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Arunachal Pradesh
Itanagar
Location of Arunachal Pradesh in India
Coordinates 27°04′N 93°22′E / 27.06°N 93.37°E / 27.06; 93.37
Country  India
District(s) 16
Established 20 February 1987
Capital Itanagar
Largest city Itanagar
Governor Joginder Jaswant Singh (2008-)
Chief Minister Dorjee Khandu (2007-)
Legislature (seats) Unicameral (60)
Population
Density
1091120 (26th)
13 /km2 (34 /sq mi)
Official languages Hindi, Deori, Assamese, English, and many local languages.
Time zone IST (UTC+05:30)
Area 83743 km2 (32333 sq mi)
ISO 3166-2 IN-AR
Website arunachalpradesh.nic.in
Seal of Arunachal Pradesh

Arunachal Pradesh (Hindi: अरुणाचल प्रदेश, pronounced [ərʊˈɳaːtʃəl prəˈdeːʃ]  ( listen)), is a state located in the far north eastern part of India, bordering China, and part of which is claimed by China. It has borders with state of Assam to the south and Nagaland to the southeast. Burma/Myanmar lies to the east, Bhutan to the west north, it borders with Chinese-occupied and ruled Tibet. China disputes the border, which is the McMahon Line agreed to by Great Britain and then-de-facto-independent Tibet (but failed to let the then-Chinese government sign, resulting in the dispute) in a 1914 treaty. Itanagar is the capital of the state.

Arunachal Pradesh means "land of the dawn lit mountains"[1] in Sanskrit. It is also known as "land of the rising sun"[2] ("pradesh" means "state" or "region") in reference to its position as the easternmost state of India. Most of the people native to and/or living in Arunachal Pradesh are of Tibeto-Burman origin. A large and increasing number of migrants have reached Arunachal Pradesh from many other parts of India, although no reliable population count of the migrant population has been conducted, and percentage estimates of total population accordingly vary widely. Part of the famous Ledo Burma Road, which was a lifeline to China during World War II, passes through the eastern part of the state.

Contents

History

The history of pre-modern Arunachal Pradesh remains shrouded in mystery. It is popularly believed, and may be speculatively assumed, that the first ancestors of most indigenous tribal groups migrated from pre-Buddhist Tibet two or three thousand years ago, if not before, and were joined by Tibetic and Thai-Burmese counterparts later. The earliest written references to Arunachal are popularly believed to be found in the Mahabharata, Ramayana and other Vedic legends. Several characters, such as, King Bhismaka, are believed to represent people from the region in the Mahabharata; however, since corroborating information is unavailable, and since place-names cannot be verified at that historical time-depth, such associations are to a large extent speculative. For example, there is no evidence whatsoever that the name Bhismaka plausibly associates with any indigenous Arunachali tribes or languages at all.

Oral histories possessed to this day by many Arunachali tribes of Tibeto-Burman stock are much richer, and point unambiguously to a northern origin in modern-day Tibet. Again, however, corroboration remains difficult. From the point of view of material culture, it is clear that most indigenous Arunachali groups align with Burma-area hill tribals, a fact which could either be explainable in terms of a northern Burmese origin or from westward cultural diffusion.

From the perspective of material culture, the most unique Arunachali group by far is the Puroik/Sulung, whose traditional staple food is sago palm and whose primary traditional productive strategy is foraging. While speculatively considered to be a Tibeto-Burman population, the uniqueness of Puroik culture and language may well represent a tenuous reflection of a distant and all but unknown pre-Tibeto-Burman, Tai and Indo-Aryan past.

Recorded history from an outside perspective only became available in the Ahom chronicles of the 16th century. The Monpa and Sherdukpen do keep historical records of the existence of local chiefdoms in the northwest as well. Northwestern parts of this area came under the control of the Monpa kingdom of Monyul, which flourished between 500 B.C. and 600 A.D. This region then came under the loose control of Tibet and Bhutan, especially in the Northern areas. The remaining parts of the state, especially those bordering Myanmar, came under the titular control of the Ahom and the Assamese until the annexation of India by the British in 1858. However, most Arunachali tribes remained in practice largely autonomous up until Indian independence and the formalization of indigenous administration in 1947.

Recent excavations of ruins of Hindu temples such as the 14th century Malinithan at the foot of the Siang hills in West Siang are somewhat automatically associated with the ancient history of Arunachal Pradesh, inasmuch as they fall within its modern-day political borders. However, such temples are generally south-facing, never occur more than a few kilometers from the Assam plains area, and are perhaps more likely to have been associated with Assam plains-based rather than indigenous Arunachali populations. Another notable heritage site, Bhismaknagar, has led to suggestions that the Idu (Mishmi) had an advanced culture and administration in pre-historical times. Again, however, there is no evidence which would directly associate Bhismaknagar to this or any other known culture. The third heritage site, the 400-year-old Tawang Monastery in the extreme north-west of the state, provides some historical evidence of the Buddhist tribal peoples. Historically, the area had a close relationship with Tibetan people and Tibetan culture, for example the sixth Dalai Lama Tsangyang Gyatso was born in Tawang.[3]

British map published in 1909 showing the Indo-Tibetan traditional border (eastern section on the top right)

