taxation: it could only request money from the states.^ Congress was denied the power to levy taxes; the new federal government was financed by donations from the states based on the value of each state's lands.
  • The Articles of Confederation - 1777 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.barefootsworld.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The Congress of Confederacy acquired a power to legislate for the Northwest Territory, when the States that had claims to territory outside their original charters ceded those claims to the United States of America.
  • Articles of Confederation : EDRIVERA.COM 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.edrivera.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Declaration of Independence : EDRIVERA.COM 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.edrivera.com [Source type: Original source]

^ As a consequence the prescribed duties of any law passed by Congress in pursuance of powers derived from the Articles of Confederation could not be enforced."

.The states did not generally comply with the requests in full, leaving the Confederation Congress and the Continental Army chronically short of funds.^ He did not serve in the Continental Army with distinction.
  • The Articles of Confederation - 1777 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.barefootsworld.net [Source type: Original source]

^ While Congress could call on states to contribute specific resources and numbers of men for the army, it was not allowed to force states to obey the central government's request for aid.
  • Articles of Confederation [ushistory.org] 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.ushistory.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Identifying Defects in the Confederation This portion of congressional documents at the Library of Congress focuses on the weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation, including the inability of congress to raise funds and regulate trade.
  • Articles of Confederation [ushistory.org] 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.ushistory.org [Source type: Academic]

.As more money was printed, continental dollars depreciated.^ The Articles of Confederation enabled the Continental Congress to print money, but the standard dollar didn't exist until 1785.
  • Articles of Confederation [ushistory.org] 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.ushistory.org [Source type: Academic]

.Washington in 1779 wrote to John Jay, serving as President of the Continental Congress, "that a wagon load of money will scarcely purchase a wagon load of provisions."^ After he was chosen President of the Continental Congress in 1775, Hancock became known beyond the borders of Massachusetts, and, having served as colonel of the Massachusetts Governor's Guards he hoped to be named commander of the American forces - until John Adams nominated George Washington.
  • The Articles of Confederation - 1777 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.barefootsworld.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Nevertheless, he was chosen by his peers to succeed Henry Laurens as President of the United States - serving a term from December 10, 1778 to September 27, 1779.
  • The Articles of Confederation - 1777 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.barefootsworld.net [Source type: Original source]

^ When John Hancock was unable to complete his second term as President, Gorham was elected to succeed him - serving from June 6, 1786 to February 1, 1787.
  • The Articles of Confederation - 1777 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.barefootsworld.net [Source type: Original source]

[11] .Jay and the Congress responded in May by requesting $45 million from the states.^ While Congress could call on states to contribute specific resources and numbers of men for the army, it was not allowed to force states to obey the central government's request for aid.
  • Articles of Confederation [ushistory.org] 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.ushistory.org [Source type: Academic]

^ In reality, however, the Articles gave the Congress no power to enforce its requests to the states for money or troops, and by the end of 1786 governmental effectiveness had broken down.
  • The Articles of Confederation - 1777 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.barefootsworld.net [Source type: Original source]

^ In 1774 the Continental Congress urged states to abolish the slave trade and most supported the request.
  • SSC - TEKS and TAKS - TEKS Glossary - Grade 8 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.tea.state.tx.us [Source type: Original source]

.In an appeal to the states to comply Jay wrote that the taxes were "the price of liberty, the peace and the safety of yourselves and posterity."^ The tax increases the price of the import which makes it less appealing to consumers.
  • SSC - TEKS and TAKS - TEKS Glossary - Grade 8 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.tea.state.tx.us [Source type: Original source]

^ The object of the convention shall be to compel the piratical states to perpetual peace, without price, & to guarantee that peace to each other.
  • Articles of Confederation by Thomas Jefferson 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.juntosociety.com [Source type: Original source]

[12] .He argued that Americans should avoid having it said "that America had no sooner become independent than she became insolvent" or that "her infant glories and growing fame were obscured and tarnished by broken contracts and violated faith."^ At no time were native people in America more influential in the politics of Europe than during the middle of the eighteenth century, and, at that time, no confederacy was more influential than that of the Iroquois.
  • Chp 6: The White Roots Reach Out, The Iroquois Confederacy urges the colonists to unite, "Exemplar Of Liberty" 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.ratical.org [Source type: Original source]

^ There were plenty of other negative ways to put all this, but the Constitution said no more than absolutely necessary.

^ He was convinced that eventually, in order to avoid civil or cultural war, smaller regional interests should pursue an independent course.
  • The Articles of Confederation - 1777 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.barefootsworld.net [Source type: Original source]

[13] .The states did not respond with the money requested.^ In reality, however, the Articles gave the Congress no power to enforce its requests to the states for money or troops, and by the end of 1786 governmental effectiveness had broken down.
  • The Articles of Confederation - 1777 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.barefootsworld.net [Source type: Original source]

.Congress was also denied the power to regulate commerce, and as a result, the states maintained control over their own trade policy as well.^ The power of Congress results from a law making authority not bound by any constitution.
  • Declaration of Independence : EDRIVERA.COM 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.edrivera.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Congress was denied the power to levy taxes; the new federal government was financed by donations from the states based on the value of each state's lands.
  • The Articles of Confederation - 1777 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.barefootsworld.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The Articles were limited in providing solutions to many challenges facing the new Republic because the states held most of the power, and Congress lacked the power to tax, regulate trade, or control coinage.
  • SSC - TEKS and TAKS - TEKS Glossary - Grade 8 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.tea.state.tx.us [Source type: Original source]

.The states and the national congress had both incurred debts during the war, and how to pay the debts became a major issue after the war.^ This first national "constitution" for the United States was not particularly innovative, and mostly put into written form how the Congress had operated since 1775.
  • Articles of Confederation [ushistory.org] 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.ushistory.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The Congress had control over diplomacy, printing money, resolving controversies between different states, and, most importantly, coordinating the war effort.
  • Articles of Confederation [ushistory.org] 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.ushistory.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Congress could not pass needed measures because they lacked the nine-state majority required to become laws.
  • The Articles of Confederation - 1777 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.barefootsworld.net [Source type: Original source]

.Some states paid off their debts; however, the centralizers favored federal assumption of states' debts.^ However, the real balance of power in the Constitution is between the central government and the constituent states.

^ Balancing power within the central government's branches is a way of preventing one side of this argument from tilting the state/federal balance in its own favor, or slowing down the effect of any victories by one side.

Accomplishments

Nevertheless, the Congress of the Confederation did take two actions with lasting impact. .The Land Ordinance of 1785 established the general land survey and ownership provisions used throughout later American expansion.^ One of the foundations of the American system of government is the use of a written constitution defining the values and principles of government and establishing the limits of power.
  • SSC - TEKS and TAKS - TEKS Glossary - Grade 8 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.tea.state.tx.us [Source type: Original source]

.The Northwest Ordinance of 1787 noted the agreement of the original states to give up western land claims and cleared the way for the entry of new states.^ Northwest Ordinance of July 13, 1787.
  • Declaration of Independence : EDRIVERA.COM 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.edrivera.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Nevertheless, some solid accomplishments had been achieved: certain state claims to western lands were settled, and the Northwest Ordinance of 1787 established the fundamental pattern of evolving government in the territories north of the Ohio River.
  • The Articles of Confederation - 1777 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.barefootsworld.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The Northwest Ordinance of July 13, 1787 created a temporary territorial government for the settlers and inhabitants of the States of the Northwest Territory, the States of Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, Wisconsin and part of Minnesota.
  • Declaration of Independence : EDRIVERA.COM 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.edrivera.com [Source type: Original source]

History during the Articles

.The Treaty of Paris left the United States independent and at peace but with an unsettled governmental structure.^ But to return to our Congress at Annapolis, the definitive treaty of peace which had been signed at Paris on the 3d.
  • Articles of Confederation by Thomas Jefferson 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.juntosociety.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The geographic United States of America existed as places long before the Declaration of Independence of July 4, 1776.
  • Declaration of Independence : EDRIVERA.COM 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.edrivera.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Treaty of Paris of 1783 with Great Britain officially concluded the American Revolution and presented to the United States of America, the Confederacy, something it never had before ¾ territory and the proprietory power to make laws for that territory.
  • Declaration of Independence : EDRIVERA.COM 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.edrivera.com [Source type: Original source]

.The Second Continental Congress had drawn up Articles of Confederation in November 15, 1777, to regularize its own status.^ When doing research for the Articles, I was astonished to find that the founders of the country did not want a democracy; they feared what many called “mob rule.” When the Articles were accepted by the Second Continental Congress on November 15, 1777, many of the state legislatures had been taken over by the “common” people.
  • Michael W. Handis on the Articles of Confederation : Milestone Documents Blog 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC blog.milestonedocuments.com [Source type: Original source]

^ George Washington, the Founding Fathers and the Constitutional Convention made the Articles of Confederation of November 15, 1777 go away by re-naming the old Continental Congress, the United States in Congress assembled, the Senate.
  • Declaration of Independence : EDRIVERA.COM 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.edrivera.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Agreed to by the Continental Congress November 15, 1777 and in effect after ratification by Maryland, March 1,1781, the Articles of Confederation served as a bridge between the initial government by the Continental Congress of the Revolutionary period and the federal government provided under the Constitution for the United States in effect March 4, 1789 .
  • The Articles of Confederation - 1777 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.barefootsworld.net [Source type: Original source]

.These described a permanent confederation, but granted to the Congress—the only federal institution—little power to finance itself or to ensure that its resolutions were enforced.^ The organization of Congress itself demonstrates the primacy of state power.
  • Articles of Confederation [ushistory.org] 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.ushistory.org [Source type: Academic]

^ That to secure these rights, Governments are instituted among men, deriving their just power from the consent of the governed.
  • SSC - TEKS and TAKS - TEKS Glossary - Grade 8 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.tea.state.tx.us [Source type: Original source]

^ Changes and / or amendments to the Constitution may only be effected by special resolution of Congress.
  • IWSF Articles of Association 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.iwsf.com [Source type: Original source]

.The Articles of Confederation were weak and did not give a strong political or economic base for the newly formed nation.^ Identifying Defects in the Confederation This portion of congressional documents at the Library of Congress focuses on the weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation, including the inability of congress to raise funds and regulate trade.
  • Articles of Confederation [ushistory.org] 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.ushistory.org [Source type: Academic]

^ In revealing their own weaknesses, the Articles paved the way for the Constitutional Convention of 1787 and the present form of U.S. government.
  • The Articles of Confederation - 1777 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.barefootsworld.net [Source type: Original source]

^ This effort grew out of general perception that the Articles of Confederation were too weak to be effective, so the federal government must be made supreme over the states.

.However, the articles did serve as the lead up to the much stronger and more agreed upon Constitution.^ He did not sign the Declaration, the Articles, or the Constitution.
  • The Articles of Confederation - 1777 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.barefootsworld.net [Source type: Original source]

^ He was the first President to serve a full term after the full ratification of the Articles of Confederation - and like so many of the Southern and New England Founders, he was strongly opposed to the Constitution when it was first discussed.
  • The Articles of Confederation - 1777 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.barefootsworld.net [Source type: Original source]

^ We delivered him however our Projet, Mr. Adams not despairing as much as I did of it's effect.
  • Articles of Confederation by Thomas Jefferson 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.juntosociety.com [Source type: Original source]

.Although historians generally agree that the articles were a spectacular failure in terms of workable governance, they do give much credit to the Land Ordinance of 1785 and Northwest Ordinance that set up protocol for the admission of new states, the division of land into homesteads and states, as well as setting aside land in each township for public use.^ AN independent commission set up by Congress with the approval of President George W Bush may recommend carving up Iraq into three highly autonomous regions, according to well informed sources.
  • Out of Many, Many - TCS Daily 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.tcsdaily.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ And be it further enacted, That on the admission of every new state into the Union, one star be added to the union of the flag; and that such addition shall take effect of the fourth day of July then next succeeding such admission.

^ Because they sold most of their cotton to foreign merchants, southern cotton growers had foreign credit which they had to use to purchase higher priced foreign goods.
  • SSC - TEKS and TAKS - TEKS Glossary - Grade 8 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.tea.state.tx.us [Source type: Original source]

This system represented a sharp break from imperial colonization, as in Europe, and provided the basis for the rest of American continental expansion through the 19th Century.
.During the latter years of the war, most people were living in comparative comfort.^ During the global conflict of the Seven Years War - generally known as the French and Indian War - he was stationed in the American theater.
  • The Articles of Confederation - 1777 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.barefootsworld.net [Source type: Original source]

Farmers found a ready market for their produce within the lines of the British and French armies. Blockade runners and the prizes from privateers added rich cargoes and merchandise to northern shops. Speculators went in debt in preparation for the economic boom which was sure to follow the war.
These dreams vanished in the economic depression that followed the war. .Orders in council closed the ports of the British West Indies to all staple products which were not carried in British ships.^ In the 1830s American abolitionists sought to follow the example set in the West Indies by the British who freed the slaves in 1833.
  • SSC - TEKS and TAKS - TEKS Glossary - Grade 8 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.tea.state.tx.us [Source type: Original source]

^ All Palestinian people residing in the West Bank and the Gaza Strip will be accountable to the Palestinian Council only, unless otherwise provided in this Agreement.
  • Israel-Palestine-Jordan Confederation 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.harhoma.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In order to guarantee public order and internal security for the Palestinians of the West Bank and the Gaza Strip, the Council shall establish a strong police.
  • Israel-Palestine-Jordan Confederation 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.harhoma.com [Source type: Original source]

France and Spain established similar policies. .Simultaneously, new manufacturers were stifled by British products which were suddenly filling American ports.^ The American colonies contributed to the English, French, and Spanish mercantilist systems by providing raw products and markets for manufactured goods.
  • SSC - TEKS and TAKS - TEKS Glossary - Grade 8 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.tea.state.tx.us [Source type: Original source]

^ New sources of power including the steam engine freed manufacturers to experiment with new ways to make products.
  • SSC - TEKS and TAKS - TEKS Glossary - Grade 8 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.tea.state.tx.us [Source type: Original source]

^ African Americans in the British New World a.
  • Articles of Confederation [ushistory.org] 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.ushistory.org [Source type: Academic]

.Political unrest in several states and efforts by debtors to use popular government to erase their debts increased the anxiety of the political and economic elites which had led the Revolution.^ The second of the two United States of America, the political United States of America, emerged from the struggle that led to victory over Great Britain.
  • Declaration of Independence : EDRIVERA.COM 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.edrivera.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The government could not pay off the debts it had incurred during the revolution, including paying soldiers who had fought in the war and citizens who had provided supplies to the cause.
  • The Articles of Confederation - 1777 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.barefootsworld.net [Source type: Original source]

^ All of the economic discriminations against foreigners which are lumped under the heading of Mercantilism; the use of government power to favor local businesses against competitors who are outside the political boundaries and have no local influence.

.The apparent inability of the Congress to redeem the public obligations (debts) incurred during the war, or to become a forum for productive cooperation among the states to encourage commerce and economic development, only aggravated a gloomy situation.^ The states largely ignored Congress, which was powerless to enforce cooperation, and it was therefore unable to carry out its duties.
  • The Articles of Confederation - 1777 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.barefootsworld.net [Source type: Original source]

^ In New York he drafted the State constitution and served as Chief Justice during the war.
  • The Articles of Confederation - 1777 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.barefootsworld.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The government could not pay off the debts it had incurred during the revolution, including paying soldiers who had fought in the war and citizens who had provided supplies to the cause.
  • The Articles of Confederation - 1777 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.barefootsworld.net [Source type: Original source]

.The Continental Congress had issued bills of credit, but by the end of the war its paper money had so far depreciated that it ceased to pass as currency, spawning the expression "not worth a continental". Congress could not levy taxes and could only make requisitions upon the States.^ The paper money issued by the Continental Congress was known as "Continentals."
  • Articles of Confederation [ushistory.org] 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.ushistory.org [Source type: Academic]

^ While Congress could call on states to contribute specific resources and numbers of men for the army, it was not allowed to force states to obey the central government's request for aid.
  • Articles of Confederation [ushistory.org] 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.ushistory.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Not backed by silver or gold, the currency did not retain its value, and the saying "not worth a Continental" took root.
  • Articles of Confederation [ushistory.org] 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.ushistory.org [Source type: Academic]

.Less than a million and a half dollars came into the treasury between 1781 and 1784, although the governors had been asked for two million in 1783 alone.^ Most slaves brought into North America came from the west coast of Africa, between Senegal in the north and Angola in the south.
  • SSC - TEKS and TAKS - TEKS Glossary - Grade 8 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.tea.state.tx.us [Source type: Original source]

^ I invert the question, and ask shall two millions of people put it in the power of one million to govern them as they please?
  • Articles of Confederation by Thomas Jefferson 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.juntosociety.com [Source type: Original source]

.When John Adams went to London in 1785 as the first representative of the United States, he found it impossible to secure a treaty for unrestricted commerce.^ John Hanson (1715 - 1783) - Served from November 5, 1781 until November 3, 1782, first President of the United States under the Articles of Confederation.
  • The Articles of Confederation - 1777 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.barefootsworld.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The United States also secured a vast territory in the southwest following the Mexican War in 1848.
  • SSC - TEKS and TAKS - TEKS Glossary - Grade 8 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.tea.state.tx.us [Source type: Original source]

^ The Articles were in force from March 1, 1781, to March 4, 1789, when the present Constitution of the United States went into effect.
  • The Articles of Confederation - 1777 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.barefootsworld.net [Source type: Original source]

.Demands were made for favors and there was no assurance that individual states would agree to a treaty.^ Where this convention would interfere with treaties actually existing between any of the parties and the sd states of Barbary, the treaty shall prevail, and such party shall be allowed to withdraw from the operations against that state."
  • Articles of Confederation by Thomas Jefferson 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.juntosociety.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Essentially it was a tribal treaty, with no executive, no ability to raise taxes, or any way to enforce rules they made themselves in order to fight the war.

