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Aspartame[1]
Identifiers
CAS number 22839-47-0 Yes check.svgY
ChemSpider 118630
SMILES
InChI
InChI key IAOZJIPTCAWIRG-QWRGUYRKBV
Properties
Molecular formula C14H18N2O5
Molar mass 294.3 g mol−1
Density 1.347 g/cm3
Melting point
246–247 °C
Boiling point
decomposes
Solubility in water sparingly soluble
Solubility slightly soluble in ethanol
Acidity (pKa) 4.5-6.0 [2]
Hazards
NFPA 704
NFPA 704.svg
1
1
0
 Yes check.svgY (what is this?)  (verify)
Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C, 100 kPa)
Infobox references
.Aspartame (or APM) (pronounced /ˈæspərteɪm/ or /əˈspɑrteɪm/) is the name for an artificial, non-saccharide sweetener used as a sugar substitute in many foods and beverages.^ Aspartame is an artificial sweetener that was discovered in 1965.
  • Tag: Aspartame - Explore content tagged Aspartame on eHow.com 10 February 2010 11:41 UTC www.ehow.com [Source type: General]

^ Aspartame detox and use of alternative sweeteners .
  • Stevia Supreme Sweetener - 50 pack $1.99 +FS w/Amazon Prime 10 February 2010 11:41 UTC www.fatwallet.com [Source type: General]

^ Do NOT use artificial sweeteners of any kind!!!
  • The side effects of artificial sweeteners like aspartame and Splenda: get the truth! 10 February 2010 11:41 UTC www.earthclinic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In the European Union, it is known under the E number (additive code) E951.^ In the European Union, it is known under the E number (additive code) E951.
  • http://getglue.com/topics/p/aspartame 10 February 2010 11:41 UTC getglue.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the European Union, it is also known under the E number (additive code) E951 .
  • Aspartame encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 10 February 2010 11:41 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the European Union, it is known under the E number (additive...
  • Aspartame Controversy - Kosmix : Reference, Videos, Images, News, Shopping and more... 10 February 2010 11:41 UTC health.kosmix.com [Source type: General]
  • Aspartame Controversy - Kosmix : Reference, Videos, Images, News, Shopping and more... 10 February 2010 11:41 UTC www.kosmix.com [Source type: General]

.Aspartame is the methyl ester of a phenylalanine/aspartic acid dipeptide.^ Aspartame is the methyl ester of the dipeptide of the amino acids l-aspartic acid and l-phenylalanine.

^ Aspartame is the methyl ester of the dipeptide of the natural amino acids L- aspartic acid and L- phenylalanine .
  • Aspartame encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 10 February 2010 11:41 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Aspartame is a dipeptide consisting of the methyl...
  • aspartame – FREE aspartame information | Encyclopedia.com: Find aspartame research 10 February 2010 11:41 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Academic]

.Aspartame was first synthesized in 1965. Its use in food products was approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration in 1980. Because its breakdown products include phenylalanine, aspartame is among the many substances that must be avoided by people with phenylketonuria (PKU), a rare genetic condition.^ In 1974 aspartame was approved for use only in dry foods.
  • Aspartame 10 February 2010 11:41 UTC www.ecoviva.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In July of 1981, aspartame was approved for use in dry foods.

^ In 1981, after careful review, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved the use of aspartame.
  • ACS :: Aspartame 10 February 2010 11:41 UTC www.cancer.org [Source type: Academic]

Although some political activists, conspiracy theorists, and a few medical researchers have questioned the safety of aspartame,[3] the most recent medical review on the subject concluded that "the weight of existing scientific evidence indicates that aspartame is safe at current levels of consumption as a non-nutritive sweetener."[4]

Contents

Marketing

.This sweetener is marketed under a number of trademark names, including Equal, NutraSweet, and Canderel, and is an ingredient of approximately 6,000 consumer foods and beverages sold worldwide, including (but not limited to) diet sodas and other soft drinks, instant breakfasts, breath mints, cereals, sugar-free chewing gum, cocoa mixes, frozen desserts, gelatin desserts, juices, laxatives, chewable vitamins supplements, milk drinks, pharmaceutical drugs and supplements, shake mixes, tabletop sweeteners, teas, instant coffees, topping mixes, wine coolers and yogurt.^ Found in : Sugar-free foods, pudding, low-calorie beverages, some diet sodas, and Splenda.
  • Your Complete Food Additive Survival Guide - MSN Health & Fitness - Nutrition 10 February 2010 11:41 UTC health.msn.com [Source type: General]

^ It is also used in some brands of chewable vitamin supplements and common in many sugar-free chewing gums and has now been found in some chewing gums that are not sugar free.
  • Aspartame encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 10 February 2010 11:41 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Aspartame is the chemical in Equal® and NutraSweet® and is the sweetener in most diet sodas.
  • Aspartame: Sweet Misery, A Poisoned World ! « Socio-Economics History Blog 10 February 2010 11:41 UTC socioecohistory.wordpress.com [Source type: General]

.It is provided as a table condiment in some countries.^ It is commonly used in diet soft drinks , and is provided as a table condiment in some countries.
  • Aspartame encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 10 February 2010 11:41 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is commonly used in diet soft drinks and is often provided as a table condiment.

.However, aspartame is not always suitable for baking because it often breaks down when heated and loses much of its sweetness.^ However, aspartame is not always suitable for baking, because it often breaks down in the presence of heat and loses much of its sweetness.

^ This is because aspartame breaks down extremely rapidly in a liquid form.
  • Dying For A Diet Coke? 10 February 2010 11:41 UTC www.rense.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The damage doesn't stop there as aspartame breaks down into a witches brew of toxins including diketopiperazine, a brain tumor agent.
  • A Brief History of Aspartame 10 February 2010 11:41 UTC www.aspartame.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Aspartame is also one of the main sugar substitutes used by people with diabetes.^ Aspartame is also one of the sugar substitutes used by people with diabetes .
  • Aspartame encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 10 February 2010 11:41 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Aspartame does have one use however.
  • A Brief History of Aspartame 10 February 2010 11:41 UTC www.aspartame.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Sugar certainly kills diabetics and I am one.
  • Aspartame is Poison ~ Chris Pirillo 10 February 2010 11:41 UTC chris.pirillo.com [Source type: General]

.Leading aspartame producer Ajinomoto has a new brand name for its aspartame sweetener called AminoSweet.^ The new sweetener, acesulfame potassium or "acesulfame K" for short, will compete with aspartame and saccharin in the billion-dollar-a-year artificial sweetener market in the U.S. The Hoechst Celanese Corporation of Somerville, N.J., a subsidiary of HOECHST A.G., of Frankfurt, West Germany, will market it under the brand name Sunette .
  • Aspartame 10 February 2010 11:41 UTC www.tuberose.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ben Harder A large, new...suggests that the artificial sweetener aspartame may be a carcinogen.
  • Aspartame: Free Encyclopedia Articles at Questia.com Online Library 10 February 2010 11:41 UTC www.questia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The National Health Federation calls aspartame a neurotoxic artificial sweetener.