In 1913-1914 representatives of China, Tibet and Britain negotiated a treaty in India: the Simla Accord.[4] This treaty's objective was to define the borders between Inner and Outer Tibet as well as between Outer Tibet and British India. British administrator, Sir Henry McMahon, drew up the 550 miles (890 km) McMahon Line as the border between British India and Outer Tibet during the Simla Conference. The Tibetan and British representatives at the conference agreed to the line, which ceded Tawang and other Tibetan areas to the British Empire. The Chinese representative had no problems with the border between British India and Outer Tibet, however on the issue of the border between Outer Tibet and Inner Tibet the talks broke down. Thus, the Chinese representative refused to accept the agreement and walked out.[citation needed] The Tibetan Government and British Government went ahead with the Simla Agreement and declared that the benefits of other articles of this treaty would not be bestowed on China as long as it stays out of the purview. The Chinese position since then has been that since China had sovereignty over Tibet, the line was invalid without Chinese agreement. Furthermore, by refusing to sign the Simla documents, the Chinese Government had escaped according any recognition to the validity of the McMahon Line.[5]

Simla was initially rejected by the Government of India as incompatible with the 1907 Anglo-Russian Convention. However, this agreement(Anglo-Russian Convention) was renounced by Russia and Britain jointly in 1921, thus making the Simla Conference official. However, with the collapse of Chinese power in Tibet the line had no serious challenges as Tibet had signed the convention, therefore it was forgotten to the extent that no new maps were published until 1935, when interest was revived by civil service officer Olaf Caroe. The Survey of India published a map showing the McMahon Line as the official boundary in 1937.[14][13] In 1938, the British finally published the Simla Convention as a bilateral accord two decades after the Simla Conference; in 1938 the Survey of India published a detailed map showing Tawang as part of NEFA. In 1944 Britain established administrations in the area, from Dirang Dzong in the west to Walong in the east. Tibet, however, altered its position on the McMahon Line in late 1947 when the Tibetan government wrote a note presented to the newly independent Indian Ministry of External Affairs laying claims to the Tibetan district (Tawang) south of the McMahon Line.[6] The situation developed further as India became independent and the People's Republic of China was established in the late 1940s. With the PRC poised to take over Tibet, India unilaterally declared the McMahon Line to be the boundary in November 1950, and forced the last remnants of Tibetan administration out of the Tawang area in 1951.[7][8] The PRC has never recognized the McMahon Line. In 1959 a suppressed Tibetan uprising resulted in PRC's abolition of Tibet's self-ruling government headed by the Dalai Lama. The Dalai Lama fled to Dharamsala, India, where he continues to lead the Tibetan Government-in-Exile. Maps published by the Tibetan Government-in-Exile now show the McMahon Line as the southern border of Tibet.

The NEFA (North East Frontier Agency) was created in 1954. The issue was quiet during the next decade or so of cordial Sino-Indian relations, but erupted again during the Sino-Indian War of 1962. The cause of the escalation into war is still disputed by both Chinese and Indian sources. During the war in 1962, the PRC captured most of the NEFA. However, China soon declared victory, voluntarily withdrew back to the McMahon Line and returned Indian prisoners of war in 1963. The war has resulted in the termination of barter trade with Tibet, although in 2007 the state government has shown signs to resume barter trade with Tibet.[9]

Of late, Arunachal Pradesh has come to face threats from certain insurgent groups, notably the National Socialist Council of Nagaland (NSCN), who are believed to have base camps in the districts of Changlang and Tirap.[10] There are occasional reports of these groups harassing local people and extracting protection money.[11]

Geography

Arunachal Pradesh is famous for its mountainous landscape.
The Himalayas bordering Arunachal Pradesh

Much of Arunachal Pradesh is covered by the Himalayas. However, parts of Lohit, Changlang and Tirap are covered by the Patkai hills. Kangto, Nyegi Kangsang, the main Gorichen peak and the Eastern Gorichen peak are some of the highest peaks in this region of the Himalayas.

At the lowest elevations, essentially at Arunachal Pradesh's border with Assam, are Brahmaputra Valley semi-evergreen forests. Much of the state, including the Himalayan foothills and the Patkai hills, are home to Eastern Himalayan broadleaf forests. Toward the northern border with China, with increasing elevation, come a mixture of Eastern and Northeastern Himalayan subalpine conifer forests followed by Eastern Himalayan alpine shrub and meadows and ultimately rock and ice on the highest peaks.

In 2006 Bumla pass in Tawang was opened to traders for the first time in 44 years. Traders from both sides of the pass were permitted to enter each other's territories, in addition to postal workers from each country.

The Himalayan ranges that extend up to the eastern Arunachal separate it from Tibet. The ranges extend toward Nagaland, and form a boundary between India and Burma in Changlang and Tirap district, acting as a natural barrier called Patkai Bum Hills. They are low mountains compared to the Greater Himalayas.[12]

Climate

The climate of Arunachal Pradesh varies with elevation. Areas that are at a very high elevation in the Upper Himalayas close to the Tibetan border enjoy an alpine or Tundra climate. Below the Upper Himalayas are the Middle Himalayas, where people experience a temperate climate. Areas at the sub-Himalayan and sea-level elevation generally experience humid, sub-tropical climate with hot summers and mild winters.

Arunachal Pradesh receives heavy rainfall of 80 to 160 inches (2,000 to 4,100 mm) annually, most of it between May and September. The mountain slopes and hills are covered with alpine, temperate, and subtropical forests of dwarf rhododendron, oak, pine, maple, fir, and juniper; sal (Shorea) and teak are the main economically valuable species.

