The Full Wiki

Ashkenazi Jews: Wikis

  
  
  
  

Did you know ...


More interesting facts on Ashkenazi Jews

Include this on your site/blog:

Encyclopedia

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Ashkenazi Jews
(יהודי אשכנז Yehudei Ashkenaz)
Rashi Moses Isserles Vilna Gaon Heinrich Heine Sigmund Freud Eliezer Ben-Yehuda Theodore Herzl Gustav Mahler Albert Einstein Emmy Noether Lise Meitner Franz Kafka Golda Meir George Gershwin John von Neumann Leonard Bernstein Anne Frank
Total population
8[1]–11.2[2] million
Regions with significant populations
 United States 5–6 million[3]
 Israel 2.8–4 million[3][4]
Languages
Historical: Yiddish
Modern: Local languages, primarily: English, Hebrew, Russian
Religion
primarily Judaism
Related ethnic groups
.Sephardi Jews, Mizrahi Jews, and other Jewish ethnic divisions.^ Ashkenazi Jews , Mizrahi Jews , other Jewish ethnic divisions , Spaniards , Portuguese .
  • What is Sephardic Jews? 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ashkenazi Jews , Sephardi Jews , other Jewish ethnic divisions and Arabs .
  • Mizrahi Jews - Includipedia, the inclusionist encyclopaedia 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.includipedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Jewish ethnic divisions Ashkenazi Sephardi Mizrahi .
  • What is Sephardic Jews? 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The Jews in Central Europe (1881)
.Ashkenazi Jews, also known as Ashkenazic Jews or Ashkenazim (Hebrew: אַשְׁכֲּנָזִים‎, pronounced [ˌaʃkəˈnazim], singular: [ˌaʃkəˈnazi]; also יְהוּדֵי אַשְׁכֲּנָז, Yehudei Ashkenaz, "the Jews of Ashkenaz"), are the Jews descended from the medieval Jewish communities along the Rhine in Germany from Alsace in the south to the Rhineland in the north.^ Ashkenazi Jews originate from Europe and in fact come from the medieval Germany.
  • AFFA 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.affa.az [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Ashkenazi Jews are also the direct descendants of the Israelites.
  • Question 13.4: Who were the Khazars? Are Ashkenazi Jews descended from the Khazars? 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]
  • S.C.J. FAQ: Section 13.4. Jews as a Nation: Who were the Khazars? Are Ashkenazi Jews descended from the Khazars? 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC shamash.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Continue to top Ashkenazi Jews / Ashkenazim .
  • Jewish Museum Berlin - Glossary A 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.jmberlin.de [Source type: Reference]

.Ashkenaz is the medieval Hebrew name for this region and thus for Germany.^ Ashkenaz is the medieval Hebrew name for this region and thus for Germany.
  • Criticism That Cuts Too Close To The Bone 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ashkenazi is a medieval Hebrew word for Germany.
  • Y - DNA Results (to date) for the TURK Family of Surnames 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.melungeons.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The word "Ashkenazic" is derived from the Hebrew word for Germany.
  • Judaism 101: Ashkenazic and Sephardic Jews 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.jewfaq.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Thus, Ashkenazim or Ashkenazi Jews are literally "German Jews."^ "Ashkenazim" originally referred to Jews who lived in and/or currently live in Germany and in German-controlled areas of Europe since the Early to Middle Ages, beginning with the settlement of the Jews in the Rhineland area of Germany I.E. the German-Jews, with the singular form "Ashkenazi" referring to a German-Jew.
  • Sephardic and Ashkenazic Passover / Pesach Differences 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.angelfire.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ashkenazi and Sephardi Jews are thus divided primarily because of the different customs and rituals which each group practices.
  • What is the difference between Ashkenazi and Sephardic Jews? - jewish identity jewish "labels" ashkenazim/ sephardim 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.askmoses.com [Source type: General]
  • What is the difference between Ashkenazi and Sephardic Jews? - jewish identity jewish "labels" ashkenazim/ sephardim 11 September 2009 2:44 UTC www.askmoses.com [Source type: General]

^ Ashkenazi Jews, it informs us, have a more significant admixture of Italian, Greek, and Turkish genes than of Spanish, German, or even Austrian ones.
  • Jewish Genetics, Part 1: Jewish Populations (Ashkenazim, Sephardim, Mizrahim, Yemenite, Ethiopian) DNA 11 September 2009 2:44 UTC www.khazaria.com [Source type: Academic]

.Later, Jews from Western and Central Europe came to be called "Ashkenaz" because the main centers of Jewish learning were located in Germany.^ Jewish culture center shifts from the Middle East to Western Europe.
  • 3.2.� Middle Ages Period (500-1500 CE) 10 February 2010 11:39 UTC www.jewishgen.org [Source type: Reference]

^ The Ashkenazi Jews also came to Eastern Europe because of persecution.
  • Nation without a state: The Balkan Jews 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC staff.lib.msu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Why are Western Jews called "Ashkenazim"?
  • Queries about Judah and the Jews 10 February 2010 11:39 UTC www.britam.org [Source type: Original source]

.(See Usage of the name for the term's etymology.^ (See Usage of the name for the term’s etymology.
  • Criticism That Cuts Too Close To The Bone 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

) .Ashkenaz is also a Japhetic patriarch in the Table of Nations (Genesis 10).^ Ashkenaz is also a Japhetic patriarch in the Table of Nations ( Genesis 10).
  • Ashkenazi Jews - Kosmix : Reference, Videos, Images, News, Shopping and more... 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.kosmix.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ashkenaz is a Biblical place name (Genesis 10:3, Jeremiah 51: 27), etymologically related to Greek Skythia ‘Scythia’.
  • ashkenazi Family History Facts 1920 - Ancestry.com 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.ancestry.com [Source type: General]

^ The Book of Genesis (10:2,3) itself also describes Ashkenaz as a descendent of Japheth, rather than Shem.
  • What Right Do Zionist Jews Have To Palestine? 10 February 2010 11:39 UTC www.u-r-next.com [Source type: Original source]

.Many Ashkenazi Jews later migrated, largely eastward, forming communities in non German-speaking areas, including Hungary, Poland, Belarus, Lithuania, Russia, Ukraine, Eastern Europe, and elsewhere between the 11th and 19th centuries.^ Ashkenazi Jews are of Eastern European descent.
  • Breast Cancer Gene Might Extend Ovarian Cancer Survival: Ashkenazi Jewish women with ... 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.henryfordhealth.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Many Jews migrated to areas newly conquered by Muslims and established communities there.
  • Jews - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Many later migrated, largely eastward, forming communities in Germany, Poland, Russia, Eastern Europe and elsewhere between the 10th and 19th centuries.
  • A Mistake �� a nation of European Jews in an area of Arab Muslims" in Wars in History Channel 10 February 2010 11:39 UTC boards.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.With them, they took and diversified Yiddish, a basically Germanic language with Hebrew influence (see Jewish language).^ Yiddish, a Jewish language.
  • EPYC | Culture | Language 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC epyc.yivo.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They created the "Yiddish" language, a Hebrew-German combination written in Hebrew characters.
  • What type of Jew are you ? 10 February 2010 11:39 UTC www.jews-for-allah.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Hebrew ( in Hebrew language ) Yiddish ( in Yiddish language ) religion .
  • Ashkenazi (people) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]
  • Ashkenazi (people) :: Related Articles -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]
  • Ashkenazi (people) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 February 2010 11:39 UTC concise.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It had developed in medieval times as the lingua franca among Ashkenazi Jews.^ The Ashkenazi Jews developed a distinct culture and liturgy; influenced, to varying degrees, by interaction with surrounding peoples of Central and Eastern Europe.
  • Becoming Jewish - Judaism 101 10 February 2010 11:39 UTC www.becomingjewish.org [Source type: Original source]

^ During the Islamic period, the Jews had unprecedented freedom, and the well-organized Jewish community, which at the time was centered in Baghdad, became the model for later Ashkenazi communities.
  • Stand for Israel: Ashkenazim 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.ifcj.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some of their customs, liturgy and musical as well as linguistic forms distinguished them from the Ashkenazi Jews originating from Germany, who were dominant in Poland at the time.
  • Fundacja Ochrony Dziedzictwa Żydowskiego 10 February 2010 11:39 UTC fodz.pl [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Jewish communities of three cities along the Rhine: Speyer, Worms and Mainz, created the SHUM league (SHUM after the first Hebrew letters of Spira, Warmatia and Magentza).^ Spanish and Portuguese Jewish community in the city.
  • Rabbi Tzvi Ashkenazi (Chacham Tzvi) - Later Achronim 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.chabad.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He had been nominated by an organization dominated by American Jews to a position traditionally held by a member of the city's established American Jewish community -- and many saw it as "a true integration of Latino and American Jews.''
  • The Jews of Cuba 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC jewishcuba.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Jews may have come to Britain in Roman times, but the first organised Jewish community started soon after the Norman Conquest in 1066.
  • Chief Rabbi - History of the Chief Rabbinate 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.chiefrabbi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Chief Rabbi - History of the Chief Rabbinate 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.chiefrabbi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The SHUM-cities are considered the cradle of the distinct Ashkenazi culture and liturgy.^ This group can be considered a distinct sub-culture distinguished by the following features.
  • Rootless Cosmopolitan - By Tony Karon » Blog Archive » Learning From Arab Jews 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC tonykaron.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Gradually displaced by the Rus, the Kipchaks, and later the conquering Mongol Golden Horde, the Khazars morphed into the culturally distinct Ashkenazi .
  • The law of God according to the Hebrews with excerpts from Psalms and Proverbs 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.unique-design.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Secondly, and significantly, in Israel today there are two major religious delineations, each represented by a distinct Rabbinate and liturgy - the Sephardi and the Ashkenazi.
  • Jewish World Music 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.tzimmes.net [Source type: General]

.Although in the 11th century, they comprised only 3 percent of the world's Jewish population, at their peak in 1931, Ashkenazi Jews accounted for 92 percent of the world's Jews.^ Decimated by the Holocaust, Jews now comprise only 0.2% of the world's people.
  • The Half-Jewish Network 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.half-jewish.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Where does the world Jewish population live?
  • LookIsrael - Israel Questions & Answers 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.lookisrael.com [Source type: Original source]

^ How jewish are the ashkenazi jews anyways?
  • Slate -> The Fray -> Human Nature 10 February 2010 11:39 UTC fray.slate.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Today they make up approximately 80 percent of Jews worldwide.^ Today they make up around 80 percent of the world's Jews.
  • Did Discrimination Enhance Intelligence of Jews? 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC news.nationalgeographic.com [Source type: General]
  • The high intelligence of Jews. 10 February 2010 11:39 UTC home.comcast.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Today Sephardic Jews make up only 10 percent of the Jewish population worldwide.
  • Mistaken Identity? The Case of New Mexico's "Hidden Jews" - 00.12 10 February 2010 11:39 UTC www.theatlantic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Although in the 11th century they comprised only 3% of the world's Jewish population, Ashkenazi Jews accounted for (at their highest) 92% of the world's Jews in 1931 and today make up approximately 80% of Jews worldwide.
  • A Mistake �� a nation of European Jews in an area of Arab Muslims" in Wars in History Channel 10 February 2010 11:39 UTC boards.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[5] .Most Jewish communities with extended histories in Europe are Ashkenazim, with the exception of those associated with the Mediterranean region.^ Most Jewish communities with extended histories in Europe are Ashkenazim, with the exception of those associated with the Mediterranean region.
  • A Mistake �� a nation of European Jews in an area of Arab Muslims" in Wars in History Channel 10 February 2010 11:39 UTC boards.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ After the 17th-century persecutions in eastern Europe, large numbers of these Jews resettled in western Europe, where they assimilated, as they had done in eastern Europe, with other Jewish communities.
  • Ashkenazi (people) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]
  • Ashkenazi (people) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 February 2010 11:39 UTC concise.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Second, since most European countries prohibited Jews from owning land, the Jewish population of Europe was largely urban (exceptions include agrarian settlements in Poland and in the Pale of Settlement in Russia).
  • The Genetic Origin of Ashkenazi Genius || kuro5hin.org 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.kuro5hin.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The majority of the Jews who migrated from Europe to other continents in the past two centuries are Ashkenazim, Eastern Ashkenazim in particular.^ The two groups (eastern and western Jews) intermarried over the centuries.
  • Question 13.4: Who were the Khazars? Are Ashkenazi Jews descended from the Khazars? 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]
  • S.C.J. FAQ: Section 13.4. Jews as a Nation: Who were the Khazars? Are Ashkenazi Jews descended from the Khazars? 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC shamash.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Ashkenazic Jews, or Ashkenazim—the other major branch of Judaism, came from Northern and Eastern Europe, and Russia.
  • Jewish Traditions from Ashkenazic to Zionist — FactMonster.com 11 September 2009 2:44 UTC www.factmonster.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A significant portion of the Jews who migrated from Europe to other continents in the past two centuries are Eastern Ashkenazim .
  • A Mistake �� a nation of European Jews in an area of Arab Muslims" in Wars in History Channel 10 February 2010 11:39 UTC boards.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This is especially true in the United States, where most of the 5.3 million American Jewish population[6] is Ashkenazi, representing the world's single largest concentration of Ashkenazim.^ Where does the world Jewish population live?
  • LookIsrael - Israel Questions & Answers 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.lookisrael.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Currently, the largest Jewish community in the world is located in the United States, with almost 5.3 million Jews.
  • Jews - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The 'United Synagogue' of Orthodox synagogues largely represented the established UK Ashkenazi Jewish population.
  • Jewish East End of London-history 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.jewisheastend.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Contents

Definition

.The exact definition of Jewishness is not universally agreed upon—neither by religious scholars (especially across different denominations); nor in the context of politics (as applied to those who wish to make Aliyah); nor even in the conventional, everyday sense where 'Jewishness' may be loosely understood by the casual observer as encompassing both religious and secular Jews, or religious Jews alone.^ Different sects, denominations, and Jewish Movements .
  • What type of Jew are you ? 10 February 2010 11:39 UTC www.jews-for-allah.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They wished to make aliyah .
  • Oni the Lonely - by Pamela Renner > Tablet Magazine - A New Read on Jewish Life 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.tabletmag.com [Source type: News]

^ The definition of a Jew in Judaic law is someone, who has a Jewish mother.

.This makes it especially difficult to define who is an Ashkenazi Jew.^ The Ashkenazi Jews are a mixture of Sephardic Jews that lived in Europe during the Roman Empire and the Rhine and the Netherlands and also Eastern Jews who went to Russia.
  • Islamophobia: Bad For The Jews « Antiwar.com Blog 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.antiwar.com [Source type: General]

^ In Israel, factor XI deficiency has been estimated to be around 8% among Ashkenazi Jews, making it one of the most common genetic disorders in this group.
  • Factor XI Deficiency 10 February 2010 11:39 UTC www.hemophilia.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Ashkenazi Jews are descended from Jews who lived in central and Eastern Europe, but a complex history of migrations, and multiple cultural and religious meanings of Ashkenazi, makes self-identification problematic.
  • Research Linking Ashkenazi Jews & Breast Cancer Genes Beset by Problems 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.newswise.com [Source type: Academic]

.The people have been defined differently from religious, cultural, or ethnic perspectives.^ Less than 5% (of the nation-wide Jews questioned) picked solely the religious group category, whereas 90% defined being Jewish as being a member of a cultural or ethnic block."
  • ALOR - Jews and Genetics 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.alor.org [Source type: Academic]

^ How Do We Define “Jewish Diversity” Just as Ashkenazi Jews are a mix of many peoples encountered during centuries of wandering throughout the Diaspora, Jews of color have different backgrounds, different life experiences, and different perspectives on their relationship to Judaism.
  • Be'chol Lashon: About: The History of Jewish Diversity 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC bechollashon.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But the reality of racial and ethnic differences and the fact that we are drawn to people like ourselves means that appeals to kinship often have a firm basis in self-interest and psychological reality.

.Since the overwhelming majority of Ashkenazi Jews no longer live in Eastern Europe, the isolation that once favored a distinct religious tradition and culture has vanished.^ Ashkenazi lived in Germany since the 1.
  • Dienekes' Anthropology Blog: mtDNA haplogroup K in Bronze Age Syria 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC dienekes.blogspot.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Ashkenazi Jews lived in Germany or France before migrating to Eastern Europe.
  • Jewish Genealogical Society of Willamette Valley Oregon: Articles 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.nwfam.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The overwhelming majority of Jews support multiculturalism.

.Furthermore, the word Ashkenazi is being used in non-traditional ways, especially in Israel.^ Ashkenazim differ from Sephardim in their pronunciation of Hebrew, in cultural traditions, in synagogue cantillation (chanting), in their widespread use of Yiddish (until the 20th century), and especially in synagogue liturgy.
  • Ashkenazi (people) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]
  • Ashkenazi (people) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 February 2010 11:39 UTC concise.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In Israel today the more traditional Sephardis (who are less likely to use birth control) are multiplying at a faster rate than the Ashkenazis.
  • Refuting the Khazar Theory of Aurthur Hoestler (The Thirteenth Tribe) and Others. 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.chaim.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Of the hymns, Psalm 100 is omitted, its place being taken in the Ashkenazi tradition by Psalms 19, 34, 90, 91, 135, 136, 33, 92, 93.
  • Jewish Worship and Prayer - ReligionFacts 10 February 2010 11:39 UTC www.religionfacts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.By conservative and orthodox philosophies, a person can only be considered a Jew if his or her mother was Jewish (meaning, more specifically, either matrilineal descent from a female believed to be present at Mt.^ The orthodox Jews consider the matter idealistically.
  • 45 Questions About the Jews - by William Dudley Pelley 11 September 2009 22:24 UTC www.come-and-hear.com [Source type: Original source]

^ A child by a Jewish father and a non-Jewish mother is not considered a true Jew.

^ In couples where only one person is Jewish.
  • Jews at Risk of Passing on Certain Genetic Disorders; Screening Advised - myOptu 10 February 2010 11:39 UTC www.myoptumhealth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Sinai when the ten commandments were given, or else descent from a female who was converted to Judaism before the birth of her children), or if he or she has personally converted to Judaism.^ Christ, who most Millennialist believe to be a created being and did not exist before His birth and He will literally sit on the throne of David in Jerusalem and rule the world.
  • Internet Archive: Free Download: The Rapture And Israel 10 February 2010 11:39 UTC www.archive.org [Source type: General]

^ Jews of Ashkenazi descent customarily name their children after relatives who have passed away, and Jews of Sephardic origin name after living relatives, in particular, the baby’s grandparents.
  • Jewish Baby Names – Ashkenazic vs. Sephardic Traditions « Nancy's Baby Names 10 February 2010 11:39 UTC www.nancy.cc [Source type: General]

^ For example, some children who have the ability to read lips for about ten years before the onset of blindness could benefit from a cochlear implant, an electronic device implanted behind the ear that can provide a sense of interpretable sound.
  • Usher Syndrome: New Insights Lead to Earlier Treatment [NIDCD Health Information] 10 February 2010 11:39 UTC www.nidcd.nih.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This means that a person can be Ashkenazi but not considered a Jew by some of those within the Jewish communities, making the term "Ashkenazi" more applicable as broad ethnicity which evolved from the practice of Judaism in Europe.^ Other conditions that are more common in the Ashkenazi Jewish community .
  • TAY-SACHS DISEASE and other conditions more common in the Ashkenazi Jewish community - Centre for Genetics Education 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.genetics.com.au [Source type: Academic]

^ [Some groups have converted to Judaism as a religion, but that does not make them Jews.
  • The Jew as World Parasite (1944) 10 February 2010 11:39 UTC www.calvin.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ What makes a person a good Jew?
  • JTube: Kenny vs Spenny 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.aish.com [Source type: General]

By religion

.Religious Jews have Minhagim, customs, in addition to Halakha, or religious law, and different interpretations of law.^ Do Christians and Jews interpret the law differently because of the Talmud?

^ In addition there are the religious differences.
  • Palestine - Israel Journal of Politics, Economics and Culture 10 February 2010 11:39 UTC www.pij.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Conservative Jews follow a slightly different Halacha , and Reform and Reconstructionist Jews and the Jewish Renewal movement are even more liberal in their interpretation of the law.

.Different groups of religious Jews in different geographic areas historically adopted different customs and interpretations.^ Seroprevalence was 8.8% among Jews, which did not differ from seroprevalence in other religious groups.
  • Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus infection in elderly Jews and non-Jews from New York City -- Engels et al. 31 (5): 946 -- International Journal of Epidemiology 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC ije.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ What are the different racial and cultural groups of Jews?

^ The two groups have different liturgy, religious customs and Hebrew pronunciations.

.On certain issues, Orthodox Jews are required to follow the customs of their ancestors, and do not believe they have the option of picking and choosing.^ They want to follow what they believe is true."
  • The Crypto Jews of Brazil 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.saudades.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Orthodox Jews follow Jewish law as laid down in the Torah , the first five books of the Bible , and the Talmud , the vast compilation of Jewish law.
  • Jewish Traditions from Ashkenazic to Zionist — Infoplease.com 11 September 2009 2:44 UTC www.infoplease.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ So we have to conclude that Toaff sees the Christian accusation as in some sense the source of a Jewish practice, in the following sequence: Jews are accused of doing this; some Jews begin to believe that they do this; some Jews do this.
  • Times Online 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC docs.google.com [Source type: Original source]

.Therefore, observant Jews at times find it important for religious reasons to ascertain who their household's religious ancestors are in order to know what customs their household should follow.^ This is an important finding for a number of reasons.
  • Study shows that Ashkenazi Jews have distinct DNA Markers 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.ety.com [Source type: Academic]
  • The Sunic Journal: Interview with Alain de Benoist, Part 2 of 2 : Voice of Reason Broadcast Network 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC reasonradionetwork.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Jewish Genetics, Part 1: Jewish Populations (Ashkenazim, Sephardim, Mizrahim, Yemenite, Ethiopian) DNA 11 September 2009 2:44 UTC www.khazaria.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Genome Biology | Full text | A genome-wide genetic signature of Jewish ancestry perfectly separates individuals with and without full Jewish ancestry in a large random sample of European Americans 10 February 2010 11:39 UTC genomebiology.com [Source type: Academic]

^ "I don't know of any observant Jew who looks to him as a religious leader."
  • Case of Rabbi Yona Metzger - Chief Rabbi (Ashkenazi) in Israel 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.theawarenesscenter.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Constituting, like priests, about four percent of the world’s Jews, Levites can easily be identified because, again like priests, they are assigned minor tasks in Jewish ritual to this day, so that every religiously observant Levite knows he is one.

.These times include, for example, when two Jews of different ethnic background marry, when a non-Jew converts to Judaism and determines what customs to follow for the first time, or when a lapsed or less observant Jew returns to traditional Judaism and must determine what was done in his or her family's past.^ If Jews are defined as followers of Judaism?
  • Rootless Cosmopolitan - By Tony Karon » Blog Archive » Are Jews White? 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC tonykaron.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Judaism is the Jews' strategy to dominate non-Jews.
  • Jewish Racism and "Religion" - Radio Islam 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.radioislam.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The difference between these two is critical.
  • The Iraqi Jews by Naeim Giladi 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.bintjbeil.com [Source type: Original source]
  • THE JEWS OF IRAQ - TESTIMONY OF A FORMER ZIONIST 10 February 2010 11:39 UTC www.jewsnotzionists.org [Source type: Original source]

.In this sense, "Ashkenazic" refers both to a family ancestry and to a body of customs binding on Jews of that ancestry.^ Definition of Pale of Settlement russia , settlement , pale , alexander , jews , yeshiva How to Find Jewish Ancestry search , family , jewish , relatives , jews , jewishgen How Did the Pale of Settlement Get Its Name?
  • Tag: Jews - Explore content tagged Jews on eHow.com 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.ehow.com [Source type: General]

^ It refers to the customs and ritual practices of European Jews; as such it does not refer to anything absolute.
  • No Ashkenazi gene - 23 July 2005 - New Scientist 10 February 2010 11:39 UTC www.newscientist.com [Source type: News]

^ By extension, it also refers to Jews of eastern European background (including Russia) with their distinctive liturgical practices or religious and social customs.
  • Be'chol Lashon: Educational Resources: Glossary 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC bechollashon.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In a religious sense, an Ashkenazi Jew is any Jew whose family tradition and ritual follows Ashkenazi practice.^ Unifying Shephardic and Ashkenazi religious practices.
  • Articles - The Jews - In Prophecy - The Rebirth of the Sanhedrin 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.lamblion.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Arabic uses Yahudi in the Quranic sense of a certain religious community that follows the Tawrat (Torat) Musa (Moshe).
  • Who are the Jews? | Wake Up From Your Slumber 10 February 2010 11:39 UTC wakeupfromyourslumber.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The truth is, all the Jews in the US aren't all Eastern European, and even those of us who are Ashkenazi Jews love Jewish food traditions from elsewhere.