[1] [2]
.Because sucralose, unlike aspartame, retains its sweetness after being heated, it has become more popular as an ingredient.^ Because sucralose , unlike aspartame, retains its sweetness after being heated, it has become more popular as an ingredient.
  • Aspartame encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 10 February 2010 11:41 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Blends of aspartame with acesulfame potassium —usually listed in ingredients as acesulfame K —are alleged to taste more like sugar, and to be sweeter than either substitute used alone.
  • Aspartame encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 10 February 2010 11:41 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, aspartame is not always suitable for baking because it often breaks down when heated and loses much of its sweetness.
  • Aspartame encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 10 February 2010 11:41 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.February 2010" style="white-space:nowrap;">[citation needed] This, along with differences in marketing and changing consumer preferences, has caused aspartame to lose market share to sucralose.^ This, along with differences in marketing and changing consumer preferences, has caused aspartame to lose market share to sucralose.
  • Aspartame encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 10 February 2010 11:41 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Aspartame is the largest artificial sweetener among others in terms of its market share, which is followed by sucralose and saccharin.
  • http://financial.businessinsider.com/siliconalleymedia/?GUID=11490289&Page=MEDIAVIEWER 10 February 2010 11:41 UTC financial.businessinsider.com [Source type: General]
  • Business - cbs4.com 10 February 2010 11:41 UTC business.cbs4.com [Source type: General]

^ Roberts says "consuming aspartame at the time of conception can cause birth defects".
  • Transverse Myelitis Internet Club List: Aspartame. 10 February 2010 11:41 UTC www.myelitis.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • aspartame 10 February 2010 11:41 UTC vitamvas.tripod.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[5][6]

Chemistry

.Aspartame is the methyl ester of the dipeptide of the natural amino acids L-aspartic acid and L-phenylalanine.^ Phenylalanine is an amino acid.
  • HISTORY OF ASPARTAME 10 February 2010 11:41 UTC www.wnho.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Of the 20 naturally occurring amino acids, two of them, aspartic acid and phenylalanine, are used in the manufacture of aspartame.
  • Aspartame: How Products are Made 10 February 2010 11:41 UTC www.enotes.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Aspartame is the methyl ester of the dipeptide of the amino acids l-aspartic acid and l-phenylalanine.

.Under strongly acidic or alkaline conditions, aspartame may generate methanol by hydrolysis.^ Under strongly acidic or alkaline conditions, aspartame may generate methanol by hydrolysis .
  • Aspartame encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 10 February 2010 11:41 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Under strongly acidic or alkaline conditions, aspartame first splits off methanol by hydrolysis.

^ And if a live child is born aspartame may have heinously damaged the DNA of the baby, cursing future generations.

.Under more severe conditions, the peptide bonds are also hydrolyzed, resulting in the free amino acids.^ Under more severe conditions, the peptide bonds are also hydrolyzed, resulting in the free amino acids.

^ Under more severe conditions, the peptide bonds are also hydrolyzed , resulting in the free amino acids.
  • Aspartame encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 10 February 2010 11:41 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Like many other peptides, aspartame may hydrolyze (break down) into its constituent amino acids under conditions of elevated temperature or high pH. This makes aspartame undesirable as a baking sweetener, and prone to degradation in high-pH products requiring a long shelf life.

[7]
.In certain markets aspartame is manufactured using a genetically modified variation of E. coli.^ I highly recommend that you take a second look at what is in aspartame, one of the most popular artificial sweeteners used on the market today.
  • Artificial Sweeteners the Good, Bad and Ugly « Organic Select Mexico 10 February 2010 11:41 UTC organicselect.wordpress.com [Source type: General]

^ Of the 20 naturally occurring amino acids, two of them, aspartic acid and phenylalanine, are used in the manufacture of aspartame.
  • Aspartame: How Products are Made 10 February 2010 11:41 UTC www.enotes.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Donald Rumsfeld was the CEO of G. D. Searle & Company, manufacturer of aspartame , throughout the regulatory period that approved its use in the late 1970s and early 1980s.

[8][9]

Properties and use

.Aspartame is an artificial sweetener.^ Aspartame is an artificial sweetener that was discovered in 1965.
  • Tag: Aspartame - Explore content tagged Aspartame on eHow.com 10 February 2010 11:41 UTC www.ehow.com [Source type: General]

^ Aspartame is an artificial sweetener.
  • Aspartame encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 10 February 2010 11:41 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • ASPARTAME ANYONE??? | epilepsy.com 10 February 2010 11:41 UTC www.epilepsy.com [Source type: General]

^ ASPARTAME see sweetener, artificial .
  • Aspartame: Free Encyclopedia Articles at Questia.com Online Library 10 February 2010 11:41 UTC www.questia.com [Source type: Academic]

.It is 200 times sweeter than sugar in typical concentrations, without the high energy value of sugar.^ The compound was 200 times sweeter than sugar.

^ It is 180 times as sweet as sugar in typical concentrations , without the high energy value of sugar .
  • Aspartame encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 10 February 2010 11:41 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Aspartame's attractiveness as a sweetener comes from the fact that it is approximately 180 times sweeter than sugar in typical concentrations without the high energy value of sugar.

