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"Assassin" and "Assassins" redirect here. For other uses, see Assassin (disambiguation).
.An assassination is the targeted killing of a public figure.^ When did we as human beings find talks about DEATH and killing someone, let alone a public figure, HUMOUROUS??
  • Michael Calderone's Blog: Fox analyst apologizes for Obama assassination joke - Politico.com 10 February 2010 11:41 UTC www.politico.com [Source type: General]

Assassinations may be prompted by religious, ideological, political, or military reasons. Additionally, assassins may be motivated by financial gain, revenge, or personal public recognition.
Assassination may also refer to the government-sanctioned killing of opponents or to targeted attacks on high-profile enemy combatants.[1]
In figurative language usage, the word assassination may also be used in colloquial speech as a hyperbole, as in the phrase "character assassination," meaning an attempt to impugn another's character, and thus kill ("assassinate") his reputation and credibility.

Contents

Etymology

The word assassin is derived from the Arabic word Hashshashin (Arabic: حشاشون \ جماعة الحشاشين[2]), the Arabic designation of the Nizari branch of the Ismā'īlī Shia Muslims during the Middle Ages. They were active in the coastal mountains of the Levant, then moved to Alamut by the Caspian Sea from the eighth to the fourteenth centuries. This group killed members of the crusaders, Abbasid and Seljuq élite for political and religious reasons, but mostly targeted the Sunni Muslims.[3]
Although commonly believed that assassins were under the influence of hashish and opium during their killings or during their indoctrination, and that assassin derives from "takers of hashish," there is continued debate within the historical community whether these claims have any merit, as direct evidence from any contemporary source, Nizari or otherwise, is non-existent. Marco Polo and subsequent European visitors to the area received from rivals of the Nizarai, what were to these opponents, derogatory names for the Nizarai Ismaili, and significantly embroidered stories about them. Polo, Henry II, Count of Champagne, William Marsden, an envoy of Frederick Barbarossa, William, Archbishop of Tyre and others following, popularized the names and stories in Europe, oblivious to their origin in factional propaganda.[4]
The earliest known literary use of the word assassination is in Macbeth by William Shakespeare (1605).[5][6]

Use in history

Ancient to medieval times

Assassination is one of the oldest tools of power politics, dating back at least as far as recorded history. Perhaps the earliest recorded instance is the murder around 586 BC of Gedaliah, described by Jeremiah and lamented by Jews to this day in the Fast of Gedaliah. Philip II of Macedon, the father of Alexander the Great, and Julius Caesar are famous victims. Emperors of Rome often met their end in this way, as did many of the Shia Imams. The practice was also well known in ancient China. An example of this is Jing Ke's failed assassination of Qin Shi Huang. .The ancient Indian military adviser Chanakya wrote about assassinations in detail in his political treatise Arthashastra.^ Michael said "Besides joking about the assassination of a Senator who's had to take on secret service detail because of such threats..."
  • Michael Calderone's Blog: Fox analyst apologizes for Obama assassination joke - Politico.com 10 February 2010 11:41 UTC www.politico.com [Source type: General]

^ To repeat: It is a federal crime in the United States Code EVEN TO JOKE about assassinating a political candidate "for high office."
  • Michael Calderone's Blog: Fox analyst apologizes for Obama assassination joke - Politico.com 10 February 2010 11:41 UTC www.politico.com [Source type: General]

On April 28, 1192, Conrad of Montferrat was assassinated by two hashshashin.
.The apocryphal Old Testament story of Judith illustrates how a woman frees the Israelites by tricking and assassinating Holofernes, a war-lord of the rival Assyrians with whom the Israelites were at war.^ This woman just "joked" about how it would be cool to assassinate a sitting U.S. Senator and likely Democratic presidential nominee on a national cable program.
  • Michael Calderone's Blog: Fox analyst apologizes for Obama assassination joke - Politico.com 10 February 2010 11:41 UTC www.politico.com [Source type: General]

^ How can AN OLD WOMAN LIKE YOU BE SO EVIL AND HAVE NO COMMON SENSE? Is assassination something good to wish for your fellow human being?
  • Michael Calderone's Blog: Fox analyst apologizes for Obama assassination joke - Politico.com 10 February 2010 11:41 UTC www.politico.com [Source type: General]

In the Middle Ages, regicide was rare in Western Europe, but it was a recurring theme in the Eastern Roman Empire. Blinding and strangling in the bathtub were the most commonly used procedures. With the Renaissance, tyrannicide—or assassination for personal or political reasons—became more common again in Western Europe. The reigns of the French kings Henry III and Henry IV, and William the Silent of the Netherlands ended with assassination.

In modern history

.As the world moved into the modern day, the killing of important people began to become more than a tool in power struggles between rulers themselves and was also used for political symbolism, such as in the propaganda of the deed.^ More often than not these people will be looked at as solid citizens.
  • Michael Calderone's Blog: Fox analyst apologizes for Obama assassination joke - Politico.com 10 February 2010 11:41 UTC www.politico.com [Source type: General]

In Russia alone, four emperors were assassinated within less than two hundred years: Ivan VI, Peter III, Paul I, and Alexander II.
Assassination of Abraham Lincoln, artist's depiction from 1865. Assassin John Wilkes Booth on the right.
.In the United States, four presidents, Abraham Lincoln, James Garfield, William McKinley, and John F. Kennedy died at the hands of assassins.^ The U.S. House of Representatives authorized two separate investigations into the assassination of President Abraham Lincoln.
  • References: JFK Assassination Investigation 24 September 2009 17:23 UTC www.archives.gov [Source type: Reference]

^ Report of the Forensic Pathology Panel, in "Report on the Medical Evidence and Related Issues pertaining to the Report on the Assassination of President John F. Kennedy," VII Appendix to the HSCA-JFK hearings, pars, 461 to 494 (hereinafter forensic pathology report).
  • References: JFK Assassination Investigation 24 September 2009 17:23 UTC www.archives.gov [Source type: Reference]

^ Much of this account of President Kennedy's trip to Texas is based on the testimony of Governor and Mrs. John B. Connally.
  • References: JFK Assassination Investigation 24 September 2009 17:23 UTC www.archives.gov [Source type: Reference]

There have been at least 20 known attempts on U.S. presidents' lives.
In Europe the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand by Serbian nationalist insurgents (The Black Hand) is blamed for igniting World War I after a succession of minor conflicts, while belligerents on both sides in World War II used operatives specifically trained for assassination. Reinhard Heydrich was killed by Czech partisan killers, and knowledge from decoded transmissions allowed the U.S. to carry out a targeted attack, killing Japanese Admiral Isoroku Yamamoto while he was travelling by airplane. The Polish Home Army conducted a regular campaign of assassinations against top Nazi German officials in occupied Poland. Adolf Hitler, meanwhile, was almost killed by his own officers, and survived various attempts by other persons and organizations (such as Operation Foxley, though this plan was never put into practice).
During the 1930s and 1940s Stalin's NKVD carried out numerous assassinations outside of its borders, such as the killings of OUN leader Yevhen Konovalets, Ignacy Porecki-Reiss, Fourth International secretary Rudolf Klement, Leon Trotsky and the POUM leadership in Catalonia.[7]
India's "Father of the Nation," Mohandas K. Gandhi, was shot to death on January 30, 1948, by Nathuram Godse.