^ No alteration of the Constitution and no such direction shall invalidate any prior act of the Directors that would have been valid if that alteration had not been made or that direction had not been given.
  • IWSF Articles of Association 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.iwsf.com [Source type: Original source]

.Adams stated it was necessary for the States to confer the power of passing navigation laws to Congress, or that the States themselves pass retaliatory acts against Great Britain.^ Congress could not pass needed measures because they lacked the nine-state majority required to become laws.
  • The Articles of Confederation - 1777 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.barefootsworld.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Congress was denied the power to levy taxes; the new federal government was financed by donations from the states based on the value of each state's lands.
  • The Articles of Confederation - 1777 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.barefootsworld.net [Source type: Original source]

^ As a consequence the prescribed duties of any law passed by Congress in pursuance of powers derived from the Articles of Confederation could not be enforced."

.Congress had already requested and failed to get power over navigation laws.^ The Articles established a national congress with a limited number of powers including the authority to make laws and enter into treaties with other nations.
  • SSC - TEKS and TAKS - TEKS Glossary - Grade 8 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.tea.state.tx.us [Source type: Original source]

^ As a consequence the prescribed duties of any law passed by Congress in pursuance of powers derived from the Articles of Confederation could not be enforced."

^ In reality, however, the Articles gave the Congress no power to enforce its requests to the states for money or troops, and by the end of 1786 governmental effectiveness had broken down.
  • The Articles of Confederation - 1777 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.barefootsworld.net [Source type: Original source]

.Meanwhile, each State acted individually against Great Britain to little effect.^ The economy of the United States suffered due to self-imposed restrictions on trade with Great Britain and France, enacted by President Thomas Jefferson in the Embargo of 1807 and by President James Madison in the Non-Intercourse Act of 1809.
  • SSC - TEKS and TAKS - TEKS Glossary - Grade 8 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.tea.state.tx.us [Source type: Original source]

^ It established the 13 colonies as independent states, free from rule by Great Britain.
  • SSC - TEKS and TAKS - TEKS Glossary - Grade 8 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.tea.state.tx.us [Source type: Original source]

^ Because of their experience with Great Britain, the 13 states feared a powerful central government.
  • The Articles of Confederation - 1777 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.barefootsworld.net [Source type: Original source]

.When other New England states closed their ports to British shipping, Connecticut hastened to profit by opening its ports.^ Meanwhile, the other members of the family remained in England, ready to revise the arrangement if the British won the war.

^ But such was the state of my family that I could not leave it, nor could I expose it to the dangers of the sea, and of capture by the British ships, then covering the ocean.
  • Articles of Confederation by Thomas Jefferson 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.juntosociety.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In addition, the new nation was unable to defend its borders from British and Spanish encroachment because it could not pay for an army when the states would not contribute the necessary funds.
  • The Articles of Confederation - 1777 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.barefootsworld.net [Source type: Original source]

Debtor's problems came to a head in Shays' Rebellion in Massachusetts. Congress was unable to protect manufacturing and shipping. .State legislatures were unable or unwilling to resist attacks upon private contracts and public credit.^ The taxes for paying that proportion shall be laid and levied by the authority and direction of the legislatures of the several states within the time agreed upon by the united states in congress assembled.
  • The Articles of Confederation - 1777 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.barefootsworld.net [Source type: Original source]

.Land speculators expected no rise in values when the government could not defend its borders nor protect its frontier population.^ They answered candidly that no funds could be obtained until the new government should get into action, and have time to make it's arrangements.
  • Articles of Confederation by Thomas Jefferson 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.juntosociety.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Congress was denied the power to levy taxes; the new federal government was financed by donations from the states based on the value of each state's lands.
  • The Articles of Confederation - 1777 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.barefootsworld.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The innately rebellious Scotch-Irish, the main settlers of the frontier, were threatening to set up their own government if the American one was too feeble to defend them.

.The idea of a convention to revise the Articles of Confederation grew in favor.^ This effort grew out of general perception that the Articles of Confederation were too weak to be effective, so the federal government must be made supreme over the states.

^ On February 21, 1787, Congress called for a Constitutional Convention to be held in May to revise the articles.
  • The Articles of Confederation - 1777 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.barefootsworld.net [Source type: Original source]

.Alexander Hamilton, a Revolutionary War veteran who determined while serving as Washington's aide-de-camp that a strong central government was necessary to avoid the frustrations endured by the Army due to an ineffectual Congress, called for what would be referred to as the Annapolis Convention of 1786 to revise the Articles.^ Leaders like Alexander Hamilton of New York and James Madison of Virginia criticized the limits placed on the central government, and General George Washington is said to have complained that the federation was "little more than a shadow without substance."
  • The Articles of Confederation - 1777 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.barefootsworld.net [Source type: Original source]

^ By an ironic sort of providence, Thomas Mifflin served as George Washington's first aide-de-camp at the beginning of the Revolutionary War, and, when the war was over, he was the man, as President of the United States, who accepted Washington's resignation of his commission.
  • The Articles of Confederation - 1777 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.barefootsworld.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The term "founding fathers" applies to those individuals who played a major role in declaring U.S. independence, fighting the Revolutionary War, or writing and adopting the U.S. Constitution.
  • SSC - TEKS and TAKS - TEKS Glossary - Grade 8 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.tea.state.tx.us [Source type: Original source]

.Only five states sent delegates, but plans were made for another meeting in Philadelphia the next year.^ As first Chief Justice of the Supreme Court, Jay made the historic decision that a State could be sued by a citizen from another State, which led to the Eleventh Amendment to the Constitution.
  • The Articles of Confederation - 1777 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.barefootsworld.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Fifty-five delegates from 12 of the 13 states participated.
  • SSC - TEKS and TAKS - TEKS Glossary - Grade 8 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.tea.state.tx.us [Source type: Original source]

^ After the delegates to the Philadelphia Convention finished writing the U.S. Constitution, each state elected delegates to a ratification convention.
  • SSC - TEKS and TAKS - TEKS Glossary - Grade 8 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.tea.state.tx.us [Source type: Original source]

Signatures

.The Second Continental Congress approved the Articles for distribution to the states on November 15, 1777. A copy was made for each state and one was kept by the Congress.^ Agreed to by the Continental Congress November 15, 1777 and in effect after ratification by Maryland, March 1,1781, the Articles of Confederation served as a bridge between the initial government by the Continental Congress of the Revolutionary period and the federal government provided under the Constitution for the United States in effect March 4, 1789 .
  • The Articles of Confederation - 1777 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.barefootsworld.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Articles of Confederation: Article XIII. Every State shall abide by the determination of the United States in Congress assembled, on all questions which by this confederation are submitted to them.

^ When 60,000 persons moved into one of the political subdivisions, that area could draft a constitution, submit it to Congress for approval, and become a state.
  • SSC - TEKS and TAKS - TEKS Glossary - Grade 8 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.tea.state.tx.us [Source type: Original source]

.The copies sent to the states for ratification were unsigned, and a cover letter had only the signatures of Henry Laurens and Charles Thomson, who were the President and Secretary to the Congress.^ Nevertheless, he was chosen by his peers to succeed Henry Laurens as President of the United States - serving a term from December 10, 1778 to September 27, 1779.
  • The Articles of Confederation - 1777 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.barefootsworld.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Washington, by express, covering an appointment to be Secretary of State.
  • Articles of Confederation by Thomas Jefferson 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.juntosociety.com [Source type: Original source]

^ But it was as a political leader that his real distinction was earned - as the first Governor of Massachusetts, as President of Congress, and as President of the Massachusetts constitutional ratification convention.
  • The Articles of Confederation - 1777 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.barefootsworld.net [Source type: Original source]

The Articles, however, were unsigned, and the date was blank. .Congress began the signing process by examining their copy of the Articles on June 27, 1778. They ordered a final copy prepared (the one in the National Archives), and that delegates should inform the secretary of their authority for ratification.^ Furthermore, the whole national government consisted entirely of the unicameral (one body) Congress with no executive and no judicial organizations.
  • Articles of Confederation [ushistory.org] 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.ushistory.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The enforcement order shall be issued, without any further control than verification of the authenticity of the act, by the authorities designated by the Swiss government, which shall inform the Commission thereof.
  • EUR-Lex - 22007A0720(02) - EN 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC eur-lex.europa.eu [Source type: Original source]

^ However, there shall be at least one Israeli, one Palestinian, and one Jordanian Delegate from each Canton that has at least one such member in its Legislature, and the total number of Israeli, Palestinian, and Jordanian Delegates shall be in accordance with Article 6.
  • Israel-Palestine-Jordan Confederation 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.harhoma.com [Source type: Original source]

On July 9, 1778, the prepared copy was ready. They dated it, and began to sign. .They also requested each of the remaining states to notify its delegation when ratification was completed.^ British ratification; if they are not, we remain where we were, without a ratification by 9.
  • Articles of Confederation by Thomas Jefferson 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.juntosociety.com [Source type: Original source]

^ After the delegates to the Philadelphia Convention finished writing the U.S. Constitution, each state elected delegates to a ratification convention.
  • SSC - TEKS and TAKS - TEKS Glossary - Grade 8 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.tea.state.tx.us [Source type: Original source]

^ It was then sent to the states to adopt or reject based on the votes of delegates to ratification conventions.
  • SSC - TEKS and TAKS - TEKS Glossary - Grade 8 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.tea.state.tx.us [Source type: Original source]

.On that date, delegates present from New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, New York, Pennsylvania, Virginia and South Carolina signed the Articles to indicate that their states had ratified.^ "Articles of Confederation and perpetual Union between the states of New-hampshire, Massachusetts-bay, Rhode-island and Providence Plantations, Connecticut, New-York, New-Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, North-Carolina, South-Carolina and Georgia".
  • The Articles of Confederation - 1777 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.barefootsworld.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Georgia, Connecticut, Massachusetts, Maryland, South Carolina, and New Hampshire ratified it in 1788.
  • SSC - TEKS and TAKS - TEKS Glossary - Grade 8 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.tea.state.tx.us [Source type: Original source]

^ The question being put the amendment proposed was rejected by the votes of N. Hampshire, Massachusetts, Rhode island, Connecticut, N. York, N. Jersey, & Pennsylvania, against those of Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, North & South Carolina.
  • Articles of Confederation by Thomas Jefferson 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.juntosociety.com [Source type: Original source]

.New Jersey, Delaware and Maryland could not, since their states had not ratified.^ Delaware was the first state to ratify the Constitution and it was followed by Pennsylvania and New Jersey in 1787.
  • SSC - TEKS and TAKS - TEKS Glossary - Grade 8 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.tea.state.tx.us [Source type: Original source]

^ Since the Constitutional convention itself voted as states, small states were already in the strongest voting position they could ever expect, and the Federalists at the convention needed their votes.

^ The result has been voluntary allegiance to a document which could not have been ratified under any other circumstances, and whose consensus for centuries has not been equaled by any other large group of sovereign states.

.North Carolina and Georgia also didn't sign that day, since their delegations were absent.^ These included slaves in Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, Arkansas, Louisiana, and Texas.
  • SSC - TEKS and TAKS - TEKS Glossary - Grade 8 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.tea.state.tx.us [Source type: Original source]

.After the first signing, some delegates signed at the next meeting they attended.^ Each state shall maintain its own delegates in a meeting of the states, and while they act as members of the committee of the states.
  • The Articles of Confederation - 1777 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.barefootsworld.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The minutes of any meeting, if signed by the chairperson of such meeting, or by the chairperson of the next succeeding meeting, shall be conclusive evidence without any further proof of the facts therein stated.
  • IWSF Articles of Association 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.iwsf.com [Source type: Original source]

^ They shall each be entitled to appoint not more than one (1) representative to attend each Congressional Meeting as an observer.
  • IWSF Articles of Association 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.iwsf.com [Source type: Original source]

For example, John Wentworth of New Hampshire added his name on August 8. John Penn was the first of North Carolina's delegates to arrive (on July 10), and the delegation signed the Articles on July 21, 1778.
.The other states had to wait until they ratified the Articles and notified their Congressional delegation.^ That in some countries the labouring poor were called freemen, in others they were called slaves; but that the difference as to the state was imaginary only.
  • Articles of Confederation by Thomas Jefferson 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.juntosociety.com [Source type: Original source]

^ When South Carolina ratified the Articles of Confederation in 1778, those Articles clearly stated the Union was to be perpetual, or at least the Artcles uniting the colonies were to be so.

^ John Hanson (1715 - 1783) - Served from November 5, 1781 until November 3, 1782, first President of the United States under the Articles of Confederation.
  • The Articles of Confederation - 1777 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.barefootsworld.net [Source type: Original source]

.Georgia signed on July 24, New Jersey on November 26, and Delaware on February 12, 1779. Maryland refused to ratify the Articles until every state had ceded its western land claims.^ Delaware was the first state to ratify the Constitution and it was followed by Pennsylvania and New Jersey in 1787.
  • SSC - TEKS and TAKS - TEKS Glossary - Grade 8 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.tea.state.tx.us [Source type: Original source]

^ "Articles of Confederation and perpetual Union between the states of New-hampshire, Massachusetts-bay, Rhode-island and Providence Plantations, Connecticut, New-York, New-Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, North-Carolina, South-Carolina and Georgia".
  • The Articles of Confederation - 1777 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.barefootsworld.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Whereas the Delegates of the United States of America, in Congress assembled, did, on the 15th day of November, in the Year of Our Lord One thousand Seven Hundred and Seventy seven, and in the Second Year of the Independence of America, agree to certain articles of Confederation and perpetual Union between the States of New-hampshire, Massachusetts-bay, Rhode-island and Providence Plantations, Connecticut, New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, North-Carolina, South-Carolina, and Georgia in the words following, viz.
  • The Articles of Confederation - 1777 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.barefootsworld.net [Source type: Original source]

The Act of the Maryland legislature to ratify the Articles of Confederation on February 2, 1781
On February 2, 1781, the much-awaited decision was taken by the Maryland General Assembly in Annapolis.[14] .As the last piece of business during the afternoon Session, "among engrossed Bills" was "signed and sealed by Governor Thomas Sim Lee in the Senate Chamber, in the presence of the members of both Houses...^ Eventually, agreement was found for the bicameral compromise suggested by John Dickinson of Delaware, which consisted of a Senate selected and voting as states, and a House of Representatives elected in proportion to population, with all bills requiring the concurrence of both houses.

an .Act to empower the delegates of this state in Congress to subscribe and ratify the articles of confederation" and perpetual union among the states.^ The Articles of Confederation were stated to be perpetual, so maybe the Constitution is impertinent.

^ Know Ye that we the undersigned delegates, by virtue of the power and authority to us given for that purpose, do by these presents, in the name and in behalf of our respective constituents, fully and entirely ratify and confirm each and every of the said articles of confederation and perpetual union, and all and singular the matters and things therein contained: And we do further solemnly plight and engage the faith of our respective constituents, that they shall abide by the determinations of the united states in congress assembled, on all questions, which by the said confederation are submitted to them.
  • The Articles of Confederation - 1777 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.barefootsworld.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Identifying Defects in the Confederation This portion of congressional documents at the Library of Congress focuses on the weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation, including the inability of congress to raise funds and regulate trade.
  • Articles of Confederation [ushistory.org] 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.ushistory.org [Source type: Academic]

The Senate then adjourned "to the first Monday in August next." .The decision of Maryland to ratify the Articles was reported to the Continental Congress on February 12. The formal signing of the Articles by the Maryland delegates took place in Philadelphia at noon time on March 1, 1781 and was celebrated in the afternoon.^ These articles reported July 12.
  • Articles of Confederation by Thomas Jefferson 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.juntosociety.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Agreed to by the Continental Congress November 15, 1777 and in effect after ratification by Maryland, March 1,1781, the Articles of Confederation served as a bridge between the initial government by the Continental Congress of the Revolutionary period and the federal government provided under the Constitution for the United States in effect March 4, 1789 .
  • The Articles of Confederation - 1777 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.barefootsworld.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The head of the committee, John Dickinson, who had refused to sign the Declaration of Independence, nevertheless adhering to the will of the majority of the members of the Continental Congress, presented a report on the proposed articles to the Congress on July 12, 1776, eight days after the signing of the Declaration of Independence.
  • The Articles of Confederation - 1777 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.barefootsworld.net [Source type: Original source]

.With these events, the Articles entered into force and the United States came into being as a united, sovereign and national state.^ This first national "constitution" for the United States was not particularly innovative, and mostly put into written form how the Congress had operated since 1775.
  • Articles of Confederation [ushistory.org] 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.ushistory.org [Source type: Academic]

^ In the event that such resolution is passed, the Director concerned may then be nominated for re-election at the following Annual Congressional Meeting pursuant to the provisions of these Articles.
  • IWSF Articles of Association 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.iwsf.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Articles of Confederation: Article XIII. Every State shall abide by the determination of the United States in Congress assembled, on all questions which by this confederation are submitted to them.