Sub-divisions

Arunachal Pradesh is divided into sixteen districts, each administered by a district collector, who sees to the needs of the local people. Especially along the Tibetan border, the Indian army has a considerable presence due to concerns about Chinese intentions in the region. Special permits called Inner Line Permits (ILP) are required to enter Arunachal Pradesh through any of its checkgates on the border with Assam.

Districts of Arunachal Pradesh:

Economy

The chart below displays the trend of the gross state domestic product of Arunachal Pradesh at market prices estimated by the Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation with figures in millions of Indian Rupees.

Year Gross State Domestic Product
1980 1,070
1985 2,690
1990 5,080
1995 11,840
2000 17,830

Arunachal Pradesh's gross state domestic product for 2004 was estimated at $706 million in current prices. Agriculture primarily drives the economy. Jhum, the local word for a shifting cultivation widely practiced among the tribal groups, is now less practiced. Arunachal Pradesh has close to 61,000 square kilometers of forests, and forest products are the next most significant sector of the economy. Among the crops grown here are rice, maize, millet, wheat, pulses, sugarcane, ginger, and oilseeds. Arunachal is also ideal for horticulture and fruit orchards. Its major industries are rice mills, fruit preservation units, and handloom handicrafts. Sawmills and plywood trades are prohibited under law.[13]

Arunachal Pradesh accounts for a large percentage of India's untapped hydroelectric power production potential. In 2008, the state government of Arunachal Pradesh signed deals with various Indian companies planning some 42 hydroelectric schemes that will produce electricity in excess of 27,000 MW.[14] Construction of the Upper Siang Hydroelectric Project, which is expected to generate between 10,000 to 12,000 MW, began in April 2009.[15]

Corruption in Arunachal Pradesh is endemic, and reputed to be among the worst in India. During 2009 elections, the Arunachal Times reported that virtually all of the leading candidates had reported personal fortunes to the equivalent of several million US dollars - in a state with no income tax and where the average per capita income is only a dollar or two per day. The failure of Arunachali people to hold their leaders accountable has led to tremendous drains on the economy and a crumbling infrastructure.

Another missed economic opportunity is that of tourism. Boasting a scenic natural beauty which at least equals and in some respects surpasses that of other Himalayan regions such as Sikkim, Bhutan, and Nepal, Arunachal Pradesh's strict and expensive "Restricted/Protected Area Permit" scheme ensures both that no more than a trickle of foreign tourists are able to visit the state each year, and that revenues so obtained go directly into the pockets of government officials and affiliated tour operators. Little if any benefit from tourism is able to reach the general population, which remains in general relatively impoverished.

Languages

Modern-day Arunachal Pradesh is one of the linguistically richest and most diverse regions in all of Asia, being home to at least thirty and possibly as many as fifty distinct languages in addition to innumerable dialects and subdialects thereof. Boundaries between languages very often correlate with tribal divisions - for example, Apatani and Nyishi are both tribally and linguistically distinct - but shifts in tribal identity and alignment over time have also ensured that a certain amount of complication enters into the picture - for example, Galo is and has seemingly always been linguistically distinct from Adi, whereas the earlier tribal alignment of Galo with Adi (i.e., "Adi Gallong") has only recently been essentially dissolved.

The vast majority of languages indigenous to modern-day Arunachal Pradesh belong to the Tibeto-Burman language family. The majority of these in turn belong to a single branch of Tibeto-Burman, namely Tani. Almost all Tani languages are indigenous to central Arunachal Pradesh, including (moving from west to east) Nyishi/Nishi, Apatani, Bangni, Tagin, Hills Miri, Galo, Bokar, Lower Adi (Padam, Pasi, Minyong, and Komkar), Upper Adi (Aashing, Shimong, Karko and Bori), and Milang; only Mising, among Tani languages, is primarily spoken outside Arunachal Pradesh in modern-day Assam, while a handful of northern Tani languages including Bangni and Bokar are also spoken in small numbers in Tibet. Tani languages are noticeably characterized by an overall relative uniformity, suggesting relatively recent origin and dispersal within their present-day area of concentration. Most Tani languages are mutually intelligible with at least one other Tani language, meaning that the area constitutes a dialect chain, much as once once found in much of Europe; only Apatani and Milang stand out as relatively unique in the Tani context. Tani languages are among the better-studied languages of the region.

To the east of the Tani area lie three virtually undescribed and highly endangered languages of the "Mishmi" group of Tibeto-Burman, Idu, Digaru and Miju. A certain number of speakers of these languages are also found in Tibet. The relationships of these languages, both amongst one another and to other area languages, are as yet uncertain. Further south, one finds the Singpho (Kachin) language, which is primarily spoken by large populations in Burma, and the Nocte and Wancho languages, which show affiliations to certain "Naga" languages spoken to the south in modern-day Nagaland.

To the west and north of the Tani area are found at least one and possibly as many as four Bodic languages, including Dakpa and Tshangla; within modern-day India, these languages go by the cognate but, in usage, distinct designations Monpa and Memba. Most speakers of these languages or closely related Bodic languages are found in neighbouring Bhutan and Tibet, and Monpa and Memba populations remain closely adjacent to these border regions.