.Until the Ashkenazi community first began to develop in the Early Middle Ages, the centers of Jewish religious authority were in the Islamic world, at Baghdad and in Islamic Spain.^ The community observes the Jewish tradition but is not religious.
  • THE JEWS IN SPLIT ( SPALATO ) 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC 74.52.200.226 [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Tickets are available at the Jewish Community Center.
  • Author takes scientific look at cultural myths | News | KC Jewish Chronicle 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.kcjc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Not surprisingly the conclusions of these studies are simplistic and in clear contradiction with each other: first the ‘few founding middle-eastern fathers’ scenario, then a ‘communities formed by unions between Jewish men and local women’ scenario, more recently the 4-women (!
  • Christians NOT Jews Are God’s Chosen People! | Real Zionist News 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.realjewnews.com [Source type: Original source]

Ashkenaz (Germany) was so distant geographically that it developed a minhag of its own. .Ashkenazi Hebrew came to be pronounced in ways distinct from other forms of Hebrew.^ There are other ways of viewing the "unique utilitarian alliance [that] was formed between the huge landowners and the Jewish financial elite."
  • The Revolutionary Jew 10 February 2010 11:39 UTC www.culturewars.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The word Ashkenazi is derived from the Hebrew word for Germany , while Sephardic is derived form the Hebrew word for Spain .
  • A Reassessment of the Jewish DNA Evidence 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC jogg.info [Source type: Academic]

^ Update: Dienekes emphasizes that the hypothesis that the admixture element which makes Ashkenazi Jews distinctive from other Europeans is Middle Eastern is somewhat speculative.
  • How Ashkenazi Jewish are you? : Gene Expression 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC scienceblogs.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In this respect, the counterpart of Ashkenazi is Sephardic, since most non-Ashkenazi Orthodox Jews follow Sephardic rabbinical authorities, whether or not they are ethnically Sephardic.^ Answer -- Orthodox Jews most certainly do!
  • 45 Questions About the Jews - by William Dudley Pelley 11 September 2009 22:24 UTC www.come-and-hear.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Ashkenazi rabbinical authorities, Caros .
  • Ashkenazi - Encyclopaedia Judaica 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.helsinki.fi [Source type: Reference]

^ What is the difference between Ashkenazi and Sephardic Jews?
  • What is the difference between Ashkenazi and Sephardic Jews? - jewish identity jewish "labels" ashkenazim/ sephardim 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.askmoses.com [Source type: General]

.By tradition, a Sephardic or Mizrahi woman who marries into an Orthodox or Haredi Ashkenazi Jewish family raises her children to be Ashkenazi Jews; conversely an Ashkenazi woman who marries a Sephardi or Mizrahi man is expected to take on Sephardic practice and the children inherit a Sephardic identity, though in practice many families compromise.^ Ashkenazi Jews because I had married a Sephardic Jewess.
  • Bernstein 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.holywar.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Ashkenazi Jews, who now compromise 90% of the Jews in the .
  • Bernstein 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.holywar.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Ashkenazi Jew, maried a Sephardic Jewess.
  • Bernstein 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.holywar.org [Source type: Original source]

A convert generally follows the practice of the beth din that converted him or her.
.With the integration of Jews from around the world in Israel, North America, and other places, the religious definition of an Ashkenazi Jew is blurring, especially outside Orthodox Judaism.^ Ultra-orthodox religious Jews are exempt .
  • Bernstein 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.holywar.org [Source type: Original source]

^ This is true in America , in Israel and world-wide.
  • The law of God according to the Hebrews with excerpts from Psalms and Proverbs 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.unique-design.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The Ashkenazi Jews left Israel around 2000 years ago...
  • Jewish Genetics, Part 3: Jewish Genetic Diseases (Mediterranean Fever, Tay-Sachs, pemphigus vulgaris, Mutations) 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.khazaria.com [Source type: Academic]

.Many Sephardic and Mizrahi Jews have joined liberal movements that originally developed within Ashkenazi Judaism.^ Ashkenazi Jew, maried a Sephardic Jewess.
  • Bernstein 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.holywar.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Hasidic movement has its roots in Ashkenazi Judaism.
  • The Mad 7 - Audience Guide 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.mccarter.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ What is the difference between Ashkenazi and Sephardic Jews?
  • What is the difference between Ashkenazi and Sephardic Jews? - jewish identity jewish "labels" ashkenazim/ sephardim 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.askmoses.com [Source type: General]
  • What is the difference between Ashkenazi and Sephardic Jews? - jewish identity jewish "labels" ashkenazim/ sephardim 11 September 2009 2:44 UTC www.askmoses.com [Source type: General]

.In recent decades, the congregations which they have joined have often embraced them, and absorbed new traditions into their minhag.^ If you're a Jew by choice, it's nice to find ways to incorporate your old food traditions into new kosher rules.

^ When Jews left the old country, they often left names behind and took new ones.
  • Jewish Genealogical Society of Willamette Valley Oregon: Articles 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.nwfam.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They often survive into adolescence and adulthood.
  • Quest Diagnostics: Quest Diagnostics' Ashkenazi Jewish Panel. 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.questdiagnostics.com [Source type: Academic]

.Rabbis and cantors in most non-Orthodox movements study Hebrew in Israel, where they learn Sephardic rather than Ashkenazi Hebrew pronunciation.^ They learned that I was studying the Hebrew language, so they .
  • Bernstein 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.holywar.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Hammer study, based exclusively on the Y-chromosome (paternal), shows that Ashkenazi Jews are more closely related to Yemenite Jews, Iraqi Jews, Sephardic Jews, Kurdish Jews, and Arabs than they are to European Christian populations.

^ The Ashkenazi were the focus of the study because, according to Science Daily , they're more "genetically uniform than other groups, making it easier to spot gene differences that are present."
  • Shorties But Goodies - Ashkenazi Jews - Jezebel 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC jezebel.com [Source type: General]

.Ashkenazi congregations are adopting Sephardic or modern Israeli melodies for many prayers and traditional songs.^ He was happy when he had an opportunity to pray with and provide a drasha in a sephardic congregation, in the Holy Language, very clearly, and he adopted some of their liturgical traditions.
  • Rabi "The Holy ShLaH" 10 February 2010 11:39 UTC shlomo.horwitzfam.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Please note that fasting is an Ashkenazi practice and is not generally part of Sephardic tradition.
  • Jewish Wedding Glossary | Customs and Traditions | Jewish Wedding Planning | Jewish Wedding Network 10 February 2010 11:39 UTC www.jewishweddingnetwork.com [Source type: General]

^ Adonai and I performs roots reggae versions of traditional hebrew/jewish prayers and melodies.
  • A | The KlezmerShack directory of Klezmer, Jewish, and related bands 11 September 2009 2:44 UTC www.klezmershack.com [Source type: General]

.Since the middle of the 20th century, there has been a gradual syncretism and fusion of traditions.^ There were indeed large Jewish communities throughout the Middle East and North Africa, up until the 20th century.
  • HorsesAss.Org » Blog Archive » Ask a Secular Jew Who Married a Shiksa and Lives Near Two Orthodox Synagogues 10 February 2010 11:39 UTC horsesass.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Were there Jews in Mallorca in the middle of the 19th century?
  • The Frommers - Programs 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.dartmouth.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ This continued into the 20th century so that by the time of World War I there were about 3 million in America.
  • Voices - A Brief History of Khazars in the 'Goldene Medin' 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.thepeoplesvoice.org [Source type: Original source]

.This is affecting the minhag of all but the most traditional congregations.^ They also seized the officers and the most respectable members of the congregation, and threw them into prison; they then took possession of all the buildings, driving the Ashkenazim away out of them.
  • The Inhabitants of Jerusalem 11 September 2009 2:44 UTC www.jewish-history.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In towns with several congregations, the Jews generally formed a town-wide organization, which brought together all, or most, of the congregations.

^ In general, Orthodox and Conservative congregations adhere most closely to tradition, and Reform and Reconstructionist synagogues are more likely to incorporate translations and contemporary writings in their services.
  • Judaism - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.New developments in Judaism often transcend differences in religious practice between Ashkenazi and Sephardic Jews.^ Unifying Shephardic and Ashkenazi religious practices.
  • Articles - The Jews - In Prophecy - The Rebirth of the Sanhedrin 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.lamblion.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ What is the difference between Ashkenazi and Sephardic Jews?
  • What is the difference between Ashkenazi and Sephardic Jews? - jewish identity jewish "labels" ashkenazim/ sephardim 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.askmoses.com [Source type: General]
  • What is the difference between Ashkenazi and Sephardic Jews? - jewish identity jewish "labels" ashkenazim/ sephardim 11 September 2009 2:44 UTC www.askmoses.com [Source type: General]

^ Judaism -- Few Jews, Sephardic or Ashkenazi, are religious.
  • The Life of an American Jew in Racist Marxist Israel 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.the7thfire.com [Source type: Original source]
  • E-Book  The Life of an American Jew in Racist Marxist Israel by Jack Bernstein 10 February 2010 11:39 UTC www.biblestudysite.com [Source type: Original source]

.In North American cities, social trends such as the chavurah movement, and the emergence of "post-denominational Judaism"[7][8] often bring together younger Jews of diverse ethnic backgrounds.^ By extension, it also refers to Jews of eastern European background (including Russia) with their distinctive liturgical practices or religious and social customs.
  • Be'chol Lashon: Educational Resources: Glossary 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC bechollashon.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Might the same (increased diversity in mtDNA lineages compared to Y-chromosomal lineages) be true of North African Jews and Ashkenazi Jews?
  • DNA studies of jews 11 September 2009 22:24 UTC christianparty.net [Source type: Academic]

^ While Orthodox Jews actively battled against Reform tendencies in Germany, the Reform movement in this country was helped from the lack of a central religious authority, the American tradition of religious and denominational pluralism, and the mobility of American life.
  • file:///C:/wp51/Sectjuda.txt 10 February 2010 11:39 UTC jasher.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In recent years, there has been increased interest in Kabbalah, which many Ashkenazi Jews study outside of the Yeshiva framework.^ In this study there was one Ashkenazi Jew represented at haplotype 49.
  • Y - DNA Results (to date) for the TURK Family of Surnames 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.melungeons.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Ashkenazi Jews focus of longevity study .
  • Ashkenazi Jews focus of longevity study | The San Diego Union-Tribune 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.signonsandiego.com [Source type: News]

^ There are many poor Jews.
  • LookIsrael - Israel Questions & Answers 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.lookisrael.com [Source type: Original source]

.Another trend is the new popularity of ecstatic worship in the Jewish Renewal movement and the Carlebach style minyan, both of which are nominally of Ashkenazi origin.^ Conservative Jews follow a slightly different Halacha , and Reform and Reconstructionist Jews and the Jewish Renewal movement are even more liberal in their interpretation of the law.

^ Ashkenazi Jews developed the Hasidic movement as well as major Jewish academic centers across Poland, Russia, and Lithuania in the generations after emigration from the west.
  • Ketubah Mazal Tov, fine art ketubahs for the Jewish wedding 10 February 2010 11:39 UTC www.planetnana.co.il [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ashkenazi Jews - descendants from the medieval Jewish communities of the Rhineland, the land on both sides of the Rhine river in Germany.

[9]

By culture

.In a cultural sense, an Ashkenazi Jew can be identified by the concept of Yiddishkeit, a word that literally means “Jewishness” in the Yiddish language.^ This was the cultural beginning of Ashkenazi Jewish power.
  • Topica Email List Directory 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC lists.topica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Jews at the top do not know the meaning of the word.
  • Netanyahu To The West–Destroy Iran Before Israel Destroys You « The Ugly Truth 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC theuglytruth.wordpress.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Not all Jews are familiar with Yiddish or the "New York Jewish" culture.
  • Reaching Sephardic Jews - http://www.jewsforjesus.org/publications/newsletter/2006_03/sephardic/ 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.jewsforjesus.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Of course, there are other kinds of Jewishness.^ On the other hand, a Jew living in the Diaspora is only a partial Jew, because many aspects of life there, for example language and politics, are not Jewish.
  • Palestine - Israel Journal of Politics, Economics and Culture 10 February 2010 11:39 UTC www.pij.org [Source type: Original source]

^ There are other races and ethnicities who are also Jewish, although Ashkenazi are the vast majority of Jews in the United States.
  • Half Sigma: Not the first Hispanic Justice 10 February 2010 11:39 UTC www.halfsigma.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Y chromosomes of Jewish men from the Balkans are rather unlike those of other European Jews , perhaps because there was more admixture in this unstable part of the world."
  • Jewish Genetics, Part 1: Jewish Populations (Ashkenazim, Sephardim, Mizrahim, Yemenite, Ethiopian) DNA 11 September 2009 2:44 UTC www.khazaria.com [Source type: Academic]

.Yiddishkeit is simply the Jewishness of Ashkenazi Jews.^ The truth is, all the Jews in the US aren't all Eastern European, and even those of us who are Ashkenazi Jews love Jewish food traditions from elsewhere.

^ In this secular age, it seems to me that a common motivation of white Jews who enter Jewish space is simply to be around people of a similar ethnic background.
  • We Contain Multitudes: Ashkenazi Spaces and Multiethnic Identity | Jewesses With Attitude 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC jwablog.jwa.org [Source type: General]

^ Ashkenazi Jews - descendants from the medieval Jewish communities of the Rhineland, the land on both sides of the Rhine river in Germany.

.Before the Haskalah and the emancipation of Jews in Europe, this meant the study of Torah and Talmud for men, and a family and communal life governed by the observance of Jewish Law for men and women.^ Shapira preferred students to study Talmud and halakha (Jewish law).
  • Obituary: Rabbi Avraham Shapira | World news | The Guardian 10 February 2010 11:39 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

^ A Jew is taught to follow LAWS...of the Talmud and Torah.
  • On ‘Perfecting’ the Jews - Lisa Miller - Newsweek.com 10 February 2010 11:39 UTC www.newsweek.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This was the reality of life for many of Europe's Jews.
  • A Mistake �� a nation of European Jews in an area of Arab Muslims" in Wars in History Channel 10 February 2010 11:39 UTC boards.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.From the Rhineland to Riga to Romania, most Jews prayed in liturgical Ashkenazi Hebrew, and spoke Yiddish in their secular lives.^ Most Jews living in the United States are of Ashkenazi descent.
  • NCI Dictionary of Genetics Terms - National Cancer Institute 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC ha.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]
  • NCI Dictionary of Genetics Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 11:39 UTC extraordinary-opportunities.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Most European Jews spoke Yiddish.
  • The Jews of Judah in Demographic History 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC britam.org [Source type: Original source]

^ (Most American jews are Ashkenazi.
  • Autism common among Ashkenazi Jews? - General Autism Discussion 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.wrongplanet.net [Source type: General]

.But with modernization, Yiddishkeit now encompasses not just Orthodoxy and Hasidism, but a broad range of movements, ideologies, practices, and traditions in which Ashkenazi Jews have participated and somehow retained a sense of Jewishness.^ Or just the Ashkenazi Jews, or does it matter?
  • FARK.com: (4420378) US: "Stop building in Jerusalem." Israel:"I have to admire the residents of Iroquois territory for assuming that they have a right to determine where Jews should live in Jerusalem." 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.fark.com [Source type: Original source]

^ For the Ashkenazi Jews the studies of Hebrew , the Torah and the Talmud was more than just a way of understanding their religion, it was also a way of protecting themselves against the influence of the societies around them.
  • Ashkenazi - LookLex Encyclopaedia 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC looklex.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Jewish history by country Reform movement in Judaism Political Zionism Yosippon Jewish population Ashkenazi Jews topics Ancient Israelites Diseases and disorders (11) .
  • Ashkenazi Jews - Kosmix : Reference, Videos, Images, News, Shopping and more... 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.kosmix.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Although a far smaller number of Jews still speak Yiddish, Yiddishkeit can be identified in manners of speech, in styles of humor, in patterns of association.^ Being far smaller in number than the Ashkenazi, Sephardim have been the least influential in Israeli politics.
  • Sephardi - LookLex Encyclopaedia 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC looklex.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Sephardi - LookLex Encyclopaedia 10 February 2010 11:39 UTC i-cias.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, that number would be much larger if it were a measure simply of religious bloodlines, as many Jamaicans are descendants of Jews although they do not officially practice Judaism.
  • Jamaica Gleaner : Pieces of the Past:The Jews In Jamaica 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.jamaica-gleaner.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Jewish: nickname applied by Jews in Slavic countries for a Jew from Germany; it was also used to denote a Yiddish-speaking Jew who had settled in an area where non-Ashkenazic Jews were in the majority.
  • ashkenazi Family History Facts 1920 - Ancestry.com 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.ancestry.com [Source type: General]

.Broadly speaking, a Jew is one who associates culturally with Jews, supports Jewish institutions, reads Jewish books and periodicals, attends Jewish movies and theater, travels to Israel, visits ancient synagogues in Prague, and so forth.^ The only Jewish one I read here.
  • Israel - Bone Marrow Donors Unequal Between Ashkenazi and Sephardi Jews -- VosIzNeias.com 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.vosizneias.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Because this movie *is* Jewish, but it isn't attempting to speak for all Jews.
  • FlickFilosopher.com: A Serious Man (review) 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.flickfilosopher.com [Source type: General]

^ In pure terms a Jew is one who performs the Mitsvot, the 613 religious injunctions of Judaism, but in practice the religious authorities of Israel insist that only someone who conforms to the requirements of religious law (halacha), and who, in addition, ‘is a person who is born of a Jewish mother, or one converted to Judaism by a recognized orthodox authority', can be recognized as a Jew.
  • Minority Rights Group International : Israel : Israel Overview 10 February 2010 11:39 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: Original source]

.It is a definition that applies to Jewish culture in general, and to Ashkenazi Yiddishkeit in particular.^ This was the cultural beginning of Ashkenazi Jewish power.
  • Topica Email List Directory 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC lists.topica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ashkenazi Jewish cultural complex, .
  • Ashkenazi - Encyclopaedia Judaica 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.helsinki.fi [Source type: Reference]

^ While BRCA mutations are very rare in the general population, an estimated 1 in 40 Ashkenazi Jewish persons, regardless of family history, carries one of these mutations [ 7-9 ].
  • Susan G. Komen for the Cure | Understanding Breast Cancer | Breast Facts | Who Does It Affect? | Who Gets Breast Cancer 10 February 2010 11:39 UTC ww5.komen.org [Source type: Academic]

.Contemporary population migrations have contributed to a reconfigured Jewishness among Jews of Ashkenazi descent that transcends Yiddishkeit and other traditional articulations of Ashkenazi Jewishness.^ Are there other diseases that are more prevalent in the Ashkenazi Jewish population?
  • Victor Centers for Jewish Genetic Diseases - Frequently Asked Questions 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC victorcenters.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ashkenazi Jews , Sephardi Jews , other Jewish ethnic divisions and Arabs .
  • Mizrahi Jews - Includipedia, the inclusionist encyclopaedia 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.includipedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Jewish population) Jews and Judaism .

.As Ashkenazi Jews moved away from Eastern Europe, settling mostly in Israel, North America, and other English-speaking areas, the geographic isolation which gave rise to Ashkenazim has given way to mixing with other cultures, and with non-Ashkenazi Jews who, similarly, are no longer isolated in distinct geographic locales.^ Many Ashkenazi Jews move to North America.
  • Ashkenazi - LookLex Encyclopaedia 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC looklex.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Knowing of this, Sephardic Jews have not been among those Jews who migrated to Israel from America.
  • The Life of an American Jew in Racist Marxist Israel 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.the7thfire.com [Source type: Original source]
  • The Truth Seeker - The Life of an American Jew in Racist Marxist Israel Part II 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.thetruthseeker.co.uk [Source type: Original source]
  • The Life of an American Jew in Racist Marxist Israel - Part 2 by Jack Bernstein | Midwest Free Press 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.midwestfreepress.com [Source type: Original source]
  • E-Book  The Life of an American Jew in Racist Marxist Israel by Jack Bernstein 10 February 2010 11:39 UTC www.biblestudysite.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Ashkenazi is the term used to describe Jews who have ancestors from Eastern and Central Europe.
  • Why Are These Genetic Diseases More Common in Ashkenazi Jews? @ DNAdirect.com 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.dnadirect.com [Source type: Academic]

.For Ashkenazi Jews living in Eastern Europe, chopped liver and gefilte fish were archetypal Jewish foods.^ The study was conducted in the Washington, D.C., Ashkenazi Jewish population (Jews from eastern or central Europe).
  • Questions and Answers About Estimating Cancer Risk in Ashkenazi Jews 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.meb.uni-bonn.de [Source type: Academic]

^ Ashkenazi Jews lived in Germany or France before migrating to Eastern Europe.
  • Jewish Genealogical Society of Willamette Valley Oregon: Articles 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.nwfam.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The study was conducted in the Washington, D.C. Ashkenazi Jewish population (Jews from eastern or central Europe).
  • Q & A for Estimating Cancer Risk in Ashkenazi Jews 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC rex.nci.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]
  • genome.gov | BRCA1/BRCA2 Study FAQ 10 February 2010 11:39 UTC www.genome.gov [Source type: Academic]

.To contemporary Ashkenazi Jews living both in Israel and in the diaspora, Middle Eastern foods such as hummus and falafel, neither traditional to the historic Ashkenazi experience, have become central to their lives as Ashkenazi Jews in the current era.^ Iraqi Jews constitute the largest subgroup of contemporary Middle Eastern Jews.
  • Blood -- The Two Common Mutations Causing Factor XI Deficiency in Jews Stem From Dist... 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC bloodjournal.hematologylibrary.org [Source type: Academic]

^ However the Ashkenazi are the dominant jews in Israel.
  • The Sunic Journal: Interview with Alain de Benoist, Part 2 of 2 : Voice of Reason Broadcast Network 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC reasonradionetwork.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Everyone eats falafel, olives, hummus, labane, and other traditional Middle Eastern foods.
  • Israel's Vibrant Jewish Ethnic Mix - My Jewish Learning 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.myjewishlearning.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Hebrew has replaced Yiddish as the primary Jewish language for many Ashkenazi Jews, although many Hasidic and Hareidi groups continue to use Yiddish in daily life.^ Hebrew ( in Hebrew language ) Yiddish ( in Yiddish language ) religion .
  • Ashkenazi (people) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]
  • Ashkenazi (people) :: Related Articles -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]
  • Ashkenazi (people) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 February 2010 11:39 UTC concise.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The language of the Ashkenazi Jews is Yiddish; they also tend to speak Polish.

^ The language of the Ashkenazi Jews was Yiddish, a language close to German.
  • Ashkenazi - LookLex Encyclopaedia 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC looklex.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.France's blended Jewish community is typical of the cultural recombination that is going on among Jews throughout the world.^ After the 17th-century persecutions in eastern Europe, large numbers of these Jews resettled in western Europe, where they assimilated, as they had done in eastern Europe, with other Jewish communities.
  • Ashkenazi (people) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]
  • Ashkenazi (people) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 February 2010 11:39 UTC concise.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Jews managed alright throughout Britain and its empire (Canada, South Africa, Australia, New Zealand (which has had several Jewish PMs)), as well as Italy, France, Denmark, and even 19C Germany.
  • Steve Sailer's iSteve Blog: David Brooks: The Tel Aviv Cluster 10 February 2010 11:39 UTC isteve.blogspot.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This social and economic stratification took shape throughout the last 50 years as different groups of Jews from different part of the world came, for very different reasons, to Israel.
  • For Jews Only: Racism Inside Israel: An Interview with Phyllis Bennis 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.hartford-hwp.com [Source type: Original source]

.Although France expelled its original Jewish population in the Middle Ages, by the time of the French Revolution, there were two distinct Jewish populations.^ There is an important distinction between the two.
  • Topica Email List Directory 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC lists.topica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There were Jewish communities in France in the dark ages evidently.