Cold War and beyond

.During the Cold War, there was a dramatic new increase in the number of political assassinations, likely due to the ideological polarization of most of the First and Second worlds, whose adherents were often more than willing to both justify and finance such killings.^ Assassinated Presidents - Towleroad, More than gay news.
  • Assassinated Presidents - Towleroad, More than gay news. More gay men 16 September 2009 21:12 UTC www.towleroad.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ That was nothing more than a generic "I'm sorry", meaning, I'm sorry there was outrage over my Obama-Osama joke...
  • Michael Calderone's Blog: Fox analyst apologizes for Obama assassination joke - Politico.com 10 February 2010 11:41 UTC www.politico.com [Source type: General]

^ More often than not these people will be looked at as solid citizens.
  • Michael Calderone's Blog: Fox analyst apologizes for Obama assassination joke - Politico.com 10 February 2010 11:41 UTC www.politico.com [Source type: General]

[citation needed]
Liaquat Ali Khan, the first Prime Minister of Pakistan was assassinated by Saad Akbar, a lone assassin in 1951. Conspiracy theorists believe his conflict with certain members of the Pakistani military (Rawalpindi conspiracy) or suppression of Communists and antagonism towards the Soviet Union, were potential reasons for his assassination.
The U.S. Senate Select Committee chaired by Senator Frank Church (the Church Committee) reported in 1975 that it had found "concrete evidence of at least eight plots involving the CIA to assassinate Fidel Castro from 1960 to 1965."[8]
Most major powers were not long in repudiating Cold War assassination tactics, though many allege that this was merely a smokescreen for political benefit and that covert and illegal training of assassins continues today, with Russia, Israel,[9][10] USA, Argentina, Paraguay, Chile and other nations accused of still regularly engaging in such operations.[11] .In 1986, U.S. President Ronald Reagan (who survived an assassination attempt himself) ordered the Operation El Dorado Canyon air raid on Libya in which one of the primary targets was the home residence of Libyan ruler Muammar Gaddafi.^ Name one single mainstream media reporter who has called for Bush's assassination.
  • Michael Calderone's Blog: Fox analyst apologizes for Obama assassination joke - Politico.com 10 February 2010 11:41 UTC www.politico.com [Source type: General]

Gaddafi escaped unharmed; however, his adopted daughter Hanna was one of the civilian casualties. In the Philippines, the assassination of Benigno Aquino, Jr. triggered the eventual downfall of the 20-year autocratic rule of President Ferdinand Marcos. Aquino, a former Senator and a leading figure of the political opposition, was assassinated in 1983 at the Manila International Airport (now the Ninoy Aquino International Airport) upon returning home from exile. His death thrust his widow, Corazon Aquino, into the limelight and, ultimately, the presidency following the peaceful 1986 EDSA Revolution.
.After the Iranian Revolution of 1979, the new Islamic government of Iran began an international campaign of assassination that lasted into the 1990s.^ Select Committee on Assassinations, U.S. House of Representatives, 95th Congress, 2d session (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, (1979), vol., pp.
  • References: JFK Assassination Investigation 24 September 2009 17:23 UTC www.archives.gov [Source type: Reference]

^ Select Committee on Assassinations (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1979), Volume V, p.
  • References: JFK Assassination Investigation 24 September 2009 17:23 UTC www.archives.gov [Source type: Reference]

^ Hearings Before the Select Committee on Assassinations, U.S. House of Representatives, 95th Congress, 2d session (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1979), vol.
  • References: JFK Assassination Investigation 24 September 2009 17:23 UTC www.archives.gov [Source type: Reference]

At least 162 killings in 19 different countries have been linked to the senior leadership of the Islamic Republic of Iran.[12] This campaign came to an end after the Mykonos restaurant assassinations, because a German court publicly implicated senior members of the government and issued arrest warrants for Ali Fallahian, the head of the Iranian Intelligence.[13] Evidence indicates that Fallahian’s personal involvement and individual responsibility for the murders were far more pervasive than his current indictment record represents.[14]
On August 17, 1988 President of Pakistan Gen. M. Zia ul Haq died along with his staff and the American Ambassador to Pakistan when his C-130 transport plane exploded in mid-air after taking off from Bahawalpur because of an on-board bomb. .The CIA, KGB and Indian secret service RAW all have been implicated by various conspiracy theorists.^ The Wizard @ 2:52 pm Informed us all that the secret service is now racist also.
  • Michael Calderone's Blog: Fox analyst apologizes for Obama assassination joke - Politico.com 10 February 2010 11:41 UTC www.politico.com [Source type: General]

^ Just wanted to point out all major party candidates get a secret service detail.
  • Michael Calderone's Blog: Fox analyst apologizes for Obama assassination joke - Politico.com 10 February 2010 11:41 UTC www.politico.com [Source type: General]

Various dictators around the world, such as Saddam Hussein, have also used assassination to remove individual opponents, or to terrorize troublesome population groups.[citation needed] In return, in post-Saddam Iraq, the Shiite-dominated government has used death squads to perform countless extrajudicial executions of radical Sunni Iraqis, with some alleging that the death squads were trained by the U.S.[15][16][17]
In India, Prime Ministers Indira Gandhi and Rajiv Gandhi (neither of whom were related to Mohandas Gandhi, who was assassinated in 1948), were assassinated in 1984 and 1991. The assassinations were linked to separatist movements in Punjab and northern Sri Lanka, respectively.
.In Israel, Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin was assassinated on November 4, 1995. Yigal Amir confessed and was convicted of the crime.^ I don't hope it happens, but nothing was done in Israel to stop those kinds of assassination remarks against Rabin either (for seeking peace.
  • Michael Calderone's Blog: Fox analyst apologizes for Obama assassination joke - Politico.com 10 February 2010 11:41 UTC www.politico.com [Source type: General]

Many questions were subsequently raised about the actual cause of and rationale for his death.
Israeli tourists minister Rehavam Ze'evi was also assassinated by a Palestinian assassin named Hamdi Quran in 2001.
.In Lebanon, the assassination of former Prime Minister Rafik Hariri on February 14, 2005, prompted an investigation by the United Nations.^ (JFK Document 009419); see also interview of former Miami field office SAIC John Marshall, February 2, 1978, House Select Committee on Assassinations, p.
  • References: JFK Assassination Investigation 24 September 2009 17:23 UTC www.archives.gov [Source type: Reference]

^ Interview of former Miami SAIC John Marshall, February 2, 1978, House Select Committee on Assassinations, p.
  • References: JFK Assassination Investigation 24 September 2009 17:23 UTC www.archives.gov [Source type: Reference]

^ Interview of former Miami Police Officer Charles H. Sapp, February 25, 1978, House Select Committee on Assassinations, p.
  • References: JFK Assassination Investigation 24 September 2009 17:23 UTC www.archives.gov [Source type: Reference]

The suggestions in the resulting Mehlis report, that there was Syrian involvement, prompted the Cedar Revolution which drove Syrian troops out of Lebanon.
In Pakistan, former prime minister and opposition leader Benazir Bhutto was assassinated in 2007, while in the process of running for re-election. Bhutto's assassination drew unanimous condemnation from the international community.[18]
In Guinea Bissau, President João Bernardo Vieira was assassinated in the early hours of Monday 2 March 2009 in the capital, Bissau. .Unlike typical assassinations his death was not swift; first surviving an explosion at the Presidential Villa before being shot and wounded and finally butchered with machetes.^ What sort of psychologically deviant mind associates the assassination of a presidential candidate with being humorous?
  • Michael Calderone's Blog: Fox analyst apologizes for Obama assassination joke - Politico.com 10 February 2010 11:41 UTC www.politico.com [Source type: General]

His assassination was carried out by renegade soldiers who were apparently revenging the prior assassination of General Tagme Na Waie, the Chief of Staff of the Armed Forces of Guinea Bissau, who had been killed in a bomb explosion the day before.
.In 2002, the George W. Bush Administration prepared a list of "terrorist leaders" the CIA is authorized to assassinate, if capture is impractical and civilian casualties can be kept to an acceptable number.^ May 26, 2008 at 11:00 AM ################################### Tell us who has been on television or anywhere else calling for George Bush to be assassinated.
  • Michael Calderone's Blog: Fox analyst apologizes for Obama assassination joke - Politico.com 10 February 2010 11:41 UTC www.politico.com [Source type: General]

The list includes key al-Qa'ida leaders like Osama bin Laden and his chief deputy, Ayman al-Zawahiri, as well as other principal figures from al-Qa'ida and affiliated groups. .This list is called the "high value target list".[19] The US president is not legally required to approve each name added to the list, nor is the CIA required to obtain presidential approval for specific attacks, although the president is kept well informed about operations.^ Life is precious and people should think long and hard about how they value it and that includes their own life as well.
  • Michael Calderone's Blog: Fox analyst apologizes for Obama assassination joke - Politico.com 10 February 2010 11:41 UTC www.politico.com [Source type: General]

[19]
.President Obama's CIA Director Leon Panetta stated that Special Activities Division efforts in Pakistan have been "the most effective weapon" against senior al-Qa'ida leadership.^ CIA memorandum for Special Assistant to Deputy Director of Operations, subject: William George Gaudet, reference: CIA review staff memorandum 78-0110 dated Jan.
  • References: JFK Assassination Investigation 24 September 2009 17:23 UTC www.archives.gov [Source type: Reference]

^ Report to the President by the Commission on Central Intelligence Activities within the United States (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, June 1975).
  • References: JFK Assassination Investigation 24 September 2009 17:23 UTC www.archives.gov [Source type: Reference]