Between the Bodic and Tani areas lie a large number of almost completely undescribed and unclassified languages which, speculatively considered to be Tibeto-Burman, exhibit many unique structural and lexical properties which probably reflect both a long history in the region and a complex history of language contact with neighbouring populations. Among them are Sherdukpen, Bugun, Aka/Hruso, Miji, Bangru and Puroik/Sulung. The high linguistic significance of all of these languages is belied by the extreme paucity of documentation and description of them, even in view of their highly endangered status. Puroik, in particular, is perhaps one of the most culturally and linguistically unique and significant populations in all of Asia from proto-historical and anthropological-linguistic perspectives, and yet virtually no information of any real reliability regarding their culture or language can be found in print even to this day.

Finally, there is an unknown number of Tibeto-Burman languages of Nepal-area origin spoken in modern-day Arunachal Pradesh, including Gurung and Tamang; not classified as "tribal" in the Arunachali context, such languages generally go unrecognized, while their speakers are largely viewed as itinerant "Nepalis". An unknown number of Tibetan dialects are similarly spoken by recent migrants from Tibet, although they are not generally recognized or classified as tribal or indigenous.

Outside of Tibeto-Burman, one finds in Arunachal Pradesh a single representative of the Tai language family, namely the Khamti language which is closely affiliated to the Shan dialects of northern Burma; seemingly, Khamti is a recent arrival in Arunachal Pradesh whose presence dates from 18th and/or early 19th-century migrations from northern Burma. In addition to these non-Indo-European languages, the Indo-European languages Assamese, Bengali, English, Nepali and especially Hindi are making strong inroads into Arunachal Pradesh. Primarily as a result of the primary education system - in which classes are generally taught by Hindi-speaking immigrant teachers from Bihar and other Hindi-speaking parts of northern India - a large and growing section of the population now speaks a semi-creolized variety of Hindi as its mother tongue.

Demographics

Arunachal Pradesh can be roughly divided into a set of semi-distinct cultural spheres, on the basis of tribal identity, language, religion, and material culture: the Tibetic area bordering Bhutan in the west, the Tani area in the centre of the state, the Mishmi area to the east of the Tani area, the Tai/Singpho/Tangsa area bordering Burma, and the "Naga" area to the south, which also borders Burma. In between there are transition zones, such as the Aka/Hruso/Miji/Sherdukpen area, which provides a "buffer" of sorts between the Tibetic Buddhist tribes and the animist Tani hill tribes. In addition, there are isolated peoples scattered throughout the state, such as the Sulung.

Within each of these cultural spheres, one finds populations of related tribes speaking related languages and sharing similar traditions. In the Tibetic area, one finds large numbers of Monpa tribespeople, with several subtribes speaking closely related but mutually incomprehensible languages, and also large numbers of Tibetan refugees. Within the Tani area, major tribes include Nishi, which has recently come to be used by many people to encompass Bangni, Tagin and even Hills Miri. Apatani also live among the Nishi, but are distinct. In the centre, one finds predominantly Galo people, with the major sub-groups of Lare and Pugo among others, extending to the Ramo and Pailibo areas (which are close in many ways to Galo). In the east, one finds the Adi, with many subtribes including Padam, Pasi, Minyong, and Bokar, among others. Milang, while also falling within the general "Adi" sphere, are in many ways quite distinct. Moving east, the Idu, Miju and Digaru make up the "Mishmi" cultural-linguistic area, which may or may not form a coherent historical grouping.

Moving southeast, the Tai Khamti are linguistically distinct from their neighbours and culturally distinct from the majority of other Arunachali tribes;They are religiously similar to the Chakmas who have migrated from Earswhile East Pakistan.They follow the same Theraveda sect of Buddhism.The Chakmas consist of the majority of the tribal population.Districts of Lohit,Changlang,Dibang and Papumpare have a considerable number of chakmas.They speak a corrupt dialect borrowed from Assamese and Bengali. Their language is more similar to Assamese . Assam also have a large population of Chakmas who reside in the district of Karbi Anglong , Nagaon and Kachar. however, they also exhibit considerable convergence with the Singpho and Tangsa tribes of the same area; all of these groups are also found in Burma. Finally, the Nocte and Wancho exhibit cultural and possibly also linguistic affinities to the tribes of Nagaland, which they border.

In addition, there are large numbers of migrants from diverse areas of India and Bangladesh, who, while legally not entitled to settle permanently, in practice stay indefinitely, progressively altering the traditional demographic makeup of the state. Finally, populations of "Nepalis" (in fact, usually Tibeto-Burman tribespeople whose tribes predominate in areas of Nepal, but who do not have tribal status in India) and Chakmas are distributed in different areas of the state (although reliable figures are hard to come by).

Buddhism is practiced by 13% of the population. Shown here is a statue of the Buddha in Tawang, Arunachal Pradesh.

Literacy has risen in official figures to 54.74% from 41.59% in 1991. The literate population is said to number 487,796.

An uncertain but relatively large percentage of Arunachal's population are animist, and follow shamanistic-animistic religious traditions such as Donyi-Polo (in the Tani area) and Rangfrah (further east). A small number of Arunachali peoples have traditionally identified as Hindus, although the number is growing as animist traditions are merged with Hindu traditions. Tibetan Buddhism predominates in the districts of Tawang, West Kameng, and isolated regions adjacent to Tibet. Theravada Buddhism is practiced by groups living near the Burmese border. Around 19% of the population are said to be followers of the Christian faith,[17] and this percentage is probably growing due to Christian missionary activities in the area.

A law has been enacted to protect the indigenous religions (e.g., Donyi-Poloism, Buddhism) in Arunanchal Pradesh against the spread of other religions, though no comparable law exists to protect the other religions.

