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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Populus sect. Populus
Snowbowl Aspens
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta
Class: Magnoliopsida
Order: Malpighiales
Family: Salicaceae
Genus: Populus
Section: Populus sect. Populus
Species

Populus adenopoda
Populus alba
Populus grandidentata
Populus sieboldii
Populus tremula
Populus tremuloides

Aspen is a common name for Tree of the Salicaceae family, most of those in a section, Populus sect. Populus, of the Populus (poplar) genus. Some of the species in the section are:

  • Populus alba: White Poplar (northwest Africa, southern Europe, east to central Asia)
  • Populus adenopoda: Chinese Aspen (China, south of P. tremula)
  • Populus grandidentata: Bigtooth Aspen (eastern North America, south of P. tremuloides)
  • Populus sieboldii: Japanese Aspen (Japan)
  • Populus tremula: Common, Swedish, Trembling or Eurasian Aspen (northern Europe & Asia)
  • Populus tremuloides: Quaking, Trembling or American Aspen (northern & western North America)
  • Populus × canescens: Grey Poplar (hybrid P. alba × P. tremula)

There are other species.[1]

Contents

Leaves

Aspens, apart from the aberrant White Poplar, are distinguished by their nearly round Leaf on mature trees, 4-12 cm in diameter with irregular rounded teeth. They are carried on strongly flattened leaf stems, that cause the leaves to twist and flutter in slight breezes. The juvenile leaves on young seedlings and root sprouts differ markedly from the adult leaves, being nearly triangular, showing here the typical leaf shape of most other poplars; they are also often much larger, 10–20 cm long. The five typical aspens are distinguished from each other by leaf size and the size and spacing of the teeth on the adult leaves. White Poplar leaves differ in being deeply five-lobed, covered in thick white down, and having only a slightly flattened leaf stem.

Quaking

The unusual ability of the leaves of Populus to twist and bend due to the flattened petioles may not be fully understood. It is thought to help protect the trees from severe winds, perhaps by helping dissipate energy more uniformly throughout the canopy.[2] It is also thought to improve the rate of photosynthesis throughout the tree by reducing the exposure of the outer leaves to extreme sunlight (thus reducing photoinhibition) by presenting the leaves at an oblique angle to the sun throughout the day, while at the same time allowing more light through to the lower leaves which are generally over-shaded. This would enable leaves throughout the tree to photosynthesize more efficiently.[3] Another theory that has been advanced is that the constant motion aids the tree's growth: the constant movement is thought to increase the intake of air by the leaves, and hence the rate of carbon fixation from the air's carbon dioxide.[4]

The Quaking Aspen of North America is known for its leaves turning spectacular tints of red and yellow in the autumn, popular among tourists.[5] While best noted in Colorado, Quaking Aspens are found as far south as the San Bernardino Mountains of Southern California, the Peninsula Ranges of Baja California, and in the Sierra Madre of central Mexico.

Habitat and longevity

The five typical aspens are all native to cold regions with cool summers, in the north of the Northern Hemisphere, extending south at high altitudes in the mountains. The White Poplar, by contrast, is native to warmer regions, with hot, dry summers. These trees are all medium-sized deciduous trees ranging 15–30 metres tall.

All of the aspens (including the White Poplar) typically grow in large clonal colonies derived from a single seedling, and spreading by means of root suckers; new stems in the colony may appear at up to 30–40 metres from the parent tree. Each individual tree can live for 40–150 years above ground, but the root system of the colony is long-lived. In some cases, this is for thousands of years, sending up new trunks as the older trunks die off above ground. For this reason it is considered to be an indicator of ancient woodlands. One such colony in Utah, given the nickname of "Pando", is claimed to be 80,000 years old, making it possibly the oldest living colony of aspens. Some aspen colonies become very large with time, spreading about a metre per year, eventually covering many hectares. They are able to survive forest fires, since the roots are below the heat of the fire, with new sprouts growing after the fire burns out.

However, aspens do not thrive very well in the shade, and it is difficult for aspen seedlings to grow in an already mature aspen stand. Fire indirectly benefits aspen trees, since it allows the saplings to flourish in open sunlight in the burned landscape. Lately, aspens have an increased popularity in forestry, mostly because of their fast growth rate and ability to regenerate from sprouts, making the reforestation after harvesting much cheaper, since no planting or sowing is required.

In contrast with many trees, aspen bark is base-rich, meaning that aspens are important hosts for bryophytes[6] and act as food plants for the larvae of butterfly (Lepidoptera) species—see List of Lepidoptera that feed on poplars.