^ Ibid.; see Report to the President by the Commission on Central Intelligence Activities within the United States (Washington, D.C: U.S. Government Printing Office, June 1975), pp.
  • References: JFK Assassination Investigation 24 September 2009 17:23 UTC www.archives.gov [Source type: Reference]

[20][21]
.On 14 July 2009, several newspapers reported that CIA director Leon Panetta was briefed on a CIA program that had not been briefed to the oversight committees in Congress.^ (JFK Document 008429); see also deposition of Joseph Noonan, July 14, 1978, House Select Committee on Assassinations, pp.
  • References: JFK Assassination Investigation 24 September 2009 17:23 UTC www.archives.gov [Source type: Reference]

Panetta cancelled the initiative and reported it to Congress and the President. .The program consisted of teams of Special Activities Division paramilitary officers organized to execute targeted assassination operations against al-Qa'ida operatives around the world in any country.^ FBI report to the House Select Committee on Assassinations re inquiry concerning page 696 of FBI Dallas Division report of special agent of the FBI, dated Dec.
  • References: JFK Assassination Investigation 24 September 2009 17:23 UTC www.archives.gov [Source type: Reference]

According to the Los Angeles Times, DCIA Panetta "has not ruled out reviving the program".[22] There is some question as to whether former Vice President Richard Cheney instructed the CIA not to inform Congress.[23] Per senior intelligence officers, this program was an attempt to avoid the civilian casualties that can occur during Predator drone strikes using Hellfire missiles.[24]
.On July 22, 2009, National Public Radio reported that U.S. officials believe Saad bin Laden, a son of Osama bin Laden, was assassinated by a CIA strike in Pakistan.^ Osama bin Laden and Barack Obama "if we could".
  • Michael Calderone's Blog: Fox analyst apologizes for Obama assassination joke - Politico.com 10 February 2010 11:41 UTC www.politico.com [Source type: General]

^ Look, I'm a conservative Republican so I'm not planning on voting for Obama (though I'm personally not fond of McCain at all), but to jokingly call for his assassination while comparing him to the despicable terrorist Osama bin Laden is beneath contempt.
  • Michael Calderone's Blog: Fox analyst apologizes for Obama assassination joke - Politico.com 10 February 2010 11:41 UTC www.politico.com [Source type: General]

^ You deliberately conflated Osama bin Laden and Barack Obama for the umpteenth time.
  • Michael Calderone's Blog: Fox analyst apologizes for Obama assassination joke - Politico.com 10 February 2010 11:41 UTC www.politico.com [Source type: General]

Saad bin Laden spent years under house arrest in Iran before traveling last year to Pakistan, according to former National Intelligence Director Mike McConnell. It is believed he was killed sometime this year. A senior U.S. counterterrorism said U.S. intelligence agencies are "80 to 85 percent" certain that Saad bin Laden is dead.[25]

Further motivations

As military doctrine

Assassination for military purposes has long been espoused - Sun Tzu, writing around 500 BCE, argued in favor of using assassination in his book The Art of War. Nearly 2000 years later Machiavelli also argued assassination could be useful in his book The Prince..August 2009" style="white-space:nowrap;">[citation needed] In medieval times, an army and even a nation might be based upon and around a particularly strong, canny or charismatic leader, whose loss could paralyze the ability of both to make war.^ She ought to be arrested today for making and encouraging terroristic threats against the lives of TWO United States Senators during a time of war.
  • Michael Calderone's Blog: Fox analyst apologizes for Obama assassination joke - Politico.com 10 February 2010 11:41 UTC www.politico.com [Source type: General]

However, in modern warfare a soldier's mindset is generally considered to surround ideals far more than specific leaders, while command structures are more flexible in replacing officer losses. While the death of a popular or successful leader often has a detrimental effect on morale, the organisational system and the belief in a specific cause is usually strong enough to enable continued warfare.
There is also the risk that the target could be replaced by an even more competent leader or such a killing (or a failed attempt) will "martyr" a leader and support his cause (by showing the moral ruthlessness of the assassins). Faced with particularly brilliant leaders, this possibility has in various instances been risked, such as in the attempts to kill the Athenian Alcibiades during the Peloponnesian War. There are a number of additional examples from World War II which show how assassination was used as a military tool at both tactical and strategic levels:
.
  • The American interception of General Isoroku Yamamoto's airplane during World War II, after his travel route had been decrypted.
  • The American perception that Skorzeny's commandos were planning to assassinate Eisenhower during the Battle of the Bulge played havoc with Eisenhower's personal plans for some time, though it did not affect the battle itself.^ Look, I'm a conservative Republican so I'm not planning on voting for Obama (though I'm personally not fond of McCain at all), but to jokingly call for his assassination while comparing him to the despicable terrorist Osama bin Laden is beneath contempt.
    • Michael Calderone's Blog: Fox analyst apologizes for Obama assassination joke - Politico.com 10 February 2010 11:41 UTC www.politico.com [Source type: General]

    ^ She ought to be arrested today for making and encouraging terroristic threats against the lives of TWO United States Senators during a time of war.
    • Michael Calderone's Blog: Fox analyst apologizes for Obama assassination joke - Politico.com 10 February 2010 11:41 UTC www.politico.com [Source type: General]

    ^ He said he was in Dealey Plaza, sitting on the steps in front of the stockade fence, facing Elm Street, during the time of the assassination.
    • References: JFK Assassination Investigation 24 September 2009 17:23 UTC www.archives.gov [Source type: Reference]

    .Skorzeny later denied in an interview with The New York Times[citation needed] that he had ever intended to assassinate Eisenhower during Operation Greif and he said that he could prove it.^ He said he was in Dealey Plaza, sitting on the steps in front of the stockade fence, facing Elm Street, during the time of the assassination.
    • References: JFK Assassination Investigation 24 September 2009 17:23 UTC www.archives.gov [Source type: Reference]

    ^ M. Canfield and A. Weberman, "Coup d'Etat in America-The CIA and the Assassination of John F. Kennedy" (New York: The Third Press, 19750, p.
    • References: JFK Assassination Investigation 24 September 2009 17:23 UTC www.archives.gov [Source type: Reference]

    ^ See, e.g., P. D. Scott, P. L. Hoch and R. Stetler, eds., The Assassination: Dallas and Beyond (New York: vingage Boods, 1976), pp.
    • References: JFK Assassination Investigation 24 September 2009 17:23 UTC www.archives.gov [Source type: Reference]

    [26]
  • There was a planned British commando raid to capture or kill the German General Erwin Rommel (also known as "The Desert Fox").[26]
Use of assassination has continued in more recent conflicts:
.
  • During the Vietnam War, partly in response to Viet Cong assassinations of government leaders, the USA engaged in the Phoenix Program to assassinate Viet Cong leaders and sympathizers, and killed between 6,000 and 41,000 persons, with official 'targets' of 1,800 per month.^ She held him and other's personally responsible by their rhetoric, of causing the assassination of her husband.
    • Michael Calderone's Blog: Fox analyst apologizes for Obama assassination joke - Politico.com 10 February 2010 11:41 UTC www.politico.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Many of you are probably too young to know anything about Liz Trotta, who was a war correspondent during the Vietnam War.
    • Michael Calderone's Blog: Fox analyst apologizes for Obama assassination joke - Politico.com 10 February 2010 11:41 UTC www.politico.com [Source type: General]

    [27]

As tool of insurgents

Insurgent groups have often employed assassination as a tool to further their causes. Assassinations provide several functions for such groups, namely the removal of specific enemies and as propaganda tools to focus the attention of media and politics on their cause.
.The Irish Republican Army guerrillas of 1919–1921 assassinated many RIC Police Intelligence officers during the Irish War of Independence.^ Interview of former Miami Police Officer Charles H. Sapp, February 25, 1978, House Select Committee on Assassinations, p.
  • References: JFK Assassination Investigation 24 September 2009 17:23 UTC www.archives.gov [Source type: Reference]