.February 2010" style="white-space:nowrap;">[citation needed] While aspartame, like other peptides, has a caloric value of 4 kilocalories (17 kilojoules) per gram, the quantity of aspartame needed to produce a sweet taste is so small that its caloric contribution is negligible, which makes it a popular sweetener for those trying to avoid calories from sugar.^ Aspartame was discovered in 1965 when a Searle...and phenylalanine, tasted like sugar.
  • aspartame – FREE aspartame information | Encyclopedia.com: Find aspartame research 10 February 2010 11:41 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The peptide aspartame happens to sweeten like crazy and so the nutritive value of eating it is small.
  • Aspartame is Poison ~ Chris Pirillo 10 February 2010 11:41 UTC chris.pirillo.com [Source type: General]

^ While aspartame, like other peptides, has a caloric value of 4 kilocalories (17 kilojoules) per gram, the quantity of aspartame needed to produce a sweet taste is so small as to make its caloric contribution negligible, which makes it a popular sweetener for those trying to avoid calories from sugar.

.The taste of aspartame is not identical to that of sugar: the sweetness of aspartame has a slower onset and longer duration than that of sugar.^ The taste of aspartame is not identical to sugar: aspartame's sweetness has a slower onset and longer duration than sugar's, and some consumers find it unappealing.

^ The taste of aspartame is not identical to that of sugar: the sweetness of aspartame has a slower onset and longer duration than that of sugar.
  • Aspartame encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 10 February 2010 11:41 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He realized that the sweet taste might have been the aspartame.
  • HISTORY OF ASPARTAME 10 February 2010 11:41 UTC www.wnho.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Blends of aspartame with acesulfame potassium—usually listed in ingredients as acesulfame K—are alleged to taste more like sugar, and to be sweeter than either substitute used alone.^ Aspartame was discovered in 1965 when a Searle...and phenylalanine, tasted like sugar.
  • aspartame – FREE aspartame information | Encyclopedia.com: Find aspartame research 10 February 2010 11:41 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Aspartame is also one of the sugar substitutes used by diabetics.

^ It is usually one of the last ingredients to be listed.
  • WikiAnswers - The side effects of diet coke 10 February 2010 11:41 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Like many other peptides, aspartame may hydrolyze (break down) into its constituent amino acids under conditions of elevated temperature or high pH.^ Like many other peptides , aspartame may hydrolyze (break down) into its constituent amino acids under conditions of elevated temperature or high pH .
  • Aspartame encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 10 February 2010 11:41 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If you like aspartame.org you may also like: .
  • aspartame.org - Site Info from Alexa 10 February 2010 11:41 UTC www.alexa.com [Source type: General]

^ The methanol then breaks down into formaldehyde.

.This makes aspartame undesirable as a baking sweetener, and prone to degradation in products hosting a high-pH, as required for a long shelf life.^ Like many other peptides, aspartame may hydrolyze (break down) into its constituent amino acids under conditions of elevated temperature or high pH. This makes aspartame undesirable as a baking sweetener, and prone to degradation in high-pH products requiring a long shelf life.

^ This makes aspartame undesirable as a baking sweetener, and prone to degradation in products hosting a high-pH, as required for a long shelf life.
  • Aspartame encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 10 February 2010 11:41 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In products that may require a longer shelf life, such as syrups for fountain beverages , aspartame is sometimes blended with a more stable sweetener, such as saccharin .
  • Aspartame encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 10 February 2010 11:41 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The stability of aspartame under heating can be improved to some extent by encasing it in fats or in maltodextrin.^ Aspartame's stability under heating can be improved to some extent by encasing it in fats or in maltodextrin.

^ Another area of research focuses on improving the heat stability of aspartame.
  • Aspartame: How Products are Made 10 February 2010 11:41 UTC www.enotes.com [Source type: Reference]

.The stability when dissolved in water depends markedly on pH.^ The stability when dissolved in water depends markedly on pH .
  • Aspartame encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 10 February 2010 11:41 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Aspartame's stability when dissolved in water depends markedly on pH. At room temperature, it is most stable at pH 4.3, where its half-life is nearly 300 days.

.At room temperature, it is most stable at pH 4.3, where its half-life is nearly 300 days.^ At room temperature, it is most stable at pH 4.3, where its half-life is nearly 300 days.
  • Aspartame encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 10 February 2010 11:41 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ At pH 7, however, its half-life is only a few days.
  • Aspartame encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 10 February 2010 11:41 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ At pH 7 however, its half-life is only a few days.

.At pH 7, however, its half-life is only a few days.^ At pH 7, however, its half-life is only a few days.
  • Aspartame encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 10 February 2010 11:41 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ At pH 7 however, its half-life is only a few days.

^ At room temperature, it is most stable at pH 4.3, where its half-life is nearly 300 days.
  • Aspartame encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 10 February 2010 11:41 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Most soft-drinks have a pH between 3 and 5, where aspartame is reasonably stable.^ Most soft-drinks have a pH between 3 and 5, where aspartame is reasonably stable.
  • Aspartame: Encyclopedia - Aspartame 10 February 2010 11:41 UTC www.experiencefestival.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Aspartame encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 10 February 2010 11:41 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The FDA approved aspartame as a low-nutritive sweetener for use in solid form during 1981, and in soft drinks during 1983.
  • Aspartame Disease: An FDA-Approved Epidemic 10 February 2010 11:41 UTC articles.mercola.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Y oung people drink a lot of Diet Coke and Diet Pepsi, and because of this, they are the most susceptible to Aspartame Poisoning.
  • Aspartame, the Silent Killer 10 February 2010 11:41 UTC www.talewins.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In products that may require a longer shelf life, such as syrups for fountain beverages, aspartame is sometimes blended with a more stable sweetener, such as saccharin.^ Other breakdown products of aspartame such as DKP, may also have been a factor.
  • Bad News about products with Aspartame 10 February 2010 11:41 UTC www.aspartamekills.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ While aspartame products, such as NutraSweet and Equal, may...
  • Aspartame Dangers | LIVESTRONG.COM 10 February 2010 11:41 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: General]

^ In products that may require a longer shelf life, such as syrups for fountain beverages, aspartame is sometimes blended with a more stable sweetener, such as saccharin.

[10]
.In products such as powdered beverages, the amine in aspartame can undergo a Maillard reaction with the aldehyde groups present in certain aroma compounds.^ In products such as powdered beverages, aspartame's amino group can undergo a Maillard reaction with the aldehyde groups present in certain aroma compounds.