Transport

The state's airports are located at Daparjio, Ziro, Along, Tezu and Pasighat. However, owing to the rough terrain, these airports are mostly small and cannot handle many flights. Before being connected by road, they were originally used for the transportation of food.

Arunachal Pradesh has two highways: the 336 km (209 mi) National Highway 52, completed in 1998, which connects Jonai with Dirak,[18] and another highway, which connects Tezpur in Assam with Tawang.[19] As of 2007, every village has been connected by road thanks to funding provided by the central government. Every small town has its own bus station and daily bus services are available. All places are connected to Assam, which has increased trading activity. An additional National Highway is being constructed following the famous Stillwell Ledo Road, which connects Ledo in Assam to Jairampur in Arunachal.

Education

The current education system in Arunachal Pradesh is relatively underdeveloped. The state government is expanding the education system in concert with various NGOs like Vivekananda Kendra.

The state has several reputable schools, colleges, and institutions. There are also trust institutes like Pali Vidyapith run by Buddhists. They teach Pali and Khamti scripts in addition to typical educational subjects. Khamti is the only tribe in Arunachal Pradesh that has its own script. Libraries of sciptures are located in a number of places in Lohit district, the largest one in Chowkham.

Rajiv Gandhi University is the premier educational institution, the only university in the entire state. Additionally, there are 7 government colleges in different districts, providing students a higher education. NERIST (North Eastern Regional Institute of Science and Technology) plays an important role in technical and management higher education. The directorate of technical education conducts examinations yearly, so that students who qualify can continue on to higher studies in other states.

The state has two polytechnic institutions, namely Rajiv Gandhi Govt. Polytechnic, located at Itanagar, and Tomi Polytechnic College, located at Basar.

Sl. No. Name of Colleges Location Year of establishment
1 Rajiv Gandhi Govt. Polytechnic Itanagar 2002
2 Tomi Polytechnic College Basar 2006

Tourism

Across section of Changlang town.
A view of Tawang monestry.

Arunachal Pradesh attracts tourists from many parts of the world. Tourist attractions include Tawang ,a beautiful town famous for its Buddhist monestry, the Namdapha tiger project in Changlang district and Sela lake near Bomdila with its bamboo bridges overhanging the river. Religious places of interest include Malinithan in Lekhabali, Rukhmininagar near Roing (the place where Rukmini, Lord Krishna's wife in Hindu mythology, is said to have lived), and Parshuram Kund in Lohit district (which is believed to be the lake where Parshuram washed away his sins). Rafting and trekking are common activities. A visitor's permit from the tourism department is required. Places like Tuting have wonderful, undiscovered scenic beauty.

State Symbols

State Bird State Flower State Animal State Tree
Hornbill Foxtail Orchid Hoolock gibbon Hollong

[20]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Usha Sharma (2005). Discovery of North-East India. Mittal Publications. p. 65. ISBN 9788183240345. 
  2. ^ Arunachal Pradesh - The Land of the Rising Sun
  3. ^ 仓央嘉措生平疏议 (Biography of Cangyang Gyaco; in Chinese)
  4. ^ Simla Convention
  5. ^ Lamb, Alastair, The McMahon line: a study in the relations between India, China and Tibet, 1904 to 1914, London, 1966, p529
  6. ^ Lamb, 1966, p580
  7. ^ The battle for the border
  8. ^ India’s China War by Neville Maxwell
  9. ^ PM to visit Arunachal in mid-Feb
  10. ^ Apang rules out Chakma compromise
  11. ^ [1]
  12. ^ Trekking in Arunachal, Trekking Tour in Arunachal Pradesh,Adventure Trekking in Arunachal Pradesh
  13. ^ Arunachal Pradesh Economy, This Is My India
  14. ^ Massive dam plans for Arunachal
  15. ^ India pre-empts Chinese design in Arunachal
  16. ^ "Census Population" (PDF). Census of India. Ministry of Finance India. http://indiabudget.nic.in/es2006-07/chapt2007/tab97.pdf. Retrieved 18 December 2008. 
  17. ^ Census Reference Tables, C-Series Population by religious communities
  18. ^ Oral Answers to Questions September 13, 1991, Parliament of India
  19. ^ [2]
  20. ^ Web India

External links


Travel guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikitravel

Asia : South Asia : India : North-Eastern India : Arunachal Pradesh

Arunachal Pradesh is in India.

Talk

People of Arunachal Pradesh understand Hindi, English & Arunachali.

Get in

All the tourists even Indians require ILP (Inner Line Permit) which can be acquired from any of the AP Houses situated in New Delhi, Kolkata & Guwahati. The ILP is provided based on the sectors. There are 3 sectors in AP.

1) Bomdila, Dirang, Tawang

2) Itanagar, Ziro

3) Namdapha, Changlang

One can get the ILP for any one of the above sectors.

If you are visiting Bomdila sector, then the easiest way to reach there is by road from Tezpur (Assam). The nearest airport is Guwahati. One can then go to Tezpur by state transport buses. From Tezpur, shared vehicles are available every morning from 5:30 am. Make sure you book a nice seat with a reputed travel agency. Dont forget to request your driver to halt at Sela pass. Its covered with snow during winter seasons with a nice picturesque view. Although the roads are good & maintained by Border Road Organization (BRO), but there are land slides in the rainy season.

If you are visiting Namdapha, then the nearest airport will be Dibrugarh (Assam).