Uses

Aspen wood is white and soft, but fairly strong, and has low flammability. It has a number of uses, notably for making matches, where its low flammability makes it safer to use than most other woods. Shredded aspen wood is used for packing and stuffing, sometimes called excelsior (wood wool). It is also a popular animal bedding, since it lacks the phenols associated with pine and juniper, which are thought to cause respiratory system ailments in some animals. Heat-treated aspen is a popular material for the interiors of a sauna.

Aspens and other members of the Populus genus contain salicylates, compounds related to aspirin.[citation needed] Leaves and leaf buds of aspens have been used to treat burns, irritations, aches, and swollen joints. Bitter herbal tea from bark and leaves has been used to treat mild urinary tract inflammations. The Ojibwe used the inner bark of the trunk as a poultice, and the Cree ate the inner bark in the spring as a mild purgative.[citation needed]

Gallery

References

  1. ^ "Populus Sect. Populus". Flora of China. http://www.efloras.org/browse.aspx?flora_id=2&start_taxon_id=300251. 
  2. ^ William R. Chaney, Purdue University: How Wind Affects Trees
  3. ^ Ernest Williams: Field Trip Guide for Utica Marsh: Quaking Aspen
  4. ^ The Observer's book of trees, pg 127, L.Edlin, Herbert, Frederick Warne (publishers) ltd. 1975
  5. ^ "Fall Colors of Aspen", Celebrating Wildflowers, US Forest Service, http://www.fs.fed.us/wildflowers/communities/aspen/fallcolors.shtml 
  6. ^ The Biodiversity and Management of Aspen woodlands: Proceedings of a one-day conference held in Kingussie, Scotland, on 25th May 2001

External links


Travel guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikitravel

Maroon Bells near Aspen
Maroon Bells near Aspen

Aspen [1] is a ski resort in the state of Colorado in the Rocky Mountains region of the United States of America. Its little sister is Snowmass Village, which is about 10 miles from downtown Aspen.

  • Aspen-Pitkin County Airport, (also known as Sardy Field) (IATA: ASE) (ICAO: KASE)), [2]. Major carriers to Aspen include United, US Airways, Delta Airlines, and Frontier Airlines. ASE is a small airport for small planes only, and traffic tends to stop in any inclement weather. Flying into Denver Airport and driving up to Aspen is more reliable and often cheaper.

By car

The drive to Aspen is about 4 hours from Denver. There are two major routes from Denver - through Glenwood Springs or through Independence Pass. Independence Pass is only open in the summer months, but provides spectacular views and can be a bit faster than the longer route through Glenwood. To take this route, travel south from Copper Mountain exit off I70 through Leadville.

Altitude Sickness

For those prone to altitude sickness, it is recommended that you fly into Denver and spend a day or so getting used to being mile-high and then driving the next 3,500 or so feet up.

Get around

Most major car-rental firms are located in Denver and Aspen airports.

Scheduled and chartered services are available from Denver International Airport and Eagle County Regional Airport:

  • B-LineXpress, Toll Free: 1-800-423-0929 or Phone +1 970-390-1641. [3]
  • Brio Limo, Phone: +1 970 366-6393. [4]
  • Colorado Mountain Express, Toll Free: 800-525-6363 or Phone: +1 970 926-9800.
  • Rocky Mountain Limousine, "+1 970" 343-0000. [5]
  • High Mountain Taxi/Limousine, Toll Free: 800-528-8294 or Phone: +1 970 925-8294. [6]
  • Lightning Limousine Service, Toll Free: 888-925-7505 or Phone: +1 970 925-7505.
  • Ute City Limousine Limited, Toll Free: 800-754-5466 or Phone: +1 970 925-2674.

Free buses operate within the cities of Aspen and Snowmass Village and many hotels have free shuttle service to and from the airport.

It's all about getting around on skis in the winter and mountain bikes or your own two feet in the summer!

John Denver Park
John Denver Park
  • John Denver Park - this Aspen park is a pleasant place to take your dog or your kids for a splash in the creek in summertime. The park is named after the famous Country and Folk singer who resided in Aspen. Lyrics from his most popular songs are inscribed in the creekside boulders. John Denver Park is on the creek trail on the north side of Aspen, near the Rio Grande Ball Field and park at N. Mill St. and Rio Grande Pl.
  • Maroon Bells - a short drive outside of Aspen, the Maroon Bells are one of the most photographed mountain scenes in Colorado. The lake and views of the 14,000 foot peaks are spectacular. In the summer months between 8AM and 5PM, visitors must take a shuttle bus to the Maroon Bells to control traffic. Tickets are $6 for adults and $4 for children. There are some short, non-strenuous hikes around the Maroon Bells that vary from 1 mile to 10. People also like to climb the Maroon Bells; however, it is very dangerous and a guide is highly recommended.
  • Independence Pass - In the summer months, this pass is open to vehicular traffic. The drive takes you up to the Continental Divide, and along the way passes some of the most beautiful scenery in the area and a ghost town that is open to visitors.