^ Aspartame can be found in thousands of products such as: .
  • The side effects of artificial sweeteners like aspartame and Splenda: get the truth! 10 February 2010 11:41 UTC www.earthclinic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In products such as powdered beverages, the amine in aspartame can undergo a Maillard reaction with the aldehyde groups present in certain aroma compounds .
  • Aspartame encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 10 February 2010 11:41 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The ensuing loss of both flavor and sweetness can be prevented by protecting the aldehyde as an acetal.^ The ensuing loss of both flavor and sweetness can be prevented by protecting the aldehyde as an acetal.

.Some claim that aspartame leaves an odd after-taste, while others describe it as a non-flavor or watery after-taste.^ I do not taste any bitter aftertaste at all – could it be related to the bitter that some people taste in broccoli and other’s done?
  • Aspartame: Sweet Misery A Poisoned World 10 February 2010 11:41 UTC www.infowars.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I, like many others, were fooled into thinking that it was simply "sour grapes" from the processed sugar industry when they claimed that aspartame is toxic.

^ I'm willing to allow the possibility that aspartame or any other additive is harmful but need to see some real evidence first, not hand-waving in it's stead.
  • The Skeptics Society Forum • View topic - Aspartame 10 February 2010 11:41 UTC www.skepticforum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[11]

Discovery and approval

.Aspartame was discovered in 1965 by James M. Schlatter, a chemist working for G.D. Searle & Company.^ Aspartame is an artificial sweetener that was discovered in 1965.
  • Tag: Aspartame - Explore content tagged Aspartame on eHow.com 10 February 2010 11:41 UTC www.ehow.com [Source type: General]

^ In 1965, a researcher at G.D. Searle pharmaceutical company inadvertently discovered the artificial sweetener aspartame while working on an anti-ulcer medication.
  • Aspartame 10 February 2010 11:41 UTC www.ecoviva.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In 1985, Monsanto Company bought G.D. Searle—and the aspartame business became a separate Monsanto subsidiary, the NutraSweet Company.
  • Aspartame: Sweet Misery A Poisoned World // Current 10 February 2010 11:41 UTC current.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Schlatter had synthesized aspartame in the course of producing an anti-ulcer drug candidate.^ Schlatter had synthesized aspartame in the course of producing an anti-ulcer drug candidate.

^ The NutraSweet Company and sister Searle whose chemists discovered aspartame while testing an ulcer drug are owned by Monsanto.
  • Aspartame and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome 10 February 2010 11:41 UTC barbfeick.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 1965, a researcher at G.D. Searle pharmaceutical company inadvertently discovered the artificial sweetener aspartame while working on an anti-ulcer medication.
  • Aspartame 10 February 2010 11:41 UTC www.ecoviva.com [Source type: Academic]

.He accidentally discovered its sweet taste when he licked his finger, which had become contaminated with aspartame.^ He licked his fingers to leaf through some papers and discovered an intensely sweet taste.
  • A Bonnetful of Bees 10 February 2010 11:41 UTC wudhi.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He discovered its sweet taste serendipitously when he licked his finger, which had accidentally become contaminated with aspartame.

^ He realized that the sweet taste might have been the aspartame.
  • HISTORY OF ASPARTAME 10 February 2010 11:41 UTC www.wnho.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[12]
.Following initial safety testing, two activists concerned about food additives asserted these tests had indicated aspartame may cause cancer in rats; as a result, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) did not approve its use as a food additive in the United States for many years.^ Aspartame is an artificial sweetener safety-approved by regulatory agencies in over 100 countries, including the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in the United States.
  • Tag: Aspartame - Explore content tagged Aspartame on eHow.com 10 February 2010 11:41 UTC www.ehow.com [Source type: General]

^ The FDA and the manufacturers of aspartame have had a revolving door of employment for many years.
  • The side effects of artificial sweeteners like aspartame and Splenda: get the truth! 10 February 2010 11:41 UTC www.earthclinic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, the results of these tests were never published nor reported to the FDA. .
  • Samuel S. Epstein: A Dangerous Spin On The Cancer Risks Of Sugar-Free Sweeteners 10 February 2010 11:41 UTC www.huffingtonpost.com [Source type: General]

[13] .In 1980, the FDA convened a Public Board of Inquiry (PBOI) consisting of independent advisors charged with examining the purported relationship between aspartame and brain cancer.^ The FDA appointed a Public Board of Inquiry (PBOI) consisting of three qualified scientists from outside the agency.
  • A Bonnetful of Bees 10 February 2010 11:41 UTC wudhi.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A Public Board of Inquiry (PBOI) was conducted in 1980.
  • The side effects of artificial sweeteners like aspartame and Splenda: get the truth! 10 February 2010 11:41 UTC www.earthclinic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 1980, the FDA convened a Public Board of Inquiry (PBOI) consisting of independent advisors charged with examining the purported relationship between aspartame and brain cancer.

.The PBOI concluded that aspartame does not cause brain damage, but it recommended against approving aspartame at that time, citing unanswered questions about cancer in laboratory rats.^ This question about " Aspartame?
  • Aspartame? - Yahoo!7 Answers 10 February 2010 11:41 UTC au.answers.yahoo.com [Source type: General]

^ The PBOI concluded that aspartame did not cause brain damage, but it recommended against approving aspartame at that time, citing unanswered questions about cancer in laboratory rats.

^ Aspartame Causes Cancer in Rats at Levels Currently Approved for Humans January 25, 2007 .

.A U.S. FDA task force teams investigated allegations of errors in the pre-approval research conducted by the manufacturer and found only minor discrepancies that did not affect the study outcomes.^ The 1975 [FDA] task force investigation looked at the conduct of the experiments in depth, but did not look at the slides.
  • HISTORY OF ASPARTAME 10 February 2010 11:41 UTC www.wnho.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ G.D. Searle did not inform the FDA of this study until after aspartame's approval.
  • HISTORY OF ASPARTAME 10 February 2010 11:41 UTC www.wnho.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is highly unlikely that the FDA Investigative teams found all of the problems with G.D. Searle's studies.
  • HISTORY OF ASPARTAME 10 February 2010 11:41 UTC www.wnho.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[14][15] .On January 21, 1981, the day after Ronald Reagan's inauguration, Searle re-applied to the FDA for approval to use aspartame in food sweetener, and Reagan's new FDA commissioner, Arthur Hayes Hull, Jr., appointed a 5-person Scientific Commission to review the board of inquiry's decision.^ Should aspartame be allowed for use in foods, or, instead should approval of aspartame be withdrawn?
  • HISTORY OF ASPARTAME 10 February 2010 11:41 UTC www.wnho.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In April 1981, Arthur Hull Hayes, Jr. FDA Commissioner by Ronald Reagan (Graves 1984, page S5502 of Congressional Record 1985a).
  • HISTORY OF ASPARTAME 10 February 2010 11:41 UTC www.wnho.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Aspartame detox and use of alternative sweeteners .
  • Stevia Supreme Sweetener - 50 pack $1.99 +FS w/Amazon Prime 10 February 2010 11:41 UTC www.fatwallet.com [Source type: General]