^ It would be interesting to see different Jewish communities studied in the context of a broad variety of European and Middle Eastern populations, to determine whether Ashkenazi distinctiveness is specifically Ashkenazi or more generally Jewish distinctiveness; I would bet on a combination of the two.
  • Half Sigma: Mormon underwear vs. yarmulke 10 February 2010 11:39 UTC www.halfsigma.com [Source type: General]

.One consisted of Sephardic Jews, originally refugees from the Inquisition and concentrated in the southwest, while the other community was Ashkenazi, concentrated in formerly German Alsace, and speaking mainly Yiddish.^ Ashkenazi Jew, maried a Sephardic Jewess.
  • Bernstein 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.holywar.org [Source type: Original source]

^ What is the difference between Ashkenazi and Sephardic Jews?
  • What is the difference between Ashkenazi and Sephardic Jews? - jewish identity jewish "labels" ashkenazim/ sephardim 11 September 2009 2:44 UTC www.askmoses.com [Source type: General]

^ The language of the Ashkenazi Jews was Yiddish, a language close to German.
  • Ashkenazi - LookLex Encyclopaedia 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC looklex.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The two communities were so separate and different that the National Assembly emancipated them separately in 1791.
But after emancipation, a sense of a unified French Jewry emerged, especially when France was wracked by the Dreyfuss affair in the 1890s. .In the 1920s and 1930s, Ashkenazi Jews from eastern Europe arrived in large numbers as refugees from antisemitism, the Russian revolution, and the economic turmoil of the Great Depression.^ A large number of Jews dwelt in the country.
  • The Jews of Judah in Demographic History 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC britam.org [Source type: Original source]

^ East and North Africa and the ashkenazi Jews come from Eastern Europe.
  • Bernstein 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.holywar.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Ashkenazi Jews also came to Eastern Europe because of persecution.
  • Nation without a state: The Balkan Jews 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC staff.lib.msu.edu [Source type: Original source]

.By the 1930s, Paris had a vibrant Yiddish culture, and many Jews were involved in radical political movements.^ Jewish history by country Reform movement in Judaism Political Zionism Yosippon Jewish population Ashkenazi Jews topics Ancient Israelites Diseases and disorders (11) .
  • Ashkenazi Jews - Kosmix : Reference, Videos, Images, News, Shopping and more... 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.kosmix.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ One, historically (at least since about the late 19th century) and today there are many Jews in the U.S. who are marginally or unaffiliated religiously but identify as Jews culturally (e.g., involvement with Yiddish culture, sometimes with radical Yiddish culture & politics, such as the Workmen's Circle; identification with Jewish history & values; affiliation with Humanistic Judaism, an atheistic Jewish movement; or simply disaffection from organized Judaism, but continued attachment to Jewish culture).
  • White Privilege 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC userpages.umbc.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ On the other hand, a Jew living in the Diaspora is only a partial Jew, because many aspects of life there, for example language and politics, are not Jewish.
  • Palestine - Israel Journal of Politics, Economics and Culture 10 February 2010 11:39 UTC www.pij.org [Source type: Original source]

.After the Vichy years and the Holocaust, the French Jewish population was augmented once again, first by refugees from Eastern Europe, and later by immigrants and refugees from North Africa, many of them francophone.^ East and North Africa and the ashkenazi Jews come from Eastern Europe.
  • Bernstein 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.holywar.org [Source type: Original source]

^ After the 17th-century persecutions in eastern Europe, large numbers of these Jews resettled in western Europe, where they assimilated, as they had done in eastern Europe, with other Jewish communities.
  • Ashkenazi (people) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]
  • Ashkenazi (people) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 February 2010 11:39 UTC concise.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The results support the hypothesis that the paternal gene pools of Jewish communities from Europe, North Africa, and the Middle East descended from a common Middle Eastern ancestral population, and suggest that most Jewish communities have remained relatively isolated from neighboring non-Jewish communities during and after the Diaspora."
  • Coyote TV - High Desert Advocate - Free Press Editorial- "Blame The Jews" 10 February 2010 11:39 UTC www.coyote-tv.com [Source type: Original source]

.Then, in the 1990s, yet another Ashkenazi Jewish wave began to arrive from countries of the former Soviet Union and Eastern Europe.^ After the 17th-century persecutions in eastern Europe, large numbers of these Jews resettled in western Europe, where they assimilated, as they had done in eastern Europe, with other Jewish communities.
  • Ashkenazi (people) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]
  • Ashkenazi (people) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 February 2010 11:39 UTC concise.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Ashkenazi Jews are a mixture of Sephardic Jews that lived in Europe during the Roman Empire and the Rhine and the Netherlands and also Eastern Jews who went to Russia.
  • Islamophobia: Bad For The Jews « Antiwar.com Blog 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.antiwar.com [Source type: General]

^ Jewish history by country Reform movement in Judaism Political Zionism Yosippon Jewish population Ashkenazi Jews topics Ancient Israelites Diseases and disorders (11) .
  • Ashkenazi Jews - Kosmix : Reference, Videos, Images, News, Shopping and more... 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.kosmix.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The result is a pluralistic Jewish community that still has some distinct elements of both Ashkenazi and Sephardic culture.^ This was the cultural beginning of Ashkenazi Jewish power.
  • Topica Email List Directory 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC lists.topica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ What are some of the greatest threats to the Jewish community?
  • Jews, Jewish, The Jewish People - The Peace FAQ 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.peacefaq.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ My mother is both Ashkenazi and Sephardic.
  • Half Sigma: Jews are white 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.halfsigma.com [Source type: Original source]

.But in France, it is becoming much more difficult to sort out the two, and a distinctly French Jewishness has emerged.^ Local Jewish women enjoyed much freedom, and in the 17th century among the Kurdish Jews, the first femal rabbi emerged.
  • Judaism - LookLex Encyclopaedia 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC i-cias.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Judaism - LookLex Encyclopaedia 10 February 2010 11:39 UTC www.lexicorient.com [Source type: Original source]

^ "It is very probable," notes French Jewish scholar Maxine Rodinson, "-- and physical anthropology tends to show that this is true -- that the so-called Arab inhabitants of Palestine (a majority of whom, moreover, are people who have 'become Arabs'), have much more of the ancient 'Hebrews' blood than most of the Jews of the Diaspora."
  • OTHER JEWISH CONTRIBUTIONS TO MODERN RACIST 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.jewishtribalreview.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The airing of ' Al-Shatat ' and the ensuing uproar in the French Jewish community was one of the main reasons for the recent ban on Al-Manar TV in France.
  • MEMRI - Middle East Media Research Institute 10 February 2010 11:39 UTC www.memri.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[10]

By ethnicity

.In an ethnic sense, an Ashkenazi Jew is one whose ancestry can be traced to the Jews of Central and Eastern Europe.^ The study was conducted in the Washington, D.C., Ashkenazi Jewish population (Jews from eastern or central Europe).
  • Questions and Answers About Estimating Cancer Risk in Ashkenazi Jews 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.meb.uni-bonn.de [Source type: Academic]

^ Ashkenazi is the term used to describe Jews who have ancestors from Eastern and Central Europe.
  • Why Are These Genetic Diseases More Common in Ashkenazi Jews? @ DNAdirect.com 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.dnadirect.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Ashkenazi refers to Jews whose recent ancestry over the past millennium traces to Central and Eastern Europe.
  • PLoS ONE: Counting the Founders: The Matrilineal Genetic Ancestry of the Jewish Diaspora 10 February 2010 11:39 UTC www.plosone.org [Source type: Academic]

.For roughly a thousand years, the Ashkenazim were a reproductively isolated population in Europe, despite living in many countries, with little inflow or outflow from migration, conversion, or intermarriage with other groups, including other Jews.^ The Jews were peasants and mingled with other populations.
  • The Invention of the Jewish People 10 February 2010 11:39 UTC viewzone.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Rothschilds and other rich Jews of Europe.
  • The Jews' Society 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.tribwatch.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Groups has changed the lives of others.
  • AntiTerrorismCoalition : Message: FW: The Koran's deep respect for the children of Israel 10 February 2010 11:39 UTC groups.yahoo.com [Source type: Original source]

.Human geneticists have identified genetic variations that have high frequencies among Ashkenazi Jews, but not in the general European population.^ Analysis of genetic variation in Ashkenazi Jews by high density SNP genotyping .
  • BioMed Central | Full text | Analysis of genetic variation in Ashkenazi Jews by high density SNP genotyping 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.biomedcentral.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Genetic diseases among Ashkenazi Jews.
  • Mendelian Diseases among Roman Jews: Implications for the Origins of Disease Alleles -- Oddoux et al. 84 (12): 4405 -- Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC jcem.endojournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Jews have varying amounts of European admixture.
  • Are Jews White? 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC majorityrights.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This is true for patrilineal markers (Y-chromosome haplotypes) as well as for matrilineal markers (mitochondrial haplotypes).^ A group of closely linked genetic markers located on one chromosome and inherited together is called a haplotype.
  • One Big, Happy Family – Forward.com 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.forward.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Variation in haplotype block size on chromosome 22 is well characterized for a mixed European population ( 33 ).
  • Functional and genomic approaches reveal an ancient CHEK2 allele associated with breast cancer in the Ashkenazi Jewish population -- Shaag et al. 14 (4): 555 -- Human Molecular Genetics 10 February 2010 11:39 UTC hmg.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ [Medline record in process] Haplotypes constructed from Y-chromosome markers were used to trace the paternal origins of the Jewish Diaspora .
  • Jews, Jewish, The Jewish People - The Peace FAQ 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.peacefaq.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[11]
.Since the middle of the 20th century, many Ashkenazi Jews have intermarried, both with members of other Jewish communities and with people of other nations and faiths, while some Jews have also adopted children from other ethnic groups or parts of the world and raised them as Jews.^ Some other group – probably.
  • Y - DNA Results (to date) for the TURK Family of Surnames 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.melungeons.com [Source type: Academic]

^ It is then ironic that by persecuting the Jewish People, others have in some ways strengthened The Jewish People.
  • FuturePundit: On The Evolution Of Ashkenazi Jewish Intelligence 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.futurepundit.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The relatedness of Roman Jews to other Jewish groups is unknown.
  • Mendelian Diseases among Roman Jews: Implications for the Origins of Disease Alleles -- Oddoux et al. 84 (12): 4405 -- Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC jcem.endojournals.org [Source type: Academic]

.Conversion to Judaism, rare for nearly 2,000 years, has become more common.^ What more, my family has direct lineage to the first exile from ancient Israel, having remained in Babylon for 3,000 years until the modern day.
  • When Jewish Means Ashkenazi 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.loolwa.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In recent years it has become nearly impossible to empirically test the hypothesis that U.S. national interest trumps the Jewish lobby or vice versa.
  • Ethnic Ashkenazim Against Zionist Israel: February 2008 11 September 2009 2:44 UTC eaazi.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ To understand all Abrhamic religions (Judaism, Christianity and Islam) it may have taken me more than 7 years, which more than my graduate and undergraduate years combined.
  • Abugida Ethiopian American Information Center » The major-common factor: Tyranny; not color! - Belayneh Abate 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.abugidainfo.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Abugida Ethiopian American Information Center » The major-common factor: Tyranny; not color! - Belayneh Abate 10 February 2010 11:39 UTC www.abugidainfo.com [Source type: Original source]

.Jewish women and families who choose artificial insemination often choose a biological father who is not Jewish, to avoid common autosomal recessive genetic diseases.^ Type 1 Gaucher disease is the most common Ashkenazi Jewish genetic disease.
  • El Camino Hospital > Genomic Medicine Institute 10 February 2010 11:39 UTC elcamino.dnadirect.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Studies on Jewish genetic diseases .
  • Jewish Genetics, Part 3: Jewish Genetic Diseases (Mediterranean Fever, Tay-Sachs, pemphigus vulgaris, Mutations) 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.khazaria.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Mediterraneans Familial Mediterranean fever Autosomal recessive .
  • ALOR - Jews and Genetics 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.alor.org [Source type: Academic]

.A study by Michael Seldin, a geneticist at the University of California Davis School of Medicine, found Ashkenazi Jews to be a clear, relatively homogenous genetic subgroup.^ Genetic diseases among Ashkenazi Jews.
  • Mendelian Diseases among Roman Jews: Implications for the Origins of Disease Alleles -- Oddoux et al. 84 (12): 4405 -- Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC jcem.endojournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ A year ago, Michael Seldin, a geneticist at the University of California Davis School of Medicine, and his research team made a remarkable discovery: Studying how Europeans grouped genetically, they found that Ashkenazic Jews formed their own distinct subgroup.
  • One Big, Happy Family – Forward.com 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.forward.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Jewish Genetics, Part 1: Jewish Populations (Ashkenazim, Sephardim, Mizrahim, Yemenite, Ethiopian) DNA 11 September 2009 2:44 UTC www.khazaria.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Ashkenazi Jews, genetic diseases, and intelligence .
  • neo-neocon » Blog Archive » Ashkenazi Jews, genetic diseases, and intelligence 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC neoneocon.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Strikingly, regardless of the place of origin, Ashkenazi Jews can be grouped in the same genetic cohort — that is, regardless of whether an Ashkenazi Jew's ancestors came from Poland, Russia, Hungary, Lithuania, or any other place with a historical Jewish population, they belong to the same ethnic group.^ The relatedness of Roman Jews to other Jewish groups is unknown.
  • Mendelian Diseases among Roman Jews: Implications for the Origins of Disease Alleles -- Oddoux et al. 84 (12): 4405 -- Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC jcem.endojournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Ashkenazi Jews had the mutation if their grandparents had come from Russia, Poland, Hungary or Czechoslovakia.
  • Jewish Genetics, Part 3: Jewish Genetic Diseases (Mediterranean Fever, Tay-Sachs, pemphigus vulgaris, Mutations) 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.khazaria.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Jews are not a "race" but they are definitely a distinct ethnic group.
  • Half Sigma: Not the first Hispanic Justice 10 February 2010 11:39 UTC www.halfsigma.com [Source type: Original source]

.The research demonstrates the endogamy of the Jewish population in Europe and lends further credence to the idea of Ashkenazi Jews as an ethnic group.^ The study was conducted in the Washington, D.C., Ashkenazi Jewish population (Jews from eastern or central Europe).
  • Questions and Answers About Estimating Cancer Risk in Ashkenazi Jews 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.meb.uni-bonn.de [Source type: Academic]

^ Jews are a Southeastern European ethnic group.
  • Half Sigma: Jews are white 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.halfsigma.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Ashkenazi Jews and Intelligence The Ashkenazi are the population of Jews originating in central and northern Europe.
  • The Genetic Origin of Ashkenazi Genius || kuro5hin.org 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.kuro5hin.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Moreover, though intermarriage among Jews of Ashkenazi descent has become increasingly more common, many Ultra-Orthodox Jews, particularly members Hasidic or Hareidi sects, continue to marry exclusively fellow Ashkenazi Jews.^ Ultra-orthodox religious Jews are exempt .
  • Bernstein 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.holywar.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Mountain Jews are more orthodox compared with Ashkenazi Jews.
  • AFFA 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.affa.az [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Autism common among Ashkenazi Jews?
  • Autism common among Ashkenazi Jews? - General Autism Discussion 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.wrongplanet.net [Source type: General]

.This trend keeps Ashkenazi genes prevalent and also helps researchers further study the genes of Ashkenazi Jews with relative ease.^ The prevalence of the late onset gene among Ashkenazi Jews is not known.
  • Annual Guide to Jewish Genetic Diseases – Forward.com 10 February 2010 11:39 UTC www.forward.com [Source type: Academic]

^ We hypothesized that, similarly, at least one founder mutation that arose in an ancestral Ashkenazi Jew is a prevalent cause of the type 1 Usher syndrome in the current population.
  • NEJM -- A Mutation of PCDH15 among Ashkenazi Jews with the Type 1 Usher Syndrome 10 February 2010 11:39 UTC content.nejm.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Their genes were compared with those of 119 Ashkenazi and Sephardi Jews, and to that of non-Jewish residents of northern Wales.
  • Jews, Arabs genetically linked | Mother Jones 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC motherjones.com [Source type: General]

.It is noteworthy that these Ultra-Orthodox Jews often have extremely large families.^ Ultra-orthodox religious Jews are exempt .
  • Bernstein 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.holywar.org [Source type: Original source]

^ These Jews were almost entirely Orthodox.
  • file:///C:/wp51/Sectjuda.txt 10 February 2010 11:39 UTC jasher.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Twenty-nine percent of Ashkenazi Jews with a family history of two or more breast cancers carry one of these mutations.
  • Breast and Ovarian Cancer in the Ashkenazi Jewish Population 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.genetichealth.com [Source type: Academic]

[12]

Realignment in Israel

.In Israel, the term Ashkenazi is now used in ways that have nothing to do with its original meaning; it is often applied to all Jews of European background living in Israel, including sometimes for those whose ethnic background is actually Sephardic.^ Jews are not European, their origin is in the Near East.
  • Are Jews White? 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC majorityrights.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Now, back to Ziva, a Sephardic Jewess and I an Ashkenazi Jew, and our lives .
  • Bernstein 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.holywar.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Knowing of this, Sephardic Jews have not been among those Jews who migrated to Israel from America.
  • The Life of an American Jew in Racist Marxist Israel 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.the7thfire.com [Source type: Original source]
  • The Truth Seeker - The Life of an American Jew in Racist Marxist Israel Part II 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.thetruthseeker.co.uk [Source type: Original source]
  • The Life of an American Jew in Racist Marxist Israel - Part 2 by Jack Bernstein | Midwest Free Press 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.midwestfreepress.com [Source type: Original source]
  • E-Book  The Life of an American Jew in Racist Marxist Israel by Jack Bernstein 10 February 2010 11:39 UTC www.biblestudysite.com [Source type: Original source]

.Jews of any non-Ashkenazi background, including Mizrahi, Yemenite, Kurdish and others who have no connection with the Iberian Peninsula, have similarly come to be lumped together as Sephardic.^ Ashkenazi Jew, maried a Sephardic Jewess.
  • Bernstein 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.holywar.org [Source type: Original source]

^ They are as rare in non- Ashkenazi Jews as in non- Jews .
  • Ashkenazi Jews - Kosmix : Reference, Videos, Images, News, Shopping and more... 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.kosmix.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Sephardic Jews and those Ashkenazi Jews who are for justice and freedom.

.Jews of mixed background are increasingly common, partly because of intermarriage between Ashkenazi and non-Ashkenazi, and partly because many do not see such historic markers as relevant to their life experiences as Jews.^ They are as rare in non- Ashkenazi Jews as in non- Jews .
  • Ashkenazi Jews - Kosmix : Reference, Videos, Images, News, Shopping and more... 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.kosmix.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Autism common among Ashkenazi Jews?
  • Autism common among Ashkenazi Jews? - General Autism Discussion 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.wrongplanet.net [Source type: General]

^ This was the reality of life for many of Europe's Jews.
  • A Mistake �� a nation of European Jews in an area of Arab Muslims" in Wars in History Channel 10 February 2010 11:39 UTC boards.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Religious Ashkenazi Jews living in Israel are obliged to follow the authority of the chief Ashkenazi rabbi in halakhic matters.^ Ashkenazi chief rabbi, he was one of Israel's most divisive religious figures .
  • Obituary: Rabbi Avraham Shapira | World news | The Guardian 10 February 2010 11:39 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

^ However the Ashkenazi are the dominant jews in Israel.
  • The Sunic Journal: Interview with Alain de Benoist, Part 2 of 2 : Voice of Reason Broadcast Network 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC reasonradionetwork.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Jews in Israel are not religious.
  • Half Sigma: Jews are white 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.halfsigma.com [Source type: Original source]

.In this respect, a religiously Ashkenazi Jew is an Israeli who is more likely to support certain religious interests in Israel, including certain political parties.^ It is certain, according to the Bible, that Jews are not Israel.
  • Netanyahu To The West–Destroy Iran Before Israel Destroys You « The Ugly Truth 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC theuglytruth.wordpress.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Ashkenazi, Communist/Socialist Jews who migrated to Israel, .
  • Bernstein 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.holywar.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Ashkenazi Jews who migrated to Israel from Russia brought with them the ideology of .
  • Bernstein 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.holywar.org [Source type: Original source]

.These political parties result from the fact that a portion of the Israeli electorate votes for Jewish religious parties; although the electoral map changes from one election to another, there are generally several small parties associated with the interests of religious Ashkenazi Jews.^ In this study there was one Ashkenazi Jew represented at haplotype 49.
  • Y - DNA Results (to date) for the TURK Family of Surnames 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.melungeons.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Another autistic ashkenazi jew here.
  • Autism common among Ashkenazi Jews? - General Autism Discussion 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.wrongplanet.net [Source type: General]

^ One Israeli religious Jew said it well, "At one time we Jews were chosen .
  • Bernstein 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.holywar.org [Source type: Original source]

.The role of religious parties, including small religious parties which play important roles as coalition members, results in turn from Israel's composition as a complex society in which competing social, economic, and religious interests stand for election to the Knesset, a unicameral legislature with 120 seats.^ Israel's economic structure is based on socialism.
  • Bernstein 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.holywar.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Conversos played prominent roles at almost every level of society, especially in politics, finance and culture.
  • March/April 2009-Return to Centro Histórico 10 February 2010 11:39 UTC www.momentmag.com [Source type: General]

^ By extension, it also refers to Jews of eastern European background (including Russia) with their distinctive liturgical practices or religious and social customs.
  • Be'chol Lashon: Educational Resources: Glossary 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC bechollashon.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Origins

.Although the historical record is very limited, there is a scholarly consensus of cultural, linguistic, and genetic evidence that the Ashkenazi Jewish population originated in the Middle East.^ There are striking similarities with the Ashkenazi Jewish population.
  • Ashkenazi Jews are Middle Eastern & European hybrids : Gene Expression 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC scienceblogs.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Ashkenazi Jews are Middle Eastern & European hybrids : Gene Expression 10 February 2010 11:39 UTC scienceblogs.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This was the cultural beginning of Ashkenazi Jewish power.
  • Topica Email List Directory 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC lists.topica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "MtDNA evidence for a genetic bottleneck in the early history of the Ashkenazi Jewish population."
  • Jewish Genetics, Part 1: Jewish Populations (Ashkenazim, Sephardim, Mizrahim, Yemenite, Ethiopian) DNA 11 September 2009 2:44 UTC www.khazaria.com [Source type: Academic]

.Jews have lived in Germany, or "Ashkenaz", at least since the early 4th century.^ Ashkenazi lived in Germany since the 1.
  • Dienekes' Anthropology Blog: mtDNA haplogroup K in Bronze Age Syria 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC dienekes.blogspot.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Jews have lived in Lithuania since at least the 14th century.
  • Jewish Genetics, Part 3: Jewish Genetic Diseases (Mediterranean Fever, Tay-Sachs, pemphigus vulgaris, Mutations) 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.khazaria.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The latter group, which inhabited northern and eastern Europe since the 9th century C.E., accounts for 90% of the 5.7 million Jews living in the United States today.
  • Comprehensive Arrayed Primer Extension Array for the Detection of 59 Sequence Variants in 15 Conditions Prevalent Among the (Ashkenazi) Jewish Population -- Schrijver et al. 9 (2): 228 -- Journal of Molecular Diagnostics 10 February 2010 11:39 UTC jmd.amjpathol.org [Source type: Academic]

.They brought with them both Rabbinic Judaism and the Babylonian Talmudic culture that underlies it.^ The Babylonian Talmud , along with the numerological and astrological elements of the Kabbalah , became preeminent and was the form of Judaism accepted by the Yiddish Khazar Ashkenazi .
  • The law of God according to the Hebrews with excerpts from Psalms and Proverbs 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.unique-design.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Ashkenazim " is used for " Jews of the Khazar rite"(Babylonian Talmud/Kabbalah), whether or not they originate from Khazar .
  • The law of God according to the Hebrews with excerpts from Psalms and Proverbs 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.unique-design.net [Source type: Original source]

^ They need to learn about other cultures, incorporate them into mainstream Judaism, and get to know their rituals.
  • Wandering Jews No More? Indian Jews In U.S. Struggle For Unity, Acceptance,Ita Yankovich 10 February 2010 11:39 UTC www.jewishpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Yiddish, once spoken by the vast majority of Ashkenazi Jewry, is a Germanic language that developed from the Middle High German vernacular, heavily influenced by Hebrew and Aramaic.^ Germanic language, spoken throughout the world and written with the Hebrew alphabet.
  • Be'chol Lashon: Educational Resources: Glossary 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC bechollashon.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Yiddish was the primary spoken language by the Ashkenazi .
  • The law of God according to the Hebrews with excerpts from Psalms and Proverbs 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.unique-design.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The vast majority of Haredi Jews are Ashkenazi.
  • About David Friedman - The Mises Community 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC mises.org [Source type: General]

Background in the Roman Empire

.After the Roman empire had overpowered the Jewish resistance in the First Jewish–Roman War in Judea and destroyed the Jewish temple in Jerusalem in 70 CE, the complete Roman takeover of Judea followed the Bar Kochba rebellion of 132-135 CE. Jews continued to be a majority of the population in Palestine for several hundred years.^ Population changes and Wars against the Jews .
  • Jews a history, by Kip Addotta! 10 February 2010 11:39 UTC www.kipaddotta.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Romans and their Empire were but a bauble in comparison to the Jews.
  • Jews, Jewish, The Jewish People - The Peace FAQ 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.peacefaq.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Judea was a province of the Roman Empire.

.However, the Romans no longer recognized the authority of the Sanhedrin or any other Jewish body, and Jews were prohibited from living in Jerusalem.^ I am no longer a Jew.
  • Why Jews Fear Putin As Prime Minister | Real Zionist News 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.realzionistnews.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The relatedness of Roman Jews to other Jewish groups is unknown.
  • Mendelian Diseases among Roman Jews: Implications for the Origins of Disease Alleles -- Oddoux et al. 84 (12): 4405 -- Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC jcem.endojournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Jews no longer write Greco-Roman historiography.
  • Schama v Sand | The Jewish Chronicle 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.thejc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Outside the Roman Empire, a large Jewish community remained in Mesopotamia.^ And so, besides the persecutions, this has been major reason why Jewish numbers are so small, considering that Jews once constituted some 7-10% of the ROman Empire.
  • One Big, Happy Family – Forward.com 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.forward.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ While many American Jewish communities are grouped together (largely around urban centers), others--particularly in South--are isolated.
  • Tag: Jews - Explore content tagged Jews on eHow.com 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.ehow.com [Source type: General]

^ There were indeed large Jewish communities throughout the Middle East and North Africa, up until the 20th century.
  • HorsesAss.Org » Blog Archive » Ask a Secular Jew Who Married a Shiksa and Lives Near Two Orthodox Synagogues 10 February 2010 11:39 UTC horsesass.org [Source type: Original source]

.Other Jewish populations could be found dispersed around the Mediterranean region, with the largest concentrations in the Levant, Egypt, Asia Minor, Greece, and Italy, including Rome.^ Similarly, Slavic populations have migrated into Asia Minor and the Levant.
  • Sharing the Land of Canaan - Chapter 3 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC qumsiyeh.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Countries with Largest Jewish Populations (2007) .

^ Other ethnic and geographic populations around the world, such as the Norwegian, Dutch, and Icelandic peoples, also have higher frequencies of specific BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations.
  • BRCA1 and BRCA2: Cancer Risk and Genetic Testi - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 11:39 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

.Smaller communities are recorded in southern Gaul (France), Spain, and North Africa.^ They have migrated over the centuries along North Africa into Sepharad (Spain in Hebrew), and following their expulsion from Spain in 1492 have migrated back to North Africa, Italy, the Balkan countries, and Turkey.
  • Blood -- The Two Common Mutations Causing Factor XI Deficiency in Jews Stem From Dist... 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC bloodjournal.hematologylibrary.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Almost all countries in North Africa and the Middle East used to to have smaller or larger Jewish communities, but since the establishment of the state of Israel, large percentages have emigrated.
  • Judaism - LookLex Encyclopaedia 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC i-cias.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Judaism - LookLex Encyclopaedia 10 February 2010 11:39 UTC www.lexicorient.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Hence the importance of the nation-state as a unifying factor, as for example in France where an ancient people like the French successfully integrated immigrants from eastern and southern europe as well as from north Africa.
  • Palestine - Israel Journal of Politics, Economics and Culture 10 February 2010 11:39 UTC www.pij.org [Source type: Original source]

[13]
.Jews were denied full Roman citizenship until 212 CE, when Emperor Caracalla granted all free peoples this privilege.^ Jews ARE people, after all, Nathaniel was a JEW. Hello?
  • Christians NOT Jews Are God’s Chosen People! | Real Zionist News 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.realjewnews.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This means that Jews, and probably all humanity, are denied the possibility of free will.
  • Is Kevin MacDonald Right? | Jewcy.com 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.jewcy.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Indeed, after the Roman conquest (can someone really deny that the Romans expelled hundreds of thousands of Jews from the land of Israel 2000 years ago--is this really a serious argument?
  • Incest: Good for the Jews | Jewcy.com 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.jewcy.com [Source type: General]

.But, as a penalty for the first Jewish Revolt, Jews were required to pay a poll tax until the reign of Emperor Julian in 363. In the late Roman Empire, Jews were free to form networks of cultural and religious ties and enter into various local occupations.^ The Romans and their Empire were but a bauble in comparison to the Jews.
  • Jews, Jewish, The Jewish People - The Peace FAQ 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.peacefaq.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Sabbetai Zevi phenomena occurred just as the Ottoman Empire deteriorated beginning in the late 1500’s until the final events in 1699.
  • » Part III Sephardic Jews and the LDS Connection: The Ottoman Empire The Millennial Star 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.millennialstar.org [Source type: General]

^ The Ashkenazi Jews are a mixture of Sephardic Jews that lived in Europe during the Roman Empire and the Rhine and the Netherlands and also Eastern Jews who went to Russia.
  • Islamophobia: Bad For The Jews « Antiwar.com Blog 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.antiwar.com [Source type: General]

.But, after Christianity became the official religion of Rome and Constantinople in 380, Jews were increasingly marginalized, and brutally persecuted.^ From the time of Emperor Constantine's edict of Milan, from the time of 380 CE when Rome declared Christianity to be the official religion of the state, conversion throughout the fourth and fifth centuries were prohibited and considered a criminal offense punishable at first by the confiscation of property and later by the death of the proselytizing Jew.
  • Half Sigma: Mormon underwear vs. yarmulke 10 February 2010 11:39 UTC www.halfsigma.com [Source type: General]

^ After Christianity became the official religion of the Roman Empire the Jewish population decreased significantly, surviving in large numbers only in the regions that were far from the center of imperial power such as southern Italy, Spain and Mesopotamia (Babylon).