Michael Collins set up a special unit - the Squad - for this purpose, which had the effect of intimidating many policemen into resigning from the force. The Squad was headed up by the infamous Bevis Pole. The Squad's activities peaked with the assassination of 14 British agents in Dublin on Bloody Sunday in 1920.
This tactic was used again by the Provisional IRA during the Troubles in Northern Ireland (1969–present). Assassination of RUC officers and politicians was one of a number of methods used in the Provisional IRA campaign 1969-1997. The IRA also attempted to assassinate British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher by bombing the Conservative Party Conference in a Brighton hotel. Loyalist paramilitaries retaliated by killing Catholics at random and assassinating Irish nationalist politicians.
Basque terrorists ETA in Spain have assassinated many security and political figures since the late 1960s, notably Luis Carrero Blanco in 1973. Since the early 1990s, they have also targeted academics, journalists and local politicians who publicly disagreed with them, meaning that many needed armed police bodyguards.
The Red Brigades in Italy carried out assassinations of political figures, as to a lesser extent, did the Red Army Faction in Germany in the 1970s and 1980s.
.Middle Eastern groups, such as the PLO and Hezbollah, have all engaged in assassinations, though the higher intensity of armed conflict in the region compared to western Europe means that many of their actions are either better characterized as guerrilla operations or as random attacks - especially the technique of suicide bombs.^ Look, I'm a conservative Republican so I'm not planning on voting for Obama (though I'm personally not fond of McCain at all), but to jokingly call for his assassination while comparing him to the despicable terrorist Osama bin Laden is beneath contempt.
  • Michael Calderone's Blog: Fox analyst apologizes for Obama assassination joke - Politico.com 10 February 2010 11:41 UTC www.politico.com [Source type: General]

In the Vietnam War, assassinations were routinely carried out by communist insurgents against government officials and individual civilians deemed to offend or rival the revolutionary movement. Such attacks, along with widespread military activity by insurgent bands, almost brought the Diem regime to collapse before the US intervention.[29]

For money or gain

Individually, too, people have often found reasons to arrange the deaths of others through paid intermediaries. One who kills with no political motive or group loyalty, only for money, is known as a hitman, or contract killer. Note that by the definition accepted above, while such a killer is not, strictly speaking, an assassin, if the killing is ordered and financed towards a political end, then that killing must rightly be termed an assassination, and the hitman an assassin by extension.
Entire organizations have sometimes specialized in assassination as one of their services, to be gained for the right price. Besides the original hashshashin, the ninja clans of Japan were rumored to perform assassinations, though it can be pointed out that most of what was ever known about the ninja was rumor and hearsay.
In the United States, Murder, Inc., an organization partnered to the Mafia, was formed for the sole purpose of performing assassinations for organized crime. In Russia, the vory (thieves), Russian organised crime syndicates, are often known to provide assassinations for the right price, as well as engaging in it themselves for their own purposes. A professional hitman is called "cleaner" in Russia; he is used to clean away the target. The Finnish as well as the Swedish underworld uses the word "torpedo" for a contract killer.

Targeted killing

Nils Melzer defines targeted killing as "the use of lethal force attributable to a subject of international law with the intent, premeditation and deliberation to kill individually selected persons who are not in the physical custody of those targeting them". The concept and term "targeted killing" has been adopted by a large part of the legal doctrine, the media and international organizations such as the United Nations.[30]
.The use of assassinations for political or military reasons by sovereign states is an extremely contentious subject, with opinions ranging from people considering it a legitimate form of defense, especially against non-state actors like terror groups, to people calling targeted killings state terrorism itself.^ Also, tell her that the law under which hopefully she will be criminally prosecuted is: United States Code, Title 18, Part 1, Chapter 14, Section 879(a), which deals with calling for the assassination of a political candidate.
  • Michael Calderone's Blog: Fox analyst apologizes for Obama assassination joke - Politico.com 10 February 2010 11:41 UTC www.politico.com [Source type: General]

^ Of course when liberals call for the literal killing of the political opposition it's just being "outspoken".
  • Michael Calderone's Blog: Fox analyst apologizes for Obama assassination joke - Politico.com 10 February 2010 11:41 UTC www.politico.com [Source type: General]

^ To repeat: It is a federal crime in the United States Code EVEN TO JOKE about assassinating a political candidate "for high office."
  • Michael Calderone's Blog: Fox analyst apologizes for Obama assassination joke - Politico.com 10 February 2010 11:41 UTC www.politico.com [Source type: General]

.In addition, challegenes arise when one considers targeted killing in the context of both international humanitarian law and international human rights law.^ This is a disgusting, outrageous call to kill two human beings; "well both, if we could"...
  • Michael Calderone's Blog: Fox analyst apologizes for Obama assassination joke - Politico.com 10 February 2010 11:41 UTC www.politico.com [Source type: General]

[31] Both those for and against targeted killings are also often faced with accusations of being clearly partisan to one side of the particular struggle discussed.
.
  • Pro: Various groups and individuals have supported assassinations such as those undertaken by Israel against opposed terror groups, claiming that the killing of people like Sheikh Ahmed Yassin is justified because people like him provide "both religious and political cover" (for terrorist groups to operate), and that the fact that they may not have been physically involved in such crimes does not reduce their role.^ People who share the things they like!
    • New York News, Events, Restaurants, Music 10 February 2010 10:37 UTC www.villagevoice.com [Source type: General]

    Arguing that the killings may produce leadership vacuums and disorganise their organisations.[32][33] They also oppose the use of the term assassination, as it denotes murder, where targeting such leaders is seen as a move in self-defence, and thus killing, but not a crime.[33]. They argue that there is evidence that target killing has been salutary in reducing the effectiveness of terrorist attacks. In Israel after adopting a policy of targeted killings deaths resulting from terrorist attacks by HAMAS plunged from a high of 75 in 2001, to 21 in 2005.[34]. Some argue that even if the killing has little effect on the number and severity of terrorist attacks,[35] targeted killing should be continued for 'retribution and revenge'.
  • Con: Criticism of targeted killings focuses on a number of aspects, from being claimed to be against international law to being destabilising to local situations and thus causing more violence,[36] an opinion also held by such intermediaries as Álvaro de Soto, former UN Middle East peace envoy.[37] Criticism often also focuses on the murder of innocent victims of the more heavy-handed or failed targeted killings, in which civilians are often murdered in large numbers.
Targeted killings are also sometimes called "extrajudicial punishment",[38] as some states require some form of judicial trial in absentia before such an undertaking.

Psychology

.A major study about assassination attempts in the US in the second half of the 20th century came to the conclusion that most prospective assassins spend copious amounts of time planning and preparing for their attempts.^ What about the Reagan assassination attempt?
  • mental_floss Blog » The Quick 10: 10 Failed Assassination Attempts 10 February 2010 11:41 UTC www.mentalfloss.com [Source type: General]

^ The assassination came as US Attorney...
  • assassination – News Stories About assassination - Page 1 | Newser 24 September 2009 17:23 UTC www.newser.com [Source type: News]

^ Assassinations are all about timing.
  • How to Become an Assassin for Hire | eHow.com 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.ehow.com [Source type: General]

.Assassinations are thus rarely a case of 'impulsive' action.^ Provides that in any case in which a determination of the Review Board to release assassination material is superseded by the President, the President shall publish in the Federal Register notice of such action.
  • Search Results - THOMAS (Library of Congress) 10 February 2010 11:41 UTC thomas.loc.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The KGB Plot To Assassinate The Pope: A Case Study In Free World Disinformation Frank Brodhead and Edward S. Herman in Covert Action No 19.

[39]
However, about 25% of the actual attackers were found to be delusional, a figure that rose to 60% with 'near-lethal approachers' (people apprehended before reaching their target). .This incidentally shows that while mental instability plays a role in many modern-age assassinations, the more delusional attackers are less likely to succeed in their attempt.^ He plays many different roles in many films which shows he can act.