.It soon became clear that the panel would uphold the ban by a 3-2 decision, but Hull then installed a sixth member on the commission, and the vote became deadlocked.^ After it became clear that the Commission would uphold the PBOI's decision by a vote of 3 to 2, another person was added to the Commission, creating a deadlocked vote.
  • The side effects of artificial sweeteners like aspartame and Splenda: get the truth! 10 February 2010 11:41 UTC www.earthclinic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Inexplicably, a sixth scientist was appointed who voted in favour, to deadlock the vote.
  • A Bonnetful of Bees 10 February 2010 11:41 UTC wudhi.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

He then personally broke the tie in aspartame's favor. .Hull later left the FDA under allegations of impropriety, served briefly as Provost at New York Medical College, and then took a position with Burston-Marsteller, the chief public relations firm for both Monsanto and GD Searle.^ He quit and joined Searle's public-relations firm as senior medical advisor.
  • The Skeptics Society Forum • View topic - Aspartame 10 February 2010 11:41 UTC www.skepticforum.com [Source type: General]

^ Three months later her left the FDA and accepted a position as the Senior Medical Advisor to Searle's PR firm of Burson-Marstellar.
  • Aspartame 10 February 2010 11:41 UTC www.ecoviva.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Shortly after that decision, he took a position with Burson-Marsteller, the firm in charge of public relations for G.D. Searle.
  • The side effects of artificial sweeteners like aspartame and Splenda: get the truth! 10 February 2010 11:41 UTC www.earthclinic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Since that time he has never spoken publicly about aspartame.^ The PBOI concluded that aspartame did not cause brain damage, but it recommended against approving aspartame at that time, citing unanswered questions about cancer in laboratory rats.

^ According to Hoechst, Sunette will have the same sweetening power as aspartame, which is about 200 times sweeter than sugar.
  • Aspartame 10 February 2010 11:41 UTC www.tuberose.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Since it educates about Chemical Hypersensitivity, (CHz), it is essential reading for a full understanding of the issue of sudden deaths from aspartame...

.Citing data from a Japanese study that had not been available to the members of the PBOI,[16] and after seeking advice from an expert panel that found fault with statistical analyses underlying the PBOI's hesitation,[17] FDA commissioner Hayes approved aspartame for use in dry goods.^ In 1974 aspartame was approved for use only in dry foods.
  • Aspartame 10 February 2010 11:41 UTC www.ecoviva.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In 1981, Arthur Hull Hayes was appointed commissioner of the FDA and in 1983 he approved aspartame for use in beverages.
  • Aspartame 10 February 2010 11:41 UTC www.ecoviva.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In July of 1981, aspartame was approved for use in dry foods.

[18] .In 1983, the FDA further approved aspartame for use in carbonated beverages, and for use in other beverages, baked goods, and confections in 1993. In 1996, the FDA removed all restrictions from aspartame allowing it to be used in all foods.^ In 1983 FDA further approved aspartame for use in carbonated beverages, and for use in other beverages, baked goods, and confections in 1993.

^ In 1974 aspartame was approved for use only in dry foods.
  • Aspartame 10 February 2010 11:41 UTC www.ecoviva.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In 1981, Arthur Hull Hayes was appointed commissioner of the FDA and in 1983 he approved aspartame for use in beverages.
  • Aspartame 10 February 2010 11:41 UTC www.ecoviva.com [Source type: Academic]

.In 1984, Monsanto Company bought G.D. Searle—and the aspartame business became a separate Monsanto subsidiary, the NutraSweet Company.^ In this acquisition, Searle's aspartame business became a separate Monsanto subsidiary, the NutraSweet Company.

^ Monsanto and NutraSweet argue that all the constituents of aspartame are in much greater quantities in natural drinks such as milk and tomato juice, not considered a health risk.

^ The NutraSweet Company and sister Searle whose chemists discovered aspartame while testing an ulcer drug are owned by Monsanto.
  • Aspartame and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome 10 February 2010 11:41 UTC barbfeick.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.On May 25, 2000, Monsanto sold it to J.W. Childs Equity Partners II L.P.[19] The U.S. patent on aspartame expired in 1992. Since then, the company has competed for market share with other manufacturers, including Ajinomoto, Merisant and the Holland Sweetener Company.^ Since that day, I have avoided aspartame and other artificial sweeteners.
  • Does Aspartame Cause Tumors and Pose Cancer Risks? The Jury Is Still Out | Environment | AlterNet 10 February 2010 11:41 UTC www.alternet.org [Source type: General]

^ The U.S. patent on aspartame expired in 1992, and the aspartame market is now hotly contested between the NutraSweet Company and other manufacturers such as Ajinomoto, Merisant and the Holland Sweetener Company.