.Congress had debated the Articles for over a year and a half, and the ratification process had taken nearly three and a half years.^ Article VII, Ratification of the Constitution, outlined the process which required nine states to approve the U.S. Constitution.
  • SSC - TEKS and TAKS - TEKS Glossary - Grade 8 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.tea.state.tx.us [Source type: Original source]

.Many participants in the original debates were no longer delegates, and some of the signers had only recently arrived.^ But note that the blank with link for ads/blank with ads only page takeover problem IS NO LONGER! It became very bad recently, so this is a Very Good Thing.
  • Making Light: Articles of confederation 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC nielsenhayden.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is plausible that the original strategy originated with Madison's teachers and emerged from many discussions, but there were several delegates in attendance with the sophistication to originate it.

.The Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union were signed by a group of men who were never present in the Congress at the same time.^ Identifying Defects in the Confederation This portion of congressional documents at the Library of Congress focuses on the weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation, including the inability of congress to raise funds and regulate trade.
  • Articles of Confederation [ushistory.org] 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.ushistory.org [Source type: Academic]

^ And the Articles of this confederation shall be inviolably observed by every state, and the union shall be perpetual; nor shall any alteration at any time hereafter be made in any of them; unless such alteration be agreed to in a congress of the united states, and be afterwards confirmed by the legislatures of every state.
  • The Articles of Confederation - 1777 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.barefootsworld.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Footnote - It is probable that the delegates from the same State, having signed the Articles of Confederation at different times as appears by the dates, affixed their names as they happened to be present in Congress, after they had been authorized by their constituents.
  • The Articles of Confederation - 1777 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.barefootsworld.net [Source type: Original source]

The signers and the states they represented were:
.Roger Sherman (Connecticut) was the only person to sign all four great state papers of the United States: the Continental Association, the United States Declaration of Independence, the Articles of Confederation and the United States Constitution.^ He did not sign the Declaration, the Articles, or the Constitution.
  • The Articles of Confederation - 1777 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.barefootsworld.net [Source type: Original source]

^ It declared that all slaves in the rebellious Confederate states would be free.
  • SSC - TEKS and TAKS - TEKS Glossary - Grade 8 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.tea.state.tx.us [Source type: Original source]

^ The Articles of Confederation were stated to be perpetual, so maybe the Constitution is impertinent.

.Robert Morris (Pennsylvania) was the only person besides Sherman to sign three of the great state papers of the United States: the United States Declaration of Independence, the Articles of Confederation and the United States Constitution.^ He did not sign the Declaration, the Articles, or the Constitution.
  • The Articles of Confederation - 1777 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.barefootsworld.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The Articles of Confederation were stated to be perpetual, so maybe the Constitution is impertinent.

^ Besides signing the Declaration of Independence, he contributed significantly to the development and establishment of constitutional government in both his home state of Delaware and the nation.
  • The Articles of Confederation - 1777 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.barefootsworld.net [Source type: Original source]

.John Dickinson (Delaware), Daniel Carroll (Maryland) and Gouverneur Morris (New York), along with Sherman and Robert Morris, were the only five people to sign both the Articles of Confederation and the United States Constitution (Gouverneur Morris represented Pennsylvania when signing the Constitution).^ He did not sign the Declaration, the Articles, or the Constitution.
  • The Articles of Confederation - 1777 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.barefootsworld.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Delaware was the first state to ratify the Constitution and it was followed by Pennsylvania and New Jersey in 1787.
  • SSC - TEKS and TAKS - TEKS Glossary - Grade 8 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.tea.state.tx.us [Source type: Original source]

^ On the part and behalf of the State of Maryland: John Hanson, Daniel Carroll -March 1, 1781 .
  • The Articles of Confederation - 1777 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.barefootsworld.net [Source type: Original source]

Presidents of the Congress

.The following list is of those who led the Congress of the Confederation under the Articles of Confederation as the Presidents of the United States in Congress Assembled.^ This first national "constitution" for the United States was not particularly innovative, and mostly put into written form how the Congress had operated since 1775.
  • Articles of Confederation [ushistory.org] 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.ushistory.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Identifying Defects in the Confederation This portion of congressional documents at the Library of Congress focuses on the weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation, including the inability of congress to raise funds and regulate trade.
  • Articles of Confederation [ushistory.org] 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.ushistory.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Article XII. All bills of credit emitted, monies borrowed and debts contracted by, or under the authority of congress, before the assembling of the united states, in pursuance of the present confederation, shall be deemed and considered as a charge against the united states, for payment and satisfaction whereof the said united states, and the public faith are hereby solemnly pledged.
  • The Articles of Confederation - 1777 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.barefootsworld.net [Source type: Original source]

.Under the Articles, the president was the presiding officer of Congress, chaired the Cabinet (the Committee of the States) when Congress was in recess, and performed other administrative functions.^ Articles of Confederation: Article XIII. Every State shall abide by the determination of the United States in Congress assembled, on all questions which by this confederation are submitted to them.

^ Article X. The committee of the states, or any nine of them, shall be authorized to execute, in the recess of congress, such of the powers of congress as the united states in congress assembled, by the consent of nine states, shall from time to time think expedient to vest them with; provided that no power be delegated to the said committee, for the exercise of which, by the articles of confederation, the voice of nine states in the congress of the united states assembled is requisite.
  • The Articles of Confederation - 1777 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.barefootsworld.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The Articles established a national congress with a limited number of powers including the authority to make laws and enter into treaties with other nations.
  • SSC - TEKS and TAKS - TEKS Glossary - Grade 8 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.tea.state.tx.us [Source type: Original source]

.He was not, however, a chief executive in the way the successor President of the United States is a chief executive, but all of the functions he executed were under the auspices and in service of the Congress.^ This first national "constitution" for the United States was not particularly innovative, and mostly put into written form how the Congress had operated since 1775.
  • Articles of Confederation [ushistory.org] 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.ushistory.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Nevertheless, he was chosen by his peers to succeed Henry Laurens as President of the United States - serving a term from December 10, 1778 to September 27, 1779.
  • The Articles of Confederation - 1777 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.barefootsworld.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Articles of Confederation: Article XIII. Every State shall abide by the determination of the United States in Congress assembled, on all questions which by this confederation are submitted to them.

For a full list of Presidents of the Congress Assembled and Presidents under the two Continental Congresses before the Articles, see President of the Continental Congress.

Gallery

Revision and replacement

.In May 1786, Charles Pinckney of South Carolina proposed that Congress revise the Articles of Confederation.^ Until the confederation adopts the rules of procedure foreseen by Article IV.C.3, the Courts of the confederation may apply rules not inconsistent with this Constitution.
  • Israel-Palestine-Jordan Confederation 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.harhoma.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Philadelphia Convention of 1787 met "for the sole and express purpose of revising the Articles of Confederation."
  • SSC - TEKS and TAKS - TEKS Glossary - Grade 8 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.tea.state.tx.us [Source type: Original source]

^ His ideas influenced those who proposed the Virginia Plan in the opening discussion of the Philadelphia Convention, held in 1787 to revise the Articles of Confederation.
  • SSC - TEKS and TAKS - TEKS Glossary - Grade 8 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.tea.state.tx.us [Source type: Original source]

.Recommended changes included granting Congress power over foreign and domestic commerce, and providing means for Congress to collect money from state treasuries.^ He observed that foreign powers discovering this blemish would make it a handle for disengaging the smaller states from so unequal a confederacy.
  • Articles of Confederation by Thomas Jefferson 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.juntosociety.com [Source type: Original source]

^ With the public interests, the state of my mind concurred in recommending the change of scene proposed; and I accepted the appointment, and left Monticello on the 19th.
  • Articles of Confederation by Thomas Jefferson 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.juntosociety.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The framers were willing to strip Congress of many more specific powers than the states; the Constitution can be read as a proclamation of the powers which a central government simply must possess.

Unanimous approval was necessary to make the alterations, however, and Congress failed to reach a consensus. .The weakness of the Articles in establishing an effective unifying government was underscored by the threat of internal conflict both within and between the states, especially after Shays' Rebellion threatened to topple the state government of Massachusetts.^ Federalism is the distribution of power between a federal government and the states within a union.
  • SSC - TEKS and TAKS - TEKS Glossary - Grade 8 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.tea.state.tx.us [Source type: Original source]

^ Washington was particularly upset by Shay's Rebellion in western Massachusetts, which actually threatened to topple the Massachusetts government, but Shay's frontier disorder was merely an extreme example of more general restlessness.

^ It established a system for setting up governments in the western territories so they could eventually join the Union on an equal footing with the original 13 states.
  • SSC - TEKS and TAKS - TEKS Glossary - Grade 8 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.tea.state.tx.us [Source type: Original source]

.On January 21, 1786, the Virginia Legislature, following James Madison's recommendation, invited all the states to send delegates to Annapolis, Maryland to discuss ways to reduce these interstate conflicts.^ James I. (when our separate legislature was established) were assigned to me; the British statutes from that period to the present day to Mr. Wythe, and the Virginia laws to Mr. Pendleton.
  • Articles of Confederation by Thomas Jefferson 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.juntosociety.com [Source type: Original source]

^ A generation younger than the General and not at all charismatic, Madison's political effectiveness first came before Washington's attention as a skillful leader of committees and legislatures.

^ In 1786 the states had all the power, in 2009 state power is much diminished; but it is not entirely gone by any means.

At what came to be known as the Annapolis Convention, the few state delegates in attendance endorsed a motion that called for all states to meet in Philadelphia in May, 1787 to discuss ways to improve the Articles of Confederation in a "Grand Convention." Although the states' representatives to the Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia were only authorized to amend the Articles, the representatives held secret, closed-door sessions and wrote a new constitution. .The new Constitution gave much more power to the central government, but characterization of the result is disputed.^ A constitution is a document that outlines the powers of government.
  • SSC - TEKS and TAKS - TEKS Glossary - Grade 8 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.tea.state.tx.us [Source type: Original source]

^ The Federalists, who favored a strong central government, supported the Constitution while the Anti-Federalists favored states' rights and the protection of individual rights through a Bill of Rights.
  • SSC - TEKS and TAKS - TEKS Glossary - Grade 8 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.tea.state.tx.us [Source type: Original source]

^ The three branches of government -- legislative, executive and judicial --were established to balance power, but the U.S. Constitution is the supreme law.
  • SSC - TEKS and TAKS - TEKS Glossary - Grade 8 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.tea.state.tx.us [Source type: Original source]

The general goal of the authors was to get as close to a republic as defined by the philosophers of the Age of Enlightenment, while trying to address the many difficulties of the interstate relationships. Historian Forrest McDonald, using the ideas of James Madison from Federalist 39, describes the change this way:
.
The constitutional reallocation of powers created a new form of government, unprecedented under the sun.^ A constitution is a document that outlines the powers of government.
  • SSC - TEKS and TAKS - TEKS Glossary - Grade 8 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.tea.state.tx.us [Source type: Original source]

^ In addition this new form of government distributed the power between a central government and the states.
  • SSC - TEKS and TAKS - TEKS Glossary - Grade 8 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.tea.state.tx.us [Source type: Original source]

^ This new form of government distributed the power between a central government and the states, a system called federalism.
  • SSC - TEKS and TAKS - TEKS Glossary - Grade 8 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.tea.state.tx.us [Source type: Original source]

.Every previous national authority either had been centralized or else had been a confederation of sovereign states.^ Even after this experience, the Southern Confederate States later adopted the same system of a central currency without a central government and really did lose their war.

^ Articles of Confederation: Article XIII. Every State shall abide by the determination of the United States in Congress assembled, on all questions which by this confederation are submitted to them.

^ The Constitution resulted from rigorous debate between those favoring a strong central government and those favoring a union of sovereign states.
  • SSC - TEKS and TAKS - TEKS Glossary - Grade 8 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.tea.state.tx.us [Source type: Original source]

.The new American system was neither one nor the other; it was a mixture of both.^ Historians and other social scientists also have a frame of reference, one based in the present, and informed by new approaches and methods.
  • SSC - TEKS and TAKS - TEKS Glossary - Grade 8 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.tea.state.tx.us [Source type: Original source]

^ One of the foundations of the American system of government is the use of a written constitution defining the values and principles of government and establishing the limits of power.
  • SSC - TEKS and TAKS - TEKS Glossary - Grade 8 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.tea.state.tx.us [Source type: Original source]

^ Others have their proposed systems and we have our proven one.

[15]
When approached after leaving the close of the Federal Convention, Benjamin Franklin was asked a question. This is the conversation as has been recorded,
The lady asked "Well, Doctor, what have we got—a Republic or a Monarchy?"
“A Republic, if you can keep it.” was the response of Benjamin Franklin.
Historian Ralph Ketcham comments on the opinions of Patrick Henry, George Mason, and other antifederalists who were not so eager to give up the local autonomy won by the revolution:
.
Antifederalists feared what Patrick Henry termed the "consolidated government" proposed by the new Constitution.^ The approach the Constitutional Convention adopted was to weaken the ability of the new government to be misused by a popular majority.

^ Those opposed to the Constitution because they feared the power of the national government in the new federal system were called Anti-Federalists.
  • SSC - TEKS and TAKS - TEKS Glossary - Grade 8 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.tea.state.tx.us [Source type: Original source]

^ Delegates to the convention modified the Virginia Plan, merged it with the New Jersey Plan proposed later, defined the three branches, and outlined their responsibilities and limitations of power in the U.S. Constitution.
  • SSC - TEKS and TAKS - TEKS Glossary - Grade 8 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.tea.state.tx.us [Source type: Original source]

.They saw in Federalist hopes for commercial growth and international prestige only the lust of ambitious men for a "splendid empire" that, in the time-honored way of empires, would oppress the people with taxes, conscription, and military campaigns.^ They designed a separation of its powers, hoping that a balance of power would develop among the Legislative, Executive and Judicial branches, each selected in a different way.

^ [At the same time, it seems inconceivable that the Constitutional Convention would have condoned the present discordance between the several states in what federal taxes they pay compared with what federal benefits they receive.

^ If a state raises a tax, estate tax for example, in a burdensome way, people will flee to a state with more reasonable taxation.

.Uncertain that any government over so vast a domain as the United States could be controlled by the people, Antifederalists saw in the enlarged powers of the general government only the familiar threats to the rights and liberties of the people.^ While Congress could call on states to contribute specific resources and numbers of men for the army, it was not allowed to force states to obey the central government's request for aid.
  • Articles of Confederation [ushistory.org] 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.ushistory.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States respectively, or to the people.

^ By withdrawing from control of the local government, the Penn family also withdrew from the defense of the state borders against neighboring colonies.

[16]
.According to their own terms for modification (Article XIII), the Articles would still have been in effect until 1790, the year in which the last of the 13 states ratified the new Constitution.^ Until the confederation adopts the rules of procedure foreseen by Article IV.C.3, the Courts of the confederation may apply rules not inconsistent with this Constitution.
  • Israel-Palestine-Jordan Confederation 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.harhoma.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Virginia and New York approved the document later in 1788, and North Carolina and Rhode Island adopted it last, in 1789 and 1790, respectively.
  • SSC - TEKS and TAKS - TEKS Glossary - Grade 8 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.tea.state.tx.us [Source type: Original source]

^ Ratification was required by nine of the 13 states in order for the constitution to take effect.
  • SSC - TEKS and TAKS - TEKS Glossary - Grade 8 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.tea.state.tx.us [Source type: Original source]

.The Congress under the Articles continued to sit until November 1788,[17][18][19][20] overseeing the adoption of the new Constitution by the states, and setting elections.^ This first national "constitution" for the United States was not particularly innovative, and mostly put into written form how the Congress had operated since 1775.
  • Articles of Confederation [ushistory.org] 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.ushistory.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Articles of Confederation: Article XIII. Every State shall abide by the determination of the United States in Congress assembled, on all questions which by this confederation are submitted to them.

^ When 60,000 persons moved into one of the political subdivisions, that area could draft a constitution, submit it to Congress for approval, and become a state.
  • SSC - TEKS and TAKS - TEKS Glossary - Grade 8 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.tea.state.tx.us [Source type: Original source]

.By that date, 11 of the 13 states had ratified the new Constitution.^ Ratification was required by nine of the 13 states in order for the constitution to take effect.
  • SSC - TEKS and TAKS - TEKS Glossary - Grade 8 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.tea.state.tx.us [Source type: Original source]

^ Phase I of the Constitution was designed to take as much power away from the states as could be taken without provoking them into refusing to ratify it.

^ Delaware was the first state to ratify the Constitution and it was followed by Pennsylvania and New Jersey in 1787.
  • SSC - TEKS and TAKS - TEKS Glossary - Grade 8 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.tea.state.tx.us [Source type: Original source]

.Historians have given many reasons for the perceived need to replace the articles in 1787. Jillson and Wilson (1994) point to the financial weakness as well as the norms, rules and institutional structures of the Congress, and the propensity to divide along sectional lines.^ The founders of the American republic arrived at a formulation: strengthen central majority-rule government to a point where it can be effective, but keep it too weak for the majority to tyrannize a minority.