There are no direct flights to Itanagar and the nearest airport is Tezpur.

Get around

Places to visit around Tawang.
1) Anni Gompa: This is a buddhist monastery managed by nuns. Anni means nun. It was not accessible by road (as of 2006) and I am sure it is still not. You need to request your guide or cab driver to take you to the monastery.
2) NooraNag falls: One of the largest falls near Tawang.
3) War Memorial
4) Madhuri Lake: Named after famous actress

You should go for a small trek around the town.

See

Bomdila:

Bomdila is a great option for adventure sports activities in Arunachal Pradesh. Bomdila is located near to Itanagar, it is famous as trekking destination for trekking lovers. Best time to for trekking in arunachal Pradesh is from October to February. Rafting and Angling, both are also famous adventure sport activities possible here.

Pashighat:

Pashighat is one of the oldest cities of Arunachal Pradesh. This is an ideal place for tourists who wish to experience the suzerainty of the nature. This city is the entrance point for the Arunacahl Pradesh. This places is perfect for the natural photography.

Do

Rafting: Brahmaputra is counted as one of the best rivers for rafting in world. This river gives an amazing and exciting, life time memorable rafting expedition experience into North-East part of India. The Tsang Po River flows in the east side of Tibet, passing through great Himalayan. This river also passes through the Namche Barwa, highest unclimbed mountain and then reaches to Arunachal Pradesh.

Brahmaputra river rafting is an challenging activity in which one can experience the “ Zebra ock” and “ Roaring Rikor”. Tourists can also set their camp on beaches in the night time. This journey also includes a ride at Dibrugarh on the Brahmaputra River also the densely forested river valley from the plains of Pasighat.

Subansari River Rafting: Subansari River is also known as the “Gold River”. This river is the biggest tributary of the Brahmaputra River and flow through rainforest in the Arunachal Pradesh. This river flows around 170 km in Tibet, around 250 km in the east part of the Himalaya and around 86 km in the Assam before it joins the great Brahmaputra River. [1]

Kameng River Rafting: This River was known as the Bhareli River, before it got renamed to Kameng. This river flows on the India-Tibet border, in India it flows from Arunachal Pradesh. This is one of most challenging river for the river rafting in India.

Stay safe

Arunachal Pradesh is the safest state in north east India. As such I have never encountered any problems visiting other states, however I found it more safer.

The people of Arunachal Pradesh are very religious and stay away from any kind of vices. They are very friendly and ready to help you.

Get out

It is better to first visit Tawang and then come back to Bomdila & Dirang. These 2 places are closer to Bhalukpong and Tezpur, so you are actually saving time on travel.

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Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

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English

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Proper noun

Singular
Arunachal Pradesh

Plural
-

Arunachal Pradesh

  1. State in north-eastern India which has Itanagar as its capital.

Translations


Genealogy

Up to date as of February 01, 2010

From Familypedia

colspan="2" style="background-color:#E6D1CE
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1.25em; text-align:center;" |Arunachal Pradesh
[[Image: Arunachal Pradesh locator map.svg
border|Map of Arunachal Pradesh]]
[[Image:India Arunachal Pradesh locator map.svg
border|Map of India showing location of Arunachal Pradesh]]
Location of Arunachal Pradesh in India
Location of Arunachal Pradesh
Location of Arunachal Pradesh in India</center>
Country  India
District(s) 17
Established 1987-02-20
Capital Itanagar
Largest city Itanagar
Governor K. Sankaranarayanan
Chief Minister Dorjee Khandu
Legislature (seats) Unicameral (60)
Population
Density
1,091,117 ([[List of states and territories of India by population 26th]])
13 /km2 (34 /sq mi)
Language(s) English, Hindi
Time zone IST (UTC+5:30)
Area 83,743 km² (32,333 sq mi)
ISO 3166-2 IN-AR
Website arunachalpradesh.nic.in
Seal of Arunachal Pradesh
Seal of Arunachal Pradesh

Coordinates: 27°04′N 93°22′E / 27.06, 93.37

Arunachal Pradesh pronunciation file— play in browser (Template:LangWithNameNoItals

  Aruṇācal Pradeś) is the easternmost state of India. Arunachal Pradesh shares a border with the states of Assam to the south and Nagaland to the southeast. Myanmar lies towards the east, Bhutan towards the west, and Tibet to the north. Itanagar is the capital of the state. Though Arunachal Pradesh is administered by India, the People's Republic of China holds a territorial claim over portions of the state.[1]

Arunachal Pradesh means "land of the rising sun"[2] ("pradesh" means "state" or "region") in reference to its position as the easternmost state of India. Most of the people living in Arunachal Pradesh are either of Tibetan or Thai-Burmese origin. Another 16% of the population are immigrants, including 30,000 Bangladeshi and Chakma expatriates, and immigrants from other parts of India, notably Assam and Nagaland.[3] Part of the famous Ledo Burma Road, which was a lifeline to China during World War II passes through the state.

Contents

History

The first ancestors of the tribal groups migrated from Tibet during the prehistoric period, and were joined by Thai-Burmese counterparts later. Except for the northwestern parts of the state, little is known about the history of Arunachal Pradesh, although the Adi tribe had legendary knowledge of the history. Recorded history was only available in the Ahom chronicles during the 16th century. The tribal Monpa and Sherdukpen do keep historical records of the existence of local chiefdoms in the northwest as well. Northwestern parts of this area came under the control of the Monpa kingdom of Monyul, which flourished between 500 B.C. and 600 A.D. This region then came under the loose control of Tibet and Bhutan, especially in the Northern areas. The remaining parts of the state, especially those bordering Myanmar, came under the control of the Ahom and the Assamese until the annexation of India by the British in 1858.

