Assyrian Massacre: Wikis

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Map showing the Armenian (in colours) and Christian (in shadings) population of the eastern Ottoman provinces in the year 1896. In the areas where the share of Christian population was higher than that of the Armenians, the non-Armenian Christian population largely consisted of Assyrians (except in regions inhabited by Ottoman Greeks). Assyrians lived mostly in the southern and southeastern parts of the region
Bodies of Christians who perished during the Assyrian Genocide
40 Christians dying a day say Assyrian refugees - The Syracuse Herald, 1915.
The Washington Post and other leading newspapers in Western countries reported on the Assyrian Genocide as it unfolded.
Because of the mass killings, Mar Eshai Shimun XXIII was chosen as a Patriarch of the Assyrian Church of the East at only 11 years old.
An article from The New York Times, March 27, 1915.

The Assyrian Genocide (also known as Sayfo or Seyfo) was committed against the Assyrian/Chaldean/Syriac population of the Ottoman Empire during the First World War. The Assyrian population of northern Mesopotamia (the Tur Abdin, Hakkari, Van, Siirt regions of present-day southeastern Turkey and the Urmia region of northwestern Iran) was forcibly relocated and massacred by Ottoman (Turkish) and Kurdish forces between 1914 and 1920.

The death toll of the Assyrian genocide was approximately 250,000, according to contemporary and more recent sources. "In 1918, according to the Los Angeles Times, Ambassador Morgenthau confirmed that the Ottoman Empire had 'massacred fully 2,000,000 men, women, and children -- Greeks, Assyrians, Armenians; fully 1,500,000 Armenians.'"[1] With 250,000 Greeks among the dead, that makes Ambassador Morgenthau's estimate of Assyrian deaths about 250,000.[2] The Assyro-Chaldean National Council stated in a December 4, 1922, memorandum that the total death toll was unknown, but it estimated that about 275,000 "Assyro-Chaldeans" died between 1914 and 1918.[3] The population of the Assyrians of the Ottoman Empire was about 500,000 before the genocide, and 100,000 to 250,000 after.[4] Specific massacres included 25,000 Assyrians in Midyat, 21,000 in Jezira-ibn-Omar, 7,000 in Nisibis, 7,000 in Urfa, 7,000 in the Qudshanis region, 6,000 in Mardin, 5,000 in Diyarbekir, 4,000 in Adana, 4,000 in Brahimie, and 3,500 in Harput.[5][6][7][8]

The Assyrian genocide took place in the same context and time-period as the Armenian and Greek genocides.[9] Contemporary sources usually speak of the events in terms of an Assyrian genocide, along with the Armenian genocide and Greek genocide by the Ottoman Empire, listing the Greek Orthodox, Syriac Christian and Armenian Christian victims together. For example, the International Association of Genocide Scholars reached a consensus that "the Ottoman campaign against Christian minorities of the Empire between 1914 and 1923 constituted a genocide against Armenians, Assyrians, and Pontian and Anatolian Greeks."[10] After this resolution, the Dictionary of Genocide co-authored by eminent genocide scholar Samuel Totten, an expert on Holocaust education and the genocide in Darfur, contained an entry on the "Assyrian genocide."[11] The President of Genocide Watch endorsed the "repudiation by the world's leading genocide scholars of the Turkish government's ninety year denial of the Ottoman Empire's genocides against its Christian populations, including Assyrians, Greeks, and Armenians."[10]

Contents

Terminology

The Assyrian genocide is sometimes also referred to as Sayfo or Seyfo in English language sources, based on the Aramaic designation Saypā (ܣܝܦܐ), "sword", pronounced as Seyfo, and as Sayfo in the Western dialect (the term abbreviates shato d'sayfo "year of the sword"; compare the use of Shoah in English based on the Hebrew ha-Šoah).

The Aramaic name Qeṭlā ḏ-‘Amā Āṯûrāyā (ܩܛܠܐ ܕܥܡܐ ܐܬܘܪܝܐ), which literally means "killing of the Assyrian people", is used by some groups to describe these events. The word Qṭolcamo (ܩܛܠܥܡܐ) which means Genocide is also used in Assyrian diaspora media. The term used in Turkish media is Süryani Soykırımı.

In countries of the Assyrian diaspora where the designation "Assyrian" has become controversial, notably Germany and Sweden, alternative terms such as Assyriska/syrianska/kaldeiska folkmordet "Assyrian/Syriac/Chaldean genocide".