^ The Constitutional Convention was held in confidence, many delegates changed their minds along the way, and many ideas were more perceived than enunciated.

Rakove (1988) identifies several factors that explain the collapse of the Confederation. .The lack of compulsory direct taxation power was objectionable to those wanting a strong centralized state or expecting to benefit from such power.^ In addition this new form of government distributed the power between a central government and the states.
  • SSC - TEKS and TAKS - TEKS Glossary - Grade 8 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.tea.state.tx.us [Source type: Original source]

^ This new form of government distributed the power between a central government and the states, a system called federalism.
  • SSC - TEKS and TAKS - TEKS Glossary - Grade 8 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.tea.state.tx.us [Source type: Original source]

^ The Federalists, who favored a strong central government, supported the Constitution while the Anti-Federalists favored states' rights and the protection of individual rights through a Bill of Rights.
  • SSC - TEKS and TAKS - TEKS Glossary - Grade 8 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.tea.state.tx.us [Source type: Original source]

It could not collect customs after the war because tariffs were vetoed by Rhode Island. .Rakove concludes that their failure to implement national measures "stemmed not from a heady sense of independence but rather from the enormous difficulties that all the states encountered in collecting taxes, mustering men, and gathering supplies from a war-weary populace."^ Eight years of war had taught him that to impose taxes and sacrifices in the national interest, state disunity simply had to be controlled.

^ By 1787 a new system was needed as states were acting independently, and Congress lacked the power to tax, regulate trade, or control coinage, issues critical for the survival of a new nation of united states.
  • SSC - TEKS and TAKS - TEKS Glossary - Grade 8 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.tea.state.tx.us [Source type: Original source]

^ Even though the Articles were rather modest in their proposals, they would not be ratified by all the states until 1781.
  • Articles of Confederation [ushistory.org] 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.ushistory.org [Source type: Academic]

[21] .The second group of factors Rakove identified derived from the substantive nature of the problems the Continental Congress confronted after 1783, especially the inability to create a strong foreign policy.^ While the state constitutions were being created, the Continental Congress continued to meet as a general political body.
  • Articles of Confederation [ushistory.org] 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.ushistory.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The Declaration of Independence is a document adopted by the Second Continental Congress on July 4, 1776.
  • SSC - TEKS and TAKS - TEKS Glossary - Grade 8 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.tea.state.tx.us [Source type: Original source]

^ The Flag Act of June 14, 1777 was passed by the Second Continental Congress (under the Articles of Confederation, of course.

Finally, the Confederation's lack of coercive power reduced the likelihood for profit to be made by political means, thus potential rulers were uninspired to seek power.
.When the war ended in 1783, certain special interests had incentives to create a new "merchant state," much like the British state people had rebelled against.^ Sandford, the Supreme Court ruled that slaves were property and that the Missouri Compromise, which prohibited slavery in certain parts of the United States, was unconstitutional in that it deprived people of property, their slaves.
  • SSC - TEKS and TAKS - TEKS Glossary - Grade 8 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.tea.state.tx.us [Source type: Original source]

^ That in questions of war the smaller states were as much interested as the larger, & therefore should vote equally; and indeed that the larger states were more likely to bring war on the confederacy in proportion as their frontier was more extensive.
  • Articles of Confederation by Thomas Jefferson 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.juntosociety.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The amendment, adopted in 1865, eight months after the war ended, legally forbade slavery in the United States.
  • SSC - TEKS and TAKS - TEKS Glossary - Grade 8 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.tea.state.tx.us [Source type: Original source]

.In particular, holders of war scrip and land speculators wanted a central government to pay off scrip at face value and to legalize western land holdings with disputed claims.^ Even after this experience, the Southern Confederate States later adopted the same system of a central currency without a central government and really did lose their war.

^ GEORGE Washington wanted a stronger central government to protect the country from enemies foreign and domestic, and he wanted it to be effective and workable; either way, he wanted a country he could be proud of.

^ By 1780, with the outcome of the war still very much undecided, the central government had run out of money and was bankrupt !
  • Articles of Confederation [ushistory.org] 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.ushistory.org [Source type: Academic]

.Also, manufacturers wanted a high tariff as a barrier to foreign goods, but competition among states made this impossible without a central government.^ While Congress could call on states to contribute specific resources and numbers of men for the army, it was not allowed to force states to obey the central government's request for aid.
  • Articles of Confederation [ushistory.org] 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.ushistory.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Even after this experience, the Southern Confederate States later adopted the same system of a central currency without a central government and really did lose their war.

^ The concept of how to curtail central government power in a non-violent way, can be called Regulatory Competition.

[22]
Political scientist David C. Hendrickson writes that two prominent political leaders in the Confederation, John Jay of New York and Thomas Burke of North Carolina believed that "the authority of the congress rested on the prior acts of the several states, to which the states gave their voluntary consent, and until those obligations were fulfilled, neither nullification of the authority of congress, exercising its due powers, nor secession from the compact itself was consistent with the terms of their original pledges."[23]
.Law professor Daniel Farber argues that there was no clear consensus on the permanence of the Union or the issue of secession by the Founding Fathers.^ THERE are a number of supermarkets in Philadelphia called Grand Union Stores , but the grocery conglomerate was founded in 1872.

^ Human Rights Human rights were mainly a religious issue to the Founding Fathers, demanding a Bill of Rights to signify God's supremacy over legislatures.

Farber wrote:
What about the original understanding? The debates contain scattered statements about the permanence or impermanence of the Union. The occasional reference to the possible impermanency of the Constitution are hard to interpret. .They might have referred to a legal right to revoke ratification.^ Charles II had written in the Charter that the Penns could have the land if they could maintain order there, retaining the legal right for the King to recover the land if they didn't.

.But they could equally could have referred to an extraconstitutional right of revolution, or to the possibility that a new national convention would rewrite the Constitution, or simply to the factual possibility that the national government might break down.^ To refer it back to a new Convention might endanger the loss of the whole.
  • Articles of Confederation by Thomas Jefferson 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.juntosociety.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It established a system for setting up governments in the western territories so they could eventually join the Union on an equal footing with the original 13 states.
  • SSC - TEKS and TAKS - TEKS Glossary - Grade 8 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.tea.state.tx.us [Source type: Original source]

^ They answered candidly that no funds could be obtained until the new government should get into action, and have time to make it's arrangements.
  • Articles of Confederation by Thomas Jefferson 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.juntosociety.com [Source type: Original source]

.Similarly, references to the permanency of the Union could have referred to the practical unlikelihood of withdrawal rather than to any lack of legal power.^ That had he lived in a state where the representation, originally equal, had become unequal by time & accident he might have submitted rather than disturb government; but that we should be very wrong to set out in this practice when it is in our power to establish what is right.
  • Articles of Confederation by Thomas Jefferson 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.juntosociety.com [Source type: Original source]

.The public debates seemingly do not speak specifically to whether ratification under Article VII was revocable.^ Article VII, Ratification of the Constitution, outlined the process which required nine states to approve the U.S. Constitution.
  • SSC - TEKS and TAKS - TEKS Glossary - Grade 8 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.tea.state.tx.us [Source type: Original source]

[24]
.However, what if one or more states do violate the compact?^ That a state of one hundred thousand freemen can maintain no more cattle than one of one hundred thousand slaves.
  • Articles of Confederation by Thomas Jefferson 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.juntosociety.com [Source type: Original source]

.One view, not only about the Articles but also the later Constitution, was that the state or states injured by such a breach could rightfully secede.^ When 60,000 persons moved into one of the political subdivisions, that area could draft a constitution, submit it to Congress for approval, and become a state.
  • SSC - TEKS and TAKS - TEKS Glossary - Grade 8 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.tea.state.tx.us [Source type: Original source]

^ While features of the present Constitution can sometimes be linked to correction of flaws in the Articles, one by one amendment never seemed to be enough.

^ Unless provided otherwise in the Constitution, decisions of the Legislature require the approval of each House of the Legislature, except for rules pertaining only to one House and declarations made by it.
  • Israel-Palestine-Jordan Confederation 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.harhoma.com [Source type: Original source]

.This position was held by, among others, Thomas Jefferson and John Calhoun.^ The committee appointed to write the Declaration of Independence included Benjamin Franklin, John Adams, Roger Sherman, Robert Livingston, and Thomas Jefferson.
  • SSC - TEKS and TAKS - TEKS Glossary - Grade 8 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.tea.state.tx.us [Source type: Original source]

.
If any state in the Union will declare that it prefers separation .^ The last four states ratified out of fear of exclusion, believing they could not exist separate from the union.
  • SSC - TEKS and TAKS - TEKS Glossary - Grade 8 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.tea.state.tx.us [Source type: Original source]

. . to a continuance in union . . . I have no hesitation in saying, let us separate.
— Jefferson letter to William H. Crawford, Monroe's Secretary of the Treasury, 1816
.This view motivated discussions of secession and nullification at the Hartford Convention, the Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions, and the Nullification Crisis.^ His ideas influenced those who proposed the Virginia Plan in the opening discussion of the Philadelphia Convention, held in 1787 to revise the Articles of Confederation.
  • SSC - TEKS and TAKS - TEKS Glossary - Grade 8 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.tea.state.tx.us [Source type: Original source]

In his book Life of Webster Sen. Henry Cabot Lodge writes
.
It is safe to say that there was not a man in the country, from Washington and Hamilton to Clinton and Mason, who did not regard the new system as an experiment from which each and every State had a right to peaceably withdraw.^ Washington decided to set this right, using Madison as his right-hand man.

^ Even after this experience, the Southern Confederate States later adopted the same system of a central currency without a central government and really did lose their war.

^ This new form of government distributed the power between a central government and the states, a system called federalism.
  • SSC - TEKS and TAKS - TEKS Glossary - Grade 8 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.tea.state.tx.us [Source type: Original source]

[25][26]
.A competing view, promoted by Daniel Webster and later by Abraham Lincoln , was that the Constitution (and Articles) established a permanent union.^ Acting within the powers of Article III, the judicial branch strengthened federal authority over state and private authority when the issue threatened rights established in the Constitution.
  • SSC - TEKS and TAKS - TEKS Glossary - Grade 8 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.tea.state.tx.us [Source type: Original source]

^ Means any committee of the Executive Board, including (but not limited to) the Bureau, constituted and established in accordance with these Articles.
  • IWSF Articles of Association 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.iwsf.com [Source type: Original source]

^ That Union was the North in The American Civil War , and it is reported that life-sized replicas of Abraham Lincoln were once a common feature in the stores.

[27][28] President Andrew Jackson during the Nullification Crisis, in his “Proclamation to the People of South Carolina”, made the case for the perpetuity of the Union while also contrasting the differences between “revolution” and “secession”:[29]
.
But each State having expressly parted with so many powers as to constitute jointly with the other States a single nation, cannot from that period possess any right to secede, because such secession does not break a league, but destroys the unity of a nation, and any injury to that unity is not only a breach which would result from the contravention of a compact, but it is an offense against the whole Union.^ This first national "constitution" for the United States was not particularly innovative, and mostly put into written form how the Congress had operated since 1775.
  • Articles of Confederation [ushistory.org] 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.ushistory.org [Source type: Academic]

^ But there was another amendment of which none of us thought at the time and in the omission of which lurks the germ that is to destroy this happy combination of National powers in the General government for matters of National concern, and independent powers in the states for what concerns the states severally.
  • Articles of Confederation by Thomas Jefferson 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.juntosociety.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States respectively, or to the people.

.To say that any State may at pleasure secede from the Union, is to say that the United States are not a nation because it would be a solecism to contend that any part of a nation might dissolve its connection with the other parts, to their injury or ruin, without committing any offense.^ Sandford, the Supreme Court ruled that slaves were property and that the Missouri Compromise, which prohibited slavery in certain parts of the United States, was unconstitutional in that it deprived people of property, their slaves.
  • SSC - TEKS and TAKS - TEKS Glossary - Grade 8 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.tea.state.tx.us [Source type: Original source]

^ Because of its resemblance to the flag of the nation we were fighting to overthrow, it is understandable that there would be a desire to change it.

^ The Monroe Doctrine was a statement of foreign policy which proclaimed that Europe should not interfere in affairs within the United States or in the development of other countries in the Western Hemisphere, and that the United States would not interfere in European affairs.
  • SSC - TEKS and TAKS - TEKS Glossary - Grade 8 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.tea.state.tx.us [Source type: Original source]

.Secession, like any other revolutionary act, may be morally justified by the extremity of oppression; but to call it a constitutional right, is confounding the meaning of terms, and can only be done through gross error, or to deceive those who are willing to assert a right, but would pause before they made a revolution, or incur the penalties consequent upon a failure.^ The term "founding fathers" applies to those individuals who played a major role in declaring U.S. independence, fighting the Revolutionary War, or writing and adopting the U.S. Constitution.
  • SSC - TEKS and TAKS - TEKS Glossary - Grade 8 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.tea.state.tx.us [Source type: Original source]

^ The Executive Board may, in its discretion, arrange for translations and / or interpretations of the Constitution and Bye-laws into other languages.
  • IWSF Articles of Association 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.iwsf.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I prepared, and obtained leave to bring in a bill declaring who should be deemed citizens, asserting the natural right of expatriation, and prescribing the mode of exercising it.
  • Articles of Confederation by Thomas Jefferson 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.juntosociety.com [Source type: Original source]

[30]
.This view, among others, was presented against declarations of secession from the Union by southern slave states as the American Civil War began.^ Even after this experience, the Southern Confederate States later adopted the same system of a central currency without a central government and really did lose their war.

^ That in some countries the labouring poor were called freemen, in others they were called slaves; but that the difference as to the state was imaginary only.
  • Articles of Confederation by Thomas Jefferson 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.juntosociety.com [Source type: Original source]

^ There is even a shadow of present concern that Americans will have so forgotten the lessons of free interstate commerce that they might somehow surrender it for some other blandishment.

See also

Notes

  1. ^ "Its [the Philadelphia Convention's] official function was to propose revisions to the Articles. But the delegates, meeting in secret, quickly decided to draft a totally new document. Of the 55 delegates, only 8 had signed the Declaration of Independence. Most of the leading radicals, including Sam Adams, Henry, Paine, Lee, and Jefferson, were absent. In contrast, 21 delegates belonged to the militarist[citation needed] Society of the Cincinnati. Overall, the convention was dominated by the array of nationalist interests that the prior war had brought together: land speculators, ex-army officers, public creditors, and privileged merchants." Did the Constitution Betray the Revolution?, Jeffrey Rogers Hummel, William Marina
  2. ^ "The American Revolution, like all great social upheavals, was brought off by a disparate coalition of competing view-points and conflicting interests. At one end of the Revolutionary coalition stood the American radicals - men such as Samuel Adams, Patrick Henry, Thomas Paine, Richard Henry Lee and Thomas Jefferson. Although by no means in agreement on everything, the radicals objected to excessive government power in general and not simply to British rule in particular. ... At the other end of the Revolutionary coalition were the American nationalists - men such as Benjamin Franklin, George Washington, Robert Morris, Alexander Hamilton and James Madison. Representing a powerful array of mercantile, creditor and landed interests, the nationalists went along with independence but opposed the Revolution's libertarian thrust. They sought a strong and effective American central government, which would reproduce the hierarchical features of the eighteenth-century British State, only without the British." - Jeffrey Rogers Hummel, The Constitution as Counter-Revolution: A Tribute to the Anti-Federalists
  3. ^ Monday, November 17, 1777, Journals of the Continental Congress, 1774–1789. A Century of Lawmaking, 1774-1873
  4. ^ "Articles of Confederation, 1777-1781". U.S. Department of State. http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ho/time/ar/91719.htm. Retrieved 2008-01-26. 
  5. ^ Letter George Washington to George Clinton, September 11, 1783. The George Washington Papers, 1741-1799
  6. ^ Chadwick p. 469. Phelps pp. 165-166. Phelps wrote:
    "It is hardly surprising, given their painful confrontations with a weak central government and the sovereign states, that the former generals of the Revolution as well as countless lesser officers strongly supported the creation of a more muscular union in the 1780s and fought hard for the ratification of the Constitution in 1787. Their wartime experiences had nationalized them."
  7. ^ Puls pp. 174-176
  8. ^ a b Puls p. 177
  9. ^ Henry Cabot Lodge. George Washington, Vol. I. I. http://www.fullbooks.com/George-Washington-Vol-I4.html. 
  10. ^ Ellis 92
  11. ^ Stahr p. 105
  12. ^ Stahr p. 107
  13. ^ Stahr pp. 107-108
  14. ^ Friday, February 2, 1781, Laws of Maryland, 1781. An ACT to empower the delegates
  15. ^ McDonald pg. 276
  16. ^ Ralph Ketcham, Roots of the Republic: American Founding Documents Interpreted, pg. 383
  17. ^ Emory, Bobby (1993). "The Articles of Confederation". Libertarian Nation Foundation. http://libertariannation.org/a/f11e1.html#3. Retrieved 2008-01-26. 
  18. ^ "Religion and the Congress of the Confederation, 1774-89 (Religion and the Founding of the American Republic, Library of Congress Exhibition)". Library of Congress. 2003-10-27. http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/religion/rel04.html. 
  19. ^ "Records of the Continental and Confederation Congresses and the Constitutional Convention". U.S. National Archives and Records Administration. http://www.archives.gov/research/guide-fed-records/groups/360.html#360.2. 
  20. ^ "Documents from the Continental Congress and the Constitutional Convention, 1774-1789 - To Form a More Perfect Union: The Work of the Continental Congress & the Constitutional Convention (American Memory from the Library of Congress)". Memory.loc.gov. http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/collections/continental/constit.html. Retrieved 2010-03-17. 
  21. ^ Rakove 1988 p. 230
  22. ^ Hendrickson p. 154
  23. ^ Hendrickson p. 153-154
  24. ^ Farber p.87
  25. ^ Lodge's view on the unanimity of this view is contested by Judge Caleb William Loring in UNION NOT MADE BY THE WAR
  26. ^ A textbook used at West Point before the Civil War, A View of the Constitution, written by Judge William Rawle in 1829, states in chapter XXXII, "The secession of a state from the Union depends on the will of the people of such state. The people alone as we have already seen, hold the power to alter their constitution. The Constitution of the United States is to a certain extent, incorporated into the constitutions or the several states by the act of the people. The state legislatures have only to perform certain organical operations in respect to it. To withdraw from the Union comes not within the general scope of their delegated authority. There must be an express provision to that effect inserted in the state constitutions. This is not, at present, the case with any of them, and it would perhaps be impolitic to confide it to them."
  27. ^ This view, along with the view that the union was a binding contract from which no state could unilaterally remove itself, was included in Lincoln's First Inaugural Address.
  28. ^ Pressley p. 649-650. In 1848 Lincoln expressed “unequivocal support for the ‘right of revolution,’" with the following comment regarding Mexico:
    Any people anywhere, being inclined and having the power, have the right to rise up, and shake off the existing government, and form a new one that suits them better. This is a most valuable,-a most sacred right-a right, which we hope and believe, is to liberate the world. Nor is this right confined to cases in which the whole people of an existing government, may choose to exercise it. Any portion of such people that can, may revolutionize, and make their own, of so much of the teritory [sic] as they inhabit. More than this, a majority of any portion of such people may revolutionize, putting down a minority, intermingled with, or near about them, who may oppose their movement. Such minority, was precisely the case, of the Tories of our own revolution. It is a quality of revolutions not to go by old lines, or old laws; but to break up both, and make new ones.
  29. ^ Remini pp. 21
  30. ^ "President Jackson's Proclamation Regarding Nullification, December 10, 1832". The Avalon Project at Yale Law School. http://avalon.law.yale.edu/19th_century/jack01.asp. Retrieved 2008-09-01. 