Do

Winter

  • Ski - four ski mountains in the area: Aspen Mountain, Snowmass, Aspen Highlands, and Buttermilk.
  • Sleigh rides
  • Sledding
  • Snowshoeing
  • Snowmobiling

Summer

  • Mountain bike
  • Hike
  • Golf
  • Gondola rides to the top of Aspen Mountain
  • White water rafting
  • Fly fishing
  • Mine exploration
  • Hot air ballooning
  • Rodeos
  • Paint ball
  • Paragliding
  • Outdoor concerts

Music

  • Belly Up - Small venue hosting some impressive artists, downtown Aspen [7]
  • June Festival - June 22nd - 25th, 2006
  • Jazz Aspen Snowmass Labor Day Festival - September 1st - 4th, 2006, Snowmass Town Park

Golf

  • Aspen Golf Club Phone: (970) 925-2145, [8]. Opened in 1980, the 18-hole Aspen course at the Aspen Golf Club facility features 7,165 yards of golf from the longest tees for a par of 71 . The course rating is 72.1 and it has a slope rating of 124 on Blue grass.
  • Maroon Creek Club Phone: (970) 920-4080 [9]. The 18-hole course at the Maroon Creek Club features 7,100 yards of golf from the longest tees for a par of 70 . The course rating is 73.6 and it has a slope rating of 140 on Blue grass. The course opened in 1995.
  • Snowmass Club, Phone: +1 970 923-5600, [10]. Ten minutes downvalley in Snowmass Village. The Snowmass Club's new 18-hole, par-72 Snowmass Club Golf Course. The 6,986-yard semi-private course designed by award-winning golf course architect Jim Engh includes a learning center, practice area and new golf clubhouse with Black Saddle Bar & Grille, a full-service restaurant and bar. With five sets of tee boxes at each hole and a truly unique design, golfers of all abilities will enjoy play that is as fun as it is challenging
  • River Valley Ranch Golf Club, Phone: +1 970 963-3625, [11]. Eighteen holes, slope 73.2, rating 125, 7,348 yards. 30 minutes downvalley in Carbondale,River Valley Ranch Golf Club. Good bang for buck.

Buy

Downtown Aspen has a plethora of shops for every price budget. The downtown area also has two pedestrian-only streets lined with t-shirt and souvenir shops. Of course, Aspen is a great place to buy ski equipment and clothing with an abundance of ski shops and stores. The city also has an open air market in the summer months.

Snowmass Village also has its own shopping precinct, fitted with numerous candy shops, souvenir shops and ski shops.

Equipment Rental

There are many places in Aspen Snowmass where you can rent all types of equipment including skis and snowboards in the winter and bikes in the summer.

Just a few stores that specialize in equipment rentals:

At some places, you can also book your ski or snowboard rentals online which may save money and time.