^ It was the Jewish faith which became the official religion of the ruling strata of society.
  • "The Thirteenth Tribe" by Arthur Koestler. 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.erichufschmid.net [Source type: Original source]

.In Palestine and Mesopotamia, where Jewish religious scholarship was centered, the majority of Jews were still engaged in farming, as demonstrated by the preoccupation of early Talmudic writings with agriculture.^ And so, besides the persecutions, this has been major reason why Jewish numbers are so small, considering that Jews once constituted some 7-10% of the ROman Empire.
  • One Big, Happy Family – Forward.com 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.forward.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This is an enduring problem for many “lost communities” in gathering their credentials to demonstrate their Jewish status to Jewish religious authorities.
  • Jews in Sri Lanka 10 February 2010 11:39 UTC chabadsrilanka.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Even Jews who come from abroad tell us, “We didn’t know there was still a Jewish community in Cairo.” .
  • et - Full Story 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.egypttoday.com [Source type: Original source]

.In diaspora communities, trade was a common occupation, facilitated by the easy mobility of traders through the dispersed Jewish communities.^ Second, Jewish communities are highly dispersed.
  • The Institute for Jewish and Community Research 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.jewishresearch.org [Source type: Original source]

^ We will trace the connection between these developments and the creation in the late 19th and 20th centuries of new forms of secular, collective Jewish identity through movements such as communism, diaspora nationalism, and Zionism.
  • Center for Cultural Judaism - Grants 10 February 2010 11:39 UTC www.culturaljudaism.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Eventually the Turkish leaders built and established Jewish communities along all of the important trades routes from the West throughout Turkey.
  • » Part III Sephardic Jews and the LDS Connection: The Ottoman Empire The Millennial Star 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.millennialstar.org [Source type: General]

.Throughout this period and into the early Middle Ages, some Jews assimilated into the dominant Greek and Latin cultures, mostly through conversion to Christianity.^ Christians should not target Jews for conversions.
  • Ethnic Ashkenazim Against Zionist Israel: February 2008 11 September 2009 2:44 UTC eaazi.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Nearly all major bouts of antisemitism throughout history can at root be traced to economics, including the Babylonian captivity, the Persian persecution, the Roman dispersions/expulsions, Middle Age massacres & forced conversions (Crusades, etc.
  • Is Kevin MacDonald Right? | Jewcy.com 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.jewcy.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Mizrahi Jews (yes there are 3 major migrant groups) migrated throughout the Middle East, North Africa, Central Asia and the Caucasus.
  • Ilan Halimi, Murdered French Jew, Appears In Dating Website Advertisement 10 February 2010 11:39 UTC www.huffingtonpost.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[14] .In Palestine and Mesopotamia, the spoken language of Jews continued to be Aramaic, but elsewhere in the diaspora, most Jews spoke Greek.^ A European Jew would have to know the language of his host country, along with Hebrew (for reading the Torah), and most likely Yiddish (a German dialect spoken by Eastern and Central European Jews).
  • The Genetic Origin of Ashkenazi Genius || kuro5hin.org 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.kuro5hin.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Like most people, I had always thought that the Jews had once lived in Palestine, had been expelled by the Romans about AD 70 in the Diaspora and had settled in various places, including Central and Eastern Europe.

^ Following the Muslim conquest of Syria by Arabians, the formerly-introduced dominant languages of the area, Aramaic and Greek, were then replaced by the Arabic language introduced by the new conquering administrative minority.
  • Jews of Khazaria, brief history and other resources 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.palestineremembered.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Conversion and assimilation were especially common within the Hellenized or Greek-speaking Jewish communities, amongst whom the Septuagint and Aquila of Sinope (Greek translations and adaptations of the Tanakh or Hebrew Bible) were the source of scripture.^ It was for this largely Greek speaking population that the Septuagint (a Greek translation of Hebrew scriptures) was produced.
  • The high intelligence of Jews. 10 February 2010 11:39 UTC home.comcast.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Since Jewish individuals tend to marry within their faith, the gene mutations that were present in the founders of the population remained within the community and increased in frequency over time.
  • FAQs: Ashkenazi Jewish Carrier Testing @ DNAdirect.com 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.dnadirect.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some are so entwined within the Jewish community that they feel Jewish, according to their own self-assessment.
  • The Institute for Jewish and Community Research 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.jewishresearch.org [Source type: Original source]

.A remnant of this Greek-speaking Jewish population (the Romaniotes) survives to this day.^ After the influx of huge numbers of Anatolian Greeks in the wake of the 1924 exchange of populations, the government changed the market day from Sunday to Saturday and this necessitated an adjustment by the Sephardi and Romaniote Jews throughout Greece.

^ It was for this largely Greek speaking population that the Septuagint (a Greek translation of Hebrew scriptures) was produced.
  • The high intelligence of Jews. 10 February 2010 11:39 UTC home.comcast.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Romaniote Jews lived there from ancient times and were Greek speaking while the Sephardic Jews arrived there after their expulsion from Spain and spoke Ladino.

.The Germanic invasions of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century by tribes such as the Visigoths, Franks, Lombards, and Vandals caused massive economic and social instability within the western Empire, contributing to its decline.^ Previously, only specialist historians, like Britains J.M. Bury in A History of the Eastern Roman Empire (1912) or Joseph Jacobs Jewish Contributions to Western Civilization (1920), had known or cared about this relatively minor episode of history.

^ B'kitzur, it says that the Jews of Israel and the > Mediterranean lasted a few centuries, and it is possible the Germanic > invasion of Western Europe in the 5th century opened that area up to Jews.
  • Avodah: Volume 24, Number 109 11 September 2009 2:44 UTC www.aishdas.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In the west, Germanic tribes such as the Suevi , the Vandals , and especially the Visigoths had more or less disrupted the political and ecclesiastical systems of the Roman empire, and for several centuries western Jews enjoyed a degree of peace which their brethren to the east did not.
  • Sephardi Jews - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC locke.citizendium.org:8080 [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • What is Sephardic Jews? 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In the late Roman Empire, Jews are known to have lived in Cologne and Trier, as well as in what is now France.^ The Romans and their Empire were but a bauble in comparison to the Jews.
  • Jews, Jewish, The Jewish People - The Peace FAQ 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.peacefaq.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Ashkenazi Jews are a mixture of Sephardic Jews that lived in Europe during the Roman Empire and the Rhine and the Netherlands and also Eastern Jews who went to Russia.
  • Islamophobia: Bad For The Jews « Antiwar.com Blog 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.antiwar.com [Source type: General]

^ Jews managed alright throughout Britain and its empire (Canada, South Africa, Australia, New Zealand (which has had several Jewish PMs)), as well as Italy, France, Denmark, and even 19C Germany.
  • Steve Sailer's iSteve Blog: David Brooks: The Tel Aviv Cluster 10 February 2010 11:39 UTC isteve.blogspot.com [Source type: Original source]

.However, it is unclear whether there is any continuity between these late Roman communities and the distinct Ashkenazi Jewish culture that began to emerge about 500 years later.^ But what about the others in the Jewish community?
  • Sephardi Jews lack screening programs for their genetic diseases - Haaretz - Israel News 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.haaretz.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This was the cultural beginning of Ashkenazi Jewish power.
  • Topica Email List Directory 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC lists.topica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There is an important distinction between the two.
  • Topica Email List Directory 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC lists.topica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.King Dagobert I of the Franks expelled the Jews from his Merovingian kingdom in 629. Jews in former Roman territories now faced new challenges as harsher anti-Jewish Church rulings were enforced.^ This very point shows to what extent the Roman church is not a continuation of Jewish traditions, society and morality, but rather the continuation of Greek and Roman pagan traditions, society and morality.
  • The Orthodox Jewish Pro-Polygamy Page 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.polygamy.com [Source type: Original source]

^ And so, besides the persecutions, this has been major reason why Jewish numbers are so small, considering that Jews once constituted some 7-10% of the ROman Empire.
  • One Big, Happy Family – Forward.com 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.forward.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ From Israel to France to Italy to the Muslim world to Latin America to New York to Los Angeles, anti-Semitism is on the rise, synogagues and Jewish cemeteries are being desecrated, Jews are being attacked and killed in the streets, simply for being Jewish.
  • MySpace - TOUGH JEWS - 31 - Hombre - NEW YORK, NEW YORK - myspace.com/toughjews 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.myspace.com [Source type: General]

Rabbinic Judaism moves to Ashkenaz

.In Mesopotamia, and in Persian lands free of Roman imperial domination, Jewish life fared much better.^ After Christianity became the official religion of the Roman Empire the Jewish population decreased significantly, surviving in large numbers only in the regions that were far from the center of imperial power such as southern Italy, Spain and Mesopotamia (Babylon).

^ The bulgarish / bulgar began to supplant the freylekhs as the dominant Jewish dance in much of Eastern Europe in the early twentieth century.
  • Chapter 1. Ashkenazi Instrumental Music in the Old World 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.matttemkin.info [Source type: General]

^ After the ghetto was demolished in 1870, the Roman Jews were at last free; around the turn of the last century, there was even a Jewish mayor.
  • The The Oldest Romans of Them All Jews of Rome by Myrna Katz Frommer andHarvey Frommer 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC travel-watch.com [Source type: Original source]

.Since the conquest of Judea by Nebuchadnezzar II, this community had always been the leading diaspora community, a rival to the leadership of Palestine.^ White-skinned privilege here in the U.S. since World War II is, as it has been everywhere else, highlycontingent at best, in pockets, and always at the price of our identity.
  • White Privilege 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC userpages.umbc.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Significantly, this large mtDNA selection contains a duplicate of the Azerbaijani Jewish community collected in Israel since the same community was also sampled directly in its Caucasus Diaspora homeland.
  • PLoS ONE: Counting the Founders: The Matrilineal Genetic Ancestry of the Jewish Diaspora 10 February 2010 11:39 UTC www.plosone.org [Source type: Academic]

^ "It can be said that any war, and particularly one that affects the world, will always lead to many problems and disasters, and World War II is no exception.
  • MEMRI - Middle East Media Research Institute 10 February 2010 11:39 UTC www.memri.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.After conditions for Jews began to deteriorate in Roman-controlled lands, many of the religious leaders of Judea and the Galilee fled to the east.^ However, that number would be much larger if it were a measure simply of religious bloodlines, as many Jamaicans are descendants of Jews although they do not officially practice Judaism.
  • Jamaica Gleaner : Pieces of the Past:The Jews In Jamaica 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.jamaica-gleaner.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The confusion started during the time of the Greek and Roman Empires, before which Jews were concentrated in the Middle East in the area today known as Israel and Palestine.

^ Indeed, after the Roman conquest (can someone really deny that the Romans expelled hundreds of thousands of Jews from the land of Israel 2000 years ago--is this really a serious argument?
  • Incest: Good for the Jews | Jewcy.com 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.jewcy.com [Source type: General]

.At the academies of Pumbeditha and Sura near Babylon, Rabbinic Judaism based on Talmudic learning began to emerge and assert its authority over Jewish life throughout the diaspora.^ Judaism is a Rabbinical and Talmudic religion.
  • On ‘Perfecting’ the Jews - Lisa Miller - Newsweek.com 10 February 2010 11:39 UTC www.newsweek.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Traditionally, Jewish scholars learned the Torah and Talmud (all 22 volumes of it) by heart.
  • Autism common among Ashkenazi Jews? - General Autism Discussion 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.wrongplanet.net [Source type: General]

^ This is the traditional explanation to the Jewish diaspora , almost universally accepted by past and present rabbinical or Talmudical scholars, who believe that Jews are almost exclusively biological descendants of the Judean exiles.
  • Jews - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Rabbinic Judaism created a religious mandate for literacy, requiring all Jewish males to learn Hebrew and read from the Torah.^ Traditionally, Jewish scholars learned the Torah and Talmud (all 22 volumes of it) by heart.
  • Autism common among Ashkenazi Jews? - General Autism Discussion 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.wrongplanet.net [Source type: General]

^ With those three cornerstones of Judaism as an immutable starting point, creating a community made up of all kinds of Jews is possible.
  • The Institute for Jewish and Community Research 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.jewishresearch.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Sephardic Judaism was founded on the brilliant idea of Religious Humanism, a conception of Jewish civilization that integrated Jewish ritual practice with the humanistic legacy of Greco-Roman civilization.
  • Rootless Cosmopolitan - By Tony Karon » Blog Archive » Learning From Arab Jews 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC tonykaron.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This emphasis on literacy and learning a second language would eventually be of great benefit to the Jews, allowing them to take on commercial and financial roles within Gentile societies where literacy was often quite low.^ Rabbi Uziel thought he would be able to persuade his colleague to take a unified approach, which would allow rulings to be issued that would be acceptable to both communities.
  • RABBI OVADIA YOSEF AND HIS CULTURE WAR IN ISRAEL 11 September 2009 2:44 UTC meria.idc.ac.il [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is a mistake to call “Jews” being against him, but instead that financier group whom Putin has been taking things from, first of which was Russian oil.
  • Why Jews Fear Putin As Prime Minister | Real Zionist News 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.realzionistnews.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Although real fluency and literacy in these languages was probably limited in Medieval Europe, ordinary Jews were required to learn them, not only for ritual in the synagogue, but also for ceremonies in the home.
  • The high intelligence of Jews. 10 February 2010 11:39 UTC home.comcast.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.After the Islamic conquest of the Middle East and North Africa, new opportunities for trade and commerce opened between the Middle East and Western Europe.^ Jews that are from North Africa, the Middle East and even parts of Europe.
  • Islamophobia: Bad For The Jews « Antiwar.com Blog 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.antiwar.com [Source type: General]

^ Fourth largest religion in Middle East / North Africa .
  • Judaism - LookLex Encyclopaedia 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC i-cias.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Judaism - LookLex Encyclopaedia 10 February 2010 11:39 UTC www.lexicorient.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Calculated for the total population of North Africa and the Middle East, approx.
  • Judaism - LookLex Encyclopaedia 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC i-cias.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Judaism - LookLex Encyclopaedia 10 February 2010 11:39 UTC www.lexicorient.com [Source type: Original source]

.The vast majority of Jews in the world now lived in Islamic lands.^ The Majority of the world's Jews are white skinned.

^ It is from them that the majority of the Jews in the world today are descended."
  • Jews, Jewish, The Jewish People - The Peace FAQ 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.peacefaq.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The vast majority of Haredi Jews are Ashkenazi.
  • About David Friedman - The Mises Community 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC mises.org [Source type: General]

.Urbanization, trade, and commerce within the Islamic world allowed Jews, as a highly literate people, to abandon farming and live in cities, engaging in occupations where they could use their skills.^ They were living as people interested in agriculture.

^ They want the Jews out of this world.
  • Rootless Cosmopolitan - By Tony Karon » Blog Archive » Learning From Arab Jews 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC tonykaron.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ People didn't live in Nation States but they lived in City States.
  • Mort Zuckerman: The Cruel Dilemma Facing the Jews of Israel 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.huffingtonpost.com [Source type: General]

[15] .The influential, sophisticated, and well organized Jewish community of Mesopotamia, now centered in Baghdad, became the center of the Jewish world.^ Japanese in charge of Jewish refugees knew little about Jewish customs and practices; they took action based on the belief that Jews are very influential in the world.

^ Tarres became taken with the idea that a Jewish aljama had once existed in his city, and his property was at its center.
  • The Frommers - Programs 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.dartmouth.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ In fact, the Levite results indicate that the Khazars became fully integrated into the Ashkenazi communities and came to play an important role within the Jewish priesthood.
  • A Reassessment of the Jewish DNA Evidence 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC jogg.info [Source type: Academic]

.In the Caliphate of Baghdad, Jews took on many of the financial occupations that they would later hold in the cities of Ashkenaz.^ However, that number would be much larger if it were a measure simply of religious bloodlines, as many Jamaicans are descendants of Jews although they do not officially practice Judaism.
  • Jamaica Gleaner : Pieces of the Past:The Jews In Jamaica 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.jamaica-gleaner.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Japanese in charge of Jewish refugees knew little about Jewish customs and practices; they took action based on the belief that Jews are very influential in the world.

^ [The section begins by noting that although many Jews can be identified by outward features, others learned over time to conceal themselves so as to blend in to the society they were part of.
  • The Jew as World Parasite (1944) 10 February 2010 11:39 UTC www.calvin.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Jewish traders from Baghdad began to travel to the west, renewing Jewish life in the western Mediterranean region.^ Yet somehow as an adult, I had neglected to visit the site where my Jewish family life began before I was born, the capital’s Centro Histórico.
  • March/April 2009-Return to Centro Histórico 10 February 2010 11:39 UTC www.momentmag.com [Source type: General]

^ At the present there are intensive preparations for an anthology of life cycle songs of the Sephardic Jews of the Eastern Mediterranean region edited by Weich-Shahak.

^ Jewish Radhanite traders of Persia passed thru Itil on their way to western Europe, China, and other locations.
  • Topica Email List Directory 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC lists.topica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.They brought with them Rabbinic Judaism and Babylonian Talmudic scholarship.^ Not only that; the Talmud and Halakah Rabbinical Law gives permission to gouge, maltreat and manipulate the gentiles as they please.

^ To revert back to the old rabbinic traditions of Judaism, by which they made void the law of God, is an apostasy for which there is no excuse.

^ They make the point that “Judaism has always welcomed converts like the Khazars into the Jewish fold as equals.” It then lists the passages in the Bible and from the Talmud where converts are welcomed.

.Charlemagne's expansion of the Frankish empire around 800, including northern Italy and Rome, brought on a brief period of stability and unity in Western Europe.^ They settled in Spain, Portugal, the Eastern Mediterranean, Italy, the Balkans, Salonica and Macedonia, eventually emigrating into France and England, and Western Europe.
  • Please tell me, where is Israel headed? « P U L S E 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC pulsemedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The exiles found refuge in North Africa, Italy, and especially in the Ottoman Empire, including the Balkans.
  • http://www.mb-soft.com/believe/txo/jews.htm 10 February 2010 11:39 UTC www.mb-soft.com [Source type: Original source]

^ These observations suggest that this allele may have arisen following the migration of Jews out of Italy and into northern Europe.
  • Mendelian Diseases among Roman Jews: Implications for the Origins of Disease Alleles -- Oddoux et al. 84 (12): 4405 -- Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC jcem.endojournals.org [Source type: Academic]

.This created opportunities for Jewish merchants to settle once again north of the Alps.^ And Jewish control of North American media is also why you will never see a recap of Israels creation, as informative background to Middle East violence, on American television.

^ So, it's not the 'super intelligence' of Jews, but the academic infrastructure and opportunities created by the general non-Jewish westerners and the scientific temperament fostered by them that should get the credit.
  • FuturePundit: On The Evolution Of Ashkenazi Jewish Intelligence 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.futurepundit.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Members of the early Jewish population of Rome migrated to other Italian cities and north of the Alps into France and Germany to create populations that may have become the forebears of contemporary Ashkenazi Jews.
  • Mendelian Diseases among Roman Jews: Implications for the Origins of Disease Alleles -- Oddoux et al. 84 (12): 4405 -- Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC jcem.endojournals.org [Source type: Academic]

.Charlemagne granted the Jews freedoms similar to those once enjoyed under the Roman Empire.^ The Romans and their Empire were but a bauble in comparison to the Jews.
  • Jews, Jewish, The Jewish People - The Peace FAQ 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.peacefaq.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Local Jewish women enjoyed much freedom, and in the 17th century among the Kurdish Jews, the first femal rabbi emerged.
  • Judaism - LookLex Encyclopaedia 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC i-cias.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Judaism - LookLex Encyclopaedia 10 February 2010 11:39 UTC www.lexicorient.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Jews settled in Europe during the time of the Roman Empire, but the rise of the Catholic Church resulted in frequent expulsions and persecutions.
  • Jews a history, by Kip Addotta! 10 February 2010 11:39 UTC www.kipaddotta.com [Source type: Original source]

.Returning once again to Frankish lands, many Jewish merchants took on occupations in finance and commerce, including money lending, or usury.^ This thorough adoption of the Arabic language also greatly facilitated the assimilation of Jews into Moorish culture, and Jewish activity in a variety of professions, including medicine, commerce, finance, and agriculture increased.
  • Sephardi Jews - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC locke.citizendium.org:8080 [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • What is Sephardic Jews? 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There were certainly non-Jewish groups in Europe that had occupations with high IQ elasticity - merchants in Bristol or Rotterdam for example - but they were not reproductively isolated.
  • Mail 264 June 30 - July 6, 2003 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.jerrypournelle.com [Source type: Original source]

^ A number of groups (including many Jewish institutions) are concerned about the separation of church and state, and do not want the government inquiring about religion.
  • The Institute for Jewish and Community Research 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.jewishresearch.org [Source type: Original source]

.(Church legislation banned Christians from lending money in exchange for interest.^ Thus the Zionists put the interests of a foreign government above the US. Also the MIC including Zionism gets the multi-billion dollar investments from Christian Churches.

^ Simultaneously Jews were allowed to work in more cognitively demanding occupations involving money handling even as the Catholic Church banned Christians from many of those same occupations.
  • FuturePundit: On The Evolution Of Ashkenazi Jewish Intelligence 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.futurepundit.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Medieval Christian doctrine forbade Christians to take interest on loans; as a result, Jews were required to engage in money lending.
  • http://www.mb-soft.com/believe/txo/jews.htm 10 February 2010 11:39 UTC www.mb-soft.com [Source type: Original source]

) .From Charlemagne's time to the present, there is a well-documented record of Jewish life in northern Europe, and by the 11th century, when Rashi of Troyes wrote his commentaries, Ashkenazi Jews had emerged also as interpreters and commentators on the Torah and Talmud.^ Ashkenazi Jews and Intelligence The Ashkenazi are the population of Jews originating in central and northern Europe.
  • The Genetic Origin of Ashkenazi Genius || kuro5hin.org 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.kuro5hin.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This was the reality of life for many of Europe's Jews.
  • A Mistake �� a nation of European Jews in an area of Arab Muslims" in Wars in History Channel 10 February 2010 11:39 UTC boards.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But there are Ashkenazi Jews in Spain as well.
  • THE AZORES 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.dartmouth.edu [Source type: Original source]

DNA clues

.Efforts to identify the origins of Ashkenazi Jews through DNA analysis began in the 1990s.^ Ashkenazi Jews began migrating to Palestine.
  • Bernstein 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.holywar.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Q: were Khazars the origin of the Ashkenazi jews ?
  • Ashkenazi Jews - Kosmix : Reference, Videos, Images, News, Shopping and more... 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.kosmix.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Studies of mitochondrial DNA have demonstrated that Ashkenazi Jewish communities in Europe were composed mostly through intermarriage of Jewish men with women of European descent.

.In fact, it was from this research, prompted by an observation of the different physical features between Ashkenazi Jews and other of the world's Jewish ethnic divisions, that modern genetic genealogy was born.^ Ashkenazi Jews , Mizrahi Jews , other Jewish ethnic divisions , Spaniards , Portuguese .
  • What is Sephardic Jews? 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ See also: Jewish ethnic divisions .
  • Sephardi Jews - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC locke.citizendium.org:8080 [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Genetic diseases among Ashkenazi Jews.
  • Mendelian Diseases among Roman Jews: Implications for the Origins of Disease Alleles -- Oddoux et al. 84 (12): 4405 -- Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC jcem.endojournals.org [Source type: Academic]

Dr. Karl Skorecki, a Canadian nephrologist of Ashkenazi parentage, noticed that a fellow-congregant of Sephardi parentage, who was a Kohen like him, had completely different physical features. .According to Jewish tradition, all Kohanim are descended from the priest Aaron, brother of Moses.^ Kohen (priest) - patrilineal descendant of Aaron , brother of Moses .
  • Judaism - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Khazars according to Jewish tradition were descended from the Tribes of Manasseh and Simeon.
  • Queries about Judah and the Jews 10 February 2010 11:39 UTC www.britam.org [Source type: Original source]

^ According to Jewish tradition, all Cohanim (plural of Cohan or Cohen) are direct descendants of Aaron, the brother of Moses, and serve important priestly functions within the Jewish religion.
  • A Reassessment of the Jewish DNA Evidence 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC jogg.info [Source type: Academic]

.Skorecki reasoned that if Kohanim were indeed the descendants of only one man, they should, at least on the paternal line, have a common set of genetic markers and should perhaps preserve some family resemblance to each other.^ However, phylogeography suggests at least some lines of reasoning.
  • PLoS ONE: Counting the Founders: The Matrilineal Genetic Ancestry of the Jewish Diaspora 10 February 2010 11:39 UTC www.plosone.org [Source type: Academic]

^ He considered a hypothesis: if the Kohanim are descendants of one man, they should have a common set of genetic markers--a common haplotype-- that of their common ancestor.
  • Genetic evidence links Jews to their ancient tribe 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.freerepublic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I didn’t say they were the only ones.