References

.
  • R. B. Bernstein, "Parliamentary Principles, American Realities: The Continental and Confederation Congresses, 1774-1789," in Inventing Congress: Origins & Establishment Of First Federal Congress ed by Kenneth R. Bowling and Donald R. Kennon (1999) pp 76–108
  • Burnett, Edmund Cody.^ A Continental Confederation shall be established in respect of each Confederation for the purpose of promoting and regulating Water Skiing within its geographical designation.
    • IWSF Articles of Association 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.iwsf.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ One of the foundations of the American system of government is the use of a written constitution defining the values and principles of government and establishing the limits of power.
    • SSC - TEKS and TAKS - TEKS Glossary - Grade 8 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.tea.state.tx.us [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The Fundamental Orders of Connecticut was the first written constitution in the American colonies, prepared as the covenant for the new Puritan community in Connecticut, established in the 1630s.
    • SSC - TEKS and TAKS - TEKS Glossary - Grade 8 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.tea.state.tx.us [Source type: Original source]

    .The Continental Congress: A Definitive History of the Continental Congress From Its Inception in 1774 to March, 1789 (1941)
  • Chadwick, Bruce.^ America's Capital City, 1774-1800 The Continental Congress met in Philadelphia from 1774 to 1788.

    ^ In 1774 the Continental Congress urged states to abolish the slave trade and most supported the request.
    • SSC - TEKS and TAKS - TEKS Glossary - Grade 8 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.tea.state.tx.us [Source type: Original source]

    .George Washington's War. (2005)
  • Ellis, Joseph J., American Sphinx: The Character of Thomas Jefferson. (1996) ISBN 0-679-76441-0
  • Farber, Daniel.^ Founding fathers include Thomas Jefferson, George Washington, and James Madison.
    • SSC - TEKS and TAKS - TEKS Glossary - Grade 8 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.tea.state.tx.us [Source type: Original source]

    ^ America was once in this situation under the Articles of Confederation , but even after almost losing the Revolutionary War, George Washington was nearly unable to get the colonies to form a union.

    .Lincoln's Constitution. (2003) ISBN 0-226-23793-1
  • Barbara Feinberg, The Articles Of Confederation (2002).^ The U.S. Constitution evolved from the Articles of Confederation, adopted in 1781.
    • SSC - TEKS and TAKS - TEKS Glossary - Grade 8 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.tea.state.tx.us [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Articles of Confederation: Fatal Flaw Some subtle features make the Constitution a vast improvement over the Articles of Confederation.

    ^ The Articles of Confederation, the nation's first constitution, was adopted by the Second Continental Congress in 1781 during the Revolution.
    • SSC - TEKS and TAKS - TEKS Glossary - Grade 8 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.tea.state.tx.us [Source type: Original source]

    [for middle school children.]
  • .
  • Hendrickson, David C., Peace Pact: The Lost World of the American Founding. (2003) ISBN 0-7006-1237-8
  • Robert W. Hoffert, A Politics of Tensions: The Articles of Confederation and American Political Ideas (1992).
  • Lucille E. Horgan.^ His ideas influenced those who proposed the Virginia Plan in the opening discussion of the Philadelphia Convention, held in 1787 to revise the Articles of Confederation.
    • SSC - TEKS and TAKS - TEKS Glossary - Grade 8 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.tea.state.tx.us [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Under the circumstances, the Penns were afraid to appeal to the King, while the new government of Pennsylvania found the Articles of Confederation were merely a wartime tribal compact.

    Forged in War: The Continental Congress and the Origin of Military Supply and Acquisition Policy (2002)
  • Jensen, Merrill (1959). .The Articles of Confederation: An Interpretation of the Social-Constitutional History of the American Revolution, 1774-1781. 
  • Jensen, Merrill (1943).^ That sounds pretty perpetual to most readers, making the Constitution merely a clarification of details, or at most an amendment to the Articles of Confederation.

    ^ The Articles of Confederation, which were anyway not fully ratified until 1781 , established a military alliance of thirteen otherwise fairly autonomous states.

    ^ Articles of Confederation: Fatal Flaw Some subtle features make the Constitution a vast improvement over the Articles of Confederation.

    "The Idea of a National Government During the American Revolution". Political Science Quarterly (Political Science Quarterly) 58 (3): 356–79. doi:10.2307/2144490. ISSN 0032-3195. http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0032-3195%28194309%2958%3A3%3C356%3ATIOANG%3E2.0.CO%3B2-M. 
  • Calvin Jillson and Rick K. Wilson. Congressional Dynamics: Structure, Coordination, and Choice in the First American Congress, 1774-1789. (1994)
  • McDonald, Forrest (1986). Novus Ordo Seclorum: The Intellectual Origins of the Constitution. University Press of Kansas. .ISBN 0700603115. 
  • Andrew C. Mclaughlin, A Constitutional History of the United States (1935) online version
  • Pauline Maier, American Scripture: Making the Declaration of Independence (1998).
  • Jackson T. Main, Political Parties before the Constitution. University of North Carolina Press, 1974
  • Phelps, Glenn A. "The Republican General" in “George Washington Reconsidered.“ edited by Don Higginbotham.^ This rationale drove the acquisition of territory in the 1840s as President James K. Polk attempted to declare the parallel of 5440' as the northern boundary of the United States.
    • SSC - TEKS and TAKS - TEKS Glossary - Grade 8 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.tea.state.tx.us [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Declaration of Independence or not, they tried to fight a war for seven years before they would even ratify the Articles of Confederation.

    ^ The term "founding fathers" applies to those individuals who played a major role in declaring U.S. independence, fighting the Revolutionary War, or writing and adopting the U.S. Constitution.
    • SSC - TEKS and TAKS - TEKS Glossary - Grade 8 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.tea.state.tx.us [Source type: Original source]

    (2001) ISBN 0-8139-2005-1
  • Pressly, Thomas J., “Bullets and Ballots: Lincoln and the ‘Right of Revolution’” The American Historical Review, Vol. 67, No. 3. (Apr., 1962)
  • Puls, Mark. .Henry Knox: Visionary General of the American Revolution. (2008) ISBN- 978-1-4039-8427-2
  • Jack N. Rakove, The Beginnings of National Politics: An Interpretive History of the Continental Congress (1982).
  • Jack N. Rakove, “The Collapse of the Articles of Confederation,” in The American Founding: Essays on the Formation of the Constitution. Ed by J. Jackson Barlow, Leonard W. Levy and Ken Masugi.^ The U.S. Constitution evolved from the Articles of Confederation, adopted in 1781.
    • SSC - TEKS and TAKS - TEKS Glossary - Grade 8 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.tea.state.tx.us [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Articles of Confederation: Article XIII. Every State shall abide by the determination of the United States in Congress assembled, on all questions which by this confederation are submitted to them.

    ^ Articles of Confederation: Fatal Flaw Some subtle features make the Constitution a vast improvement over the Articles of Confederation.

    Greenwood Press. 1988. Pp 225–45 ISBN 0313256101
  • Remini, Robert V. Andrew Jackson and the Course of American Democracy, 1833-1845. (1984) ISBN 0-06-015279-6
  • Stahr, Walter. John Jay. (2005) ISBN 0-8264-1879-1

Further reading

  • Klos, Stanley L. (2004). President Who? Forgotten Founders. Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania: Evisum, Inc.. p. 261. ISBN 0-9752627-5-0. 

External links


Source material

Up to date as of January 22, 2010

From Wikisource

Articles of Confederation[1]
The United States of America in Congress Assembled

Articles of Confederation of 1777
.The Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union, or, more commonly, just the Articles of Confederation, was the first governing document of the United States of America.^ This is the correct answer if one is referring to the "Articles of Confederation" as a singular document, just as one refers to the "United States of America" as a singular nation composed of a plurality of states.
  • FARK.com: (3408884) Today, let us not forget the first president of the United States, John Hanson 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.fark.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union between the thirteen colonies which had united in the declaration of independence.
  • Lalor, Cyclopaedia of Political Science, V.1, Entry 266, CONFEDERATION | Library of Economics and Liberty 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.econlib.org [Source type: Original source]

^ It was first operated under the Articles of Confederation.
  • Articles vs Confederation essays 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.megaessays.com [Source type: Academic]

.The articles, which combined the 13 colonies of the American Revolutionary War into a loose confederation, were adopted by the Second Continental Congress on November 15, 1777, after 16 months of debate.^ The Articles of Confederation were first drafted by the Continental Congress in Philadelphia Pennsylvania in 1777.
  • Articles of Confederation 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.studyworld.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Articles were written in 1776 and 1777 and adopted by the Second Continental Congress on November 15, 1777 after a year of debate.
  • Articles of Confederation - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Continental Congress adopted the Articles of Confederation , the first constitution of the United States, on November 15, 1777.
  • Articles of Confederation: Primary Documents of American History (Virtual Programs & Services, Library of Congress) 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.loc.gov [Source type: Academic]

The articles were ratified three years later on March 1, 1781.
.The articles were eventually replaced by the United States Constitution on June 21, 1788, when the ninth state, New Hampshire, ratified the Constitution.^ The conspiracy of all conspiracies is the one that claims the Constitution of the United States replaced the Articles of Confederation.
  • Declaration of Independence : EDRIVERA.COM 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.edrivera.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It was not established on September 17, 1787, nor was it adopted when New Hampshire became the ninth State to ratify it on June 21, 1788.
  • Articles of Confederation : EDRIVERA.COM 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.edrivera.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Declaration of Independence : EDRIVERA.COM 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.edrivera.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Articles served as the constitution of the United States until 1789, when a new constitution was adopted.
  • CRF-USA - BRIA 21 4 b The Articles of Confederation 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.crf-usa.org [Source type: Academic]

According to their own terms for modification, however, the articles were still in effect until 1790, when every one of the 13 states had ratified the new Constitution.
— Excerpted from .Articles of Confederation on Wikipedia, the free online encyclopedia.^ Excerpted from Articles of Confederation on Wikipedia , the free online encyclopedia.
  • Articles of Confederation - Wikisource 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

^ From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia .

^ Articles of Confederation - encyclopedia article - Citizendium .
  • Articles of Confederation - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Original source]

The Declaration of Independence | The Articles of Confederation | The Constitution | The Bill of Rights | Other Amendments | Unsuccessful Amendments

Contents

The first page of the Articles of Confederation

Preamble

.To all to whom these Presents shall come, we the undersigned Delegates of the States affixed to our Names send greeting.^ To all to whom these Presents shall come, we the undersigned Delegates of the States affixed to our names send greeting.
  • Online Library of Liberty - 1778: Articles of Confederation 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Online Library of Liberty - APPENDIX I: Articles of Confederation (1778) - Liberty, Order, and Justice: An Introduction to the Constitutional Principles of American Government 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ To all to whom these Presents shall come, we the undersigned Delegates of the States affixed to our Names send greeting.
  • Articles of Confederation. 1909-14. American Historical Documents, 1000-1904. The Harvard Classics 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.bartleby.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • The Articles of Confederation - The U.S. Constitution Online - USConstitution.net 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.usconstitution.net [Source type: Original source]
  • United States Articles of Confederation 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC articlesofconfederation.us [Source type: Original source]
  • ARTICLES OF CONFEDERATION 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC hercules.gcsu.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • Vital Records: Articles of Confederation (USA) 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC nedv.net [Source type: Original source]
  • Articles of Confederation@Everything2.com 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Articles of Confederation - Wikisource 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Articles of Confederation 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.articlesofconfederation.com [Source type: Original source]
  • The Articles of Confederation - North Carolina Digital History 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.learnnc.org [Source type: Original source]

^ To all to whom these Presents shall come, we the undersigned Delegates of the States affixed to our Names, send greeting .
  • The Articles of Confederation - 1777 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.barefootsworld.net [Source type: Original source]

.Whereas the Delegates of the United States of America in Congress assembled did on the fifteenth day of November in the Year of our Lord One Thousand Seven Hundred and Seventy Seven, and in the Second Year of the Independence of America agree to certain articles of Confederation and perpetual Union between the States of New Hampshire, Massachusetts bay, Rhode Island and Providence Plantations, Connecticut, New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina and Georgia in the Words following, viz.^ [Pullout: Each state will have one vote in Congress ( not each delegate).
  • The Articles of Confederation - North Carolina Digital History 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.learnnc.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Article V allocates one vote in the Congress of the Confederation (United States in Congress Assembled) to each state, which was entitled to a delegation of between two and seven members.
  • Wikijunior:United States Charters of Freedom/Articles of Confederation - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ On the part and behalf of the state of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations.

."Articles of Confederation and perpetual Union between the States of New Hampshire, Massachusetts bay, Rhode Island and Providence Plantations, Connecticut, New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina and Georgia.^ Articles of Confederation and perpetual Union between the States of New Hampshire, Massachusetts-bay, Rhode Island and Providence Plantations, Connecticut, New-York, New-Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, North-Carolina, South-Carolina and Georgia.
  • Online Library of Liberty - 1778: Articles of Confederation 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Online Library of Liberty - APPENDIX I: Articles of Confederation (1778) - Liberty, Order, and Justice: An Introduction to the Constitutional Principles of American Government 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Large states were resentful that under the Articles of Confederation, each state had just one vote, a situation which was unfair to the population of big states.
  • Tag: Articles of Confederation - Wry Heat 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC tucsoncitizen.com [Source type: Original source]

^ At the core of the Articles was the enduring conflict between a perpetual union and state sovereignty, never clearly resolved.

Article 1

.Article I. The Style of this Confederacy shall be "The United States of America."^ The first members of the Congress of the United States, which shall consist of a Senate and House of Representatives, never take the Article VI oath necessary to form a government, so one is never formed.
  • Declaration of Independence : EDRIVERA.COM 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.edrivera.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The second of the two United States of America, the political United States of America, emerged from the struggle that led to victory over Great Britain.
  • Declaration of Independence : EDRIVERA.COM 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.edrivera.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Article V allocates one vote in the Congress of the Confederation (United States in Congress Assembled) to each state, which was entitled to a delegation of between two and seven members.
  • Wikijunior:United States Charters of Freedom/Articles of Confederation - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

Article 2

.Article II. Each state retains its sovereignty, freedom, and independence, and every power, jurisdiction, and right, which is not by this Confederation expressly delegated to the United States, in Congress assembled.^ Article V allocates one vote in the Congress of the Confederation (United States in Congress Assembled) to each state, which was entitled to a delegation of between two and seven members.
  • Wikijunior:United States Charters of Freedom/Articles of Confederation - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Articles of Confederation: Article XIII. Every State shall abide by the determination of the United States in Congress assembled, on all questions which by this confederation are submitted to them.