^ We need more cops like her, not less.
  • "This Was an Assassination." | Slog | The Stranger, Seattle's Only Newspaper 10 February 2010 11:41 UTC slog.thestranger.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Stealth means that monsters are less likely to notice assassins walking or running around in the dungeon.
  • Assassin - Wikia Gaming - Walkthroughs, games, guides, and more 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC gaming.wikia.com [Source type: General]

The report also found that around two thirds of the attackers had previously been arrested for (not necessarily related) offenses, that around 44% had a history of serious depression, and that 39% had a history of substance abuse.[39]

Techniques

Ancient methods

.It seems likely that the first assassinations would have been direct and simple: stabbing, strangling or bludgeoning.^ Why would she even hint at or drop a word like "assassination"?
  • Michael Calderone's Blog: Fox analyst apologizes for Obama assassination joke - Politico.com 10 February 2010 11:41 UTC www.politico.com [Source type: General]

^ This woman just "joked" about how it would be cool to assassinate a sitting U.S. Senator and likely Democratic presidential nominee on a national cable program.
  • Michael Calderone's Blog: Fox analyst apologizes for Obama assassination joke - Politico.com 10 February 2010 11:41 UTC www.politico.com [Source type: General]

Substantial planning or coordination would rarely have been involved, as tribal groups were too small, and the connection to the leaders too close. As civilization took root, however, leaders began to have greater importance, and become more detached from the groups they ruled. This would have brought planning, subterfuge and weapons into successful assassination plans.[citation needed]
The key technique was likely infiltration, with the actual assassination by stabbing, smothering or strangulation. Poisons also started to be used in many forms. Death cap mushrooms and similar plants became a traditional choice of assassins especially if they could not be perceived as poisonous by taste, and the symptoms of the poisoning did not show until after some time.[citation needed]
In ancient Rome, paid mobs were sometimes used to beat political enemies to death.[citation needed]

Modern methods

With the advent of effective ranged weaponry, and later firearms, the position of an assassination target was more precarious. Bodyguards were no longer enough to hold back determined killers, who no longer needed to directly engage or even subvert the guard to kill the leader in question. Moreover, the engagement of targets at greater distance dramatically increased the chances for an assassin's survival. The Regent Moray of Scotland was the first prominent figure to be assassinated by a firearm in 1570, and the first leader of (a rebellious) state was William the Silent of the Netherlands in 1584.
.Gunpowder and other explosives also allowed the use of bombs or even greater concentrations of explosives for deeds requiring a larger touch; for an example, the Gunpowder Plot could have 'assassinated' almost a thousand people had it not been foiled.^ Even with him sending our children to their early deaths by the thousands, no one has called for his assassination.
  • Michael Calderone's Blog: Fox analyst apologizes for Obama assassination joke - Politico.com 10 February 2010 11:41 UTC www.politico.com [Source type: General]

Explosives, especially the car bomb, become far more common in modern history, with grenades and remote-triggered landmines also used, especially in the Middle East and Balkans (the initial attempt on Archduke Franz Ferdinand's life was with a grenade). With heavy weapons, the rocket propelled grenade (RPG) has become a useful tool given the popularity of armored cars (discussed below), while Israeli forces have pioneered the use of aircraft-mounted missiles for assassination,[40] as well as the innovative use of explosive devices.
A sniper with a precision rifle is often used in fictional assassinations. However, there are certain difficulties associated with long-range shooting, including finding a hidden shooting position with a clear line-of-sight, detailed advance knowledge of the intended victim's travel plans, the ability to identify the target at long range, and the ability to score a first-round lethal hit at long range, usually measured in hundreds of meters. A dedicated sniper rifle is also expensive, often costing thousands of dollars because of the high level of precision machining and hand-finishing required to achieve extreme accuracy.[41]
.Despite their comparative disadvantages, handguns are more easily concealable, and consequentially much more commonly used than rifles.^ The things that they say on air daily I used to take it as a joke and that they are only ruffling the other side's feathers, but now I see that they are much more sinister.
  • Michael Calderone's Blog: Fox analyst apologizes for Obama assassination joke - Politico.com 10 February 2010 11:41 UTC www.politico.com [Source type: General]

.Of 74 principal incidents evaluated in a major study about assassination attempts in the US in the second half of the 20th century, 51% were undertaken by a handgun, 30% with a rifle or shotgun, while 15% of the attempts used knives and 8% explosives (usage of multiple weapons/methods was reported in 16% of all cases).^ "Oh my goodness--if you libs had espoused half as much concern about the lefty calls for Bush's assassination/execution/torture/murder, I'd buy it.
  • Michael Calderone's Blog: Fox analyst apologizes for Obama assassination joke - Politico.com 10 February 2010 11:41 UTC www.politico.com [Source type: General]

^ If you think many of us are for gun control, you'd be correct, but I think it's incorrect that any more than a few loons on the far, far right and left talk about assassination.
  • Michael Calderone's Blog: Fox analyst apologizes for Obama assassination joke - Politico.com 10 February 2010 11:41 UTC www.politico.com [Source type: General]

^ Oh my goodness--if you libs had espoused half as much concern about the lefty calls for Bush's assassination/execution/torture/murder, I'd buy it.
  • Michael Calderone's Blog: Fox analyst apologizes for Obama assassination joke - Politico.com 10 February 2010 11:41 UTC www.politico.com [Source type: General]

[39]
In the case of state-sponsored assassination, poisoning offers the greatest level of deniability[citation needed] (the allegations are rarely proven[citation needed]). Georgi Markov, a Bulgarian dissident was assassinated by ricin poisoning. A tiny pellet containing the poison was injected into his leg through a specially designed umbrella. Widespread allegations involving the Bulgarian government and KGB have not led to any legal results. However, it was learned that after fall of the USSR, the KGB had developed an umbrella that could inject ricin pellets into a victim, and two former KGB agents who defected said the agency assisted in the murder.[42] .The CIA has allegedly made several attempts to assassinate Fidel Castro, many of the schemes involving poisoning his milkshakes.^ "The Evolution and Implications of the CIA Sponsored Assassination Conspiracies Against Fidel Castro," staff report, app.
  • References: JFK Assassination Investigation 24 September 2009 17:23 UTC www.archives.gov [Source type: Reference]

^ "The Evolution and Implications of CIA-Sponsored Assassination Conspiracies Against Fidel Castro," X appendix to the HSCA-JFK hearings, 80-86.
  • References: JFK Assassination Investigation 24 September 2009 17:23 UTC www.archives.gov [Source type: Reference]

^ "The Evolution and Implications of the CIA-Sponsored Assassination Conspiracies Against Fidel Castro" staff report, X appendix to the HSCA-JFK hearings.
  • References: JFK Assassination Investigation 24 September 2009 17:23 UTC www.archives.gov [Source type: Reference]

.In the late 1950s, KGB assassin Bohdan Stashynsky killed Ukrainian nationalist leaders Lev Rebet and Stepan Bandera with a spray gun that fired a jet of poison gas from a crushed cyanide ampule, making their deaths look like heart attacks.^ If you look at the full clip, she was actually attacking Hillary for making the "assassination" statement.
  • Michael Calderone's Blog: Fox analyst apologizes for Obama assassination joke - Politico.com 10 February 2010 11:41 UTC www.politico.com [Source type: General]

[43] A 2006 case in the UK concerned the assassination of Alexander Litvinenko who was given a lethal dose of radioactive polonium-210, possibly passed to him in aerosol form sprayed directly onto his food. Litvinenko, a former KGB agent, had been granted asylum in the UK in 2000 after citing persecution in Russia. Shortly before his death he issued a statement accusing then-President of Russia Vladimir Putin of involvement in his assassination. President Putin denies he had any part in Litvinenko's death.[44]
James Bell proposed "Assassination Politics" both as a political idea and as a logical consequence of anonymous cash.[45] Essentially anonymous contributors fund those who can predict the time and manner of a given person's death; the "predictor" is also paid anonymously.

Counter-measures

Early forms

.One of the earliest forms of defense against assassins was employing bodyguards.^ Page 633 Letter and attachments form Department of Defense to House Select Committee on Assassinations, June 22, 1978, p.
  • References: JFK Assassination Investigation 24 September 2009 17:23 UTC www.archives.gov [Source type: Reference]

.Bodyguards act as a shield for the potential target, keeping lookout for potential attackers (sometimes in advance, for example on a parade route), and literally putting themselves 'in harm's way'--both by simple presence, showing that physical force is available to protect the target,[39][46] and by shielding the target during any attack.^ If Fox News takes this route (and continue the "assassinate Obama" line of attack in future shows) I couldn't imagine a better way for them to quickly discredit themselves even more in the eyes of all but the tiny minority of the most extreme right-wingers in this country (i.e.
  • Michael Calderone's Blog: Fox analyst apologizes for Obama assassination joke - Politico.com 10 February 2010 11:41 UTC www.politico.com [Source type: General]

In order to neutralize any attacker, bodyguards are typically armed as much as permitted by legal and practical concerns.
This bodyguard function was often executed by the leader's most loyal warriors, and was extremely effective throughout most of early human history, leading assassins to attempt stealthy means, such as poison (which risk was answered by having another person taste the leader's food first).
Another notable measure is the use of a body double, a person who looks like the leader and who pretends to be the leader to draw attention away from the intended target.[citation needed]
Notable examples of bodyguards include the Roman Praetorian Guard or the Ottoman Janissaries--although, in both cases, the protectors sometimes became assassins themselves, exploiting their power to make the head of state a virtual hostage or killing the very leaders they were supposed to protect. The fidelity of individual bodyguards is an important question as well, especially for leaders who oversee states with strong ethnic or religious divisions. Failure to realize such divided loyalties led to the assassination of Indian Prime Minister Indira Gandhi, assassinated by two Sikh bodyguards in 1984.