.Like most DNA studies of human migration patterns, these studies have focused on two segments of the human genome, the Y chromosome (passed on only by males), and the mitochondrial genome (mtDNA, passed on only by females).^ The study involved mitochondrial DNA, called mtDNA, which is passed only through the mother.
  • Jewish Genetics, Part 1: Jewish Populations (Ashkenazim, Sephardim, Mizrahim, Yemenite, Ethiopian) DNA 11 September 2009 2:44 UTC www.khazaria.com [Source type: Academic]

^ He did so by studying the Y chromosome, the chromosome that determines maleness.
  • One Big, Happy Family – Forward.com 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.forward.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, when you looked at mitochondrial DNA (passed on maternally) distinct Jewish communities were more closely related to surrounding population than to each other.
  • HorsesAss.Org » Blog Archive » Ask a Secular Jew Who Married a Shiksa and Lives Near Two Orthodox Synagogues 10 February 2010 11:39 UTC horsesass.org [Source type: Original source]

.Both segments are unaffected by recombination, thus, they provide an indicator of paternal and maternal origins, respectively.^ Thus, it appears that Ashkenazim obtained their H6 ancestry from European maternal founders, possibly Slavic or Khazarian in origin.
  • A Reassessment of the Jewish DNA Evidence 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC jogg.info [Source type: Academic]
  • The “mystery” of Ashkenazic origins 10 February 2010 11:39 UTC majorityrights.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, both the origin and size of the maternal ancestral deme remain obscure.
  • The Matrilineal Ancestry of Ashkenazi Jewry: Portrait of a Recent Founder Event 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ In two cases, however, comparison [of Jewish mtDNA] with the published data does provide some indication of the possible geographic origins of the modal types.
  • Jewish Genetics, Part 1: Jewish Populations (Ashkenazim, Sephardim, Mizrahim, Yemenite, Ethiopian) DNA 11 September 2009 2:44 UTC www.khazaria.com [Source type: Academic]

.Genome-wide association studies have also been employed to yield findings relevant to genetic origins.^ Genome-wide associate studies and cognitive perfor...
  • Dienekes' Anthropology Blog: mtDNA haplogroup K in Bronze Age Syria 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC dienekes.blogspot.com [Source type: Academic]

^ This is important again in the context of biomedical studies attempting to ascertain the genetic roots of particular diseases; population substructure (e.g., Jew vs. Jew) may result in confounded associations.
  • How Ashkenazi Jewish are you? : Gene Expression 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC scienceblogs.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Analyses of mtDNA and the NRY are especially relevant to studies of Jewish origins because, according to ancient Jewish law, Jewish religious affiliation is assigned maternally ( 1 ).
  • Genetic evidence links Jews to their ancient tribe 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.freerepublic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Male lineages: Y chromosomal DNA

.A study of haplotypes of the Y chromosome, published in 2000, addressed the paternal origins of Ashkenazi Jews.^ In this study there was one Ashkenazi Jew represented at haplotype 49.
  • Y - DNA Results (to date) for the TURK Family of Surnames 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.melungeons.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Y chromosome haplotypes, Ashkenazi Jews, founder effect .
  • European Journal of Human Genetics - Y chromosome evidence for a founder effect in Ashkenazi Jews 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.nature.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Q: were Khazars the origin of the Ashkenazi jews ?
  • Ashkenazi Jews - Kosmix : Reference, Videos, Images, News, Shopping and more... 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.kosmix.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Hammer et al.[16] found that the Y chromosome of some Ashkenazi and Sephardic Jews contained mutations that are also common among Middle Eastern peoples, but uncommon in the general European population.^ These diseases are not common in Sephardic Jews or in Arab populations.
  • Sharing the Land of Canaan - Chapter 3 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC qumsiyeh.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Most Jews are Ashkenazi and these are not all Middle Eastern.
  • Are Jews White? 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC majorityrights.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ashkenazi Jew, maried a Sephardic Jewess.
  • Bernstein 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.holywar.org [Source type: Original source]

.This suggested that the male ancestors of the Ashkenazi Jews could be traced mostly to the Middle East.^ Jews are Caucasians with some genes that can be traced to the Middle East.
  • Half Sigma: Jews are white 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.halfsigma.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Ashkenazi Jews 'traced to four female ancestors'."
  • Jewish Genetics, Part 1: Jewish Populations (Ashkenazim, Sephardim, Mizrahim, Yemenite, Ethiopian) DNA 11 September 2009 2:44 UTC www.khazaria.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Research in Ashkenazi Jews has suggested that, in addition to the male founders, significant female founder ancestry might also derive from the Middle East, with about 40% of the current Ashkenazi population descended matrilineally from just four women, or "founder lineages", that were "likely from a Hebrew / Levantine mtDNA pool" originating in the Near East in the first and second centuries CE. [23] .
  • Jews - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The proportion of male genetic admixture in Ashkenazi Jews amounts to less than 0.5% per generation over an estimated 80 generations, with "relatively minor contribution of European Y chromosomes to the Ashkenazim," and a total admixture estimate "very similar to Motulsky's average estimate of 12.5%." This supported the finding that "Diaspora Jews from Europe, Northwest Africa, and the Near East resemble each other more closely than they resemble their non-Jewish neighbors."
.A 2001 study by Nebel et al. showed that both Ashkenazi and Sephardic Jewish populations share the same overall paternal Near Eastern ancestries.^ Again; Quote- However, a follow-up study [Nebel et al.
  • Jews of Khazaria, brief history and other resources 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.palestineremembered.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Jewish Near Eastern N1b mtDNAs.
  • The Matrilineal Ancestry of Ashkenazi Jewry: Portrait of a Recent Founder Event 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Also again; Quote- However, a follow-up study [Nebel et al.
  • Jews of Khazaria, brief history and other resources 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.palestineremembered.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The authors also report on Eu 19 chromosomes, which are very frequent in Eastern Europeans (54%-60%) at elevated frequency (12.7%) in Ashkenazi Jews.^ A 2001 study by Nebel et al found Eu 19 chromosomes, which are very frequent in Eastern Europeans (54%-60%) at elevated frequency (12.7%) in Ashkenazi Jews.
  • Coyote TV - High Desert Advocate - Free Press Editorial- "Blame The Jews" 10 February 2010 11:39 UTC www.coyote-tv.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In our sample, this low-level gene flow may be reflected in the Eu 19 chromosomes, which are found at elevated frequency (12.7%) in Ashkenazi Jews and which are very frequent in Eastern Europeans (54%-60%) (Semino et al.
  • Jewish Genetics, Part 1: Jewish Populations (Ashkenazim, Sephardim, Mizrahim, Yemenite, Ethiopian) DNA 11 September 2009 2:44 UTC www.khazaria.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Ashkenazi Jews are Middle Eastern & European hybrids permlink .
  • Ashkenazi Jews are Middle Eastern & European hybrids : Gene Expression 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC scienceblogs.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Ashkenazi Jews are Middle Eastern & European hybrids : Gene Expression 10 February 2010 11:39 UTC scienceblogs.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.They hypothesized that these chromosomes could reflect low-level gene flow from surrounding Eastern European populations, or, alternatively, that both the Ashkenazi Jews with Eu 19, and to a much greater extent Eastern European populations in general, might partly be descendants of Khazars.^ The authors mention in one sentence the possibility of a European contribution to Ashkenazi gene pool stating: "alternatively, it is attractive to hypothesize that the Ashkenazim with Eu 19 chromosomes represent descendants of the Khazars."
  • Sharing the Land of Canaan - Chapter 3 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC qumsiyeh.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Most Jews are Ashkenazi and these are not all Middle Eastern.
  • Are Jews White? 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC majorityrights.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Khazars would not have been merely Eastern Europeans.
  • Ashkenazi Jews are Middle Eastern & European hybrids : Gene Expression 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC scienceblogs.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Ashkenazi Jews are Middle Eastern & European hybrids : Gene Expression 10 February 2010 11:39 UTC scienceblogs.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Again, this study suggested a total male admixture estimation that is no larger than ~12.5%.^ The male admixture proportion of Europeans in Ashkenazi Jews was estimated to be 0.5% per generation, 3 indicating that Ashkenazim remained, to a large extent, genetically isolated throughout their history.
  • European Journal of Human Genetics - Y chromosome evidence for a founder effect in Ashkenazi Jews 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.nature.com [Source type: Academic]

^ This picture is also far more diverse than what many genetic studies on Ashkenazi Jews would suggest.
  • A Reassessment of the Jewish DNA Evidence 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC jogg.info [Source type: Academic]

^ But a more careful examination on the paternal (male) lineage also shows far more revealing diversity than apparent from limited studies done by some groups with an ideological affinity.
  • Sharing the Land of Canaan - Chapter 3 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC qumsiyeh.org [Source type: Academic]

[17]
.A 2005 study by Nebel et al., based on Y chromosome polymorphic markers, showed that Ashkenazi Jews are more closely related to other Jewish and Middle Eastern groups than to their host populations in Europe.^ Almut Nebel et al., The Y Chromosome pool of Jews as part of the genetic landscape of the Middle East.
  • Sharing the Land of Canaan - Chapter 3 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC qumsiyeh.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Most Jews are Ashkenazi and these are not all Middle Eastern.
  • Are Jews White? 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC majorityrights.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ashkenazi male lineages are about 77% Jewish / Middle Eastern.
  • Are Jews White? 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC majorityrights.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.However, 11.5% of male Ashkenazim were found to belong to R-M17, the dominant Y chromosome haplogroup in Eastern Europeans, suggesting possible gene flow.^ MJ network of haplogroup R-M17 in Ashkenazim.
  • European Journal of Human Genetics - Y chromosome evidence for a founder effect in Ashkenazi Jews 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.nature.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In the present study of 495 Y chromosomes of Ashkenazim, 57 (11.5%) were found to belong to R-M17.
  • European Journal of Human Genetics - Y chromosome evidence for a founder effect in Ashkenazi Jews 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.nature.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Where did the R-M17 chromosomes in Ashkenazim come from?
  • European Journal of Human Genetics - Y chromosome evidence for a founder effect in Ashkenazi Jews 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.nature.com [Source type: Academic]

.The authors hypothesized that "R-M17 chromosomes in Ashkenazim may represent vestiges of the mysterious Khazars". They concluded "However, if the R-M17 chromosomes in Ashkenazi Jews do indeed represent the vestiges of the mysterious Khazars then, according to our data, this contribution was limited to either a single founder or a few closely related men, and does not exceed ~ 12% of the present-day Ashkenazim.^ And the Jews had a picnic there, but they were not the Khazars!

^ They are as rare in non- Ashkenazi Jews as in non- Jews .
  • Ashkenazi Jews - Kosmix : Reference, Videos, Images, News, Shopping and more... 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.kosmix.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In common parlance the present day ‘Jew’ is synonymous with the ‘Ashkenazi Khazar Jew’.
  • Please tell me, where is Israel headed? « P U L S E 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC pulsemedia.org [Source type: Original source]

[18]
.A 2003 study of the Y-chromosome by Behar et al. points to multiple origins for Ashkenazi Levites, a priestly class who comprise approximately 4% of Ashkenazi Jews.^ (Behar et al.
  • Are Jews White? 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC majorityrights.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ With the exception of the study by Fodor et al.
  • The Lifetime Risks of Breast Cancer in Ashkenazi Jewish Carriers of BRCA1 and BRCA2 Mutations — Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention 10 February 2010 11:39 UTC cebp.aacrjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Locus Haplotype (Behar et al.
  • A Reassessment of the Jewish DNA Evidence 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC jogg.info [Source type: Academic]

.It found that Haplogroup R1a, uncommon in the Middle East or among Sephardic Jews, originating in Central Asia and dominant in Eastern Europe, is present in over 50% of Ashkenazi Levites, while the rest of Ashkenazi Levites' paternal lineage is of Middle Eastern origin.^ Jews are not European, their origin is in the Near East.
  • Are Jews White? 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC majorityrights.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Most Jews are Ashkenazi and these are not all Middle Eastern.
  • Are Jews White? 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC majorityrights.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ashkenazi male lineages are about 77% Jewish / Middle Eastern.
  • Are Jews White? 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC majorityrights.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Behar suggests a founding event, probably involving one or very few European men, occurring at a time close to the initial formation and settlement of the Ashkenazi community as a possible explanation.^ Comparisons with other Jewish and non-Jewish groups suggest that a founding event, probably involving one or very few European men occurring at a time close to the initial formation and settlement of the Ashkenazi community, is the most likely explanation for the presence of this distinctive haplogroup found today in > 50% of Ashkenazi Levites.
  • DNA and the Book of Mormon 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.fairlds.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The observed global pattern of distribution renders very unlikely the possibility that the four aforementioned founder lineages entered the Ashkenazi mtDNA pool via gene flow from a European host population.
  • The Matrilineal Ancestry of Ashkenazi Jewry: Portrait of a Recent Founder Event 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Therefore, the demographic history suggests that the crucial founder events are likely to have occurred sometime before the 12th century, whereas the expansion phase of Ashkenazi Jewry in Europe, with its ups and downs, has lasted more than a millennium.
  • The Matrilineal Ancestry of Ashkenazi Jewry: Portrait of a Recent Founder Event 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

.Ashkenazi and Sephardic Cohanim and Israelites, on the other hand, were found to share the same genetic signature, originating in the Middle East 2000 years earlier.^ The mysterious signature has been found in most other genomic studies of the Ashkenazi.
  • Ashkenazi Jews are Middle Eastern & European hybrids : Gene Expression 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC scienceblogs.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Ashkenazi Jews are Middle Eastern & European hybrids : Gene Expression 10 February 2010 11:39 UTC scienceblogs.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, it should be noted that Europe and Southwest Asia, including the Levant, largely share the same pool of Y and mtDNA haplogroups, some of which appear to have originated in the Middle East and arrived in Europe in the Paleolithic and Mesolithic eras.
  • Half Sigma: Jews are white 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.halfsigma.com [Source type: Original source]

^ A: Here s a bit I found on Jewish DNA; that talks a little on this subject: Although the Ashkenazi (European) Jewish community separated from their Mediterranean ancestors some 1,200 years ago and lived among Central and Eastern European gentiles, their paternal gene pool still resembles that of other Jewish and Semitic groups originating in the Middle East.
  • Ashkenazi Jews - Kosmix : Reference, Videos, Images, News, Shopping and more... 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.kosmix.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[19]

Female lineages: Mitochondrial DNA

Before 2006, geneticists largely attributed the genesis of most of the world's Jewish populations, including Ashkenazi Jews, to founding effects by males who migrated from the Middle East and "by the women from each local population whom they took as wives and converted to Judaism." In line with this model of origin, David Goldstein, now of Duke University, reported in 2002 that, unlike male lineages, the female lineages in Ashkenazi Jewish communities "did not seem to be Middle Eastern", and that each community had its own genetic pattern and even that "in some cases the mitochondrial DNA was closely related to that of the host community." .In his view this suggested "that Jewish men had arrived from the Middle East, taken wives from the host population and converted them to Judaism, after which there was no further intermarriage with non-Jews."^ There is no love for Jews in their hearts.
  • Are Illiberal Jews Anti-Semitic? [by Melissa] 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC proteinwisdom.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There was no such thing as Judaism.

^ There is no attempt by the organized Jewish community to simply convert non-Jews to Judaism.

[20]
However, a 2006 study by Behar et al.,[1] based on high-resolution analysis of haplogroup K(mtDNA), suggested that about 40% of the current Ashkenazi population is descended matrilineally from just four women, or "founder lineages", that were "likely from a Hebrew/Levantine mtDNA pool" originating in the Middle East in the first and second centuries CE. Although Haplogroup K is common throughout western Eurasia, "the observed global pattern of distribution renders very unlikely the possibility that the four aforementioned founder lineages entered the Ashkenazi mtDNA pool via gene flow from a European host population:
."..Both the extent and location of the maternal ancestral deme from which the Ashkenazi Jewry arose remain obscure.^ However, both the origin and size of the maternal ancestral deme remain obscure.
  • The Matrilineal Ancestry of Ashkenazi Jewry: Portrait of a Recent Founder Event 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Both the extent and location of the maternal ancestral deme from which the Ashkenazi Jewry arose remain obscure.
  • FARK.com: (1855079) Study finds some 3.5 million Ashkenazi Jews come from four women, and boy are they tired 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.fark.com [Source type: General]

^ Abstract: "Both the extent and location of the maternal ancestral deme from which the Ashkenazi Jewry arose remain obscure.
  • Jewish Genetics, Part 1: Jewish Populations (Ashkenazim, Sephardim, Mizrahim, Yemenite, Ethiopian) DNA 11 September 2009 2:44 UTC www.khazaria.com [Source type: Academic]

.Here, using complete sequences of the maternally inherited mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), we show that close to one-half of Ashkenazi Jews, estimated at 8,000,000 people, can be traced back to only four women carrying distinct mtDNAs that are virtually absent in other populations, with the important exception of low frequencies among non-Ashkenazi Jews.^ "Study: Most Ashkenazi Jews from four women."
  • Jewish Genetics, Part 1: Jewish Populations (Ashkenazim, Sephardim, Mizrahim, Yemenite, Ethiopian) DNA 11 September 2009 2:44 UTC www.khazaria.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Jews are one race of people is a myth.
  • Bernstein 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.holywar.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Meaning what is important to study is the maternally inherited mitochondrial DNA (aka mDNA).
  • Jews of Khazaria, brief history and other resources 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.palestineremembered.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.We conclude that four founding mtDNAs, likely of Near Eastern ancestry, underwent major expansion(s) in Europe within the past millennium.."^ The researchers concluded that the four founding mtDNA - likely of Middle Eastern origin - underwent a major overall expansion in Europe during the last millennium."
  • Jewish Genetics, Part 1: Jewish Populations (Ashkenazim, Sephardim, Mizrahim, Yemenite, Ethiopian) DNA 11 September 2009 2:44 UTC www.khazaria.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Jewish Near Eastern N1b mtDNAs.
  • The Matrilineal Ancestry of Ashkenazi Jewry: Portrait of a Recent Founder Event 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ We conclude that four founding mtDNAs, likely of Near Eastern ancestry, underwent major expansion(s) in Europe within the past millennium.
  • The Matrilineal Ancestry of Ashkenazi Jewry: Portrait of a Recent Founder Event 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]
  • FARK.com: (1855079) Study finds some 3.5 million Ashkenazi Jews come from four women, and boy are they tired 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.fark.com [Source type: General]

[1][20]
.In addition, Behar et al. have suggested that the rest of Ashkenazi mtDNA is originated from ~150 women, most of those likely of Middle Eastern origin.^ (Behar et al.
  • Are Jews White? 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC majorityrights.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Most Jews are Ashkenazi and these are not all Middle Eastern.
  • Are Jews White? 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC majorityrights.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Locus Haplotype (Behar et al.
  • A Reassessment of the Jewish DNA Evidence 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC jogg.info [Source type: Academic]

[1]

Genome-wide association study

.In genetic epidemiology, a genome-wide association study (GWA study, or GWAS) is an examination of genetic variation across a given genome, designed to identify genetic associations with observable traits.^ Hirschhorn J, Daly M: Genome-wide association studies for common diseases and complex traits.
  • BioMed Central | Full text | Analysis of genetic variation in Ashkenazi Jews by high density SNP genotyping 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.biomedcentral.com [Source type: Academic]

^ This is important again in the context of biomedical studies attempting to ascertain the genetic roots of particular diseases; population substructure (e.g., Jew vs. Jew) may result in confounded associations.
  • How Ashkenazi Jewish are you? : Gene Expression 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC scienceblogs.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The genome-wide case-control association study, whereby the prevalence of genetic variants is compared between cases and unrelated control subjects without the disease, may have the greatest power to identify novel susceptibility genes [ 18 - 20 ].
  • BioMed Central | Full text | The BRCA1 Ashkenazi founder mutations occur on common haplotypes and are not highly correlated with anonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms likely to be used in genome-wide case-control association studies 10 February 2010 11:39 UTC www.biomedcentral.com [Source type: Academic]

.In human studies, this might include traits such as blood pressure or weight, or why some people get a disease or condition.^ Why do people have to think in such absolutes?
  • On Being Jewish and White — Feministe 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.feministe.us [Source type: Original source]

^ Why do some of today's Jews share some genetic haplotypes with people of the modern Near East?
  • DNA and the Book of Mormon 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.fairlds.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Excerpts: "As a second possibility, the Ashkenazim might have acquired the Tay-Sachs gene from some other people who already had the gene at high frequency.
  • Jewish Genetics, Part 3: Jewish Genetic Diseases (Mediterranean Fever, Tay-Sachs, pemphigus vulgaris, Mutations) 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.khazaria.com [Source type: Academic]

[21]
.A 2007 study by Bauchet et al..^ In the study of Coble et al.
  • The Matrilineal Ancestry of Ashkenazi Jewry: Portrait of a Recent Founder Event 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Oh man, a khazar kook Here's a bit of info on the Ashkenazi/Khazar relationship from Wikipedia: DNA clues A 2001 study by Nebel et al.
  • FARK.com: (4420378) US: "Stop building in Jerusalem." Israel:"I have to admire the residents of Iroquois territory for assuming that they have a right to determine where Jews should live in Jerusalem." 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.fark.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Excerpts: "Sephardic North African Jews are genetic twins of their Iraq brethren, says a study by researchers [Nebel, Faerman, et al.
  • Jewish Genetics, Part 1: Jewish Populations (Ashkenazim, Sephardim, Mizrahim, Yemenite, Ethiopian) DNA 11 September 2009 2:44 UTC www.khazaria.com [Source type: Academic]

found that .Ashkenazi Jews were most closely clustered with Arabic North African populations, and in the European structure analysis, they share similarities only with Greeks and Southern Italians, reflecting their East Mediterranean origins.^ Jews are not European, their origin is in the Near East.
  • Are Jews White? 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC majorityrights.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ashkenazi Jews fit well with South Eastern Europeans, particularly Greeks and Italians.
  • Ashkenazi Jews are Middle Eastern & European hybrids : Gene Expression 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC scienceblogs.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Ashkenazi Jews are Middle Eastern & European hybrids : Gene Expression 10 February 2010 11:39 UTC scienceblogs.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ashkenazi Jews and most of the lower ranks .
  • Bernstein 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.holywar.org [Source type: Original source]

[22]

High and Late Middle Ages migrations

.Historical records show evidence of Jewish communities north of the Alps and Pyrenees as early as the 8th and 9th century.^ The Jewish community of the Caucasus also known as Mountain Jews is believed to have been established during the 8th century C.E. in the region corresponding to Dagestan and the current state of Azerbaijan as a result of a movement of Jews from Iran.
  • Jewish Genetics, Part 1: Jewish Populations (Ashkenazim, Sephardim, Mizrahim, Yemenite, Ethiopian) DNA 11 September 2009 2:44 UTC www.khazaria.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Historical records suggest the establishment of the Ashkenazi population during the 7th and 8th centuries in the Rhine valley by a few migrating families arriving from northern Italy (Ostrer 2001 ).
  • The Matrilineal Ancestry of Ashkenazi Jewry: Portrait of a Recent Founder Event 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ The name ‘Nazi’ comes from a tribe of Jews known as the “the Jews of Ashkenaz”), are the Jews descended from the medieval Jewish communities along the Rhine in Germany from Alsace in the south to the Rhineland in the north.
  • Criticism That Cuts Too Close To The Bone 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.By the end of the first millenum, Jewish populations were well-established in Western Europe, later followed the Norman Conquest into England in 1066, and settled in many cities of the Rhine area by the end of the 11th century.^ In the first place they, and their descendants, formed until well into the seventeenth century the largest group of the city's Jewish population.

^ Historical records suggest the establishment of the Ashkenazi population during the 7th and 8th centuries in the Rhine valley by a few migrating families arriving from northern Italy (Ostrer 2001 ).
  • The Matrilineal Ancestry of Ashkenazi Jewry: Portrait of a Recent Founder Event 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ It was later on the way that Moses ascended Mount Sinai and was handed the Ten Commandments, which established the [basic] rules of the Jewish religion.
  • et - Full Story 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.egypttoday.com [Source type: Original source]

.With the onset of the Crusades, and the expulsions from England (1290), France (1394), and parts of Germany (1400s), Jewish migration pushed eastward into Poland, Grand Duchy of Lithuania, and Russia.^ Yiddish appears to have been the language of Jewish communities from Germany eastward, deep into Russia.
  • Jews of Khazaria, brief history and other resources 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.palestineremembered.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Whilst we have no record of jewish lineage, my Mother's side of the family spoke German and I was told they came from an area which is now part of Poland.
  • faceblind : Message: Re: [faceblind] Re: Psychologically 10 February 2010 11:39 UTC tech.groups.yahoo.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I can understand that these people might, if they had been persecuted in western Europe (including England, France and Germany) carry their established tongue as they migrated eastward into Poland and Lithuania where they were at first encouraged by those governments.
  • Jews of Khazaria, brief history and other resources 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.palestineremembered.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Over this period of several hundred years, some have suggested, Jewish economic activity was focused on trade, business management, and financial services, due to several presumed factors: Christian European prohibitions restricting certain activities by Jews, preventing certain financial activities (such as "usurious" loans)[23] between Christians, high rates of literacy, near universal male education, and ability of merchants to rely upon and trust family members living in different regions and countries.^ Jews have lived in India and China without persecution for hundreds of years.
  • Steve Sailer's iSteve Blog: David Brooks: The Tel Aviv Cluster 10 February 2010 11:39 UTC isteve.blogspot.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The occupants of Palestine have been Arab, Jewish and Christian living side-by-side in peace for hundreds of years.
  • Netanyahu To The West–Destroy Iran Before Israel Destroys You « The Ugly Truth 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC theuglytruth.wordpress.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Because for some 1,000 or more years, during the Dark/Middle Ages, Christians did push their smarter European men into the clergy, and while celibacy was not absolute among the Catholic priests then, certainly their reproduction rate was below that of the general population.
  • Is Kevin MacDonald Right? | Jewcy.com 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.jewcy.com [Source type: Original source]

The Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth at its greatest extent.
.By the 1400s, the Ashkenazi Jewish communities in Poland were the largest Jewish communities of the Diaspora.^ Studies of mitochondrial DNA have demonstrated that Ashkenazi Jewish communities in Europe were composed mostly through intermarriage of Jewish men with women of European descent.