^ Article II. Each state retains its sovereignty, freedom, and independence, and every power, jurisdiction, and right, which is not by this Confederation expressly delegated to the United States, in Congress assembled.
  • Vital Records: Articles of Confederation (USA) 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC nedv.net [Source type: Original source]
  • Articles of Confederation - Conservative Politics Web Site 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.thelandofthefree.net [Source type: Original source]

Article 3

.Article III. The said States hereby severally enter into a firm league of friendship with each other, for their common defense, the security of their liberties, and their mutual and general welfare, binding themselves to assist each other, against all force offered to, or attacks made upon them, or any of them, on account of religion, sovereignty, trade, or any other pretense whatever.^ Article III. The said states hereby severally enter into a firm league of friendship with each other, for their common defence, the security of their Liberties, and their mutual and general welfare, binding themselves to assist each other, against all force offered to, or attacks made upon them, or any of them, on account of religion, sovereignty, trade, or any other pretence whatever.
  • The Articles of Confederation - 1777 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.barefootsworld.net [Source type: Original source]

^ III The said States hereby severally enter into a firm league of friendship with each other, for their common defense, the security of their liberties, and their mutual and general welfare, binding themselves to assist each other, against all force offered to, or attacks made upon them, or any of them, on account of religion, sovereignty, trade, or any other pretense whatever.
  • Articles of Confederation : The official site of Colonial Williamsburg 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.history.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Establishes the name of the confederation as "The United States of America" Explains the rights possessed by any state, and the amount of power to which any state is entitled Establishes the United States as a league of states united "...for their common defense, the security of their liberties, and their mutual and general welfare, binding themselves to assist each other, against all force offered to, or attacks made upon them..."

Article 4

.Article IV. The better to secure and perpetuate mutual friendship and intercourse among the people of the different States in this Union, the free inhabitants of each of these States, paupers, vagabonds, and fugitives from justice excepted, shall be entitled to all privileges and immunities of free citizens in the several States; and the people of each State shall have free ingress and regress to and from any other State, and shall enjoy therein all the privileges of trade and commerce, subject to the same duties, impositions, and restrictions as the inhabitants thereof respectively, provided that such restrictions shall not extend so far as to prevent the removal of property imported into any State, to any other State, of which the owner is an inhabitant; provided also that no imposition, duties or restriction shall be laid by any State, on the property of the United States, or either of them.^ IV. The better to secure and perpetuate mutual friendship and intercourse among the people of the different States in this Union, the free inhabitants of each of these States, paupers, vagabonds, and fugitives from justice excepted, shall be entitled to all privileges and immunities of free citizens in the several States; and the people of each State shall free ingress and regress to and from any other State, and shall enjoy therein all the privileges of trade and commerce, subject to the same duties, impositions, and restrictions as the inhabitants thereof respectively, provided that such restrictions shall not extend so far as to prevent the removal of property imported into any State, to any other State, of which the owner is an inhabitant; provided also that no imposition, duties or restriction shall be laid by any State, on the property of the United States, or either of them.
  • Articles of Confederation 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.articlesofconfederation.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Articles of Confederation 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.articlesofconfederation.com [Source type: Original source]
  • The American Underground • Articles of Confederation, and Comment 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC wachadoo.com [Source type: Original source]

^ And that the articles thereof shall be inviolably observed by the States we respectively represent, and that the union shall be perpetual.
  • Online Library of Liberty - APPENDIX I: Articles of Confederation (1778) - Liberty, Order, and Justice: An Introduction to the Constitutional Principles of American Government 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Articles of Confederation and perpetual Union [ Articles of Confederation and perpetual Union ] [ Home ] [ Federal Constitutions ] [ State Constitutions ].

.If any person guilty of, or charged with, treason, felony, or other high misdemeanor in any State, shall flee from justice, and be found in any of the United States, he shall, upon demand of the Governor or executive power of the State from which he fled, be delivered up and removed to the State having jurisdiction of his offense.^ If any Person guilty of, or charged with treason, felony, or other high misdemeanor in any State, shall flee from Justice, and be found in any of the United States, he shall upon demand of the Governor or executive power, of the State from which he fled, be delivered up and removed to the State having jurisdiction of his offence.
  • Online Library of Liberty - APPENDIX I: Articles of Confederation (1778) - Liberty, Order, and Justice: An Introduction to the Constitutional Principles of American Government 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ United States Constitution, Article 4, clause 2: "A Person charged in any State with Treason, Felony, or other Crime, who shall flee from Justice, and be found in another State, shall on demand of the executive Authority of the State from which he fled, be DELIVERED UP, TO BE REMOVED TO THE STATE HAVING JURISDICTION OF THE CRIME." (Emphasis added).
  • Campaign For Liberty — The Battle Still Rages   | by Timothy Baldwin 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.campaignforliberty.com [Source type: Original source]

^ If any person guilty of, or charged with, treason, felony, or other high misdemeanor in any State, shall flee from justice, and be found in any of the United States, he shall, upon demand of the Governor or executive power of the State from which he fled, be delivered up and removed to the State having jurisdiction of his offense.
  • Articles of Confederation; US Articles of Confederation Copy 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC thomaslegion.net [Source type: Original source]
  • Articles of Confederation : The official site of Colonial Williamsburg 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.history.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Vital Records: Articles of Confederation (USA) 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC nedv.net [Source type: Original source]
  • Revered Freedom Document Critiques - USA Articles of Confederation 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC selfsip.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Articles of Confederation 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.articlesofconfederation.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Articles of Confederation 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.articlesofconfederation.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Articles of Confederation - Conservative Politics Web Site 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.thelandofthefree.net [Source type: Original source]

.Full faith and credit shall be given in each of these States to the records, acts, and judicial proceedings of the courts and magistrates of every other State.^ Full faith and credit shall be given in each of these States to the records, acts and judicial proceedings of the courts and magistrates to every other State.
  • Online Library of Liberty - APPENDIX I: Articles of Confederation (1778) - Liberty, Order, and Justice: An Introduction to the Constitutional Principles of American Government 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Articles of Confederation, Article 4, clause 3: "FULL FAITH AND CREDIT shall be given in each of these States to the records, acts, and judicial proceedings of the courts and magistrates of every other State."
  • Campaign For Liberty — The Battle Still Rages   | by Timothy Baldwin 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.campaignforliberty.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Judicial proceedings in each state were to be honored by all other states.
  • The Articles of Confederation - 1777 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.barefootsworld.net [Source type: Original source]

Article 5

.Article V. For the most convenient management of the general interests of the United States, delegates shall be annually appointed in such manner as the legislatures of each State shall direct, to meet in Congress on the first Monday in November, in every year, with a power reserved to each State to recall its delegates, or any of them, at any time within the year, and to send others in their stead for the remainder of the year.^ The Articles of Confederation gave more power to the state...Within six years, the Articles were replaced by the U...
  • Articles of Confederation Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Articles of Confederation 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States respectively, or to the people.

^ It was to consist of one house, whose members were to be appointed annually by the state legislature, and were to be liable to recall by the legislature at any time.
  • Lalor, Cyclopaedia of Political Science, V.1, Entry 266, CONFEDERATION | Library of Economics and Liberty 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.econlib.org [Source type: Original source]

.No State shall be represented in Congress by less than two, nor more than seven members; and no person shall be capable of being a delegate for more than three years in any term of six years; nor shall any person, being a delegate, be capable of holding any office under the United States, for which he, or another for his benefit, receives any salary, fees or emolument of any kind.^ Article V allocates one vote in the Congress of the Confederation (United States in Congress Assembled) to each state, which was entitled to a delegation of between two and seven members.
  • Wikijunior:United States Charters of Freedom/Articles of Confederation - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ No State shall be represented in Congress by less than two, nor by more than seven Members; and no person shall be capable of being a delegate for more than three years in any term of six years; nor shall any person, being a delegate, be capable of holding any office under the United States, for which he, or another for his benefit receives any salary, fees or emolument of any kind.
  • Online Library of Liberty - APPENDIX I: Articles of Confederation (1778) - Liberty, Order, and Justice: An Introduction to the Constitutional Principles of American Government 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ No one could be a member of Congress for more than three out of every six years.
  • CRF-USA - BRIA 21 4 b The Articles of Confederation 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.crf-usa.org [Source type: Academic]

.Each State shall maintain its own delegates in a meeting of the States, and while they act as members of the committee of the States.^ Each State shall support its own Delegates in a meeting of the States, and while they act as members of the Council of State, herein after mentioned.
  • http://gunshowonthenet.com/2ALEGAL/Origins/ContCongress08201776.html 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC gunshowonthenet.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Each state shall maintain its own delegates in a meeting of the States, and while they act as members of the committee of the States.
  • Articles of Confederation@Everything2.com 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Each Colony shall support its own Delegates in a Meeting of the States, and while they act as Members of the Council of State, herein after mentioned.
  • http://gunshowonthenet.com/2ALEGAL/Origins/ContCongress08201776.html 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC gunshowonthenet.com [Source type: Original source]

.In determining questions in the United States in Congress assembled, each State shall have one vote.^ [Pullout: Each state will have one vote in Congress ( not each delegate).
  • The Articles of Confederation - North Carolina Digital History 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.learnnc.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Articles of Confederation: Article XIII. Every State shall abide by the determination of the United States in Congress assembled, on all questions which by this confederation are submitted to them.

^ In determining questions in the United States in Congress assembled, each state shall have one vote.

.Freedom of speech and debate in Congress shall not be impeached or questioned in any court or place out of Congress, and the members of Congress shall be protected in their persons from arrests or imprisonments, during the time of their going to and from, and attendance on Congress, except for treason, felony, or breach of the peace.^ Freedom of speech and debate in Congress shall not be impeached or questioned in any court or place out of Congress, and the members of Congress shall be protected in their persons from arrests or imprisonments, during the time of their going to and from, and attendence on Congress, except for treason, felony, or breach of the peace.
  • The Articles of Confederation - North Carolina Digital History 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.learnnc.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Freedom of speech and debate in Congress shall not be impeached or questioned in any Court, or place out of Congress, and the members of Congress shall be protected in their persons from arrests and imprisonments, during the time of their going to and from, and attendance of Congress, except for treason, felony, or breach of the peace.
  • Online Library of Liberty - APPENDIX I: Articles of Confederation (1778) - Liberty, Order, and Justice: An Introduction to the Constitutional Principles of American Government 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Freedom of speech and debate in Congress shall not be impeached or questioned in any Court, or place out of Congress, and the members of Congress shall be protected in their persons from arrests and imprisonments, during the time of their going to and from, and attendance on Congress, except for treason, felony, or breach of the peace.
  • Articles of Confederation@Everything2.com 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

Article 6

.Article VI. No State, without the consent of the United States in Congress assembled, shall send any embassy to, or receive any embassy from, or enter into any conference, agreement, alliance or treaty with any King, Prince or State; nor shall any person holding any office of profit or trust under the United States, or any of them, accept any present, emolument, office or title of any kind whatever from any King, Prince or foreign State; nor shall the United States in Congress assembled, or any of them, grant any title of nobility.^ No State shall lay any imposts or duties, which may interfere with any stipulations in treaties, entered into by the United States in Congress assembled with any King, Prince, or State, in pursuance of any treaties already proposed by Congress, to the courts of France and Spain....No State shall engage in any war without the consent of the United States in Congress assembled....
  • American Foreign Relations and the Articles of Confederation Through the Perspective of Nathan Dane 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.primaryresearch.org [Source type: Original source]

^ No member of the United States in Congress assembled under the Articles of Confederation has ever taken any oath of Office.
  • Articles of Confederation : EDRIVERA.COM 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.edrivera.com [Source type: Original source]

^ No State shall lay any imposts or duties, which may interfere with any stipulations in treaties, entered into by the United States in Congress assembled, with any King, Prince or State, in pursuance of any treaties already proposed by Congress, to the courts of France and Spain.
  • Articles of Confederation; US Articles of Confederation Copy 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC thomaslegion.net [Source type: Original source]
  • Articles of Confederation : The official site of Colonial Williamsburg 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.history.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Wikijunior:United States Charters of Freedom/Articles of Confederation - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Vital Records: Articles of Confederation (USA) 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC nedv.net [Source type: Original source]
  • Revered Freedom Document Critiques - USA Articles of Confederation 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC selfsip.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Articles of Confederation - Conservative Politics Web Site 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.thelandofthefree.net [Source type: Original source]
  • Online Library of Liberty - APPENDIX I: Articles of Confederation (1778) - Liberty, Order, and Justice: An Introduction to the Constitutional Principles of American Government 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]
  • The American Underground • Articles of Confederation, and Comment 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC wachadoo.com [Source type: Original source]
  • The Articles of Confederation - North Carolina Digital History 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.learnnc.org [Source type: Original source]

.No two or more States shall enter into any treaty, confederation or alliance whatever between them, without the consent of the United States in Congress assembled, specifying accurately the purposes for which the same is to be entered into, and how long it shall continue.^ In determining questions in the United States in Congress assembled, each state shall have one vote.

^ No member of the United States in Congress assembled under the Articles of Confederation has ever taken any oath of Office.
  • Articles of Confederation : EDRIVERA.COM 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.edrivera.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Articles of Confederation, Article 6, clause 3: "No State shall LAY ANY IMPOSTS OR DUTIES, which may interfere with any stipulations in treaties, entered into by the United States in Congress assembled."
  • Campaign For Liberty — The Battle Still Rages   | by Timothy Baldwin 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.campaignforliberty.com [Source type: Original source]

.No State shall lay any imposts or duties, which may interfere with any stipulations in treaties, entered into by the United States in Congress assembled, with any King, Prince or State, in pursuance of any treaties already proposed by Congress, to the courts of France and Spain.^ No State shall lay any imposts or duties, which may interfere with any stipulations in treaties, entered into by the United States in Congress assembled with any King, Prince, or State, in pursuance of any treaties already proposed by Congress, to the courts of France and Spain....No State shall engage in any war without the consent of the United States in Congress assembled....
  • American Foreign Relations and the Articles of Confederation Through the Perspective of Nathan Dane 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.primaryresearch.org [Source type: Original source]

^ No State shall lay any imposts or duties, which may interfere with any stipulations in treaties, entered into by the United States in Congress assembled, with any King, Prince or State, in pursuance of any treaties already proposed by Congress, to the courts of France and Spain.
  • Wikijunior:United States Charters of Freedom/Articles of Confederation - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Vital Records: Articles of Confederation (USA) 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC nedv.net [Source type: Original source]
  • Revered Freedom Document Critiques - USA Articles of Confederation 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC selfsip.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Articles of Confederation 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.articlesofconfederation.com [Source type: Original source]
  • The American Underground • Articles of Confederation, and Comment 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC wachadoo.com [Source type: Original source]
  • The Articles of Confederation - North Carolina Digital History 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.learnnc.org [Source type: Original source]

^ No state shall lay any imposts or duties, which may interfere with any stipulations in treaties, entered into by the United States in Congress assembled, with any king, prince or state, in pursuance of any treaties already proposed by Congress, to the courts of France and Spain.
  • Articles of Confederation@Everything2.com 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

.No vessel of war shall be kept up in time of peace by any State, except such number only, as shall be deemed necessary by the United States in Congress assembled, for the defense of such State, or its trade; nor shall any body of forces be kept up by any State in time of peace, except such number only, as in the judgement of the United States in Congress assembled, shall be deemed requisite to garrison the forts necessary for the defense of such State; but every State shall always keep up a well-regulated and disciplined militia, sufficiently armed and accoutered, and shall provide and constantly have ready for use, in public stores, a due number of filed pieces and tents, and a proper quantity of arms, ammunition and camp equipage.^ No vessel of war shall be kept up in time of peace by any State, except such number only, as shall be deemed necessary by the United States in Congress assembled, for the defense of such State, or its trade; nor shall any body of forces be kept up by any State in time of peace, except such number only, as in the judgment of the United States in Congress assembled, shall be deemed requisite to garrison the forts necessary for the defense of such State; but every State shall always keep up a well-regulated and disciplined militia, sufficiently armed and accoutered, and shall provide and constantly have ready for use, in public stores, a due number of filed pieces and tents, and a proper quantity of arms, ammunition and camp equipage.