  • The Artisan Restaurant in Snowmass in the Stone Bridge Inn has a fresh menu [13] and many off-menu options.
  • Have lunch at Woody Creek Tavern, in "downtown" Woody Creek. This is the former haunt of the late great Hunter S. Thompson. It's about 15 miles from Aspen.
  • Crystal Palace Theatre Restaurant, [14]. Well worth a visit. They serve a gourmet dinner followed by cabaret revue of political satire which is quite a hoot. The Cabaret is fun, even for Dinner Theater Skeptics. Closes forever on April 12th 2008. still open just no show.. only dinner
  • The Pine Creek Cookhouse, 20 minutes south of Aspen on Castle Creek Road, [15]. It is worth the trip down a beautiful valley to the elegant log cabinesque building. Their food is very fresh, on the gourmet side, and not overly expensive. Reservations recommended. Highly recommended to stop in for lunch after a morning hike to one of the many great trails in the area such as Cathedral Lake.
  • The Hickory House, located on the bend towards the entrance to Aspen on Main Street Tourists are often crowded out by the locals, drawn by fabulous barbecue and huge, hearty breakfasts. If you're lucky enough to be in Aspen for Thanksgiving, turn out for annual Hickory House freebie: turkey, with all the trimmings, and all gratis.
  • Ajax Tavern, Base of Aspen Mountain, 970-920-6334. Great apres ski complete with the whos who of Aspen. Fantastic deck perfect for watching skiiers come down the mountain while you enjoy people watching of the rich and famous. Order the Ajax Double Double, the best burger in town.  edit
  • J-Bar, 330 E Main St, (970) 920-1000, [16]. The J-Bar is one of Aspen's favorite watering holes. Located at the luxurious Hotel Jerome  edit
  • Garden Terrace, 330 East Main Street, (970) 920-1000, [17]. The Garden Terrace features a relaxed ambiance and unique cuisine while gazing at the breathtaking views of Aspen Mountain. Located at the Aspen luxury hotel, Hotel Jerome.  edit
  • Jacob's, 330 East Main St, (970) 920-1000, [18]. Jacob’s offers diverse Colorado cuisine with alpine influence that is prepared from wholesome natural ingredients professionally executed from scratch.  edit
  • AspenDelivery.com, Aspen/Snowmass, [19]. Offers grocery delivery to your vacation home or condo in Aspen and Snowmass prior to your arrival.  edit
  • Syzygy 520 E Hyman Ave,(970) 925-3700‎. A trendy, favorite for many visitors.
  • Matsuhisia. Amazing and award winning japanese food along with some of the best sushi in the country.  edit
  • Cache Cache. Excellent french restaurant is the trendy place to see and be seen.  edit
  • Pinions. Expensive, exquisite cuisine popular with celebrities and socialites.  edit
  • Campo De Fiori. Best Italian food in the state and one of the best in the country makes you feel like you're in Italy. Also has a great bar, scene.  edit
  • Mezzaluna. Great Italian-American style food in a trendy establishment. Best place for lunch and late at night.  edit
  • Boogies Diner. centrally located over-priced diner located in an over-priced jeans store.  edit
  • Paradise Bakery. Best ice cream in town, along with amazing baked goods and coffees. Two locations, one in central Aspen and one in central Snowmass.  edit
  • Lulu Wilson.  edit
  • Cloud-9 Bistro. Excellent European food on Aspen Highlands. Very well priced. Perfect for a ski day lunch break. Frequently visited by celebrities.  edit
  • Asie. Very mediocre asian-american food. good for families that don't really like asian food  edit
  • Caribou Club. Insanely expensive and fancy private dining club for snobby locals.  edit
  • Aspen Square, 617 East Cooper Ave, +1 877 538 7389 (), [20]. checkin: 4:00pm; checkout: 10:00am. A full service condominium hotel with sixty-four steps to the Silver Queen Gondola. Around $200. (39.18698,-106.813637) edit
  • Aspen Meadows Resort 845 Meadows Road, 970.925.4240 [21]. In Aspen's West End and home to the Aspen Institute. The Music Tent is on the hotel's immense 42 acres. Features tennis courts and a health club with unparalleled views and recently refurbished guest rooms.
  • Silvertree Hotel, Phone: +1 970 923-3520, [22]. Downtown Snowmass Village hotel and conference center. Self-contained and central in Snowmass.
  • St. Regis, Phone (970) 920-3300, [23]. Outstanding luxury hotel in the heart of Aspen from which you can directly debark Ajax lifts.
  • Sky Hotel, 709 East Durant Avenue, Phone: +1 970 925-6760, [24].
  • Hotel Jerome, 330 East Main St, (970) 920-1000, [25]. Hotel Jerome, Aspen's crown jewel since 1889, combines elegant accommodations and relaxed ambiance. Located in the heart of Aspen – just steps from the town’s chic galleries, boutiques, restaurants and cafés – the AAA Four Diamond Award-winning hotel features 93 richly appointed rooms and suites, several celebrated restaurants and bars, unsurpassed guest services, and easy access to thrilling outdoor activities, including skiing, hiking, mountain biking, fly fishing and more.  edit
  • The Gant, 610 West End, Toll free: +1 800 549-0530, [26]. An upscale condominium resort, The Gant offers 2-4 bedroom condominium rentals with a variety of resort features and a convenient location near downtown Aspen.
  • The Little Nell. Extremely over-priced and showy hotel footsteps away from the Aspen Mountain gondola. Very popular with celebrities. also hosts its own lavish restaurant, Montagna.  edit
  • Aspen Land & Homes, 315 S. Galena, Phone: +1 800 695-3955, [27] Offering a wide selection of homes, townhomes and condominiums for nightly, weekly or long term rental.
  • Destination Resorts Snowmass, PO Box 5629, Snowmass Village, Phone: 800-961-9088, [28]. The 2nd largest ski resort in Colorado is located 9 miles from downtown Aspen. This four- season luxury resort features condominium rentals, ski-in/ski-out accommodations, ski services, fine dining options, and meeting and wedding facilities.
  • The Ritz Carlton Club. Private fractional-ownership condominiums nestled at the footsteps of Aspen Highlands ski hill.  edit

Get out

Glenwood Springs - Home to a quaint, historic downtown and the largest hotspring pool in the USA.