^ In fact, the Levite results indicate that the Khazars became fully integrated into the Ashkenazi communities and came to play an important role within the Jewish priesthood.
  • A Reassessment of the Jewish DNA Evidence 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC jogg.info [Source type: Academic]

^ Fischel in another work[26] mentions that the Jewish communities of Cochin, Bombay etc are actually the remnants of survivors of a once much wider extent of the Jewish Diaspora.
  • Jews in Sri Lanka 10 February 2010 11:39 UTC chabadsrilanka.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[24] .This area, which eventually fell under the domination of Russia, Austria, and Prussia (Germany), would remain the main center of Ashkenazi Jewry until the Holocaust.^ Latinos to the United States would strengthen our nation, at a time when 50% of Latinos federally employed are in defense positions, at a time when in some areas 50% of those under 25 are Latinos .
  • History News Network 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC hnn.us [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These bankers were afraid that the United States, if they remained in one block and as one nation, would attain economical and financial independence, which would upset their financial domination over the world.
  • Jew Watch - Leaders - Timeline for The Rothschild Internationalist-Zionist-Banking-One World Order Family 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.jewwatch.com [Source type: Original source]

^ If these were also its proportions among the Khazars, there would have been seven non-M117 Khazars joining or founding Ashkenazi Jewry for every Khazar who had the mutation.
  • Jewish Genetics, Part 1: Jewish Populations (Ashkenazim, Sephardim, Mizrahim, Yemenite, Ethiopian) DNA 11 September 2009 2:44 UTC www.khazaria.com [Source type: Academic]

.The answer to why there was so little assimilation of Jews in Eastern Europe for so long would seem to lie in part in the probability that the alien surroundings in Eastern Europe were not conducive, though contempt did not prevent some assimilation.^ They are probably to some extent the ancestors of the eastern Jews.
  • Are Illiberal Jews Anti-Semitic? [by Melissa] 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC proteinwisdom.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The latter group, which inhabited northern and eastern Europe since the 9th century C.E., accounts for 90% of the 5.7 million Jews living in the United States today.
  • Comprehensive Arrayed Primer Extension Array for the Detection of 59 Sequence Variants in 15 Conditions Prevalent Among the (Ashkenazi) Jewish Population -- Schrijver et al. 9 (2): 228 -- Journal of Molecular Diagnostics 10 February 2010 11:39 UTC jmd.amjpathol.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The word 'Ashkenasim' comes from the Hebrew word for Germany, and describes the Jews who lived in France and Germany, and who fled from persecution to Poland, Russia and parts of central Europe.
  • Adherents.com 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.adherents.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Furthermore, Jews lived almost exclusively in shtetls, maintained a strong system of education for males, heeded rabbinic leadership, and scorned the life-style of their neighbors; and all of these tendencies increased with every outbreak of antisemitism.^ This is the traditional explanation to the Jewish diaspora , almost universally accepted by past and present rabbinical or Talmudical scholars, who believe that Jews are almost exclusively biological descendants of the Judean exiles.
  • Jews - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ What the American Jew is now, his style of living and thinking, comes to him from the shtetl [a small town or village formerly found in Eastern Europe], tempered in the furnace of the lower East Side [of New York City].
  • Chapter Four - God�s Covenant People: Yesterday, Today & Forever - Mission to Israel 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.missiontoisrael.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Are today’s Jews TRUE Israelites?? « Chasing after the Truth Blog 10 February 2010 11:39 UTC yahstruthseeker.wordpress.com [Source type: Original source]

^ These peoples lived in that land between the river and the sea for many many centuries prior to the arrival of Abraham and the jews from mesopotamia.
  • Mort Zuckerman: The Cruel Dilemma Facing the Jews of Israel 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.huffingtonpost.com [Source type: General]

[25]

Usage of the name

.In reference to the Jewish peoples of Northern Europe and particularly the Rhineland, the word Ashkenazi is often found in medieval rabbinic literature.^ Ashkenazi is a medieval Hebrew word for Germany.
  • Y - DNA Results (to date) for the TURK Family of Surnames 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.melungeons.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The Ashkenazi Jews developed a distinct culture and liturgy; influenced, to varying degrees, by interaction with surrounding peoples of Central and Eastern Europe.
  • Becoming Jewish - Judaism 101 10 February 2010 11:39 UTC www.becomingjewish.org [Source type: Original source]

^ However, Ashkenazi Jews can now be found throughout Europe the most concentrated areas being Poland, Germany, Russia, and Lithuania.

References to Ashkenaz in Yosippon and Hasdai ibn Shaprut's letter to the king of the Khazars would date the term as far back as the tenth century, as would also Saadia Gaon's commentary on Daniel 7:8.
.The word Ashkenaz first appears in the genealogy in the Tanakh (Genesis 10) as a son of Gomer and grandson of Japheth.^ Gomer, who was a son of Japheth, son of Noah.
  • Please tell me, where is Israel headed? « P U L S E 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC pulsemedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Some who deny that Ashkenazi Jews are descended from the tribe of Judah assert that the term "Ashkenazi Jew" is based on a branch of the Japhethic race mentioned in Genesis 10:3.
  • Jews are Judah/Collins 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC kvryland.tripod.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The name Ashkenaz in the Bible (Genesis 10:3) was identified in the Middle Ages with Germany, hence Ashkenazim, 'Germans'.
  • Adherents.com 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.adherents.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It is thought that the name originally applied to the Scythians (Ishkuz), who were called Ashkuza in Assyrian inscriptions, and lake Ascanius and the region Ascania in Anatolia derive their names from this group.^ Who is a Jew The original name for the people we now call Jews was Hebrews.
  • Becoming Jewish - Judaism 101 10 February 2010 11:39 UTC www.becomingjewish.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Take, for example, the one in Ghamra called Etz Haim, now known as Hanan after the name of the man who took care of it.
  • et - Full Story 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.egypttoday.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He started a group called Ha Yachad which he said was an Essene name for their community.
  • San Diego Jewish World - San Diego's Online Jewish Newspaper-November 14, 2007 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.jewishsightseeing.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Ashkenaz in later Hebrew tradition became identified with the peoples of Germany, and in particular to the area along the Rhine.^ Ashkenaz’ is the Hebrew word for Germany.
  • We Contain Multitudes: Ashkenazi Spaces and Multiethnic Identity | Racialicious - the intersection of race and pop culture 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.racialicious.com [Source type: General]

^ Ashkenaz is the medieval Hebrew name for the region which in modern times encompasses the country of Germany and German-speaking borderland areas.
  • Becoming Jewish - Judaism 101 10 February 2010 11:39 UTC www.becomingjewish.org [Source type: Original source]

^ So Israelite -- and later Jewish -- traditions became what they are today.
  • 45 Questions About the Jews - by William Dudley Pelley 11 September 2009 22:24 UTC www.come-and-hear.com [Source type: Original source]

.Ashkenaz and the Ashkenazi contrast to the land of Knaan, a geo-ethnological term denoting the Jewish populations living east of the Elbe river as opposed to the Ashkenazi Jews living to the West of it, and the Sephardic Jews of Iberian Peninsula.^ Jewish population) Jews and Judaism .

^ Zionist propaganda , Ashkenazi Jews & Sephardic Jews .
  • The law of God according to the Hebrews with excerpts from Psalms and Proverbs 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.unique-design.net [Source type: Original source]

^ How do Sephardic Jews differ from Ashkenazic Jews?
  • 45 Questions About the Jews - by William Dudley Pelley 11 September 2009 22:24 UTC www.come-and-hear.com [Source type: Original source]

[26]
The autonym was usually Yidn, however.

Medieval references

.In the first half of the 11th century, Hai Gaon refers to questions that had been addressed to him from Ashkenaz, by which he undoubtedly means Germany.^ This was, in fact, the first question she directed at him.
  • Ethnic Ashkenazim Against Zionist Israel: March 2008 11 September 2009 2:44 UTC eaazi.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ She then began to question the rigid Southern conventions where girls wore "scratchy organdy dresses" and white children addressed black adults by their first names.
  • History News Network 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC hnn.us [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Reply Pete “The Jewish Question” was widely discussed and referred to as such in the 19th century.

.Rashi in the latter half of the 11th century refers to both the language of Ashkenaz[27] and the country of Ashkenaz.^ Details on the activities of a kolelut are available for Aleppo, beginning with the second half of the seventeenth century; for Jerusalem, since the latter years of the seventeenth century; for Safed, in the eighteenth century.

^ In 1500, the number of Jews in the country is estimated to have been only 50,000 souls; a century and a half later, it had risen to half a million.
  • Jews, Jewish, The Jewish People - The Peace FAQ 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.peacefaq.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Rashi, whose 11th century commentary is traditionally printed near the spine on every page of Talmud, tended a vineyard in France.
  • The high intelligence of Jews. 10 February 2010 11:39 UTC home.comcast.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[28] .During the 12th century, the word appears quite frequently.^ David Alroy was the false Messiah during the Khazar Zionist movement of the 12th century.
  • The Jews' Society 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.tribwatch.com [Source type: Original source]

^ As conditions became more oppressive during the 12th and 13th centuries , Jews again looked to an outside culture for relief.
  • Sephardi Jews - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC locke.citizendium.org:8080 [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • What is Sephardic Jews? 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The word itself derives from "Plesheth", a name that appears frequently in the Bible and has come into English as "Philistine".
  • Debunking the 'Fake Jew' AKA The 'Khazarian Jew' Myth., page 1 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.abovetopsecret.com [Source type: Original source]

.In the Mahzor Vitry, the kingdom of Ashkenaz is referred to chiefly in regard to the ritual of the synagogue there, but occasionally also with regard to certain other observances.^ On the other hand there may also be found certain fields were the few really honest practitioners are nearly all Jewish.
  • Queries about Judah and the Jews 10 February 2010 11:39 UTC www.britam.org [Source type: Original source]

^ According to Weinreich , the Ashkenazic community began in what is now Lorraine, France(referred to as Loter ) and absorbed successive waves of Jews from other parts of France and Italy.

^ Deuteronomy 29 tells us that there were certain conditions by which individuals and even entire tribes of Israel might be cut off, or pruned from the Kingdom Tree.

[29]
.In the literature of the 13th century, references to the land and the language of Ashkenaz often occur.^ Sometime during the 13th century, the Khazars were driven from their land .
  • Bernstein 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.holywar.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Sometime during the 13th century, the Khazars were driven from their land and they migrated westward with most of them settling in Poland and Russia.
  • The Life of an American Jew in Racist-Marxist Israel 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.antichristconspiracy.com [Source type: Original source]
  • The Life of an American Jew in Racist Marxist Israel 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.the7thfire.com [Source type: Original source]
  • The Truth Seeker - The Life of an American Jew in Racist Marxist Israel Part I 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.thetruthseeker.co.uk [Source type: Original source]
  • Lessorjew 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.samliquidation.com [Source type: Original source]
  • The law of God according to the Hebrews with excerpts from Psalms and Proverbs 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.unique-design.net [Source type: Original source]
  • Syriana: Newly Announced Israel-Syria Peace Talks Run Against Grain of Washington's Anti-Engagement Policy | Mother Jones 10 February 2010 11:39 UTC motherjones.com [Source type: Original source]
  • The Kick Them All Out Project - My Farewell to Israel, Thorn of the Middle East - Part I 10 February 2010 11:39 UTC www.kickthemallout.com [Source type: Original source]
  • E-Book  The Life of an American Jew in Racist Marxist Israel by Jack Bernstein 10 February 2010 11:39 UTC www.biblestudysite.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Thus the term Turk, in the sense in which it was used by mediaeval writers — and often also by modern ethnologists — refers primarily to language and not to race.
  • "The Thirteenth Tribe" by Arthur Koestler. 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.erichufschmid.net [Source type: Original source]

See especially Solomon ben Aderet's Responsa (vol. i., No. 395); the Responsa of Asher ben Jehiel (pp. 4, 6); his Halakot (Berakot i. 12, ed. .Wilna, p. 10); the work of his son Jacob ben Asher, Tur Orach Chayim (chapter 59); the Responsa of Isaac ben Sheshet (numbers 193, 268, 270).^ Jacob fathered 12 sons: Reuben, Simeon, Levi, Judah, Zebulun, Issachar, Dan, Gad, Asher, Naphtali, Joseph and Benjamin.
  • Becoming Jewish - Judaism 101 10 February 2010 11:39 UTC www.becomingjewish.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The jewish religion began with Jacob, the son of Isaac, and the grandson of Abraham.
  • Mort Zuckerman: The Cruel Dilemma Facing the Jews of Israel 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.huffingtonpost.com [Source type: General]

.In the Midrash compilation Genesis Rabbah, Rabbi Berechiah mentions Ashkenaz, Riphath, and Togarmah as German tribes or as German lands.^ The name Ashkenaz in the Bible (Genesis 10:3) was identified in the Middle Ages with Germany, hence Ashkenazim, 'Germans'.
  • Adherents.com 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.adherents.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The name Ashkenazim, designating the German Jews comes from Genesis 10:2, The sons of Gomer, Ashkenaz, Riphath and Togarmah....

It may correspond to a Greek word that may have existed in the Greek dialect of the Palestinian Jews, or the text is corrupted from "Germanica." This view of Berechiah is based on the Talmud (Yoma 10a; Jerusalem Talmud Megillah 71b), where Gomer, the father of Ashkenaz, is translated by Germamia, which evidently stands for Germany, and which was suggested by the similarity of the sound.
.In later times the word Ashkenaz is used to designate southern and Western Germany, the ritual of which sections differs somewhat from that of Eastern Germany and Poland.^ Ashkenaz’ is the Hebrew word for Germany.
  • We Contain Multitudes: Ashkenazi Spaces and Multiethnic Identity | Racialicious - the intersection of race and pop culture 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.racialicious.com [Source type: General]

^ The word 'Ashkenasim' comes from the Hebrew word for Germany, and describes the Jews who lived in France and Germany, and who fled from persecution to Poland, Russia and parts of central Europe.
  • Adherents.com 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.adherents.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The first is that they derive in principle from the ancient Israelite population, part of which migrated in Greek, Roman and later times to Eastern France and Western Germany, and early in this millennium to Poland and other areas.
  • Sharing the Land of Canaan - Chapter 3 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC qumsiyeh.org [Source type: Academic]

.Thus the prayer-book of Isaiah Horowitz, and many others, give the piyyutim according to the Minhag of Ashkenaz and Poland.^ The core of festival and Shabbat prayer services is the public reading of the Torah , along with connected readings from the other books of the Tanakh , called Haftarah .
  • Judaism - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ According to Weinreich , the Ashkenazic community began in what is now Lorraine, France(referred to as Loter ) and absorbed successive waves of Jews from other parts of France and Italy.

^ References in the books of Isaiah , Jeremiah , Ezekiel , I Kings , and Jonah to the country of Tarshish , which is thought by many to have been located in southern Spain.
  • Sephardi Jews - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC locke.citizendium.org:8080 [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.According to 16th century mystic Rabbi Elijah of Chelm, Ashkenazi Jews lived in Jerusalem during the 11th century.^ The latter group, which inhabited northern and eastern Europe since the 9th century C.E., accounts for 90% of the 5.7 million Jews living in the United States today.
  • Comprehensive Arrayed Primer Extension Array for the Detection of 59 Sequence Variants in 15 Conditions Prevalent Among the (Ashkenazi) Jewish Population -- Schrijver et al. 9 (2): 228 -- Journal of Molecular Diagnostics 10 February 2010 11:39 UTC jmd.amjpathol.org [Source type: Academic]

^ In medieval Europe, as of the eleventh century, in England, France, Spain, Portugal, and Germany, one encounters the positions of "chief rabbi" and "head of the Jews."

^ Would jews be so successful if they had lived alone in their own country for centuries without US aid?
  • FuturePundit: On The Evolution Of Ashkenazi Jewish Intelligence 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.futurepundit.com [Source type: Original source]

.The story is told that a German-speaking Palestinian Jew saved the life of a young German man surnamed Dolberger.^ But the young man was a Mussulman, and they give the Khacanship only to Jews.
  • "The Thirteenth Tribe" by Arthur Koestler. 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.erichufschmid.net [Source type: Original source]

^ If the Jews of Eastern Europe did not come from Germany, why did they speak Yiddish, which is a Germanic language?
  • Are Jews White? 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC majorityrights.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Kyrgyzstan told US to close military base Culling Palestinians for Organ-Harvesting [Culture of Life] Rose Friedman Is Finally Dead Bu...
  • Ethnic Ashkenazim Against Zionist Israel: March 2008 11 September 2009 2:44 UTC eaazi.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Ethnic Ashkenazim Against Zionist Israel: February 2008 11 September 2009 2:44 UTC eaazi.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.So when the knights of the First Crusade came to siege Jerusalem, one of Dolberger’s family members who was among them rescued Jews in Palestine and carried them back to Worms to repay the favor.^ The Jews have been irrationally hated since the first one returned to Palestine.
  • Are Illiberal Jews Anti-Semitic? [by Melissa] 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC proteinwisdom.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He is a righteous prophet who has never sinned, nor even been tempted, in his entire life; indeed, he has brought hundreds of thousands of Jews and gentiles back to the Law.
  • Noahide Law: Orders the Decapitation of Christians? « LisaInTX's Blog 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC lisaintx.wordpress.com [Source type: Original source]

^ HS, I'm sure you know that Benjamin Cardozo's ancestors were Sephardic Jews who came to North America in the mid-18th century.
  • Half Sigma: Not the first Hispanic Justice 10 February 2010 11:39 UTC www.halfsigma.com [Source type: Original source]

[30] .Further evidence of German communities in the holy city comes in the form of halakhic questions sent from Germany to Jerusalem during the second half of the eleventh century.^ In medieval Europe, as of the eleventh century, in England, France, Spain, Portugal, and Germany, one encounters the positions of "chief rabbi" and "head of the Jews."

^ Many Ashkenazi Jews later migrated, largely eastward, forming communities in non German-speaking areas, including Hungary, Poland, Lithuania, Russia, Eastern Europe, and elsewhere between the 10th and 19th centuries.
  • Becoming Jewish - Judaism 101 10 February 2010 11:39 UTC www.becomingjewish.org [Source type: Original source]

^ It was in 1938, after the hostilities in Shanghai's immediate vicinity had been concluded and the city was living through its worst economic crisis, that an event of unprecedented importance for the Shanghai Jewish Community occurred: the coming of the German and Austrian Jewish refugees.
  • Jews Of China Communities-Shanghai-Chronology-The chronology of the Jews of Shanghai from 1832 to the present day by Joseph Cohen 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.jewsofchina.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[31]

Customs, laws and traditions

.The Halakhic practices of Ashkenazi Jews may differ from those of Sephardi Jews, particularly in matters of custom.^ Those not specific to Ashkenazi may well be Ashkenazi.
  • Y - DNA Results (to date) for the TURK Family of Surnames 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.melungeons.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Jews may practice .
  • Bernstein 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.holywar.org [Source type: Original source]

^ They possessed entirely different backgrounds, professions and outlook on life than those of their Sephardi brethren.
  • Jews Of China Communities-Shanghai-Chronology-The chronology of the Jews of Shanghai from 1832 to the present day by Joseph Cohen 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.jewsofchina.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Differences are noted in the Shulkhan Arukh itself, in the gloss of Moses Isserles. Well known differences in practice include:
.
  • Observance of Pesach (Passover): Ashkenazi Jews traditionally refrain from eating legumes, grain, millet, and rice (quinoa, however, has become accepted as foodgrain in the North American communities), whereas Sephardi Jews typically do not prohibit these foods.
  • Ashkenazi Jews freely mix and eat fish and milk products; some Sephardic Jews refrain from doing so.
  • Ashkenazim are more permissive toward the usage of wigs as a hair covering for married and widowed women.
  • In the case of kashrut for meat, conversely, Sephardi Jews have stricter requirements—this level is commonly referred to as Beth Yosef.^ For an Ashkenazi Jew to marry a Sephardic Jew is frowned upon in Israel by the ruling Ashkenazim.
    • The Life of an American Jew in Racist Marxist Israel 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.the7thfire.com [Source type: Original source]
    • The Kick Them All Out Project - My Farewell to Israel, Thorn of the Middle East - Part I 10 February 2010 11:39 UTC www.kickthemallout.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ However the Ashkenazi are the dominant jews in Israel.
    • The Sunic Journal: Interview with Alain de Benoist, Part 2 of 2 : Voice of Reason Broadcast Network 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC reasonradionetwork.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Zionist propaganda , Ashkenazi Jews & Sephardic Jews .
    • The law of God according to the Hebrews with excerpts from Psalms and Proverbs 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.unique-design.net [Source type: Original source]

    .Meat products which are acceptable to Ashkenazi Jews as kosher may therefore be rejected by Sephardi Jews.^ I wonder like many others why Ashkenazi Jews are offered jobs sooner than those that are the blood Jews - the Sephardi, the Arab jews.
    • FARK.com: (4420378) US: "Stop building in Jerusalem." Israel:"I have to admire the residents of Iroquois territory for assuming that they have a right to determine where Jews should live in Jerusalem." 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.fark.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Therefore, the only historical origin for the term "Ashkenazi" that makes any sense is that it indicates a "Parthian" origin for the Ashkenazi Jews.
    • Jews are Judah/Collins 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC kvryland.tripod.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ As you know the Q haplogroup is not included in the ancient israelite DNA Therefore the evidence of ashkenazi and sephardic jews being related is inconclusive.
    • Jewish Genes 10 February 2010 11:39 UTC www.aish.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Notwithstanding stricter requirements for the actual slaughter, Sephardi Jews permit the rear portions of an animal after proper Halakhic removal of the sciatic nerve, while many Ashkenazi Jews do not.^ The Sephardic Jews and that portion of Ashkenazi Jews who are for .
    • Bernstein 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.holywar.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ However, many Ashkenazi Jews lack information about their family history because of: small family size, the Holocaust, or the historical taboo surrounding discussion of cancer.
    • Benefits and Costs of Screening Ashkenazi Jewish Women for BRCA1 and BRCA2 -- Grann et al. 17 (2): 494 -- Journal of Clinical Oncology 10 February 2010 11:39 UTC jco.ascopubs.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ This picture is also far more diverse than what many genetic studies on Ashkenazi Jews would suggest.
    • A Reassessment of the Jewish DNA Evidence 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC jogg.info [Source type: Academic]

    .This is not because of different interpretations of the law; rather, slaughterhouses could not find adequate skills for correct removal of the sciatic nerve and found it more economical to separate the hindquarters and sell them as non-kosher meat.
  • Ashkenazi Jews frequently name newborn children after deceased family members, but not after living relatives.^ Could it be the Ashkenazi Jews are the people to whom .
    • Bernstein 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.holywar.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Ashkenazi Jew division is adequate proof.
    • Bernstein 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.holywar.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Taken together our findings strongly suggest that the type III mutation occurred in an Ashkenazi Jewish individual who lived at a time after the divergence of Ashkenazi Jews from their original Middle Eastern ancestors (Fig 4 ).
    • Blood -- The Two Common Mutations Causing Factor XI Deficiency in Jews Stem From Dist... 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC bloodjournal.hematologylibrary.org [Source type: Academic]

    .Sephardi Jews, on the other hand, often name their children after the children's grandparents, even if those grandparents are still living (See Sephardi Names).^ In contrast to Ashkenazic Jews, who do not name newborn children after living relatives, Sephardic Jews often name their children after the children's grandparents, even if they are still alive.
    • What is Sephardic Jews? 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Even those Jews who have .
    • Bernstein 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.holywar.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Unlike Ashkenazic Jews, Sephardic Jews often name their children after the children's grandparents, even if they are still alive.
    • Sephardi Jews - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC locke.citizendium.org:8080 [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .A notable exception to this generally reliable rule is among Dutch Jews, where Ashkenazim for centuries used the naming conventions otherwise attributed exclusively to Sephardim (See Chuts).
  • Ashkenazi tefillin bear some differences from Sephardic tefillin.^ For an Ashkenazi Jew to marry a Sephardic Jew is frowned upon in Israel by the ruling Ashkenazim.
    • The Life of an American Jew in Racist Marxist Israel 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.the7thfire.com [Source type: Original source]
    • The American Spectator : Barney Frank Lies About ACORN 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC spectator.org [Source type: Original source]
    • The Kick Them All Out Project - My Farewell to Israel, Thorn of the Middle East - Part I 10 February 2010 11:39 UTC www.kickthemallout.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ An exception to the distinct Ashkenazi and Sephardi naming traditions is found among Dutch Jews , where Ashkenazim followed the tradition attributed to Sephardim.
    • Sephardi Jews - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC locke.citizendium.org:8080 [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ A notable exception to the distinct Ashkenazi and Sephardi naming traditions is found among Dutch Jews , where Ashkenazim have for centuries followed the tradition otherwise attributed to Sephardim.
    • What is Sephardic Jews? 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    In the traditional Ashkenazic rite, the tefillin are wound towards the body, not away from it. .Ashkenazim traditionally don tefillin while standing, whereas other Jews generally do so while sitting down.
  • Ashkenazic traditional pronunciations of Hebrew differ from those of other groups.^ The two groups have different liturgy, religious customs and Hebrew pronunciations.

    ^ Ashkenazi Jews , also known as Ashkenazic Jews or Ashkenazim (Standard Hebrew: sing.
    • What is Sephardic Jews? 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Firstly, the Ashkenazim and Jews in general are not a race .
    • The Genetic Origin of Ashkenazi Genius || kuro5hin.org 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.kuro5hin.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .The most prominent consonantal difference from Sephardic and Mizrahic Hebrew dialects is the pronunciation of the Hebrew letter tav in certain Hebrew words (historically, in postvocalic undoubled context) as an /s/ and not a /t/ or /θ/ sound.^ He also naturally felt that the Sephardic pronunciation of Hebrew was the correct one.

    ^ Adler reportedly had a Sephardic scholar living in his house for over a year in order to teach him the "proper" pronunciations of Hebrew see here .