Reasons

Reasons suggested for the genocide vary.

The Armenians, Greeks and Assyrians were the subject of forced relocations and executions, a possible cause being religious persecution of the Christian community of Anatolia. The Assyrians were included as a subsection of the Armenians.

Political situation before World War I

Before the war approximately one half of the Assyrian population lived in what is today Southern Turkey. The Young Turks took control of the Ottoman Empire only five years before the beginning of World War I. The Ottomans planned to join the side of the Central Powers. In 1914, knowing that it was heading into the war, the Ottoman government passed a law that required the conscription of all young males into the Ottoman army to support the war effort.

Before World War I, about half of the Assyrian population lived in what is today Turkey, specifically the Hakkari region. In 1914, Young Turks began to systemically target Christians of Asia Minor with events such as the Assyrian Genocide. In the beginning, key Assyrian nationalist leaders and religious figures were wiped out of communities, whereas at one point the patriarch of the Assyrian Church of the East was only twelve years old (Mar Eshai Shimun XXIII).[3]

Assyrian Military Activity in Iraq During WW1

The Ottoman Empire declared war against the Allies and the British on October 29, 1914. For geographic reasons, it was important for the British to gain the support of the Assyrians. This was done by promising the persecuted Assyrians their own homeland.

Because of large oil fields, Britain wanted to insure that the Mosul region would be part of the newly-colonized Iraq instead of the future state of Turkey. The Assyrians promised loyalty to the British in return for an independent state in the future. After the invasion of Mosul by the Young Turks, the Assyrian army, led by General Agha Petros, fought intensively and successfully against the Ottoman army and their Kurdish allies, and pushed them out of Mosul and the whole area, leading to Britain's control of the region. The battles are described in detail by surviving letters of Petros and British officials.

Documented accounts of the genocide

Assyrians in what is now Turkey primarily lived in the provinces of Hakkari, Şırnak, and Mardin. These areas also had a sizable Kurdish population.

The following newspaper articles documented the Assyrian genocide as it occurred:

  • Assyrians Burned in Church, Lowell Sun (Massachusetts), 1915
  • Assyrians Massacred in Urmia, San Antonio Light (Texas), 1915
  • Assyrians Massacred in Urmiah, Salt Lake Tribune (Utah), 1915
  • Chaldean Victims of the Turks, The Times (United Kingdom), 22 November 1919, p 11
  • Christian Massacres in Urmiah, The Argus (Australia), 1915
  • Extermination of the Armenian Race, The Manchester Guardian (United Kingdom), 1915
  • Many Assyrian Perish, Winnipeg Free Press (Canada), 1915
  • Massacred by Kurds; Christians Unable to Flee from Urmia Put to Death, Washington

Post, 14 March 1915, p10

  • Massacres of Nestorians in Urmia, The New York Times (New York), 1915
  • Massacres Kept Up, The Washington Post (USA), 26 March 1915, 1.
  • Native Christians Massacred; Frightful Atrocities in Persia, Los Angeles Times,

2 April 1915, p I-1

  • Nestorian Christians Flee Urmia, The New York Times (New York), 1915
  • Syrian Tells of Atrocities, Los Angeles Times (California), Dec. 15, 1918, at I–1.
  • The Assyrian Massacres, Manchester Guardian (United Kingdom), Dec. 5, 1918, at 4
  • The Suffering Serbs and Armenians, The Manchester Guardian (United Kingdom), 1915, p5
  • Turkish Horrors in Persia, The New York Times (New York), 11 October 1915
  • Turks Kill Christians in Assyria, Muscatine Journal (Iowa), 1915
  • Turkish Troops Massacring Assyrians, Newark Advocate (New Jersey), 1915
  • Turkish Horrors in Persia, The New York Times (New York), 1915
  • The Total of Armenian and Syrian Dead, Current History: A Monthly Magazine of the New York Times, November 1916, 337–38

Hannibal Travis, Assistant Professor of Law at Florida International University, wrote in the peer-reviewed journal Genocide Studies and Prevention: An International Journal that:[12]