^ The new sweetener, acesulfame potassium or "acesulfame K" for short, will compete with aspartame and saccharin in the billion-dollar-a-year artificial sweetener market in the U.S. The Hoechst Celanese Corporation of Somerville, N.J., a subsidiary of HOECHST A.G., of Frankfurt, West Germany, will market it under the brand name Sunette .
  • Aspartame 10 February 2010 11:41 UTC www.tuberose.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The latter stopped making the chemical in late 2006 because "global aspartame markets are facing structural oversupply, which has caused worldwide strong price erosion over the last five years", making the business "persistently unprofitable".[20]
.Several European Union countries approved aspartame in the 1980s, with EU-wide approval in 1994. The European Commission Scientific Committee on Food reviewed subsequent safety studies and reaffirmed the approval in 2002. The European Food Safety Authority reported in 2006 that the previously established Acceptable Daily Intake was appropriate, after reviewing yet another set of studies.^ Yet another study.
  • The Skeptics Society Forum • View topic - Aspartame 10 February 2010 11:41 UTC www.skepticforum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Council Report: Aspartame review of safety issues.
  • The Skeptics Society Forum • View topic - Aspartame 10 February 2010 11:41 UTC www.skepticforum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Aspartame: Review of safety issues.
  • Aspartame Disease: An FDA-Approved Epidemic 10 February 2010 11:41 UTC articles.mercola.com [Source type: Academic]
  • ACS :: Aspartame 10 February 2010 11:41 UTC www.cancer.org [Source type: Academic]

[21]

Metabolism and phenylketonuria

.Upon ingestion, aspartame breaks down into natural residual components, including aspartic acid, phenylalanine, methanol,[22] and further breakdown products including formaldehyde,[23] formic acid, and a DKP - Aspartylphenylalanine diketopiperazine[24].^ Approximately 40% of aspartame (by mass) is broken down into aspartic acid.

^ This type of diketopiperazine (DKP) is created in products as aspartame breaks down over time.

^ Aspartame is the methyl ester of the dipeptide of the amino acids l-aspartic acid and l-phenylalanine.

.High levels of the naturally-occurring essential amino acid phenylalanine are a health hazard to those born with phenylketonuria (PKU), a rare inherited disease that prevents phenylalanine from being properly metabolized.^ Phenylalanine is an amino acid.
  • HISTORY OF ASPARTAME 10 February 2010 11:41 UTC www.wnho.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This amino acid occurs naturally and is found in aspartame.
  • ACS :: Aspartame 10 February 2010 11:41 UTC www.cancer.org [Source type: Academic]

^ It is well-known that aspartame contains the naturally occurring amino acid phenylalanine, which is a health hazard to the few people born with phenylketonuria, a genetic intolerance of phenylalanine.

.Since individuals with PKU must consider aspartame as an additional source of phenylalanine, foods containing aspartame sold in the United States must state "Phenylketonurics: Contains Phenylalanine" on their product labels.^ Phenylketonurics: contains phenylalanine .
  • aspartame@Everything2.com 10 February 2010 11:41 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Today, over 5000 products contain aspartame.
  • Aspartame 10 February 2010 11:41 UTC www.ecoviva.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Twelve hundred food products now contain aspartame.
  • Aspartame 10 February 2010 11:41 UTC www.tuberose.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In the UK, foods that contain aspartame are legally required by the country's Food Standards Agency to list the chemical among the product's ingredients and carry the warning "Contains a source of phenylalanine" – this is usually at the foot of the list of ingredients.^ These chemical compounds are not required to be listed separately on food labels.

^ It is usually one of the last ingredients to be listed.
  • WikiAnswers - The side effects of diet coke 10 February 2010 11:41 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Today, over 5000 products contain aspartame.
  • Aspartame 10 February 2010 11:41 UTC www.ecoviva.com [Source type: Academic]

Manufacturers are also required to print '"with sweetener(s)" on the label close to the main product name' on foods that contain "sweeteners such as aspartame" or "with sugar and sweetener(s)" on "foods that contain both sugar and sweetener".[25]
.Studies have also been conducted regarding aspartame's effect on the production of Leptin which controls food intake and energy expenditure by acting on receptors in the mediobasal hypothalamus.^ There are sufficient studies on the effect of aspartame on the developing fetus to draw serious concern about the safety of this product.
  • Aspartame 10 February 2010 11:41 UTC www.ecoviva.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In a two-year study conducted by the manufacturer of aspartame, twelve of the 320 rats fed a normal diet and aspartame developed brain tumors while none of the control rats had tumors.
  • Diagnose-Me: Treatment: Aspartame (Nutrasweet) Avoidance 10 February 2010 11:41 UTC www.diagnose-me.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Aspartame, known to the public as NutraSweet, Equal, and Spoonful, has been the subject of controversy since it first became an ingredient in food products in 1981.
  • Aspartame Dangers 10 February 2010 11:41 UTC www.naturodoc.com [Source type: Academic]

[26] These studies[27] have shown that leptin was "significantly reduced by 34%" after "chronic ingestion of aspartame (ASP)."
.Further studies have shown that a metabolite of aspartame inhibits angiotensin converting enzyme.^ He said, "My study has shown that aspartame embalms living tissue, and it can cause 200 million deaths."
  • The Skeptics Society Forum • View topic - Aspartame 10 February 2010 11:41 UTC www.skepticforum.com [Source type: General]

^ Further epidemiological and long-term studies are needed to determine the extent of the hazard that aspartame consumption poses for humans."
  • aspartameNM : Message: eight depressed people react strongly to aspartame, Prof. Ralph G. Walton, MD, 1993 double-blind study, full text: Murray 2004.04.26 rmforall 10 February 2010 11:41 UTC groups.yahoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Dr Peter Nunn, who is leading the team, said: "Some studies have shown a link between aspartame and primary brain tumors, and some have shown no link.

[28]

Safety controversy

.The artificial sweetener aspartame has been the subject of controversy since its initial approval by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 1974. Concerns have been raised about the quality of the research supporting its safety and the long-term effects that increased consumption could have on the public.^ Aspartame is an artificial sweetener safety-approved by regulatory agencies in over 100 countries, including the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in the United States.
  • Tag: Aspartame - Explore content tagged Aspartame on eHow.com 10 February 2010 11:41 UTC www.ehow.com [Source type: General]

^ Aspartame is an artificial sweetener that was discovered in 1965.
  • Tag: Aspartame - Explore content tagged Aspartame on eHow.com 10 February 2010 11:41 UTC www.ehow.com [Source type: General]

^ Aspartame is an artificial sweetener.
  • ASPARTAME ANYONE??? | epilepsy.com 10 February 2010 11:41 UTC www.epilepsy.com [Source type: General]

[29][30][31] .Some scientific studies, combined with allegations of conflicts of interest in the sweetener's FDA approval process, have been the focus of vocal activism, conspiracy theories and hoaxes regarding postulated risks of aspartame.^ These possibilities, combined with notable conflicts of interest in the approval process, have engendered vocal activism regarding the legitimate risks of aspartame as well as some less credible theories.