^ Each state had only one vote in the Congress.
  • 8-1 The Confederation Era 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC mrthompson.org [Source type: Original source]

^ It gave congress no power to tax or regulate commerce among the states.
  • Kellner’s EduBlog » Blog Archive » The Articles of Confederation 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC henricoenglish.com [Source type: Original source]

.No State shall engage in any war without the consent of the United States in Congress assembled, unless such State be actually invaded by enemies, or shall have received certain advice of a resolution being formed by some nation of Indians to invade such State, and the danger is so imminent as not to admit of a delay till the United States in Congress assembled can be consulted; nor shall any State grant commissions to any ships or vessels of war, nor letters of marque or reprisal, except it be after a declaration of war by the United States in Congress assembled, and then only against the Kingdom or State and the subjects thereof, against which war has been so declared, and under such regulations as shall be established by the United States in Congress assembled, unless such State be infested by pirates, in which case vessels of war may be fitted out for that occasion, and kept so long as the danger shall continue, or until the United States in Congress assembled shall determine otherwise.^ Congress no state could grant a title of nobility (nor would Congress) no vessels of war could be kept in peacetime, except that number determined by Congress necessary for defense no state could engage in a war except on the authorization of Congress, unless invaded or in danger of invasion Article 7 .
  • Articles of Confederation - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Original source]

^ No State shall engage in any war without the consent of the United States in Congress assembled, unless such State be actually invaded by enemies, or shall have received certain advice of a resolution being formed by some nation of Indians to invade such State, and the danger is so imminent as not to admit of a delay till the United States in Congress assembled can be consulted; nor shall any State grant commissions to any ships or vessels of war, nor letters of marque or reprisal, except it be after a declaration of war by the United States in Congress assembled, and then only against the Kingdom or State and the subjects thereof, against which war has been so declared, and under such regulations as shall be established by the United States in Congress assembled, unless such State be infested by pirates, in which case vessels of war may be fitted out for that occasion, and kept so long as the danger shall continue, or until the United States in Congress assembled shall determine otherwise.
  • Articles of Confederation; US Articles of Confederation Copy 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC thomaslegion.net [Source type: Original source]
  • Vital Records: Articles of Confederation (USA) 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC nedv.net [Source type: Original source]
  • Revered Freedom Document Critiques - USA Articles of Confederation 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC selfsip.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Articles of Confederation 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.articlesofconfederation.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Articles of Confederation - Conservative Politics Web Site 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.thelandofthefree.net [Source type: Original source]
  • The American Underground • Articles of Confederation, and Comment 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC wachadoo.com [Source type: Original source]

^ That may be true for indians but Pakistanis certainly have no such obsession.
  • Confederation of the subcontinent « Discuss 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC pkpolitics.com [Source type: Original source]

Article 7

.Article VII. When land forces are raised by any State for the common defense, all officers of or under the rank of colonel, shall be appointed by the legislature of each State respectively, by whom such forces shall be raised, or in such manner as such State shall direct, and all vacancies shall be filled up by the State which first made the appointment.^ Article VII. When land-forces are raised by any state for the common defence, all officers of or under the rank of colonel, shall be appointed by the legislature of each state respectively, by whom such forces shall be raised, or in such manner as such state shall direct, and all vacancies shall be filled up by the State which first made the appointment.
  • The Articles of Confederation - 1777 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.barefootsworld.net [Source type: Original source]

^ When land forces are raised by any state for the common defence, all officers of or under the rank of colonel, shall be appointed by the legislature of each state respectively by whom such forces shall be raised, or in such manner as such state shall direct, and all vacancies shall be filled up by the state which first made the appointment.
  • Articles of Confederation@Everything2.com 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ When land forces are raised by any state for the common defence, all officers of or under the rank of colonel, shall be appointed by the legislature of each state respectively, by whom such forces shall be raised, or in such manner as such state shall direct, and all vacancies shall be filled up by the state which first made the appointment.
  • Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.aescir.net [Source type: Original source]

Article 8

.Article VIII. All charges of war, and all other expenses that shall be incurred for the common defense or general welfare, and allowed by the United States in Congress assembled, shall be defrayed out of a common treasury, which shall be supplied by the several States in proportion to the value of all land within each State, granted or surveyed for any person, as such land and the buildings and improvements thereon shall be estimated according to such mode as the United States in Congress assembled, shall from time to time direct and appoint.^ VIII. All charges of war, and all other expenses that shall be incurred for the common defense or general welfare, and allowed by the United States in Congress assembled, shall be defrayed out of a common treasury, which shall be supplied by the several States in proportion to the value of all land within each State, granted or surveyed for any person, as such land and the buildings and improvements thereon shall be estimated according to such mode as the United States in Congress assembled, shall from time to time direct and appoint.
  • Articles of Confederation 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.articlesofconfederation.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Articles of Confederation 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.articlesofconfederation.com [Source type: Original source]
  • The American Underground • Articles of Confederation, and Comment 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC wachadoo.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Congress with ratification by all the state legislatures.

^ Articles of Confederation: Article XIII. Every State shall abide by the determination of the United States in Congress assembled, on all questions which by this confederation are submitted to them.

.The taxes for paying that proportion shall be laid and levied by the authority and direction of the legislatures of the several States within the time agreed upon by the United States in Congress assembled.^ Congress with ratification by all the state legislatures.

^ In determining questions in the United States in Congress assembled, each state shall have one vote.

^ ART. VIII. directed congress to make requisitions upon the states for their respective quotas of the money necessary for national expenses, and ordered the state legislatures to levy the taxes necessary, "within the time agreed upon by the united states in congress assembled."
  • Lalor, Cyclopaedia of Political Science, V.1, Entry 266, CONFEDERATION | Library of Economics and Liberty 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.econlib.org [Source type: Original source]

Article 9

.Article IX. The United States in Congress assembled, shall have the sole and exclusive right and power of determining on peace and war, except in the cases mentioned in the sixth article -- of sending and receiving ambassadors -- entering into treaties and alliances, provided that no treaty of commerce shall be made whereby the legislative power of the respective States shall be restrained from imposing such imposts and duties on foreigners, as their own people are subjected to, or from prohibiting the exportation or importation of any species of goods or commodities whatsoever -- of establishing rules for deciding in all cases, what captures on land or water shall be legal, and in what manner prizes taken by land or naval forces in the service of the United States shall be divided or appropriated -- of granting letters of marque and reprisal in times of peace -- appointing courts for the trial of piracies and felonies committed on the high seas and establishing courts for receiving and determining finally appeals in all cases of captures, provided that no member of Congress shall be appointed a judge of any of the said courts.^ The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States respectively, or to the people.

^ Congress with ratification by all the state legislatures.

^ Articles of Confederation: Article XIII. Every State shall abide by the determination of the United States in Congress assembled, on all questions which by this confederation are submitted to them.

.The United States in Congress assembled shall also be the last resort on appeal in all disputes and differences now subsisting or that hereafter may arise between two or more States concerning boundary, jurisdiction or any other causes whatever; which authority shall always be exercised in the manner following.^ The United States in Congress assembled shall also be the last resort on appeal in all disputes and differences now subsisting or that hereafter may arise between two or more States concerning boundary, jurisdiction or any other causes whatever; which authority shall always be exercised in the manner following.
  • Articles of Confederation; US Articles of Confederation Copy 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC thomaslegion.net [Source type: Original source]
  • Vital Records: Articles of Confederation (USA) 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC nedv.net [Source type: Original source]
  • Revered Freedom Document Critiques - USA Articles of Confederation 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC selfsip.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Articles of Confederation 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.articlesofconfederation.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Articles of Confederation 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.articlesofconfederation.com [Source type: Original source]
  • The American Underground • Articles of Confederation, and Comment 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC wachadoo.com [Source type: Original source]
  • The Articles of Confederation - North Carolina Digital History 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.learnnc.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In determining questions in the united states in Congress assembled, each state shall have one vote.
  • The Articles of Confederation - 1777 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.barefootsworld.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Articles of Confederation, Article 6, clause 2: "No two or more States shall enter into any treaty, confederation or alliance whatever between them, without the consent of the United States in Congress assembled."
  • Campaign For Liberty — The Battle Still Rages   | by Timothy Baldwin 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.campaignforliberty.com [Source type: Original source]

.Whenever the legislative or executive authority or lawful agent of any State in controversy with another shall present a petition to Congress stating the matter in question and praying for a hearing, notice thereof shall be given by order of Congress to the legislative or executive authority of the other State in controversy, and a day assigned for the appearance of the parties by their lawful agents, who shall then be directed to appoint by joint consent, commissioners or judges to constitute a court for hearing and determining the matter in question: but if they cannot agree, Congress shall name three persons out of each of the United States, and from the list of such persons each party shall alternately strike out one, the petitioners beginning, until the number shall be reduced to thirteen; and from that number not less than seven, nor more than nine names as Congress shall direct, shall in the presence of Congress be drawn out by lot, and the persons whose names shall be so drawn or any five of them, shall be commissioners or judges, to hear and finally determine the controversy, so always as a major part of the judges who shall hear the cause shall agree in the determination: and if either party shall neglect to attend at the day appointed, without showing reasons, which Congress shall judge sufficient, or being present shall refuse to strike, the Congress shall proceed to nominate three persons out of each State, and the secretary of Congress shall strike in behalf of such party absent or refusing; and the judgement and sentence of the court to be appointed, in the manner before prescribed, shall be final and conclusive; and if any of the parties shall refuse to submit to the authority of such court, or to appear or defend their claim or cause, the court shall nevertheless proceed to pronounce sentence, or judgement, which shall in like manner be final and decisive, the judgement or sentence and other proceedings being in either case transmitted to Congress, and lodged among the acts of Congress for the security of the parties concerned: provided that every commissioner, before he sits in judgement, shall take an oath to be administered by one of the judges of the supreme or superior court of the State, where the cause shall be tried, 'well and truly to hear and determine the matter in question, according to the best of his judgement, without favor, affection or hope of reward': provided also, that no State shall be deprived of territory for the benefit of the United States.^ Each Canton shall have a President, who shall be elected by a majority of the Cantonal Legislature from among candidates nominated by Legislators.
  • Israel-Palestine-Jordan Confederation 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.harhoma.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Whenever a meeting is adjourned for thirty days or more, notice of the adjourned meeting shall be given in the same manner as of an original meeting.
  • Agricultural Industries Confederation - Articles of Association 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.agindustries.org.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ No one could be a member of Congress for more than three out of every six years.
  • CRF-USA - BRIA 21 4 b The Articles of Confederation 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.crf-usa.org [Source type: Academic]

.All controversies concerning the private right of soil claimed under different grants of two or more States, whose jurisdictions as they may respect such lands, and the States which passed such grants are adjusted, the said grants or either of them being at the same time claimed to have originated antecedent to such settlement of jurisdiction, shall on the petition of either party to the Congress of the United States, be finally determined as near as may be in the same manner as is before prescribed for deciding disputes respecting territorial jurisdiction between different States.^ Congress with ratification by all the state legislatures.

^ All controversies concerning the private right of soil claimed under different grants of two or more states, whose jurisdictions as they may respect such lands, and the states which passed such grants are adjusted, the said grants or either of them being at the same time claimed to have originated antecedent to such settlement of jurisdiction, shall on the petition of either party to the congress of the united states, be finally determined as near as may be in the same manner as is before prescribed for deciding disputes respecting territorial jurisdiction between different states.
  • The Articles of Confederation - 1777 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.barefootsworld.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Congress was also empowered to provide a board of arbitration to settle disputes between states and between individuals claiming land under different grants.
  • CRF-USA - BRIA 21 4 b The Articles of Confederation 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.crf-usa.org [Source type: Academic]

.The United States in Congress assembled shall also have the sole and exclusive right and power of regulating the alloy and value of coin struck by their own authority, or by that of the respective States -- fixing the standards of weights and measures throughout the United States -- regulating the trade and managing all affairs with the Indians, not members of any of the States, provided that the legislative right of any State within its own limits be not infringed or violated -- establishing or regulating post offices from one State to another, throughout all the United States, and exacting such postage on the papers passing through the same as may be requisite to defray the expenses of the said office -- appointing all officers of the land forces, in the service of the United States, excepting regimental officers -- appointing all the officers of the naval forces, and commissioning all officers whatever in the service of the United States -- making rules for the government and regulation of the said land and naval forces, and directing their operations.^ A State may not levy a tonnage duty to defray the expenses of its quarantine system, 2032 but it may exact a fixed fee for examination of all vessels passing quarantine.
  • FindLaw: U.S. Constitution: Article I: Annotations pg. 58 of 58 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC caselaw.lp.findlaw.com [Source type: Original source]

^ State Governments in the General one.--He differed from the member from Connecticut (Mr.
  • http://gunshowonthenet.com/2ALEGAL/Origins/ContCongress06271778.html 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC gunshowonthenet.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Congress with ratification by all the state legislatures.

.The United States in Congress assembled shall have authority to appoint a committee, to sit in the recess of Congress, to be denominated 'A Committee of the States', and to consist of one delegate from each State; and to appoint such other committees and civil officers as may be necessary for managing the general affairs of the United States under their direction -- to appoint one of their members to preside, provided that no person be allowed to serve in the office of president more than one year in any term of three years; to ascertain the necessary sums of money to be raised for the service of the United States, and to appropriate and apply the same for defraying the public expenses -- to borrow money, or emit bills on the credit of the United States, transmitting every half-year to the respective States an account of the sums of money so borrowed or emitted -- to build and equip a navy -- to agree upon the number of land forces, and to make requisitions from each State for its quota, in proportion to the number of white inhabitants in such State; which requisition shall be binding, and thereupon the legislature of each State shall appoint the regimental officers, raise the men and cloath, arm and equip them in a solid- like manner, at the expense of the United States; and the officers and men so cloathed, armed and equipped shall march to the place appointed, and within the time agreed on by the United States in Congress assembled.^ As President of the United States of America, under the authority of the Articles of Confederation, Washington had the executive power to appoint anyone he wanted to the Office of President of the United States.
  • Articles of Confederation : EDRIVERA.COM 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.edrivera.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Article V allocates one vote in the Congress of the Confederation (United States in Congress Assembled) to each state, which was entitled to a delegation of between two and seven members.
  • Wikijunior:United States Charters of Freedom/Articles of Confederation - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ It could borrow and raise money, with a full accounting of all such monies sent to the states every half-year.
  • Constitutional Topic: Articles of Confederation - The U.S. Constitution Online - USConstitution.net 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.usconstitution.net [Source type: Original source]

.But if the United States in Congress assembled shall, on consideration of circumstances judge proper that any State should not raise men, or should raise a smaller number of men than the quota thereof, such extra number shall be raised, officered, cloathed, armed and equipped in the same manner as the quota of each State, unless the legislature of such State shall judge that such extra number cannot be safely spread out in the same, in which case they shall raise, officer, cloath, arm and equip as many of such extra number as they judge can be safely spared.^ Congress with ratification by all the state legislatures.

^ In determining questions in the United States in Congress assembled, each state shall have one vote.

^ But if the United States in Congress assembled shall, on consideration of circumstances judge proper that any State should not raise men, or should raise a smaller number of men than the quota thereof, such extra number shall be raised, officered, cloathed, armed and equipped in the same manner as the quota of each State, unless the legislature of such State shall judge that such extra number cannot be safely spread out in the same, in which case they shall raise, officer, cloath, arm and equip as many of such extra number as they judeg can be safely spared.
  • The American Underground • Articles of Confederation, and Comment 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC wachadoo.com [Source type: Original source]

.And the officers and men so cloathed, armed, and equipped, shall march to the place appointed, and within the time agreed on by the United States in Congress assembled.^ In determining questions in the United States in Congress assembled, each state shall have one vote.

^ And the officers and men so cloathed, armed and equipped, shall march to the place appointed, and within the time agreed on by the united states in congress assembled.
  • The Articles of Confederation - 1777 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.barefootsworld.net [Source type: Original source]
  • Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.aescir.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Inhabitants in that Colony, which Requisitions shall be binding, and thereupon the Legislature of each Colony or the Persons authorized as aforesaid, shall appoint the Regimental Officers, raise the Men, and arm and equip them in a soldier-like Manner; and the Officers and Men so armed and equiped, shall march to the Place appointed, and within the Time agreed on by the United States assembled.
  • http://gunshowonthenet.com/2ALEGAL/Origins/ContCongress08201776.html 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC gunshowonthenet.com [Source type: Original source]

.The United States in Congress assembled shall never engage in a war, nor grant letters of marque or reprisal in time of peace, nor enter into any treaties or alliances, nor coin money, nor regulate the value thereof, nor ascertain the sums and expenses necessary for the defense and welfare of the United States, or any of them, nor emit bills, nor borrow money on the credit of the United States, nor appropriate money, nor agree upon the number of vessels of war, to be built or purchased, or the number of land or sea forces to be raised, nor appoint a commander in chief of the army or navy, unless nine States assent to the same: nor shall a question on any other point, except for adjourning from day to day be determined, unless by the votes of the majority of the United States in Congress assembled.^ The United States assembled shall never engage the United Colonies in a War , nor grant Letters of Marque and Reprisal in Time of Peace, nor enter into Treaties or Alliances, nor coin Money nor regulate the Value thereof, nor agree upon nor fix the Sums and Expences necessary for the Defence and Welfare of the United Colonies, or any of them, nor emit Bills, nor borrow Money on the Credit of the United Colonies, nor raise Naval Forces, nor agree upon the Number of Land Forces to be raised, unless the Delegates of nine Colonies freely assent to the same: Nor shall a Question on any other Point, except for adjourning be determined, unless the Delegates of seven Colonies vote in the affirmative.
  • http://gunshowonthenet.com/2ALEGAL/Origins/ContCongress08201776.html 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC gunshowonthenet.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The united states in congress assembled shall never engage in a war, nor grant letters of marque and reprisal in time of peace, nor enter into any treaties or alliances, nor coin money, nor regulate the value thereof, nor ascertain the sums and expences necessary for the defence and welfare of the united states, or any of them, nor emit bills, nor borrow money on the credit of the united states, nor appropriate money, nor agree upon the number of vessels of war, to be built or purchased, or the number of land or sea forces to be raised, nor appoint a commander in chief of the army or navy, unless nine states assent to the same: nor shall a question on any other point, except for adjourning from day to day be determined, unless by the votes of a majority of the united states in congress assembled.
  • The Articles of Confederation - 1777 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.barefootsworld.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Articles of Confederation: Article XIII. Every State shall abide by the determination of the United States in Congress assembled, on all questions which by this confederation are submitted to them.