    ^ However, it does not spell out real Hebrew words, and is mixed with many non-Hebrew letters and symbols.
    • Are Illiberal Jews Anti-Semitic? [by Melissa] 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC proteinwisdom.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .
  • The prayer shawl, or tallit (or tallis in Ashkenazi Hebrew), is worn by the majority of Ashkenazi men after marriage, but western European Ashkenazi men wear it from Bar Mitzvah.^ The fact that some of these mtDNA groups are rare to absent in western Ashkenazi populations argues in favor of a post-Diaspora European origin.
    • A Reassessment of the Jewish DNA Evidence 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC jogg.info [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Image:YemeniJew1914.jpg A Yemenite Jew at morning prayers, wearing a kippah skullcap, prayer shawl and tefillin .
    • Judaism - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The word Ashkenazi was first used in medieval rabbinical literature to define western European Jews.
    • A Reassessment of the Jewish DNA Evidence 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC jogg.info [Source type: Academic]

    In Sephardi or Mizrahi Judaism, the prayer shawl is commonly worn from early childhood.[32]

Relationship with other Jews

.The term Ashkenazi also refers to the nusach Ashkenaz (Hebrew, "liturgical tradition", or rite) used by Ashkenazi Jews in their Siddur (prayer book).^ Ashkenazi Jews , also known as Ashkenazic Jews or Ashkenazim (Standard Hebrew: sing.
  • What is Sephardic Jews? 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ See also: Jewish ethnic divisions The term Sephardi can also describe the nusach ( Hebrew language , "liturgical tradition") used by Sephardi Jews in their Siddur (prayer book).
  • What is Sephardic Jews? 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The term Mizrachi is used in Israel in the language of politics, media and some social scientists for Jews from the Arab world and adjacent, primarily Muslim-majority countries.
  • Becoming Jewish - Judaism 101 10 February 2010 11:39 UTC www.becomingjewish.org [Source type: Original source]

.A nusach is defined by a liturgical tradition's choice of prayers, order of prayers, text of prayers and melodies used in the singing of prayers.^ Differences can include the texts of prayers, the frequency of prayer, the number of prayers recited at various religious events, and whether prayers are recited in the traditional liturgical languages or the vernacular.
  • Judaism - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ His point was that the prayer "reflects the faith of the church, and furthermore Jews have prayers in their liturgical texts that we Catholics don't like … one must respect differences."
  • Ethnic Ashkenazim Against Zionist Israel: March 2008 11 September 2009 2:44 UTC eaazi.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Two other major forms of nusach among Ashkenazic Jews are Nusach Sphard (not to be confused with Sephardi), which is the same as the general Polish (Hasidic) Nusach; and Nusach Chabad, otherwise known as Lubavitch Chasidic, Nusach Arizal or Nusach ha'Ari.^ The name ‘Nazi’ comes from a tribe of Jews known as the “the Jews of Ashkenaz”), are the Jews descended from the medieval Jewish communities along the Rhine in Germany from Alsace in the south to the Rhineland in the north.
  • Criticism That Cuts Too Close To The Bone 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Northern and Southern Europeans fell into two clearly separable genetic cohorts, and although the Ashkenazic Jews had more in common with the Southern Europeans, they formed a recognizable, relatively homogenous group of their own.
  • Jewish Genetics, Part 1: Jewish Populations (Ashkenazim, Sephardim, Mizrahim, Yemenite, Ethiopian) DNA 11 September 2009 2:44 UTC www.khazaria.com [Source type: Academic]

^ All of these five extremely improbable, multiple mutation effects would have had to have happened within one or two generations in the same small populations.
  • DNA and the Book of Mormon 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.fairlds.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This phrase is often used in contrast with Sephardi Jews, also called Sephardim, who are descendants of Jews from Spain and Portugal.^ The Sephardi Jews of Iran often have some very prominent genetic problems due to mixing within a limited population, both on the physical and molecular levels.

^ In medieval Europe, as of the eleventh century, in England, France, Spain, Portugal, and Germany, one encounters the positions of "chief rabbi" and "head of the Jews."

^ The original Ashkenazi population probably descends from Italian Jews who migrated north in the early Middle Ages.
  • The high intelligence of Jews. 10 February 2010 11:39 UTC home.comcast.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.There are some differences in how the two groups pronounce certain Hebrew letters and in points of ritual.^ The two groups have different liturgy, religious customs and Hebrew pronunciations.

^ Also there are different Jewish religious groups.
  • Why Jews Fear Putin As Prime Minister | Real Zionist News 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.realzionistnews.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Although most points lie along the 22.5° line in the graph, there are some outliers.
  • BioMed Central | Full text | Analysis of genetic variation in Ashkenazi Jews by high density SNP genotyping 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.biomedcentral.com [Source type: Academic]

Several famous people have Ashkenazi as a surname, such as Vladimir Ashkenazy. .Ironically, most people with this surname hail from within Sephardic communities, particularly from the Syrian Jewish community.^ So far as I am aware, conversionary couples and their children do not have a leadership role within the Jewish community.

^ 'The authors are correct in saying the historical origins of most Jewish communities are unknown,' Dr. [Shaye] Cohen [of Harvard University] said.
  • Jewish Genetics, Part 1: Jewish Populations (Ashkenazim, Sephardim, Mizrahim, Yemenite, Ethiopian) DNA 11 September 2009 2:44 UTC www.khazaria.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In fact, the Levite results indicate that the Khazars became fully integrated into the Ashkenazi communities and came to play an important role within the Jewish priesthood.
  • A Reassessment of the Jewish DNA Evidence 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC jogg.info [Source type: Academic]

.The Sephardic carriers of the surname would have some Ashkenazi ancestors since the surname was adopted by families who were initially of Ashkenazic origins who move to Sephardi countries and joined those communities.^ Those in my family who are not in the U.S. are in Israel.
  • We Contain Multitudes: Ashkenazi Spaces and Multiethnic Identity | Racialicious - the intersection of race and pop culture 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.racialicious.com [Source type: General]

^ Professor Heller was among those who believed that Ashkenazi and Sephardic Jews have different origins.
  • Jewish Genetics, Part 3: Jewish Genetic Diseases (Mediterranean Fever, Tay-Sachs, pemphigus vulgaris, Mutations) 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.khazaria.com [Source type: Academic]

^ We may never know what percentages of ’semitic blood’ and of ‘turanic blood’ the Ashkenazis do carry, and the question is ill-founded since we shall never be able to genetically test vastly mixed populations that moved their settlement regions sometimes many times over.
  • Christians NOT Jews Are God’s Chosen People! | Real Zionist News 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.realjewnews.com [Source type: Original source]

.Ashkenazi would be formally adopted as the family surname having started off as a nickname imposed by their adopted communities.^ Maybe not, because the Zionists would start the real battle within and finish off each other, and this would solve their problem and ours.
  • Netanyahu To The West–Destroy Iran Before Israel Destroys You « The Ugly Truth 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC theuglytruth.wordpress.com [Source type: Original source]

^ A genetic study of intelligence would be much better off just finding a bunch of really smart people and start comparing genomes, regardless of ethnicity.
  • The Genetic Origin of Ashkenazi Genius || kuro5hin.org 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.kuro5hin.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ And their wives and families would support them in this (and still do, in traditional Jewish communities).
  • Mail 264 June 30 - July 6, 2003 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.jerrypournelle.com [Source type: Original source]

Some have shortened the name to Ash.
.The theory that the majority of Ashkenazi Jews are the descendants of the non-Semitic converted Khazars was advocated by various racial theorists and antisemitic sources in the late-19th and 20th centuries, especially following the publication of Arthur Koestler's The Thirteenth Tribe.^ Claims that Yemenite Jews are descended from Arabic tribes that converted to Judaism.
  • Jewish Genetics, Part 1: Jewish Populations (Ashkenazim, Sephardim, Mizrahim, Yemenite, Ethiopian) DNA 11 September 2009 2:44 UTC www.khazaria.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Typically African mtDNA variants in non-Ashkenazi Jews.
  • PLoS ONE: Counting the Founders: The Matrilineal Genetic Ancestry of the Jewish Diaspora 10 February 2010 11:39 UTC www.plosone.org [Source type: Academic]

^ It is NOT a theory that Ashkenazi Jews are converts, it is a well established fact.
  • Dissident Voice : Zionism: The Dead End of the Oppressor 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC dissidentvoice.org [Source type: Original source]

[33][34][35] .Despite recent genetic evidence to the contrary,[1] and a lack of any real mainstream scholarly support,[36] this belief is still popular among antisemites.^ Until I’m given real evidence that “the earth orbits the sun”, I can safely follow common sense and believe that the earth is still, and the sun travels from East to West everyday.
  • Dissident Voice : Zionism: The Dead End of the Oppressor 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC dissidentvoice.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The idea is not really new, but the evidence has gotten stronger with time, and I have recently found some intriguing supporting data..
  • Overclocking by Gregory Cochran 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.jerrypournelle.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Nicholas Wade also notes that Ashkenazic and Sephardic "Levites" demonstrate evidence of different, likely non-Jewish paternal origins, undermining the popular belief of paternal genetic continuity from ancient to modern Levites: .
  • DNA and the Book of Mormon 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.fairlds.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[37][38]

Medical genetics

.There are many references to Ashkenazi Jews in the literature of medical and population genetics.^ There are many Jews ( or were!

^ But there are Ashkenazi Jews in Spain as well.
  • THE AZORES 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.dartmouth.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The Sephardi Jews of Iran often have some very prominent genetic problems due to mixing within a limited population, both on the physical and molecular levels.

.Indeed, much awareness of "Ashkenazi Jews" as an ethnic group or category stems from the large number of genetic studies of disease, including many that are well reported in the media, that have been conducted among Jews.^ Studies on Jewish genetic diseases .
  • Jewish Genetics, Part 3: Jewish Genetic Diseases (Mediterranean Fever, Tay-Sachs, pemphigus vulgaris, Mutations) 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.khazaria.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The group in question are Ashkenazi Jews.
  • The high intelligence of Jews. 10 February 2010 11:39 UTC home.comcast.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ashkenazi Jews have the highest average IQ of any ethnic group.
  • Mail 264 June 30 - July 6, 2003 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.jerrypournelle.com [Source type: Original source]

Jewish populations have been studied more thoroughly than most other human populations, for a variety of reasons:
.
  • Geneticists are intrinsically interested in Jewish populations as a disproportionate percentage of genetics researchers are Jewish.^ "A genetic profile of contemporary Jewish populations."
    • Jewish Genetics, Part 1: Jewish Populations (Ashkenazim, Sephardim, Mizrahim, Yemenite, Ethiopian) DNA 11 September 2009 2:44 UTC www.khazaria.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ The new report, published in the current issue of the American Journal of Human Genetics, was prepared by population geneticists in Israel, the United States and England...
    • DNA and the Book of Mormon 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.fairlds.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ With the Cohanim study, researchers found a clear genetic connection between the Jewish priests and a shared Israelite ancestor from the past.
    • The “mystery” of Ashkenazic origins 10 February 2010 11:39 UTC majorityrights.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Israel in particular has become an international center of such research.
  • Jewish populations, and particularly the large Ashkenazi Jewish population, are ideal for such research studies, because they exhibit a high degree of endogamy, yet they are sizable.
  • Jewish populations are overwhelmingly urban, and are concentrated near biomedical centers where such research has been carried out.^ The researchers are continuing and expanding their studies particularly of the Ashkenazi community.
    • Jewish Genes 10 February 2010 11:39 UTC www.aish.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Ashkenazi population in particular.
    • The Matrilineal Ancestry of Ashkenazi Jewry: Portrait of a Recent Founder Event 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Israel and sharply divides the Jewish population.
    • Bernstein 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.holywar.org [Source type: Original source]

    Such research is especially easy to carry out in Israel, where cradle-to-grave medical insurance is available, together with universal screening for genetic disease.
  • Jewish communities are comparatively well informed about genetics research, and have been supportive of community efforts to study and prevent genetic diseases.
  • Participation of Jewish scientists and support from the Jewish community alleviates ethical concerns that sometimes hinder such genetic studies in other ethnic groups.
.The result is a form of ascertainment bias.^ Differences in penetrance estimates in prior studies may have been a result of bias attributable to ascertainment.
  • The Lifetime Risks of Breast Cancer in Ashkenazi Jewish Carriers of BRCA1 and BRCA2 Mutations — Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention 10 February 2010 11:39 UTC cebp.aacrjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

.This has sometimes created an impression that Jews are more susceptible to genetic disease than other populations.^ Were Jews persecuted in Europe any more than the 50% or so of the population that were serfs?
  • Steve Sailer's iSteve Blog: David Brooks: The Tel Aviv Cluster 10 February 2010 11:39 UTC isteve.blogspot.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Ashkenazic Jews are still closer, genetically, to Sephardic and Kurdish Jews than to any other population....
  • Jewish Genetics, Part 1: Jewish Populations (Ashkenazim, Sephardim, Mizrahim, Yemenite, Ethiopian) DNA 11 September 2009 2:44 UTC www.khazaria.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The Sephardi Jews of Iran often have some very prominent genetic problems due to mixing within a limited population, both on the physical and molecular levels.

[39]
.A study by the Albert Einstein College of Medicine examines a particular genetic trait that increases the lifespan of the Ashkenazi population.^ Genetic Diseases that Increase IQ The Ashkenazi have certain genetic diseases at an anomalous rate.
  • The Genetic Origin of Ashkenazi Genius || kuro5hin.org 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.kuro5hin.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Slatkin M: A population-genetic test of founder effects and implication for Ashkenazi Jewish diseases.
  • BioMed Central | Full text | Analysis of genetic variation in Ashkenazi Jews by high density SNP genotyping 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.biomedcentral.com [Source type: Academic]

^ To prove their inheritance all Ashkenazi can have there DNA recorded and examined as proof of their genetic inheritance.
  • The law of God according to the Hebrews with excerpts from Psalms and Proverbs 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.unique-design.net [Source type: Original source]

The study focuses on telomerase, the enzyme responsible for maintaining telomeres at the ends of chromosomes during cell division.[40][41]
.Genetic counseling and genetic testing are recommended for couples where both partners are of Ashkenazi ancestry.^ Genetic counseling is generally recommended before and after a genetic test.
  • BRCA1 and BRCA2: Cancer Risk and Genetic Testi - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 11:39 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Among the 2 couples in whom both partners were cystic fibrosis carriers, amniocentesis led to the diagnosis of an affected fetus in 1 case, whereas in the other, a homozygous normal fetus was diagnosed.
  • Arch Intern Med -- Carrier Screening for Cystic Fibrosis, Gaucher Disease, and Tay-Sachs Disease in the Ashkenazi Jewish Population: The First 1000 Cases at New York University Medical Center, New York, NY, April 13, 1998, Kronn et al. 158 (7): 777 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC archinte.ama-assn.org [Source type: Academic]

^ If both members of a couple were identified as carriers, then they were invited for genetic counseling.
  • Arch Intern Med -- Carrier Screening for Cystic Fibrosis, Gaucher Disease, and Tay-Sachs Disease in the Ashkenazi Jewish Population: The First 1000 Cases at New York University Medical Center, New York, NY, April 13, 1998, Kronn et al. 158 (7): 777 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC archinte.ama-assn.org [Source type: Academic]

.Some organizations, most notably Dor Yeshorim, organize screening programs to prevent homozygosity for the genes that cause these diseases.^ When the genes and common mutations for familial dysautonomia and mucolipidosis IV are identified, these conditions are likely to be candidates for carrier screening.
  • Arch Intern Med -- Carrier Screening for Cystic Fibrosis, Gaucher Disease, and Tay-Sachs Disease in the Ashkenazi Jewish Population: The First 1000 Cases at New York University Medical Center, New York, NY, April 13, 1998, Kronn et al. 158 (7): 777 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC archinte.ama-assn.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Dr Cochran thinks they do exist, and that they are exactly the genes that cause the inherited diseases which afflict Ashkenazi society.
  • FuturePundit: On The Evolution Of Ashkenazi Jewish Intelligence 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.futurepundit.com [Source type: Original source]
  • The high intelligence of Jews. 10 February 2010 11:39 UTC home.comcast.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Constant mating with even distant relatives reduces genetic diversity, and some disease genes will thus, randomly, become more common.
  • FuturePundit: On The Evolution Of Ashkenazi Jewish Intelligence 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.futurepundit.com [Source type: Original source]
  • The high intelligence of Jews. 10 February 2010 11:39 UTC home.comcast.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.E. L. Abel's book Jewish Genetic Disorders: A Layman's Guide (McFarland, 2008: ISBN 0-7864-4087-2) is a comprehensive reference text on the topic; also see The Chicago Center for Jewish Genetic Disorders for more information.^ Refer to this link for more information...
  • Half Sigma: Jews are white 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.halfsigma.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Likewise, Entines book is about the distinctiveness of the Jewish gene pool, but I rather doubt that he uses a word like pollution to describe genetic admixture.

^ Because genetic testing can reveal information about more than one family member, the emotions caused by test results can create tension within families.
  • BRCA1 and BRCA2: Cancer Risk and Genetic Testi - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 11:39 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

Modern history

In an essay on Sephardi Jewry, Daniel Elazar at the Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs[5] summarized the demographic history of Ashkenazi Jews in the last thousand years, noting that at the end of the 11th century, 97% of world Jewry was Sephardic and 3% Ashkenazi; in the mid-17th century, "Sephardim still outnumbered Ashkenazim three to two", but by the end of the 18th century, "Ashkenazim outnumbered Sephardim three to two, the result of improved living conditions in Christian Europe versus the Ottoman Muslim world."[5] By 1931, Ashkenazi Jews accounted for nearly 92% of world Jewry.[5]
.Ashkenazi Jews developed the Hasidic movement as well as major Jewish academic centers across Poland, Russia, and Belarus in the generations after emigration from the west.^ But there are Ashkenazi Jews in Spain as well.
  • THE AZORES 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.dartmouth.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Second, since most European countries prohibited Jews from owning land, the Jewish population of Europe was largely urban (exceptions include agrarian settlements in Poland and in the Pale of Settlement in Russia).
  • The Genetic Origin of Ashkenazi Genius || kuro5hin.org 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.kuro5hin.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For this study, probands were classified as Ashkenazi Jewish when both parents were descended from eastern European ancestors (Germany, Czechoslovakia, Poland, Romania, Hungary, Ukraine, Russia or the Baltic States).
  • Mutations in the sulonylurea receptor gene are associated with familial hyperinsulinism in Ashkenazi Jews -- Nestorowicz et al. 5 (11): 1813 -- Human Molecular Genetics 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC hmg.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

.After two centuries of comparative tolerance in the new nations, massive westward emigration occurred in the 1800s and 1900s in response to pogroms in the east and the economic opportunities offered in other parts of the world.^ High levels of intermarriage do not occur in Israel or in other parts of the world.

^ The AJ founder mutations, owing to their high prevalence compared to other populations, offered an opportunity to test whether they might have been identified through a case-control association study of the kind suggested as the new gene discovery strategy in the post-HapMap era.
  • BioMed Central | Full text | The BRCA1 Ashkenazi founder mutations occur on common haplotypes and are not highly correlated with anonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms likely to be used in genome-wide case-control association studies 10 February 2010 11:39 UTC www.biomedcentral.com [Source type: Academic]

^ If a member of a tribe decided to go to another part of the world and establish his own tribe or nation, he could not legally claim to be the legitimate representative of the tribe from which he came.

Ashkenazi Jews have made up the majority of the American Jewish community since 1750.[24]
.Ashkenazi cultural growth led to the Haskalah or Jewish Enlightenment, and the development of Zionism in modern Europe.^ The Ashkenazi Jews developed a distinct culture and liturgy; influenced, to varying degrees, by interaction with surrounding peoples of Central and Eastern Europe.
  • Becoming Jewish - Judaism 101 10 February 2010 11:39 UTC www.becomingjewish.org [Source type: Original source]

^ It would be foolish to deny it.” The canonical work of Zionism, Herzl’s “The Jewish State” was subtitled: “A modern solution to the Jewish question.” .

^ The unique historical demography of the Ashkenazi Jewish population led us to hypothesize that a relatively common cancer-associated CHEK2 allele might exist in this community.
  • Functional and genomic approaches reveal an ancient CHEK2 allele associated with breast cancer in the Ashkenazi Jewish population -- Shaag et al. 14 (4): 555 -- Human Molecular Genetics 10 February 2010 11:39 UTC hmg.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

The Holocaust

.Of the estimated 8.8 million Jews living in Europe at the beginning of World War II, the majority of whom were Ashkenazi, about 6 million — more than two-thirds — were systematically murdered in the Holocaust.^ Then came World War II and I lost sight and trace of the Jews.
  • Jews in Sri Lanka 10 February 2010 11:39 UTC chabadsrilanka.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ More than half of world chess champions are Ashkenazi.
  • The Genetic Origin of Ashkenazi Genius || kuro5hin.org 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.kuro5hin.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Could it be the Ashkenazi Jews are the people to whom .
  • Bernstein 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.holywar.org [Source type: Original source]

.These included 3 million of 3.3 million Polish Jews (91%); 900,000 of 1.5 million in Ukraine (60%); and 50–90% of the Jews of other Slavic nations, Germany, France, Hungary, and the Baltic states.^ For this study, probands were classified as Ashkenazi Jewish when both parents were descended from eastern European ancestors (Germany, Czechoslovakia, Poland, Romania, Hungary, Ukraine, Russia or the Baltic States).
  • Mutations in the sulonylurea receptor gene are associated with familial hyperinsulinism in Ashkenazi Jews -- Nestorowicz et al. 5 (11): 1813 -- Human Molecular Genetics 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC hmg.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ In medieval Europe, as of the eleventh century, in England, France, Spain, Portugal, and Germany, one encounters the positions of "chief rabbi" and "head of the Jews."

^ The word 'Ashkenasim' comes from the Hebrew word for Germany, and describes the Jews who lived in France and Germany, and who fled from persecution to Poland, Russia and parts of central Europe.
  • Adherents.com 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.adherents.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Sephardi communities suffered similar depletions in a few countries, including Greece, the Netherlands and the former Yugoslavia.^ This WAR CREATING country which has been portrayed as "the only barrier to communism in the Mideast" sells its war products to anyone who has the money -- including repressive dictatorships -- FASCIST or COMMUNIST. .

^ This war-creating country which has been portrayed as 'the only barrier to communism in the Mideast' sell its war products to anyone who has the money -- including repressive dictatorships -- FASCIST or COMMUNIST .
  • The Truth Seeker - The Life of an American Jew in Racist Marxist Israel Part II 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.thetruthseeker.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ Steve(Codex) : Croatia is a Slavic country, part of the Balkan peninsula, and a member of the former Yugoslavia...
  • The Sunic Journal: Interview with Alain de Benoist, Part 2 of 2 : Voice of Reason Broadcast Network 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC reasonradionetwork.com [Source type: Original source]

[42] .As the large majority of the victims were Ashkenazi Jews, their percentage dropped from nearly 92% of world Jewry in 1931 to nearly 80% of world Jewry today.^ The Ashkenazi Jews comprise 90% of the Jews in the world .
  • The law of God according to the Hebrews with excerpts from Psalms and Proverbs 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.unique-design.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Aren`t 80% of Jews Ashkenazis?
  • Jewish rightist: 'Finish Hitler's work, kill Ashkenazi Jews' - Haaretz - Israel News 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.haaretz.com [Source type: General]

^ The term Mizrachi is used in Israel in the language of politics, media and some social scientists for Jews from the Arab world and adjacent, primarily Muslim-majority countries.
  • Becoming Jewish - Judaism 101 10 February 2010 11:39 UTC www.becomingjewish.org [Source type: Original source]

[5] .Many of the surviving Ashkenazi Jews emigrated to countries such as Israel, Canada, Argentina, Australia, and the United States after the war.^ As a result of their emigration from Europe, Ashkenazim also represent the overwhelming majority of Jews in the New World continents, in countries such as the United States, Canada, Argentina, Australia, and Brazil.
  • Jews - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ United States, was arming Israel.
  • Bernstein 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.holywar.org [Source type: Original source]

^ However the Ashkenazi are the dominant jews in Israel.
  • The Sunic Journal: Interview with Alain de Benoist, Part 2 of 2 : Voice of Reason Broadcast Network 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC reasonradionetwork.com [Source type: Original source]

In Israel

.Today, Ashkenazi Jews constitute the largest group among Jews,[5] and among Israeli Jews as well.^ But there are Ashkenazi Jews in Spain as well.
  • THE AZORES 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.dartmouth.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The group in question are Ashkenazi Jews.
  • The high intelligence of Jews. 10 February 2010 11:39 UTC home.comcast.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The largest group of visitors are American Jews.
  • The Life of an American Jew in Racist-Marxist Israel 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.antichristconspiracy.com [Source type: Original source]
  • The Life of an American Jew in Racist Marxist Israel 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.the7thfire.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Lessorjew 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.samliquidation.com [Source type: Original source]
  • The American Spectator : Barney Frank Lies About ACORN 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC spectator.org [Source type: Original source]
  • E-Book  The Life of an American Jew in Racist Marxist Israel by Jack Bernstein 10 February 2010 11:39 UTC www.biblestudysite.com [Source type: Original source]

.They have played a prominent role in the economy, media, and politics of Israel since its founding.^ He had the prominent media role during the funeral.
  • Pope Was/is Khazar/Ashkenazi and Nazi says Historian, still is! Papal-Knighthood for ADL Rabbi;Vatican Leaders now condenm anti-Zionism and support Masonry - total_truth_sciences | Google Groups 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC groups.google.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The term Mizrachi is used in Israel in the language of politics, media and some social scientists for Jews from the Arab world and adjacent, primarily Muslim-majority countries.
  • Becoming Jewish - Judaism 101 10 February 2010 11:39 UTC www.becomingjewish.org [Source type: Original source]

^ (There were ways of getting Iraqi dinars out, but when the immigrants went to exchange them in Israel they found that the Israeli government kept 50 percent of the value.
  • The Iraqi Jews by Naeim Giladi 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.bintjbeil.com [Source type: Original source]

.During the first decades of Israel as a state, strong cultural conflict occurred between Sephardic and Ashkenazi Jews (mainly east European Ashkenazim).^ Jews are not European, their origin is in the Near East.
  • Are Jews White? 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC majorityrights.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ashkenazi Jew, maried a Sephardic Jewess.
  • Bernstein 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.holywar.org [Source type: Original source]