Modern strategies

With the advent of gunpowder, ranged assassination (via bombs or firearms) became possible. One of the first reactions was to simply increase the guard, creating what at times might seem a small army trailing every leader; another was to begin clearing large areas whenever a leader was present, to the point where entire sections of a city might be shut down.
As the 20th century dawned, the prevalence of assassins and their capabilities skyrocketed, and so did measures to protect against them. For the first time, armored cars or armored limousines were put into service for safer transport, with modern versions rendering them virtually invulnerable to small arms fire and smaller bombs and mines.[47] .Bulletproof vests also began to be used, though they were of limited utility, restricting movement and leaving the head unprotected - as such they tended to be worn only during high-profile public events if at all.^ Harvey: All of that research for nothing, I know that obamabot's only hear what they want to hear, but she never made a threat on his life.
  • Michael Calderone's Blog: Fox analyst apologizes for Obama assassination joke - Politico.com 10 February 2010 11:41 UTC www.politico.com [Source type: General]

^ Freedom of speech on public airwaves doesn't give you a pass to use hate speech which includes an assassination suggestion directed at one particular high profile public figure running for the highest public office in the land.
  • Michael Calderone's Blog: Fox analyst apologizes for Obama assassination joke - Politico.com 10 February 2010 11:41 UTC www.politico.com [Source type: General]

^ The things that they say on air daily I used to take it as a joke and that they are only ruffling the other side's feathers, but now I see that they are much more sinister.
  • Michael Calderone's Blog: Fox analyst apologizes for Obama assassination joke - Politico.com 10 February 2010 11:41 UTC www.politico.com [Source type: General]

Access to famous persons, too, became more and more restricted;[48] potential visitors would be forced through numerous different checks before being granted access to the official in question, and as communication became better and information technology more prevalent, it has become all but impossible for a would-be killer to get close enough to the personage at work or in private life to effect an attempt on his or her life, especially given the common use of metal and bomb detectors. This is, of course, assuming that the assassin does not decide to simply use his or her bare hands.
.Most modern assassinations have been committed either during a public performance or during transport, both because of weaker security and security lapses, such as with US President John F. Kennedy and former Pakistani Prime Minister Benazir Bhutto, or as part of coups d'état where security is either overwhelmed or completely removed, such as with Patrice Lumumba and likely Salvador Allende.^ (JFK Document 009419); see also interview of former Miami field office SAIC John Marshall, February 2, 1978, House Select Committee on Assassinations, p.
  • References: JFK Assassination Investigation 24 September 2009 17:23 UTC www.archives.gov [Source type: Reference]

^ Interview of former Miami SAIC John Marshall, February 2, 1978, House Select Committee on Assassinations, p.
  • References: JFK Assassination Investigation 24 September 2009 17:23 UTC www.archives.gov [Source type: Reference]

^ Report of the Forensic Pathology Panel, in "Report on the Medical Evidence and Related Issues pertaining to the Report on the Assassination of President John F. Kennedy," VII Appendix to the HSCA-JFK hearings, pars, 461 to 494 (hereinafter forensic pathology report).
  • References: JFK Assassination Investigation 24 September 2009 17:23 UTC www.archives.gov [Source type: Reference]

[49]
The methods used for protection by famous people have sometimes evoked negative reactions by the public, with some resenting the separation from their officials or major figures. One example might be traveling in a car protected by a bubble of clear bulletproof glass, such as the Popemobile of Pope John Paul II (built following an attempt at his life). .Politicians themselves often resent this need for separation - which has at times caused tragedy when they sent their bodyguards from their side for personal or publicity reasons, as U.S. President William McKinley did during the public reception at which he was assassinated.^ Or is it just because that " this time they all see an opportunity to side with an issue of bigotry / racism that would serve their means and purpose of getting rid of someone they perceive as an president not being able to manipulate to their own liking ?
  • Michael Calderone's Blog: Fox analyst apologizes for Obama assassination joke - Politico.com 10 February 2010 11:41 UTC www.politico.com [Source type: General]

^ He said he was in Dealey Plaza, sitting on the steps in front of the stockade fence, facing Elm Street, during the time of the assassination.
  • References: JFK Assassination Investigation 24 September 2009 17:23 UTC www.archives.gov [Source type: Reference]

[48]
.Other potential targets go into seclusion, and are rarely heard from or seen in public, such as writer Salman Rushdie.^ I garantee I faced more racism as a white boy in the public school system in Hawaii than he was going to a private school on the other side of the Harbor.
  • Michael Calderone's Blog: Fox analyst apologizes for Obama assassination joke - Politico.com 10 February 2010 11:41 UTC www.politico.com [Source type: General]

A related form of protection is the use of body doubles, a person built similar to the person he is expected to impersonate. .These persons are then made up, as well as in some cases altered to look like the target, with the body double then taking the place of the person in high risk situations.^ This feels like a back up to the HRC remarks, and some careful Clinton-style parsing to get the message across, picked up by supporters in places of power.
  • Michael Calderone's Blog: Fox analyst apologizes for Obama assassination joke - Politico.com 10 February 2010 11:41 UTC www.politico.com [Source type: General]