.The Congress of the United States shall have power to adjourn to any time within the year, and to any place within the United States, so that no period of adjournment be for a longer duration than the space of six months, and shall publish the journal of their proceedings monthly, except such parts thereof relating to treaties, alliances or military operations, as in their judgement require secrecy; and the yeas and nays of the delegates of each State on any question shall be entered on the journal, when it is desired by any delegates of a State, or any of them, at his or their request shall be furnished with a transcript of the said journal, except such parts as are above excepted, to lay before the legislatures of the several States.^ Congress with ratification by all the state legislatures.

^ The Congress of the United States shall have power to adjourn to any time within the year, and to any place within the United States, so that no period of adjournment be for a longer duration than the space of six months, and shall publish the journal of their proceedings monthly, except such parts thereof relating to treaties, alliances or military operations, as in their judgment require secrecy; and the yeas and nays of the delegates of each State on any question shall be entered on the journal, when it is desired by any delegates of a State, or any of them, at his or their request shall be furnished with a transcript of the said journal, except such parts as are above excepted, to lay before the legislatures of the several States.

^ In determining questions in the United States in Congress assembled, each state shall have one vote.

Article 10

.Article X. The Committee of the States, or any nine of them, shall be authorized to execute, in the recess of Congress, such of the powers of Congress as the United States in Congress assembled, by the consent of the nine States, shall from time to time think expedient to vest them with; provided that no power be delegated to the said Committee, for the exercise of which, by the Articles of Confederation, the voice of nine States in the Congress of the United States assembled be requisite.^ Article V allocates one vote in the Congress of the Confederation (United States in Congress Assembled) to each state, which was entitled to a delegation of between two and seven members.
  • Wikijunior:United States Charters of Freedom/Articles of Confederation - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Articles of Confederation: Article XIII. Every State shall abide by the determination of the United States in Congress assembled, on all questions which by this confederation are submitted to them.

^ Article II of the Constitution of September 17, 1787 vests the executive power of the Articles of Confederation in a President of the United States of America.
  • Articles of Confederation : EDRIVERA.COM 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.edrivera.com [Source type: Original source]

Article 11

.Article XI. Canada acceding to this confederation, and adjoining in the measures of the United States, shall be admitted into, and entitled to all the advantages of this Union; but no other colony shall be admitted into the same, unless such admission be agreed to by nine States.^ Union: But no other Colony shall be admitted into the same, unless such Admission be agreed to by the Delegates of nine Colonies.
  • http://gunshowonthenet.com/2ALEGAL/Origins/ContCongress08201776.html 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC gunshowonthenet.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The conspiracy of all conspiracies is the one that claims the Constitution of the United States replaced the Articles of Confederation.
  • Declaration of Independence : EDRIVERA.COM 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.edrivera.com [Source type: Original source]

^ XX. Canada acceding to this Confederation, and entirely joining in the Measures of the United Colonies, shall be admitted into and entitled to all the Advantages .
  • http://gunshowonthenet.com/2ALEGAL/Origins/ContCongress08201776.html 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC gunshowonthenet.com [Source type: Original source]

Article 12

.Article XII. All bills of credit emitted, monies borrowed, and debts contracted by, or under the authority of Congress, before the assembling of the United States, in pursuance of the present confederation, shall be deemed and considered as a charge against the United States, for payment and satisfaction whereof the said United States, and the public faith are hereby solemnly pledged.^ Articles of Confederation: Article XIII. Every State shall abide by the determination of the United States in Congress assembled, on all questions which by this confederation are submitted to them.

^ The conspiracy of all conspiracies is the one that claims the Constitution of the United States replaced the Articles of Confederation.
  • Declaration of Independence : EDRIVERA.COM 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.edrivera.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Before the Constitution....there was The Articles of Confederation-- in effect, the first constitution of the United States.

Article 13

.Article XIII. Every State shall abide by the determination of the United States in Congress assembled, on all questions which by this confederation are submitted to them.^ Congress with ratification by all the state legislatures.

^ Articles of Confederation: Article XIII. Every State shall abide by the determination of the United States in Congress assembled, on all questions which by this confederation are submitted to them.

^ No member of the United States in Congress assembled under the Articles of Confederation has ever taken any oath of Office.
  • Articles of Confederation : EDRIVERA.COM 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.edrivera.com [Source type: Original source]

.And the Articles of this Confederation shall be inviolably observed by every State, and the Union shall be perpetual; nor shall any alteration at any time hereafter be made in any of them; unless such alteration be agreed to in a Congress of the United States, and be afterwards confirmed by the legislatures of every State.^ These Articles shall be proposed to the legislatures of all the United States, to be by them considered, and if approved by them, they are advised to authorize their Delegates to ratify the same in the Assembly of the United States, which being done, the Articles of this Confederation shall inviolably be observed by every State, and the Union is to be perpetual: Nor shall any alteration at any time hereafter be made in these Articles or any of them, unless such alteration be agreed to in an Assembly of the United States, and be afterwards confirmed by the Legislatures of every State.
  • http://gunshowonthenet.com/2ALEGAL/Origins/ContCongress08201776.html 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC gunshowonthenet.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Congress with ratification by all the state legislatures.

^ Articles of Confederation: Article XIII. Every State shall abide by the determination of the United States in Congress assembled, on all questions which by this confederation are submitted to them.

.And Whereas it hath pleased the Great Governor of the World to incline the hearts of the legislatures we respectively represent in Congress, to approve of, and to authorize us to ratify the said Articles of Confederation and perpetual Union.^ Articles of Confederation and perpetual Union [ Articles of Confederation and perpetual Union ] [ Home ] [ Federal Constitutions ] [ State Constitutions ].

^ And that the Articles thereof shall be inviolably observed by the States we respectively represent, and that the Union shall be perpetual.
  • Articles of Confederation; US Articles of Confederation Copy 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC thomaslegion.net [Source type: Original source]
  • Wikijunior:United States Charters of Freedom/Articles of Confederation - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Vital Records: Articles of Confederation (USA) 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC nedv.net [Source type: Original source]
  • Articles of Confederation@Everything2.com 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Revered Freedom Document Critiques - USA Articles of Confederation 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC selfsip.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Articles of Confederation 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.articlesofconfederation.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Articles of Confederation 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.articlesofconfederation.com [Source type: Original source]
  • The Articles of Confederation - North Carolina Digital History 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.learnnc.org [Source type: Original source]

^ And that the articles thereof shall be inviolably observed by the states we respectively represent, and that the union shall be perpetual.
  • The Articles of Confederation - 1777 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.barefootsworld.net [Source type: Original source]

.Know Ye that we the undersigned delegates, by virtue of the power and authority to us given for that purpose, do by these presents, in the name and in behalf of our respective constituents, fully and entirely ratify and confirm each and every of the said Articles of Confederation and perpetual Union, and all and singular the matters and things therein contained: And we do further solemnly plight and engage the faith of our respective constituents, that they shall abide by the determinations of the United States in Congress assembled, on all questions, which by the said Confederation are submitted to them.^ TO ALL TO WHOM these Presents shall come, we the undersigned ...

^ Article V allocates one vote in the Congress of the Confederation (United States in Congress Assembled) to each state, which was entitled to a delegation of between two and seven members.
  • Wikijunior:United States Charters of Freedom/Articles of Confederation - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States respectively, or to the people.

.And that the Articles thereof shall be inviolably observed by the States we respectively represent, and that the Union shall be perpetual.^ Articles of Confederation and perpetual Union [ Articles of Confederation and perpetual Union ] [ Home ] [ Federal Constitutions ] [ State Constitutions ].

^ And that the Articles thereof shall be inviolably observed by the States we respectively represent, and that the Union shall be perpetual.
  • Wikijunior:United States Charters of Freedom/Articles of Confederation - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Vital Records: Articles of Confederation (USA) 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC nedv.net [Source type: Original source]
  • Articles of Confederation@Everything2.com 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Revered Freedom Document Critiques - USA Articles of Confederation 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC selfsip.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Articles of Confederation 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.articlesofconfederation.com [Source type: Original source]
  • The American Underground • Articles of Confederation, and Comment 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC wachadoo.com [Source type: Original source]

^ And that the articles thereof shall be inviolably observed by the states we respectively represent, and that the union shall be perpetual.
  • The Articles of Confederation - 1777 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.barefootsworld.net [Source type: Original source]

Signatures

.In Witness whereof we have hereunto set our hands in Congress.^ In Witness whereof We have hereunto subscribed our Names."
  • The Constitution did not Abolish the System of Government Established by the Articles of Confederation and Consolidate the States into One Nation By Robert Greenslade - Price of Liberty 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.thepriceofliberty.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In Witness whereof we have hereunto set our hands in Congress.
  • The Articles of Confederation - 1777 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.barefootsworld.net [Source type: Original source]
  • Articles of Confederation; US Articles of Confederation Copy 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC thomaslegion.net [Source type: Original source]
  • Wikijunior:United States Charters of Freedom/Articles of Confederation - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Vital Records: Articles of Confederation (USA) 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC nedv.net [Source type: Original source]
  • Articles of Confederation 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.articlesofconfederation.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Articles of Confederation 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.articlesofconfederation.com [Source type: Original source]
  • The American Underground • Articles of Confederation, and Comment 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC wachadoo.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Another part of our rights is deposited in the hands of Congress: why is it not equally necessary there should be an equal representation there?
  • Articles of Confederation by Thomas Jefferson 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.juntosociety.com [Source type: Original source]

.Done at Philadelphia in the State of Pennsylvania the ninth day of July in the Year of our Lord One Thousand Seven Hundred and Seventy-Eight, and in the Third Year of the independence of America.^ Done at Philadelphia in the state of Pennsylvania the ninth Day of July in the Year of our Lord One Thousand Seven Hundred and Seventy-eight, and in the third year of the Independence of America .
  • Articles of Confederation@Everything2.com 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Done at Philadelphia in the state of Pennsylvania the ninth day of July in the Year of our Lord one Thousand seven Hundred and Seventy-eight, and in the third year of the independence of America.
  • The Articles of Confederation - 1777 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.barefootsworld.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Done at Philadelphia in the State of Pennsylvania the ninth day of July in the Year of our Lord One Thousand Seven Hundred and Seventy-Eight, and in the Third Year of the independence of America.
  • Articles of Confederation; US Articles of Confederation Copy 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC thomaslegion.net [Source type: Original source]
  • Wikijunior:United States Charters of Freedom/Articles of Confederation - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Vital Records: Articles of Confederation (USA) 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC nedv.net [Source type: Original source]
  • Articles of Confederation 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.articlesofconfederation.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Articles of Confederation 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.articlesofconfederation.com [Source type: Original source]
  • The American Underground • Articles of Confederation, and Comment 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC wachadoo.com [Source type: Original source]
  • The Articles of Confederation - North Carolina Digital History 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.learnnc.org [Source type: Original source]

On the part and behalf of the State of New Hampshire:
  • Josiah Bartlett
  • John Wentworth Junr.
August 8th 1778
On the part and behalf of The State of Massachusetts Bay:
  • John Hancock
  • Francis Dana
  • Samuel Adams
  • James Lovell
  • Elbridge Gerry
  • Samuel Holten
On the part and behalf of the State of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations:
  • William Ellery
  • John Collins
  • Henry Marchant
On the part and behalf of the State of Connecticut:
  • Roger Sherman
  • Titus Hosmer
  • Samuel Huntington
  • Andrew Adams
  • Oliver Wolcott
On the Part and Behalf of the State of New York:
  • James Duane
  • Wm Duer
  • Francis Lewis
  • Gouv Morris
On the Part and in Behalf of the State of New Jersey, November 26, 1778.
  • John Witherspoon
  • Nathaniel Scudder
On the part and behalf of the State of Pennsylvania:
  • Robt Morris
  • William Clingan
  • Daniel Roberdeau
  • Joseph Reed
  • John Bayard Smith
22nd July 1778
On the part and behalf of the State of Delaware:
  • Tho Mckean February 12, 1779
  • John Dickinson May 5th 1779
  • Nicholas Van Dyke
On the part and behalf of the State of Maryland:
  • John Hanson March 1 1781
  • Daniel Carroll Do
On the Part and Behalf of the State of Virginia:
  • Richard Henry Lee
  • John Harvie
  • John Banister
  • Francis Lightfoot Lee
  • Thomas Adams
On the part and Behalf of the State of North Carolina:
  • John Penn July 21St 1778
  • Corns Harnett
  • John Williams
On the part and behalf of the State of South Carolina:
  • Henry Laurens
  • Richd Hutson
  • William Henry Drayton
  • Thos Heyward Junr
  • John Mathews
On the part and behalf of the State of Georgia:
  • John Walton 24th July 1778
  • Edwd Telfair
  • Edwd Langworthy

External links

  1. The Articles of Confederation may be read at the "Our Documents" Website.

Simple English

Definition of Articles Of Confederation: The first written plan of government for the U.S. This lasted from 1776 to 1781. confederation: an association of states who cooperate for a common purpose.

Contents

Article summaries

Even though the Articles of Confederation and the Constitution were established by many of the same people, the two documents were very different. The original five-paged Articles contained thirteen articles, a conclusion, and a signatory section. The following list contains short summaries of each of the thirteen articles.

  1. Establishes the name of the confederation as "The United States of America."
  2. Asserts the precedence of the separate states over the confederation government, i.e. "Each state retains its sovereignty, freedom, and independence, and every power, jurisdiction, and right, which is not by this Confederation expressly delegated."
  3. Establishes the United States as a league of states united ". . . for their common defense, the security of their liberties, and their mutual and general welfare, binding themselves to assist each other, against all force offered to, or attacks made upon them . . . ."
  4. Establishes freedom of movement–anyone can pass freely between states, excluding "paupers, vagabonds, and fugitives from justice." All people are entitled to the rights established by the state into which he travels. If a crime is committed in one state and the perpetrator flees to another state, he will be extradited to and tried in the state in which the crime was committed.
  5. Allocates one vote in the Congress of the Confederation (United States in Congress Assembled) to each state, which was entitled to a delegation of between two and seven members. Members of Congress were appointed by state legislatures; individuals could not serve more than three out of any six years.
  6. Only the central government is allowed to conduct foreign relations and to declare war. No states may have navies or standing armies, or engage in war, without permission of Congress (although the state militias are encouraged).
  7. When an army is raised for common defense, colonels and military ranks below colonel will be named by the state legislatures.
  8. Expenditures by the United States will be paid by funds raised by state legislatures, and apportioned to the states based on the real property values of each.
  9. Defines the powers of the central government: to declare war, to set weights and measures (including coins), and for Congress to serve as a final court for disputes between states.
  10. Defines a Committee of the States to be a government when Congress is not in session.
  11. Requires nine states to approve the admission of a new state into the confederacy; pre-approves Canada, if it applies for membership.
  12. Reaffirms that the Confederation accepts war debt incurred by Congress before the Articles.
  13. Declares that the Articles are perpetual, and can only be altered by approval of Congress with ratification by all the state legislatures.

Gallery

References

  • R. B. Bernstein, "Parliamentary Principles, American Realities: The Continental and Confederation Congresses, 1774-1789," in Inventing Congress: Origins & Establishment Of First Federal Congress ed by Kenneth R. Bowling and Donald R. Kennon (1999) pp 76-108
  • Burnett, Edmund Cody. The Continental Congress: A Definitive History of the Continental Congress From Its Inception in 1774 to March, 1789 (1941)
  • Barbara Feinberg, The Articles Of Confederation (2002). [for middle school children.]
  • Robert W. Hoffert, A Politics of Tensions: The Articles of Confederation and American Political Ideas (1992).
  • Lucille E. Horgan. Forged in War: The Continental Congress and the Origin of Military Supply and Acquisition Policy (2002)
  • Merrill Jensen, The Articles of Confederation: An Interpretation of the Social-Constitutional History of the American Revolution, 1774-1781 (1959).
  • Merrill Jensen: "The Idea of a National Government During the American Revolution", Political Science Quarterly, 58 (1943), 356-79. online at JSTOR
  • Calvin Jillson and Rick K. Wilson. Congressional Dynamics: Structure, Coordination, and Choice in the First American Congress, 1774-1789. (1994)
  • Forest McDonald.Novus Ordo Seclorum: The Intellectual Origins of the Constitution. (1985)
  • Andrew C. Mclaughlin, A Constitutional History of the United States (1935) online version
  • Pauline Maier, American Scripture: Making the Declaration of Independence (1998).
  • Jackson T. Main, Political Parties before the Constitution. University of North Carolina Press, 1974
  • Jack N. Rakove, The Beginnings of National Politics: An Interpretive History of the Continental Congress (1982).
  • Jack N. Rakove, “The Collapse of the Articles of Confederation,” in The American Founding: Essays on the Formation of the Constitution. Ed by J. Jackson Barlow, Leonard W. Levy and Ken Masugi. Greenwood Press. 1988. Pp 225-45 ISBN 0-313-25610-1

Further reading

  • Klos, Stanley L. (2004). President Who? Forgotten Founders. Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania: Evisum, Inc.. pp. 261. ISBN 0-9752627-5-0. 

Other pages

Other websites

Wikisource has original text related to this article:



Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 13, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Articles of Confederation, which are similar to those in the above article.








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