Denver - A 4 hour drive, Denver is Colorado's capital and largest city. Denver boasts historic buildings and modernistic skyscrapers, abundant shopping and incredible dining. Located where the Great Plains meet the Rocky Mountains, Denver has some of the best views a city can have. It is also home to one of the last downtown amusement parks, Elitch Gardens.

Colorado is home to over 70 wineries and its own indigenous vineyards. Wine lovers can enjoy several scenic day trips from Aspen to many of the small towns that are a part of Colorado's Wine Country. These lovely little communities include Montrose, Palisade, Paonia and Hotchkiss, as well as the city of Grand Junction.

This is a usable article. It has information for getting in as well as some complete entries for restaurants and hotels. An adventurous person could use this article, but please plunge forward and help it grow!

1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

ASPEN, an important section of the poplar genus (Populus) of which the common aspen of Europe, P. tremula, may be taken as the type, - a tall fast-growing tree with rather slender trunk, and grey bark becoming rugged when old. The roundish leaves, toothed on the margin, are slightly downy when young, but afterwards smooth, dark green on the upper and greyish green on the lower surface; the long slender petioles, much flattened towards the outer end, allow of free lateral motion by the lightest breeze, giving the foliage its well-known tremulous character. By their friction on each other the leaves give rise to a rustling sound. It is supposed that the mulberry trees (Becaim) mentioned in Chronicles xiv. 14, 15 were really aspen trees. The flowers, which appear in March and April, are borne on pendulous hairy catkins, 2 -3 in. long; male and female catkins are, as in the other species of the genus, on distinct trees.

The aspen is found in moist places, sometimes at a considerable elevation, 1600 ft. or more, in Scotland. It is an abundant tree in the northern parts of Britain, even as far as Sutherland, and is occasionally found in the coppices of the southern counties, but in these latter habitats seldom reaches any large size; throughout northern Europe it abounds in the forests, - in Lapland flourishing even in 70 0 N. lat., while in Siberia its range extends to the Arctic Circle; in Norway its upper limit is said to coincide with that of the pine; trees exist near the western coast having stems 15 ft. in circumference. The wood of the aspen is very light and soft, though tough; it is employed by coopers, chiefly for pails and herring-casks; it is also made into butchers' trays, pack-saddles, and various articles for which its lightness recommends it; sabots are also made of it in France, and in medieval days it was valued for arrows, especially for those used in target practice; the bark is used for tanning in northern countries; cattle and deer browse greedily on the young shoots and abundant suckers. Aspen wood makes but indifferent fuel, but charcoal prepared from it is light and friable, and has been employed in gunpowder manufacture. The powdered bark is sometimes given to horses as a vermifuge; it possesses likewise tonic and febrifugal properties, containing a considerable amount of salicin. The aspen is readily propagated either by cuttings or suckers, but has been but little planted of late years in Britain. P. trepida, or tremuloides, is closely allied to the European aspen, being chiefly distinguished by its more pointed leaves; it is a native of most parts of Canada and the United States, extending northwards as far as Great Slave Lake. The wood is soft and neither strong nor durable; it burns better in the green state than that of most trees, and is often used by the hunters of the North-West as fuel; split into thin layers, it was formerly employed in the United States for bonnet and hat making. It is largely manufactured into wood-pulp for paper-making. The bark is of some value as a tonic and febrifuge. P. grandidentata, the large-leaved American aspen, has ovate or roundish leaves deeply and irregularly serrated on the margin. The wood is light, soft and close-grained, but not strong. In northern New England and Canada it is largely manufactured into wood-pulp; it is occasionally used in turnery and for wooden-ware.


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Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

See also aspen

Contents

English

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Wikipedia has an article on:

Wikipedia

Proper noun

Singular
Aspen

Plural
-

Aspen

  1. A ski-resort town in Colorado.
  2. A small community in Guysborough County, Nova Scotia.
  3. A female given name of modern usage, denominated for the aspen tree.

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