Recent excavations of ruins of Hindu temples such as the 14th Malinithan at the foot of the Siang hills in West Siang shed new light on the ancient history of Arunachal Pradesh. Paintings of the Hindu gods and altars remained untouched for many years. They attracted many local pilgrims. Another notable heritage site, Bhismaknagar, suggested that the Idu Mishmi had a local civilisation. The third heritage site, the 400-year-old Tawang monastery in the Tawang district, also provides historical evidence of the Buddhist tribal peoples. Historically, the area had a close relationship with Tibetan people and Tibetan culture, for example the sixth Dalai Lama Tsangyang Gyatso was born in Tawang.[4]

In 1913-14 British administrator, Sir Henry McMahon, drew up the 550 mile (890 km) McMahon Line as the border between British India and Tibet during the Simla Conference, as Britain sought to advance its line of control and establish buffer zones around its colony in South Asia. The Tibetan and British representatives at the conference agreed to the line, which ceded Tawang and other Tibetan areas to British India; however the Chinese representative refused to accept the line owing to domestic pressures. The Chinese position since then has been that since China was sovereign over Tibet, the line was invalid without Chinese agreement. Furthermore, by refusing to sign the Simla documents, the Chinese Government had escaped according any recognition to the validity of the McMahon Line.[5]

For the first two decades after the Simla Conference, the Survey of India did not show the McMahon Line as the border between British India and Tibet either; only in 1937 did they publish a map showing it as the official boundary; in 1938 the Survey of India published a map showing Tawang as a part of Tibet. In 1944, Britain established administrations in the area, from Dirang Dzong in the west to Walong in the east. Tibet, however, altered its position on the McMahon Line in late 1947 when the Tibetan government wrote a note presented to the newly independent Indian Ministry of External Affairs laying claims to Tibetan districts south of the McMahon Line.[6] The situation developed further as India became independent and the People's Republic of China was established in the late 1940s: with the PRC poised to take over Tibet, India unilaterally declared the McMahon Line to be the boundary in November 1950, and forced the Tibetan administration out of the Tawang area in 1951, despite protests by the PRC and Tibet.[7][8] The PRC has not recognized the McMahon Line since. (In 1959, a suppressed Tibetan uprising resulted in PRC's abolition of Tibet's self-ruling government headed by the Dalai Lama. The Dalai Lama fled to Dharamsala, India, where he continues to lead the Tibetan Government-in-Exile. Maps published by the Tibetan Government-in-Exile now show the McMahon Line as the southern border of Tibet.)

The NEFA (North East Frontier Agency) was created in 1954. The issue was quiet during the next decade or so of cordial Sino-Indian relations, but erupted again during the Sino-Indian War of 1962. The cause of the escalation into war is still disputed by both Chinese and Indian sources. During the war in 1962, the PRC captured most of the NEFA. However, China soon declared victory and voluntarily withdrew back to the McMahon Line and returned Indian prisoners of war in 1963. The war has resulted in the termination of barter trade with Tibet, although in 2007 the state government has shown signs to resume barter trade with Tibet.[9]

Of late, Arunachal Pradesh faces threat from resistance groups, notably the National Socialist Council of Nagalim (NSCN), who were believed to have base camps in the districts of Changlang and Tirap.[10] There were occasional reports of these groups harassing the local people.[11]

Geography

Arunachal Pradesh is famous for its mountainous landscape.

Much of Arunachal Pradesh is covered by the Himalayas. However. parts of Lohit, Changlang and Tirap,which are covered by the Patkai. Kangto, Nyegi Kangsang, the main Gorichen peak and the Eastern Gorichen peak are some of the highest peaks in this region of the Himalayas.

Recently at 2006, Bumla pass in Bomdila, was opened after 44 years for the first time for the traders. The traders from both the sides were permitted to enter each other territories. The Himalayan ranges that extends up to the eastern Arunachal separates it from China. The ranges extend towards the Nagaland, and form a boundary between India and Burma in Changlang and Tirap district, it acts as a natural barrier it is called Patkai Bum Hills. It is low level ranges as compared to Greater Himalayas.[12]

Climate

The climate of Arunachal Pradesh differs with the elevation. Areas that are at a very high elevation in the Upper Himalayas close to the Tibetan border enjoy an alpine or Tundra climate. While below the Upper Himalayas are the Middle Himalayas, where people experience a climate which is temperate. Fruits like apples, oranges, etc are grown here in this region. Areas at the sub-Himalayan and sea-level elevation generally experience a humid sub-tropical climate, along with the hot summers and mild winters.

Arunchal Pradesh receives heavy rainfall of 80 to 160 inches (2,000 to 4,000 mm) annually, most of it pours down between May and September. The mountain slopes and hills are covered with alpine, temperate, and subtropical forests of dwarf rhododendron, oak, pine, maple, fir, and juniper; sal (Shorea) and teak are the main economic species.

Sub-divisions

Arunachal Pradesh is divided into Sixteen districts, each administered by a district collector, who sees to the needs of the local people. Especially along the Tibetan border, the Indian army has considerable presence due to the concern about Chinese intentions. Special permits called Inner Line Permits (ILP) are required to enter Arunachal Pradesh through any of it checkgates on its border with Assam.