According to Joe R. Reeder, Under Secretary of the Army from 1993–1997 writing in Fox News, Fidel Castro had also used body doubles, though no details were specified.[50]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Commentary: Targeted killing… — Cohen, Ariel, Washington Post, Thursday 25 March 2004
  2. ^ American Speech - McCarthy, Kevin M. Volume 48, pp. 77–83
  3. ^ Secret Societies Handbook, Michael Bradley, Altair Cassell Illustrated, 2005. ISBN 978-1844034161
  4. ^ Martin Booth (2004). "Cannabis: A History". Macmillan. http://books.google.com/books?id=O7AoY6ljSygC&printsec=frontcover&dq=Cannabis:+A+History#v=onepage&q=hashishiyya&f=false. 
  5. ^ "Assassination." Oxford English Dictionary. Oxford University Press, second edition, 1989
  6. ^ Inventing English: A Portable History of the Language, Seth Lerer, 2007
  7. ^ Michael Ellman. The Role of Leadership Perceptions and of Intent in the Soviet Famine of 1931 – 1934. Europe-Asia Studies, 2005. p. 826
  8. ^ Church Committee - Interim Report: Alleged Assassination Plots Involving Foreign Leaders Part III.B, page 71 (from the 'history-matters.com' website. Accessed 2008-08-22.)
  9. ^ Haaretz Israel targets senior Hamas, Islamic Jihad commanders in fresh Gaza strikes 30 December 2008
  10. ^ BBC Air raids kill militants in Gaza 5 March 2009
  11. ^ John Dingles (2004) The Condor Years ISBN 1-56584-764-4
  12. ^ No Safe Haven
  13. ^ Murder at Mykonos: The Anatomy of a Political Assassination
  14. ^ Condemned by Law: Assassination of Political Dissidents Abroad
  15. ^ "The Salvador Option" - The Pentagon may put Special-Forces-led assassination or kidnapping teams in Iraq - Newsweek, Friday 14 January 2005
  16. ^ CBS: Death Squads In Iraqi Hospitals - CBS Evening News, Wednesday 4 October 2006
  17. ^ Is the U.S. Training Iraqi Death Squads to Fight the Insurgency? - Democracy Now, Thursday, December 1, 2005
  18. ^ Benazir Bhutto shot dead at suicide bombing of rally; 20 feared dead - The Canadian Press, Thursday 27 December 2007
  19. ^ a b Nytimes.com
  20. ^ CIA Pakistan Campaign is Working Director Say, Mark Mazzetti and Helene Cooper, New York Times, 26 February 09, A15
  21. ^ http://www.nbcnewyork.com/news/us_world/Panetta_warns_against_politicization.html?extpar=polit
  22. ^ CIA Secret Program: PM Teams Targeting Al Qaeda, Greg Miller, Los Angeles Times, 14 July 2009, A1
  23. ^ CIA Had Plan To Assassinate Qaeda Leaders, Mark Mazzetti and Shane Scott, New York Times, 14 July 09, A1
  24. ^ CIA Plan Envisioned Hit Teams Killing al Qaeda Leaders, Siobahn Gorman, Wall Street Journal, 14 July 09, A3
  25. ^ Bin Laden Son Reported Killed In Pakistan, Mary Louise Kelly, NPR.org, July 22, 2009, NPR.org
  26. ^ a b Commando Extraordinary - Foley, Charles; Legion for the Survival of Freedom, 1992, page 155
  27. ^ CIA and Operation Phoenix in Vietnam - McGehee, Ralph; from a usenet discussion citing numerous references, 19 February 1996
  28. ^ George A. Crawford, Manhunting: Reversing the Polarity of Warfare, 2008, ISBN 1-60441-332-8
  29. ^ Viet Cong - Pike, Douglas, The MIT Press; New Ed edition, Wednesday 16 December 1970
  30. ^ Melzer, Nils (2008). Vaughan Lowe. ed. Targeted Killing in International Law. Oxford Monographs in International Law. Oxford University Press. p. 468. ISBN 978-0199533169. 
  31. ^ The Program for Humanitarian Policy and Conflict Research, "Brief Primer on Targeted Killings", Ihlresearch.org
  32. ^ "The Targeted Killing of Sheikh Ahmed Yassin". Archived from the original on 2007-12-12. http://web.archive.org/web/20071212080743/http://www.defenddemocracy.org/publications/publications_show.htm?doc_id=218872.  - Snow, Jonathan L., Foundation for Defense of Democracies policy institute, Washington DC, United States, March 26, 2004
  33. ^ a b Targeted killing is a necessary option - Sofaer, Abraham D., Hoover Institution, Friday 26 March 2004
  34. ^ "Do targeted killings work?", Daniel Byman, Foreign Affairs, March/April 2006, Volume 85, Number 2, p. 95-112
  35. ^ Fatal Choices: Israel's Policy of Targeted Killing - David, Steven R. ; Johns Hopkins University, United States, 2002
  36. ^ Israel's Targeted Killings Threaten Peace in Entire Region, say Arab Leaders - Epoch Times, 18 April 2004
  37. ^ Palestinian PM-designate Not Immune: Mofaz - 'Islam Online' website
  38. ^ The Logic of Israel's Targeted Killing - Luft, Gale; Middle East Quarterly, Volume X: Number 1, Winter 2003
  39. ^ a b c d Assassination in the United States: An Operational Study - Fein, Robert A. & Vossekuil, Brian, Journal of Forensic Sciences, Volume 44, Number 2, March 1999
  40. ^ Hamas leader killed in Israeli airstrike - CNN, Saturday 17 April 2004
  41. ^ Iraqi insurgents using Austrian rifles from Iran - The Daily Telegraph, Tuesday 13 February 2007
  42. ^ The case of the poisoned umbrella. BBC World Service, 2007.
  43. ^ Christopher Andrew and Vasili Mitrokhin. The Sword and the Shield: The Mitrokhin Archive and the Secret History of the KGB. Basic Books, 1999. ISBN 0465003125 p. 362
  44. ^ Putin 'Deplores' Spy Death - Sky News Friday 24 November 2006
  45. ^ Cryptome.org
  46. ^ Lincoln - Appendix 7, Report of the President's Commission on the Assassination of President Kennedy, 1964
  47. ^ How to choose the appropriate bulletproof cars (from Alpha-armouring.com website, includes examples of protection levels available)
  48. ^ a b The Need For Protection Further Demonstrated - Appendix 7, Report of the President's Commission on the Assassination of President Kennedy, 1964
  49. ^ Salvador Allende Gossens (biography from the Encarta website). Archived 2009-10-31.
  50. ^ It's Bin Laden ... or Is It? - Fox News, Thursday 20 December 2001

External links

.

1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

ASSASSIN (properly Hashishin, from Hashish, the opiate made from the juice of hemp leaves), a general term for a secret murderer, originally the name of a branch of the Shiite sect (see Shiites), known as Isma'ilites, founded by Hassan (ibn) Sabbah at the end of the 11th century, and from that time active in Syria and Persia until crushed in the 13th century by the Mongols under Hulaku (Hulagu) in Persia, and by the Mameluke Bibars in Syria. The father of Hassan Sabbah, a native of Khorasan, and a Shiite, had been frequently compelled to profess Sunnite orthodoxy, and from prudential motives had sent his son to study under an orthodox doctor at Nishapur. Here Hassan made the acquaintance of Nizam-ul-Mulk, afterwards vizier of the sultan Malik-Shah (see Seljuks). During the reign of Alp-Arslan he remained in obscurity, and then appeared at the court of Malik-Shah, where he was at first kindly received by his old friend the vizier. Hassan, who was a man of great ability, tried to supplant him in the favour of the sultan, but was outwitted and compelled to take his departure from Persia. He went to Egypt (1078-79), and, on account of his high reputation, was received with great honour by the lodge at Cairo. He soon stood so high in the caliph Mostansir's favour as to excite against him the jealousy of the chief general, and a cause of open enmity soon arose. .The caliph had nominated first one and then another of his sons as his successor, and in consequence a party division took place among the leading men.^ Shortly after, they set out on another tour which was very similar to Donkey and Diddy Kong's first one.
  • Donkey Kong - Super Mario Wiki 19 January 2010 18:22 UTC www.mariowiki.com [Source type: General]

Hassan, who adopted the cause of Nizar, the eldest son, found his enemies too strong for him, and was forced to leave Egypt. After many adventures he reached Aleppo and Damascus, and after a sojourn there, settled near Kuhistan (Kohistan). .He gradually spread his peculiar modification of Isma`ilite doctrine, and, having collected a considerable number of followers, formed them into a secret society.^ This document collects together into one definition all the specifications that together form the current state of Cascading Style Sheets (CSS).
  • W3C News Archive: 2008 W3C 10 February 2010 10:37 UTC www.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Apocrine glands in the breast secrete fat droplets into breast milk and those in the ear help form earwax.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 10:37 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

In 1090 he obtained, by stratagem, the strong mountain fortress of Alamut in Persia, and, removing there with his followers, settled as chief of the famous society afterwards called the Assassins.
.The speculative principles of this body were identical with those of the Isma`ilites, but their external policy was marked by one peculiar and distinctive feature - the employment of secret "assassination" against all enemies.^ I don't hope it happens, but nothing was done in Israel to stop those kinds of assassination remarks against Rabin either (for seeking peace.
  • Michael Calderone's Blog: Fox analyst apologizes for Obama assassination joke - Politico.com 10 February 2010 11:41 UTC www.politico.com [Source type: General]

This practice was introduced by Hassan, and formed the essential characteristic of the sect. In organization they closely resembled the western lodge at Cairo. At the head was the supreme ruler, the Sheik-al-Jabal (Jebel), i.e. Chief, or, as it is commonly translated, Old Man of the Mountains. .Under him were three Da'i-al-Kirbal, or, as they may be called, grand priors, who ruled the three provinces over which the sheik's power extended.^ When trying to escape Captain Falcon calls for his Falcon Flyer and tries to leave the cave when Meta-Ridley appears and they must fight him.
  • Donkey Kong - Super Mario Wiki 19 January 2010 18:22 UTC www.mariowiki.com [Source type: General]

^ Another desparate vile member of the GOP name calling, threatening doing whatever they can to try to grasp at power.
  • Michael Calderone's Blog: Fox analyst apologizes for Obama assassination joke - Politico.com 10 February 2010 11:41 UTC www.politico.com [Source type: General]

^ As for these new comments, they are no mistake at all, and who could call them an attempt at humor?
  • Michael Calderone's Blog: Fox analyst apologizes for Obama assassination joke - Politico.com 10 February 2010 11:41 UTC www.politico.com [Source type: General]