^ A conflict on interest in the approval is plausible.
  • The Skeptics Society Forum • View topic - Aspartame 10 February 2010 11:41 UTC www.skepticforum.com [Source type: General]

^ G.D. Searle did not inform the FDA of this study until after aspartame's approval.
  • HISTORY OF ASPARTAME 10 February 2010 11:41 UTC www.wnho.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[32][33]
.Some sources of claims regarding postulated aspartame dangers and conspiracies have been the subject of critical examination.^ BS, my only "claim" is that there's no irrefutable scientific evidence that aspartame is dangerous.
  • The Skeptics Society Forum • View topic - Aspartame 10 February 2010 11:41 UTC www.skepticforum.com [Source type: General]

^ What you need to do is demonstrate how the FDA, JAMA, and other research that found no danger with regard to aspartame is wrong.
  • The Skeptics Society Forum • View topic - Aspartame 10 February 2010 11:41 UTC www.skepticforum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Aspartame has been the subject of a vigorous public controversy regarding its safety and the circumstances around its approval.

[34] .In 1987, the U.S. Government Accountability Office concluded that the food additive approval process had been followed for aspartame.^ Reform the approval process so that it protects the people it was meant to protect and holds those accountable it is supoposed to hold accountable .
  • Aspartame: Sweet Misery A Poisoned World 10 February 2010 11:41 UTC www.infowars.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Should aspartame be allowed for use in foods, or, instead should approval of aspartame be withdrawn?
  • HISTORY OF ASPARTAME 10 February 2010 11:41 UTC www.wnho.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The ambiguous signals to the satiety center following aspartame intake may result either in increased food consumption or severe anorexia.
  • Aspartame Disease: An FDA-Approved Epidemic 10 February 2010 11:41 UTC articles.mercola.com [Source type: Academic]

[29][35] .Based on government research reviews and recommendations from advisory bodies such as the European Commission’s Scientific Committee on Food and the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives, aspartame has been found to be safe for human consumption by more than ninety countries worldwide.^ Is Aspartame the worst food additive in the world?  .
  • Aspartame 10 February 2010 11:41 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A d v e r t i s e m e n t Aspartame can be found in thousands of products such as: .
  • Aspartame: Sweet Misery A Poisoned World 10 February 2010 11:41 UTC www.infowars.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ JECFA- Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives, Toxicological evaluation of certain food additives, WHO Food Additives Series No.
  • ACS :: Aspartame 10 February 2010 11:41 UTC www.cancer.org [Source type: Academic]

[36][37] .In 1999, FDA officials described the safety of aspartame as "clear cut" and stated that the product is "one of the most thoroughly tested and studied food additives the agency has ever approved."^ The greatest Internet myth about aspartame is this: "Aspartame is the most thoroughly tested food additive in history."
  • aspartameNM : Message: eight depressed people react strongly to aspartame, Prof. Ralph G. Walton, MD, 1993 double-blind study, full text: Murray 2004.04.26 rmforall 10 February 2010 11:41 UTC groups.yahoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Is Aspartame the worst food additive in the world?  .
  • Aspartame 10 February 2010 11:41 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The safety testing of aspartame has gone well beyond that required to evaluate the safety of a food additive.
  • aspartame - Bodybuilding.com Forums 10 February 2010 11:41 UTC forum.bodybuilding.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.[38] A 2007 safety evaluation found that the weight of existing scientific evidence indicates that aspartame is safe at current levels of consumption as a non-nutritive sweetener.^ However, a scientific review of all the evidence available in 1996 found 92 per cent of the independent - non-industry-funded - medical data relating to health risks of aspartame identified safety concerns.

^ M. Nathaniel Mead Aspartame is an artificial sweetener used in more than 6,000 diet...experimental evidence for the carcinogenic effects of aspartame at a dose level within range of human daily intake EHP...
  • Aspartame: Free Encyclopedia Articles at Questia.com Online Library 10 February 2010 11:41 UTC www.questia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Artificial Sweeteners Don't Fool Your Brain The phenylalanine in aspartame dissociates from the ester bond and increases dopamine levels in your brain.
  • Aspartame Symptoms - Wellsphere 10 February 2010 11:41 UTC stanford.wellsphere.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[4]