Districts of Arunachal Pradesh:

Economy

This is a chart of trend of gross state domestic product of Arunachal Pradesh at market prices estimated by Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation with figures in millions of Indian Rupees.

Year Gross State Domestic Product
1980 1,070
1985 2,690
1990 5,080
1995 11,840
2000 17,830

Arunachal Pradesh's gross state domestic product for 2004 is estimated at $706 million in current prices. Agriculture is the primary driver of the economy. Jhum, the local word for shifting cultivation, which was widely practised among the tribal groups has come to be less practiced. Arunachal Pradesh has close to 61,000 square kilometers of forests, and the forest-products are the next most significant sector of the economy. Among the crops grown here are rice, maize, millet, wheat, pulses, sugarcane, ginger and oilseeds. Arunachal is also ideal for horticulture and fruit orchards. Its major industries are sawmills, plywood (these two trades however have been stopped by law), rice mills, fruit preservation units and handloom handicrafts.

Demographics

Buddhism is practiced by 13% of the population. Shown here is a statue of Buddha in Twang, Arunachal Pradesh.
Main article: Demographics of Arunachal Pradesh

63% of the Arunachalis belong to 19 major tribes and 85 tribes, who had a tradition which is diverse and of rich culture, language and beliefs. Most of them are either of Tibeto-Burman or Tai-Burmese origin. Another 35% of the population are made up of the immigrants, including 31,000 Bangladeshi, Bodo, Hajong and Chakma expartriates, and immigrants from neighbouring Assam, Nagaland and other notable parts of India. The most major tribes include the Adi, Nishi, Monpa and Apatani.

The literacy of the State rose to 54.74% from 41.59% in 1991. As of today, the number of literates is 487,796. Recent statistics shows that 20% of Arunachal's population are Animist [13], who follow Animistic religions such as Donyi-Polo and Rangfrah. 25% are Hindus. Tribes who follow Hinduism include the Nocte and Miri [14].[15] Another 40% are practicing Buddhists [16]. Tibetan Buddhism predominates in the districts of Tawang, West Kameng and isolated regions adjacent to Tibet, and Theravada Buddhism is practiced by tribal groups living near the Burmese border.

Transport

The state's airports are located at Itanagar, Daparjio, Ziro, Along, Tezu and Pasighat. However, owing to the rough terrain, these airports are mostly small and cannot handle many flights, they were actually used for transportation of food, when these parts were not connected by the roads. Arunachal Pradesh has two highways; the 336km (205 miles) National Highway 52, completed in 1998, connects Jonai with Dirak.[17] There is another highway which connects Tezpur in Assam with Tawang.[18] Now in 2007, every village is connected by road. It's due to the funding that central government has provided. Every small town has got its own bus station and daily bus services are available. All places are connected to Assam, which has increased the trading capacity. A National Highway is being constructed on the famous Stillwell Ledo Road, which connects Ledo in Assam to Jairampur in Arunachal.

Education

The current education system in Arunachal Pradesh is relatively underdeveloped. The state government is expanding the education system in concert with various NGOs like Vivekananda Kendra. Rajiv Gandhi University, Arunachal Pradesh is the state's premier educational institution. The state also has several reputed schools, colleges and institutions.

Tourism

Arunachal Pradesh attracts tourists from many parts of the world. Tourist attractions include the Namdapha tiger project in Changlang district, Sela lake near to Bomdila, the bamboo bridges hanging over the river. Historical attractions include Malinithan in Lekhabali and Rukhmininagar near Roing, place where Rukhmini, lord Krishna's wife, used to live. Parshuram kund in Lohit district, is believed to the lake where Pashuram washed away all his sins. Rafting and trekking are also available. A visitor's permit from the tourism department is required. [8]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ China revives claims on Indian territory. Islamic Republic News Agency. Retrieved on 2007-08-26.
  2. ^ [1]
  3. ^ [2]
  4. ^ 仓央嘉措生平疏议 (Biography of Cangyang Gyaco; in Chinese)
  5. ^ Lamb, Alastair, The McMahon line: a study in the relations between India, China and Tibet, 1904 to 1914, London, 1966, p529
  6. ^ Lamb, 1966, p580
  7. ^ http://www.rediff.com/news/2003/jun/21spec.htm
  8. ^ http://www.centurychina.com/plaboard/uploads/1962war.htm
  9. ^ PM to visit Arunachal in mid-Feb
  10. ^ Apang rules out Chakma compromise
  11. ^ [3]
  12. ^ [4]
  13. ^ http://www.censusindia.net/religiondata/ 2001 Indian Census Data
  14. ^ http://www.censusindia.net/religiondata/ 2001 Indian Census Data
  15. ^ [5]
  16. ^ http://www.censusindia.net/religiondata/ 2001 Indian Census Data
  17. ^ [6]
  18. ^ [7]

External links

This page uses content from the English language Wikipedia. The original content was at Arunachal Pradesh. The list of authors can be seen in the page history. As with this Familypedia wiki, the content of Wikipedia is available under the Creative Commons License.

Facts about Arunachal PradeshRDF feed
County of country India  +
County of subdivision1 Arunachal Pradesh  +
Short name Arunachal Pradesh  +

This article uses material from the "Arunachal Pradesh" article on the Genealogy wiki at Wikia and is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike License.

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