Next came the body of or priors, who were fully initiated into all the secret doctrines, and were the emissaries of the faith. Fourth were the Refiqs, associates or fellows, who were in process of initiation, and who ultimately advanced to the dignity of da`is. Fifth came the most distinctive class, the Fedais (i.e. the devoted ones), who were the guards or assassins proper. These were all young men, and from their ranks were selected the agents for any deed of blood. They were kept uninitiated, and the blindest obedience was exacted from and yielded by them. When the sheik required the services of any of them, the selected fedais were intoxicated with the hashish. When in this state they were introduced into the splendid gardens of the sheik, and surrounded with every sensual pleasure. .Such a foretaste of paradise, only to be granted by their supreme ruler, made them eager to obey his slightest command; their lives they counted as nothing, and would resign them at a word from him.^ Harvey: All of that research for nothing, I know that obamabot's only hear what they want to hear, but she never made a threat on his life.
  • Michael Calderone's Blog: Fox analyst apologizes for Obama assassination joke - Politico.com 10 February 2010 11:41 UTC www.politico.com [Source type: General]

^ Afterwards, however, Donkey claims that Diddy and him defeating the monsters would have taken only "half of the time".
  • Donkey Kong - Super Mario Wiki 19 January 2010 18:22 UTC www.mariowiki.com [Source type: General]

^ Before South Carolina voted Obama himself said that blacks were afraid to vote for him because they were afraid he would be assissinated.
  • Michael Calderone's Blog: Fox analyst apologizes for Obama assassination joke - Politico.com 10 February 2010 11:41 UTC www.politico.com [Source type: General]

Finally, the sixth and seventh orders were the Lasigs, or novices, and the common people. Hassan well knew the efficacy of established law and custom in securing the obedience of a mass of people; accordingly, upon all but the initiated, the observances of Islam were rigidly enforced. As for the initiated, they knew the worthlessness of positive religion and morality; they believed in nothing, and scoffed at the practices of the faithful.
The Assassins soon began to make their power felt. One of their first victims was Hassan's former friend, Nizam-ul-Mulk, whose son also died under the dagger of a secret murderer. The death by poison of the sultan Malik-Shah was likewise ascribed to this dreaded society, and contributed to increase their evil fame. .Sultan Sinjar, his successor, made war upon them, but he was soon glad to come to terms with enemies against whose operations no precaution seemed available.^ A drug used to reduce the amount of testosterone made in patients with advanced symptomatic prostate cancer for which no other treatment options are available.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 10:37 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

After a long and prosperous rule Hassan died at an advanced age in 1124. He had previously slain both his sons, one on suspicion of having been concerned in the murder of a da`i at Kuhistan, the other for drinking wine, and he was therefore compelled to name as his successor his chief da'i, Kia-Busurg-Omid.
During the fourteen years' reign of this second leader, the Assassins were frequently unfortunate in the open field, and their castles were taken and plundered; but they acquired a stronghold in Syria, while their numerous murders made them an object of dread to the neighbouring princes, and spread abroad their evil renown. A long series of distinguished men perished under the daggers of the fedais; even the most sacred dignity was not spared. The caliph Mostarshid was assassinated in his tent, and not long after, the caliph Rashid suffered a similar fate. Busurg-Omid was succeeded by his son Mahommed I., who, during the long period of twenty-five years, ruthlessly carried out his predecessor's principles. In his time Massiat became the chief seat of the Syrian branch of the society. Mahommed's abilities were not great, and the affections of the people were drawn towards his son Hassan, a youth of great learning, skilled in all the wisdom of the initiated, and popularly believed to be the promised Imam become visible on earth. The old sheik prevented any attempt at insurrection by slaying 250 of Hassan's adherents, and the son was glad to make submission. When, however, he attained the throne, he began to put his views into effect. On the 17th of the month Ramadan, 1164, he assembled the people and disclosed to them the secret doctrines of the initiated; he announced that the doctrines of Islam were now abolished, that the people might give themselves up to feasting and joy. Soon after, he announced that he was the promised Imam, the caliph of God upon earth. To substantiate these claims he gave out that he was not the son of Mahommed, but was descended from Niz;ir, son of the Egyptian caliph Mostansir, and a lineal descendant of Ismail. After a short reign of four years Hassan was assassinated by his brother-in-law, and his son Mahommed II. succeeded. One of his first acts was to slay his father's murderer, with all his family and relatives; and his long rule, extending over a period of forty-six years, was marked by many similar deeds of cruelty. .He had to contend with.many powerful enemies, especially with the great Atabeg sultan Nureddin, and his more celebrated successor, Saladin, who had gained possession of Egypt after the death of the last Fatimite caliph, and against whom even secret assassination seemed powerless.^ Michael said "Besides joking about the assassination of a Senator who's had to take on secret service detail because of such threats..."
  • Michael Calderone's Blog: Fox analyst apologizes for Obama assassination joke - Politico.com 10 February 2010 11:41 UTC www.politico.com [Source type: General]

^ Even with him sending our children to their early deaths by the thousands, no one has called for his assassination.
  • Michael Calderone's Blog: Fox analyst apologizes for Obama assassination joke - Politico.com 10 February 2010 11:41 UTC www.politico.com [Source type: General]

During his reign, also, the Syrian branch of the society, under their da'i, Sinan, made themselves independent, and remained so ever afterwards. It was with this Syrian branch that the Crusaders made acquaintance; and it appears to have been their emissaries who slew Count Raymund of Tripoli and Conrad of Montferrat.
Mahommed II. died from the effects of poison, administered, it is believed, by his son, Jelaleddin Hassan III., who succeeded.
He restored the old form of doctrine - secret principles for the initiated, and Islam for the people - and his general piety and orthodoxy procured for him the name of the new Mussulman. During his reign of twelve years no assassinations occurred, and he obtained a high reputation among the neighbouring princes. Like his father, he was removed by poison, and his son, `Ala-ed-din Mahommed III., a child of nine years of age, weak in mind and body, was placed on the throne. Under his rule the mild principles of his father were deserted, and a fresh course of assassination entered on. In 1255, after a reign of thirty years, 'Ala-ed-din was slain, with the connivance of his son, Rukneddin, the last ruler of the Assassins. In the following year Hulaku (Hulagu), brother of the Tatar, Mangu Khan, invaded the hill country of Persia, took Alamut and many other castles, and captured Rukneddin (see Mongols). He treated him kindly, and, at his own request, sent him under escort to Mangu. On the way, Rukneddin treacherously incited the inhabitants of Kirdkuh to resist the Tatars. This breach of good faith was severely punished by the khan, who ordered Rukneddin to be put to death, and sent a messenger to Hulaku (Hulagu) commanding him to slay all his captives. .About 12,000 of the Assassins were massacred, and their power in Persia was completely broken.^ No other candidate is talked about being assassinated so I can't help but conclude that it's because Obama is black and because he isn't plugged into the conventional power structure.
  • Michael Calderone's Blog: Fox analyst apologizes for Obama assassination joke - Politico.com 10 February 2010 11:41 UTC www.politico.com [Source type: General]

The Syrian branch flourished for some years longer, till Bibars, the Mamehike sultan of Egypt, ravaged their country and nearly extirpated them. Small bodies of them lingered about the mountains of Syria, and are believed still to exist there. Doctrines somewhat similar to theirs are still to be met with in north Syria.
See J. von Hammer, Geschichte der Assassinen (1818); S. de Sacy, Memoires de l'Institut, iv. (1818), who discusses the etymology fully; Calcutta Review, vols. Iv., lvi.; A. Jourdain in Michaud's Histoire des Croisades, ii. pp. 465-484, and trans. of the Persian historian Mirkhond in Notices et extraits des manuscrits, xiii. pp. 143 sq.; cf. R. Dozy, Essai sur l'histoire de l'Islamisme (Leiden and Paris, 1819), ch. ix. (G. W. T.)


Gaming

Up to date as of January 31, 2010

From Wikia Gaming, your source for walkthroughs, games, guides, and more!

Assassin is one of the classes in several role-playing games. Most assassins make it their goal to sneak around and kill things. Assassins tend to be good at searching for things and dodging others' attacks.

Assassin in the game ToME

An assassin is somewhat similar to a rogue, but whereas the rogues of ToME are better at employing magic, thieving items, and installing traps, the assassins are better at being stealthy and fighting with weapons.
Stealth means that monsters are less likely to notice assassins walking or running around in the dungeon. This is good, because it easier to fight a single monster without waking up a nearby group, and it is easier to flee from monsters without having the other monsters on that level wake up and pursue the assassin as well.
See also Documentation/Classes/Assassin at the ToME wiki or using the in-game help.

This article uses material from the "Assassin" article on the Gaming wiki at Wikia and is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike License.

Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 23, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Buttocks, which are similar to those in the above article.








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