Compendial status

References

  1. ^ Merck Index, 11th Edition, 861.
  2. ^ Rowe, Raymond C. (2009). "Aspartame". Handbook of Pharmaceutical Excipients. pp. 11–12. 
  3. ^ "The Lowdown on Sweet?" The New York Times, 12 February 2006
  4. ^ a b Magnuson BA, Burdock GA, Doull J (2007). "Aspartame: a safety evaluation based on current use levels, regulations, and toxicological and epidemiological studies". Crit. Rev. Toxicol. 37 (8): 629–727. doi:10.1080/10408440701516184. PMID 17828671. 
  5. ^ John Schmeltzer (2004-12-02). "Equal fights to get even as Splenda looks sweet"] (subscription required). Chicago Tribune. http://www.chicagotribune.com/business/chi-0412020391dec02,1,2234783.story?coll=chi-business-hed. Retrieved 2007-07-04. 
  6. ^ Carney, By Beth (2005-01-19). "It's Not All Sweetness for Splenda". BusinessWeek: Daily Briefing. http://www.businessweek.com/bwdaily/dnflash/jan2005/nf20050119_5391_db014.htm. Retrieved 2008-09-05. 
  7. ^ David J. Ager, David P. Pantaleone, Scott A. Henderson, Alan R. Katritzky, Indra Prakash, D. Eric Walters (1998). "Commercial, Synthetic Nonnutritive Sweeteners". Angewandte Chemie International Edition 37 (13-24): 1802–1817. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1521-3773(19980803)37:13/14<1802::AID-ANIE1802>3.0.CO;2-9. 
  8. ^ The Independent, Sunday, 20 June 1999
  9. ^ Method for production of L-phenylalanine by recombinant E. coli ATCC 67460
  10. ^ "Fountain Beverages in the US" (PDF). The Coca-Cola Company. May 2007. http://www.thecoca-colacompany.com/mail/goodanswer/us_fountain_beverages.pdf. 
  11. ^ "Has aspartame an aftertaste". Institute of Food Technologists. Sept/Oct 1985. http://grande.nal.usda.gov/ibids/index.php?mode2=detail&origin=ibids_references&therow=419684. 
  12. ^ Magnuson BA, Burdock GA, Doull J (2007). "Aspartame: a safety evaluation based on current use levels, regulations, and toxicological and epidemiological studies". Crit. Rev. Toxicol. 37 (8): 629–727. doi:10.1080/10408440701516184. PMID 17828671.  Citing: Mazur, R.H. (1984). Discovery of aspartame. In Aspartame: Physiology and Biochemistry (L. D. Stegink and L. J. Filer Jr., Eds.). Marcel Dekker, New York, pp. 3–9.
  13. ^ Andrew Cockburn, Rumsfeld: His Rise, Fall, and Catastrophic Legacy, Simon and Schuster 2007, pp. 63-64
  14. ^ "U.S. GAO - HRD-87-46 Food and Drug Administration: Food Additive Approval Process Followed for Aspartame, June 18, 1987". pp. 94–96. http://www.gao.gov/docdblite/info.php?rptno=HRD-87-46. Retrieved 2008-09-05. 
  15. ^ Testimony of Dr. Adrian Gross, Former FDA Investigator to the U.S. Senate Committee on Labor and Human Resources, November 3, 1987. Hearing title: "NutraSweet Health and Safety Concerns." Document # Y 4.L 11/4:S.HR6.100, page 430-439.
  16. ^ FDA Statement on Aspartame, November 18, 1996
  17. ^ "U.S. GAO - HRD-87-46 Food and Drug Administration: Food Additive Approval Process Followed for Aspartame, June 18, 1987". pp. 53. http://www.gao.gov/docdblite/info.php?rptno=HRD-87-46. Retrieved 2008-09-05. 
  18. ^ Food Additive Approval Process Followed for Aspartame, Food and Drug Administration, June 1987
  19. ^ J.W. Childs Equity Partners II, L.P, Food & Drink Weekly, June 5, 2000
  20. ^ html b1?release id=115447
  21. ^ EFSA ::. Opinion of the Scientific Panel on food additives, flavourings, processing aids and materials in contact with food (AFC) related to a new long-term carcinogenicity study on aspartame
  22. ^ http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC387446/
  23. ^ C. Trocho, R. Pardo, I. Rafecas, J. Virgili, X. Remesar, J. A. Fernandez-Lopez and M. Alemany (1998). "Formaldehyde derived from dietary aspartame binds to tissue components in vivo". Life Sciences 63 (5): 337–349. doi:10.1016/S0024-3205(98)00282-3. 
  24. ^ http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/jo00247a018
  25. ^ Aspartame - Labelling, UK Food Standards Agency, 18 July 2006. Retrieved on 2007-07-22.
  26. ^ Williams KW, Scott MM, Elmquist JK (March 2009). "From observation to experimentation: leptin action in the mediobasal hypothalamus". Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 89 (3): 985S–990S. doi:10.3945/ajcn.2008.26788D. PMID 19176744. 
  27. ^ Bernard Beck, Arlette Burlet, Jean-Pierre Max and Alain Stricker-Krongrad (February 2002). "Effects of long-term ingestion of aspartame on hypothalamic neuropeptide Y, plasma leptin and body weight gain and composition". Physiology & Behavior 75 (1-2): 41–47. doi:10.1016/S0031-9384(01)00654-0. PMID 11890951. 
  28. ^ Damian Grobelnyb, Richard E. Galard (1985). "A metabolite of aspartame inhibits angiotensin converting enzyme". Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 128 (2): 960–964. doi:10.1016/0006-291X(85)90140-8. 
  29. ^ a b GAO 1987. "Food Additive Approval Process Followed for Aspartame" Full GAO Report United States General Accounting Office, GAO/HRD-87-46, June 18, 1987
  30. ^ Sugarman, Carole (1983-07-03). "Controversy Surrounds Sweetener". Washington Post. pp. D1–2. http://pqasb.pqarchiver.com/washingtonpost_historical/access/125899752.html?dids=125899752:125899752&FMT=ABS&FMTS=ABS:FT. Retrieved 2008-11-25. 
  31. ^ Henkel J (1999). "Sugar substitutes. Americans opt for sweetness and lite". FDA Consumer Magazine 33 (6): 12–6. PMID 10628311. http://books.google.com/books?id=bLuA-9PPe7gC&pg=PA1. 
  32. ^ the University of Hawaii. "Falsifications and Facts about Aspartame - An analysis of the origins of aspartame disinformation". http://www.ctahr.hawaii.edu/oc/freepubs/pdf/FST-3.pdf. 
  33. ^ "Aspartame Warning". About.com. http://urbanlegends.about.com/library/blasp.htm.  - the Nancy Markle chain email.
  34. ^ Deconstructing Web Pages - An exercise deconstructing a web page to determine its credibility as a source of information, using the aspartame controversy as the example.
  35. ^ GAO 1986. "Six Former HHS Employees' Involvement in Aspartame's Approval." United States General Accounting Office, GAO/HRD-86-109BR, July 1986.
  36. ^ Health Canada: "Aspartame - Artificial Sweeteners". http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/fn-an/securit/addit/sweeten-edulcor/aspartame-eng.php. Retrieved 2008-11-08. 
  37. ^ Food Standards Australia New Zealand: "Food Standards Australia New Zealand: Aspartame (September 2007)". http://www.foodstandards.gov.au/newsroom/factsheets/factsheets2007/aspartameseptember203703.cfm. Retrieved 2008-11-08. 
  38. ^ Henkel, John (November–December 1999). "Sugar Substitutes: Americans Opt for Sweetness and Lite". FDA Consumer. http://web.archive.org/web/20071214170430/www.fda.gov/fdac/features/1999/699_sugar.html. Retrieved January 29, 2009. 
  39. ^ British Pharmacopoeia Commission Secretariat. "Index (BP)". http://www.pharmacopoeia.co.uk/pdf/2009_index.pdf. Retrieved 16 January 2010. 
  40. ^ United States Pharmacopeia. "Food Ingredient Reference Standards". http://www.usp.org/pdf/EN/fccRefStandards.pdf. Retrieved 16 January 2010. 

Simple English

Aspartame (also known as E951 or NutraSweet[1]) is an artificial sweetener, that was discovered in 1965, by James M. Schlatter. It can be used to replace some kinds of sugar. It is not based on saccharides, like saccharin.

[[File:|thumb|right|250px|Aspartame]]

References

  1. nutrition.org



Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 15, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Aspartame, which are similar to those in the above article.








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