^ For an Ashkenazi Jew to marry a Sephardic Jew is frowned upon in Israel by the ruling Ashkenazim.
  • The Life of an American Jew in Racist Marxist Israel 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.the7thfire.com [Source type: Original source]
  • The American Spectator : Barney Frank Lies About ACORN 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC spectator.org [Source type: Original source]
  • The Kick Them All Out Project - My Farewell to Israel, Thorn of the Middle East - Part I 10 February 2010 11:39 UTC www.kickthemallout.com [Source type: Original source]

.The roots of this conflict, which still exists to a much smaller extent in present day Israeli society, are chiefly attributed to the concept of the "melting pot". That is to say, all Jewish immigrants who arrived in Israel were strongly encouraged to "melt down" their own particular exilic identities within the general social "pot" in order to become Israeli.^ And Israel will have brought it all down on their own heads,… all by themselves.
  • Netanyahu To The West–Destroy Iran Before Israel Destroys You « The Ugly Truth 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC theuglytruth.wordpress.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Main social divisions within Israeli society will be discussed: Ashkenazi and Mizrahi Jews, Jews and Arabs, religion and secularism, newcomers and veteran immigrants, right and left politics as well as major discrepancies regarding issues of orthodoxy, military service, holocaust commemoration, civil rights in a Jewish state, and gender inequality.
  • Center for Cultural Judaism - Grants 10 February 2010 11:39 UTC www.culturaljudaism.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But, unfortunately, as we all know racism still exists and is growing.
  • phorum - SNWMF Forum '10 - Re: Jews against Israel. 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.snwmf.com [Source type: Original source]

Achievements

.Ashkenazi Jews have a noted history of achievement in western societies.^ Likewise, the Cochin Jews possess typically Western Eurasian U1 Hg mtDNAs, present in several non-Ashkenazi Jewish communities ( Table 2 ).
  • PLoS ONE: Counting the Founders: The Matrilineal Genetic Ancestry of the Jewish Diaspora 10 February 2010 11:39 UTC www.plosone.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Note that the authors had only a few non-Ashkenazi Jews in their sample, so the assertions above only apply to the Ashkenazi (95-99% of America's Jewish population, but only ~50% of Israel's).
  • How Ashkenazi Jewish are you? : Gene Expression 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC scienceblogs.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Cochran, Hardy, and Harpending cite several comparative studies of intelligence, achievement, and educational attainment by Ashkenazi versus Sephardic and Mizrahi Jews.
  • The high intelligence of Jews. 10 February 2010 11:39 UTC home.comcast.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[43] .They have won a large number of the Nobel awards.^ During the 20th century, they made up about 3% of the US population, but won 27% of the US Nobel science prizes and 25% of the ACM Turing awards.
  • Mail 264 June 30 - July 6, 2003 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.jerrypournelle.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Jews are famously biased to the left side of the political spectrum and they will show up in disproportionate numbers in left wing social hierarchies such as Nobel etc.
  • Steve Sailer's iSteve Blog: David Brooks: The Tel Aviv Cluster 10 February 2010 11:39 UTC isteve.blogspot.com [Source type: Original source]

^ BAM "During the 20th century, they[Ashkenazi jews] made up about 3 percent of the U.S. population but won 27 percent of the U.S. Nobel science prizes and 25 percent of the ACM Turing awards.
  • FuturePundit: On The Evolution Of Ashkenazi Jewish Intelligence 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.futurepundit.com [Source type: Original source]

[44][45] .In those societies where they have been free to enter any profession, they have a record of high occupational achievement, entering professions and fields of commerce where higher education is required.^ They are also strongly represented in fields and occupations requiring high cognitive ability.
  • The high intelligence of Jews. 10 February 2010 11:39 UTC home.comcast.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ What can, however, be shown from the historical records is that European Jews at the top of their professions in the Middle Ages raised more children to adulthood than those at the bottom.
  • FuturePundit: On The Evolution Of Ashkenazi Jewish Intelligence 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.futurepundit.com [Source type: Original source]
  • The high intelligence of Jews. 10 February 2010 11:39 UTC home.comcast.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They are G-d’s people, and He promised that those who attack His people will enter into direct conflict with HIM, the Almighty Himself.
  • Netanyahu To The West–Destroy Iran Before Israel Destroys You « The Ugly Truth 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC theuglytruth.wordpress.com [Source type: Original source]

[46] .For example, during the 20th century in the United States, Ashkenazi Jews represented approximately 3% of the population, but won 27% of the US Nobel Prizes in science, and 25% of the ACM Turing Awards (the Nobel-equivalent in computer science).^ In short, Nobel prizes are a bad example.
  • The Genetic Origin of Ashkenazi Genius || kuro5hin.org 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.kuro5hin.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ BAM "During the 20th century, they[Ashkenazi jews] made up about 3 percent of the U.S. population but won 27 percent of the U.S. Nobel science prizes and 25 percent of the ACM Turing awards.
  • FuturePundit: On The Evolution Of Ashkenazi Jewish Intelligence 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.futurepundit.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Yet few of us have won Nobel Prizes.
  • The Genetic Origin of Ashkenazi Genius || kuro5hin.org 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.kuro5hin.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[47]

Ashkenazi Chief Rabbis in the Yishuv and Israel

See also

Notes

  1. ^ a b c d e Behar, Doron M.; Ene Metspalu, Toomas Kivisild, Alessandro Achilli, Yarin Hadid, Shay Tzur, Luisa Pereira, Antonio Amorim, Lluı's Quintana-Murci, Kari Majamaa, Corinna Herrnstadt, Neil Howell, Oleg Balanovsky, Ildus Kutuev, Andrey Pshenichnov, David Gurwitz, Batsheva Bonne-Tamir, Antonio Torroni, Richard Villems, and Karl Skorecki (March 2006). "The Matrilineal Ancestry of Ashkenazi Jewry: Portrait of a Recent Founder Event" (PDF). The American Journal of Human Genetics 78 (3): 487–97. doi:10.1086/500307. PMID 16404693. PMC 1380291. http://www.ftdna.com/pdf/43026_Doron.pdf. Retrieved 2008-12-30. 
  2. ^ John Hopkins Gazette, September 8, 1997.
  3. ^ a b Gabriel E. Feldman, Do Ashkenazi Jews have a Higher than expected Cancer Burden?PDF (650 KiB) , Israel Medical Association Journal, Volume 3, 2001.
  4. ^ "Ashkenazi Jews", Hebrew University of Jerusalem website. Retrieved November 10, 2009.
  5. ^ a b c d e f Elazar, Daniel J.. "Can Sephardic Judaism be Reconstructed?". Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs. http://www.jcpa.org/dje/articles3/sephardic.htm. Retrieved 2006-05-24. 
  6. ^ Pfeffer, Anshel. "Jewish Agency: 13.2 million Jews worldwide on eve of Rosh Hashanah, 5768". Haaretz Daily Newspaper Israel. http://www.haaretz.com/hasen/spages/903585.html. Retrieved 2007-09-13. 
  7. ^ Rosenthal, Rachel (2006). "What's in a name?". Kedma (Winter 2006). 
  8. ^ Greenberg, Richard and Debra Nussbaum Cohen (2005). "Uncovering the Un-Movement" (PDF). http://jewschool.com/THE_NEW_JEW.pdf. 
  9. ^ Donadio, Rachel (August 10, 2001). "Any Old Shul Won't Do for the Young and Cool". http://www.kehilathadar.org/Aboutus/forward08-10-01.html. Retrieved 2006-05-24. 
  10. ^ Wall, Irwin. (2002) "Remaking Jewish Identity in France", in Howard Wettstein, Diaspora's and Exiles. University of California Press, pages 164-190.
  11. ^ "New Light on Origins of Ashkenazi in Europe", New York Times, 14 Jan 2006
  12. ^ One Big, Happy Family - Forward.com"
  13. ^ Schwartz, Seth (2001). "Imperialism and Jewish Society, 200 BCE to 640 CE. .Princeton University Press.^ Princeton: Princeton University Press.
    • Jews - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    pp. 103–128. ISBN 0-691-11781-0.
     
  14. ^ Shaye J. D. Cohen (2001). The Beginnings of Jewishness. University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-22693-3. 
  15. ^ Botticini, Maristella; Zvi Eckstein (March 2006). "From Farmers to Merchants, Voluntary Conversions and Diaspora: A Human Capital Interpretation of Jewish History". http://ideas.repec.org/p/cpr/ceprdp/5571.html. Retrieved 2006-05-24. 
  16. ^ Hammer, M. F.; A. J. Redd, E. T. Wood, M. R. Bonner, H. Jarjanazi, T. Karafet, S. Santachiara-Benerecetti, A. Oppenheim, M. A. Jobling, T. Jenkins, H. Ostrer, and B. Bonné-Tamir (May 9 2000). "Jewish and Middle Eastern non-Jewish populations share a common pool of Y-chromosome biallelic haplotypes". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 97 (12): 6769. doi:10.1073/pnas.100115997. PMID 10801975. 
  17. ^ Almut Nebel, Dvora Filon, Bernd Brinkmann, Partha P. Majumder, Marina Faerman, Ariella Oppenheim. "The Y Chromosome Pool of Jews as Part of the Genetic Landscape of the Middle East", The American Journal of Human Genetics (2001), Volume 69, number 5. pp. 1095–112
  18. ^ Almut Nebel, Dvora Filon, Marina Faerman, Himla Soodyall and Ariella Oppenheim. "Y chromosome evidence for a founder effect in Ashkenazi Jews", (European Journal of Human Genetics (2005) 13, 388–391. doi:10.1038/sj.ejhg.5201319 Published online 3 November 2004).
  19. ^ http://www.familytreedna.com/pdf/400971.pdf
  20. ^ a b Wade, Nicholas (January 14 2006). "New Light on Origins of Ashkenazi in Europe". The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2006/01/14/science/14gene.html. Retrieved 2006-05-24. 
  21. ^ Pearson TA, Manolio TA (2008). "How to interpret a genome-wide association study". JAMA 299 (11): 1335–44. doi:10.1001/jama.299.11.1335. PMID 18349094. http://jama.ama-assn.org/cgi/content/full/299/11/1335. 
  22. ^ Rosenberg et al. 2002, Bauchet et al. 2007
  23. ^ Ben-Sasson, Hayim (1976). A History of the Jewish People. Harvard University Press. 
  24. ^ a b Schoenberg, Shira. "Ashkenazim". Jewish Virtual Library. http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/Judaism/Ashkenazim.html. Retrieved 2006-05-24. 
  25. ^ Feldman, Louis H. Jew and Gentile in the Ancient World : Attitudes and Interactions from Alexander to Justinian. Ewing, NJ, USA: Princeton University Press, 1996. p 43.
  26. ^ (Polish) various authors; Szymon Datner (1983). Witold Tyloch. ed. Z dziejów Żydów w Polsce. Warsaw: Interpress. pp. 6. ISBN 83-223-2095-7. 
  27. ^ Commentary on Deuteronomy 3:9; idem on Talmud tractate Sukkah 17a
  28. ^ Talmud, Hullin 93a
  29. ^ ib. p. 129
  30. ^ Seder ha-Dorot", p. 252, 1878 ed.
  31. ^ Epstein, in "Monatsschrift," xlvii. 344; Jerusalem: Under the Arabs
  32. ^ Tallit: Jewish Prayer Shawl, Religion Facts. Retrieved December 13, 2008.
  33. ^ Michael Barkun, Religion and the Racist Right: The Origins of the Christian Identity Movement, UNC Press, ISBN 0-8078-4638-4, pp. 137-142.
  34. ^ Nicholas Goodrick-Clarke, Black Sun: Aryan cults, esoteric nazism, and the politics of identity, NYU Press, 2002, ISBN 0-8147-3155-4, p. 237.
  35. ^ Paul F. Boller, Memoirs of an Obscure Professor and Other Essays, TCU Press, 1992, pp. 5-6.
  36. ^ "This theory… is supported by no evidence whatsoever. It has long since been abandoned by all serious scholars in the field, including those in Arab countries, where the Khazar theory is little used except in occasional political polemics." Lewis, Bernard. Semites and Anti-Semites, W.W. Norton and Company, ISBN 0-393-31839-7, p. 48.
  37. ^ "Of course an anti-Zionist (as well as an anti-Semitic) point is being made here: The Palestinians have a greater political right to Palestine than the Jews do, as they, not the modern-day Jews, are the true descendants of the land's Jewish inhabitants/owners." Morris, Benny. The Road to Jerusalem: Glubb Pasha, Palestine and the Jews, I.B.Tauris, 2003, ISBN 1-86064-989-0, p. 22.
  38. ^ "Arab anti-Semitism might have been expected to be free from the idea of racial odium, since Jews and Arabs are both regarded by race theory as Semites, but the odium is directed, not against the Semitic race, but against the Jews as a historical group. The main idea is that the Jews, racially, are a mongrel community, most of them being not Semites, but of Khazar and European origin." Yehoshafat Harkabi, "Contemporary Arab Anti-Semitism: its Causes and Roots", in Helen Fein, The Persisting Question: Sociological Perspectives and Social Contexts of Modern Antisemitism, Walter de Gruyter, 1987, ISBN 3-11-010170-X, p. 424.
  39. ^ Carmeli, Daphna Birenbaum (2004). "Prevalence of Jews as subjects in genetic research: Figures, explanation, and potential implications". American Journal of Medical Genetics 130a (1): 76–83. doi:10.1002/ajmg.a.20291. PMID 15368499. 
  40. ^ "Longenity - Longevity Genes Project". Albert Einstein College of Medicine. http://www.einstein.yu.edu/longenity/page.aspx. Retrieved 2009-11-13. 
  41. ^ Britt, Robert Roy (2009-11-12). "One Key Found for Living to 100". LiveScience.com. http://news.yahoo.com/s/livescience/20091112/sc_livescience/onekeyfoundforlivingto100;_ylt=AivdX7AIbXJS0sOf5A9X1_BzfNdF. Retrieved 2009-11-13. 
  42. ^ "Estimated Number of Jews Killed in The Final Solution". Jewish Virtual Library. http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/Holocaust/killedtable.html. Retrieved 2006-05-24. 
  43. ^ Murray, Charles (April 2007). "Jewish Genius". Commentary Magazine. https://www.commentarymagazine.com/viewarticle.cfm/Jewish-Genius-10855?page=all. Retrieved 2007-12-23. "Disproportionate Jewish accomplishment in the arts and sciences continues to this day." 
  44. ^ Murray, Charles (April 2007). "Jewish Genius". Commentary Magazine. https://www.commentarymagazine.com/viewarticle.cfm/Jewish-Genius-10855?page=all. Retrieved 2007-12-23. "In the first half of the 20th century...Jews won 14 percent of Nobel Prizes in literature, chemistry, physics, and medicine/physiology." 
  45. ^ Pinker, Steven (2006-06-17). "THE LESSONS OF THE ASHKENAZIM:Groups and Genes". The New Republican. http://pinker.wjh.harvard.edu/articles/media/2006_06_17_thenewrepublic.html. Retrieved 2007-12-23. "Though never exceeding 3 percent of the American population, Jews account for 37 percent of the winners of the U.S. National Medal of Science, 25 percent of the American Nobel Prize winners in literature, 40 percent of the American Nobel Prize winners in science and economics, and so on." 
  46. ^ Murray, Charles (April 2007). "Jewish Genius". Commentary Magazine. https://www.commentarymagazine.com/viewarticle.cfm/Jewish-Genius-10855?page=all. Retrieved 2007-12-23. "From 1870 to 1950, Jewish representation in literature was four times the number one would expect. In music, five times. In the visual arts, five times. In biology, eight times. In chemistry, six times. In physics, nine times. In mathematics, twelve times. In philosophy, fourteen times." 
  47. ^ G. Cochran, J. Hardy, H. Harpending, Natural History of Ashkenazi Intelligence, Journal of Biosocial Science 38 (5), pp. 659–693 (2006).

References

References for "Who is an Ashkenazi Jew?"

  • Goldberg, Harvey E. (2001). The Life of Judaism. .University of California Press.^ Neville Barbor, Arab Attitudes to Zionism Before WWI (University of California Press, Berkeley: 1976) 63-65.
    • .::JERUSALEM QUARTERLY… Ishaq al-Shami and the Predicament of the Arab Jew in Palestine ::. 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.jerusalemquarterly.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Berkeley, California : University of California Press , pp.
    • Judaism - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Berkeley: University of California Press.
    • Center for Cultural Judaism - Grants 10 February 2010 11:39 UTC www.culturaljudaism.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ISBN 0-520-21267-3.
     
  • Silberstein, Laurence (2000). Mapping Jewish Identities. .New York University Press.^ Professor Davis learnt Chinese and Chinese history when he was studying a double major in political science and Asian studies at the State University of New York at Buffalo.
    • History News Network 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC hnn.us [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ New York: Raven Press.

    ^ I live in New York City, and as such, I think that I am basically universally perceived as white.
    • On Being Jewish and White — Feministe 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.feministe.us [Source type: Original source]

    ISBN 0-8147-9769-5.
     
  • Wettstein, Howard (2002). .Diasporas and Exiles: Varieties of Jewish Identity.^ This is also the quotation that opens the third chapter of Sand’s book, entitled “The Invention of the Diaspora.” Sand argues that the Jewish people’s exile from its land never happened.
    • Are Jews White? 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC majorityrights.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .University of California Press.^ Neville Barbor, Arab Attitudes to Zionism Before WWI (University of California Press, Berkeley: 1976) 63-65.
    • .::JERUSALEM QUARTERLY… Ishaq al-Shami and the Predicament of the Arab Jew in Palestine ::. 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.jerusalemquarterly.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Berkeley, California : University of California Press , pp.
    • Judaism - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Berkeley: University of California Press.
    • Center for Cultural Judaism - Grants 10 February 2010 11:39 UTC www.culturaljudaism.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ISBN 0-520-22864-2.
     
  • Wex, Michael (2005). .Born to Kvetch: Yiddish Language and Culture in All Its Moods.^ [BTW, according Born to Kvetch, Yiddish Language and Culture in All of its Moods , by Michael Wex, p.
    • Ethnic Ashkenazim Against Zionist Israel: March 2008 11 September 2009 2:44 UTC eaazi.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    St. Martin's Press. ISBN 0-312-30741-1.
     

Other references

.
  • Beider, Alexander (2001): A Dictionary of Ashkenazic Given Names: Their Origins, Structure, Pronunciations, and Migrations.^ There is also a discount offer for purchasing all three of Beider's major works: * A Dictionary of Jewish Surnames from the Russian Empire * A Dictionary of Jewish Surnames from the Kingdom of Poland * A Dictionary of Ashkenazic Given Names: Their Origins, Structure, Pronunciation and Migrations Spamming ======= On a regular basis I receive e-mail from subscribers complaining that they used to get Nu?
    • Nu? What's New? Back Issues 11 September 2009 22:24 UTC www.avotaynu.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The balance is a 300-page thesis on the origins, structure, pronunciation, and migrations of Ashkenazic given names.
    • Nu? What's New? Back Issues 11 September 2009 22:24 UTC www.avotaynu.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Alexander Beider gives a small hint as to the scope of his latest book, "A Dictionary of Ashkenazic Given Names: Their Origins, Structure, Pronunciation and Migrations," by discussing some general aspects of the evolution of Ashkenazic given names.
    • Nu? What's New? Back Issues 11 September 2009 22:24 UTC www.avotaynu.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Avotaynu. .ISBN 1-886223-12-2.
  • Biale, David (2002): Cultures of the Jews: A New History.^ This version also disassembles the uniform, shared history of all Jews (a conception that entails the denial and repression of other cultures, notably Arab culture) that is posited by Zionist historiography.
    • .::JERUSALEM QUARTERLY… Ishaq al-Shami and the Predicament of the Arab Jew in Palestine ::. 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.jerusalemquarterly.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ TOPICS: Culture/Society ; Front Page News ; News/Current Events KEYWORDS: archaeology ; genetics ; ggg ; godsgravesglyphs ; history .
    • Genetic evidence links Jews to their ancient tribe 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.freerepublic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The Illuminati have nearly completed their agenda and this is the Final Warning: The History of the New World Order by David Allen Rivera .
    • The Life of an American Jew in Racist Marxist Israel 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.the7thfire.com [Source type: Original source]

    Schoken Books. .ISBN 0-8052-4131-0.
  • Brook, Kevin Alan (2003): "The Origins of East European Jews" in Russian History/Histoire Russe vol.^ Jews are not European, their origin is in the Near East.
    • Are Jews White? 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC majorityrights.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ All JW needs to do is consider phenotype and he would have fewer reasons to go ballistic when history/research shows the southeastern European/Khazar origin of the Ashkenazi.
    • Are Jews White? 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC majorityrights.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Furthermore, the Jews living in urban centers of North Africa and the Middle East were concentrated in intellectual occupations just as the European Jews were.
    • The high intelligence of Jews. 10 February 2010 11:39 UTC home.comcast.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    30, nos. .1-2, pp. 1–22.
  • Gross, N. (1975): Economic History of the Jews.^ Speaking as a medievalist among whose particular interests is Jews, all this nonsence about the so-called Jewish professions is based on a faulty understanding on Medieval economic history.
    • FuturePundit: On The Evolution Of Ashkenazi Jewish Intelligence 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.futurepundit.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Wisse summarizes the history of Jewish economic behavior as altruistically providing goods and services to non-Jews at the price of being politically vulnerable.

    ^ Economic History of the Jews in England.
    • Is Kevin MacDonald Right? | Jewcy.com 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.jewcy.com [Source type: Original source]

    .Schocken Books, New York.
  • Haumann, Heiko (2001): A History of East European Jews.^ Strictly speaking, the Biblical Old Testament is the holy book of the Jews, the same as it is one-half of the Holy Book of the Christians, the New Testament being the other half for the Christians.
    • 45 Questions About the Jews - by William Dudley Pelley 11 September 2009 22:24 UTC www.come-and-hear.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Professor Davis learnt Chinese and Chinese history when he was studying a double major in political science and Asian studies at the State University of New York at Buffalo.
    • History News Network 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC hnn.us [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ A new book by an Italo-Israeli scholar of Jewish history that revisits violent controversies involving medieval and Renaissance Christians and Jews has been withdrawn from circulation at the request of the author, who now says that news accounts distort what he actually says.
    • History News Network 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC hnn.us [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Central European University Press.^ Khazar Jews also settled in Kiev and other cities in Rus’, as well as in Poland.” - Heiko Haumann, in A History of East European Jews (Budapest: Central European University Press, 2002), pages 6-7.
    • Are Illiberal Jews Anti-Semitic? [by Melissa] 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC proteinwisdom.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Central Europe: Enemies, Neighbors, Friends , Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    • Jews - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2005 European Military History: Robert A. Doughty.
    • History News Network 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC hnn.us [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .ISBN 963-9241-26-1.
  • Lewis, Bernard (1984): The Jews of Islam.^ Andrew G. Marshall {Bernard Lewis, a British intelligence officer, claimed that Islam is incompatible with materialism, and that they were destined to clash, using the term, "Clash of Civilizations."
    • The law of God according to the Hebrews with excerpts from Psalms and Proverbs 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.unique-design.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ "A Catholic Timeline of Events Relating to Jews, Anti-Judaism, Antisemitism, and the Holocaust, From the 3rd century to the Beginning of the Third Millennium" ↑ 139.0 139.1 Lewis (1984), pp.
    • Jews - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Lewis, Bernard (1984).
    • Jews - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Princeton University Press.^ Princeton: Princeton University Press.
    • Jews - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .ISBN 0-691-05419-3.
  • Vital, David (1999): A People Apart: A History of the Jews in Europe.^ Early on, the unique history of the Jews attracted DNA researchers who sought to solve the mystery of the origins of the Jewish people.
    • A Reassessment of the Jewish DNA Evidence 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC jogg.info [Source type: Academic]
    • The “mystery” of Ashkenazic origins 10 February 2010 11:39 UTC majorityrights.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The genetic family tree of Jews from different parts of Europe shows that they are not a unique group, biologically distinct from other peoples around them.
    • Jewish Genetics, Part 1: Jewish Populations (Ashkenazim, Sephardim, Mizrahim, Yemenite, Ethiopian) DNA 11 September 2009 2:44 UTC www.khazaria.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Further, it was claimed that [r]esearchers compared the DNA signature of the Ashkenazi Jews against those of Turkish-derived people, and found no correspondence (Kleinman 1999).
    • A Reassessment of the Jewish DNA Evidence 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC jogg.info [Source type: Academic]

    .Oxford University Press.^ Nelson lays out his case in Steel Drivin' Man: John Henry, the Untold Story of an American Legend (Oxford University Press).
    • History News Network 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC hnn.us [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 1992.
    • Jewish Genetics, Part 1: Jewish Populations (Ashkenazim, Sephardim, Mizrahim, Yemenite, Ethiopian) DNA 11 September 2009 2:44 UTC www.khazaria.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Oxford University Press, New York, pp.
    • Mutations in the sulonylurea receptor gene are associated with familial hyperinsulinism in Ashkenazi Jews -- Nestorowicz et al. 5 (11): 1813 -- Human Molecular Genetics 9 February 2010 12:43 UTC hmg.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

    ISBN 0-19-821980-6.

External links


Simple English

Ashkenazi are Jews who lived in the Europe. They once lived in the area of Rheinland and France and after the crusades they moved to Poland, Lithuania and Russia. In the 17th century, avoiding percecution, many Jews moved to and settled in the West Europe.

After that, two terms, Ashkenazi and Sephardi, became commonly used: The former indicates the Jews who worshiped in the German way, the latter indicates the Jews who worshiped in the Spanish way. They differ in language (pronunciation), cultural tradition and worship style.

Today Ashkenazim occupy the 80% of Jews of the world. They are also the mainstream of Israeli politics. Famous Ashkenazim are Albert Einstein, George Gershwin, Gustav Mahler, Franz Kafka.

References

Thomas A. Idinopulos(1994), Jerusalem: A History of the Holiest City as seen Through the Struggles of Jews, Christians, and Muslims, Dee, Ivan R. Publisher, ISBN 9781566630627


Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 20, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Ashkenazi Jews, which are similar to those in the above article.








Got something to say? Make a comment.
Your name
Your email address
Message