Numerous articles in the American press documented the genocide of Assyrians by the Turks and their Kurdish allies. By 1918, The Los Angeles Times carried the story of a Syrian, or most likely an Assyrian, merchant from Urmia who stated that his city was ‘‘completely wiped out, the inhabitants massacred,’’ 200 surrounding villages ravaged, 200,000 of his people dead, and hundreds of thousands of more starving to death in exile from their agricultural lands. In an article entitled ‘‘Native Christians Massacred,’’ the Associated Press correspondent reported that in the vicinity of Urmia, ‘‘Turkish regular troops and Kurds are persecuting and massacring Assyrian Christians.’’ Close to 800 were confirmed dead in Urmia, and another 2,000 had perished from disease. Two hundred Assyrians had been burned to death inside a church, and the Russians had discovered more than 700 bodies of massacre victims in the village of Hafdewan outside Urmia, ‘‘mostly naked and mutilated,’’ some with gunshot wounds, others decapitated, and still others carved to pieces.

Other leading British and American newspapers corroborated these accounts of the Assyrian genocide. The New York Times reported on 11 October that 12,000 Persian Christians had died of massacre, hunger, or disease; thousands of girls as young as seven had been raped or forcibly converted to Islam; Christian villages had been destroyed, and three-fourths of these Christian villages were burned to the ground.[13] The Times of London was perhaps the first widely respected publication to document the fact that 250,000 Assyrians and Chaldeans eventually died in the Ottoman genocide of Christians, a figure which many journalists and scholars have subsequently accepted....

As the Earl of Listowel, speaking in the House of Lords on 28 November 1933, stated, ‘‘the Assyrians fought on our side during the war,’’ and made ‘‘enormous sacrifices,’’ having ‘‘lost altogether by the end of the War about two-thirds of their total number.’'....

About half of the Assyrian nation died of murder, disease, or exposure as refugees during the war, according to the head of the Anglican Church, which had a mission to the Assyrians.

In April 1915, after a number of failed Kurdish attempts, Ottoman Troops invaded Gawar, a region of Hakkari, and massacred the entire population.[14] Prior to this, in October 1914, 71 Assyrian men of Gawar were arrested and taken to the local government centre in Bashkala and killed.[15] Also in April, Kurdish troops surrounded the village of Tel Mozilt and imprisoned 475 men (among them, Reverend Gabrial, the famous red-bearded priest). The following morning, the prisoners were taken out in rows of four and shot. Arguments rose between the Kurds and the Ottoman officials on what to do with the women and orphans left behind.

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Massacres at Van

Cevdet Paşa the governor of Van, is reported to have held a meeting in February 1915 at which he said, "We have cleansed the Armenians and Syriac [Christian]s from Azerbaijan, and we will do the same in Van".[16]

In late 1915, Cevdet Bey, Military Governor of Van Province, upon entering Siirt (or Seert) with 8,000 soldiers whom he himself called "The Butchers' Battalion" (Turkish: Kasap Taburu),[17] ordered the massacre of almost 20,000 Assyrian civilians in at least 30 villages. The following is a list[17] documenting the villages that were attacked by Cevdet's soldiers and the estimated number of Assyrian deaths:

Sairt - 2,000[18] Sadagh - 2,000 Mar-Gourya - 1,000 Guedianes - 500 Hadide - 1,000 Harevena - 200
Redwan - 500 Dehok - 500 Ketmes - 1,000 Der-Chemch - 200 Piros - 1,000 Der-Mar-Yacoub- 500
Tentas - 500 Tellimchar - 1,500 Ketmes - 1,000 Telnevor - 500 Benkof - 200 Bekend - 500
Altaktanie - 500 Goredj - 500 Galwaye - 500 Der-Mazen - 300 Der-Rabban - 300 Charnakh - 200
Artoun - 1,000 Ain-Dare - 200 Berke - 500 Archkanes - 500

The village of Sa'irt/Seert, was populated by Assyrians and Armenians. Seert was the seat of a Chaldean Archbishop, the orientalist Addai Scher who was murdered by the Kurds. The eyewitness Hyacinthe Simon wrote that 4,000 Christians died in Seert.[19][20]

Assyrian Military Retaliation in Turkey

On March 3, 1918, the Ottoman army led by Kurdish soldiers, assassinated one of the most important Assyrian leaders at the time, . This resulted in the retaliation of the Assyrians. Malik Yosip Khoshaba of the Bit Tiyari tribe led a successful attack against the Ottomans. Assyrian forces in the region also attacked the Kurdish fortress of Simku, the leader who had assassinated Mar Shimun XIX Benyamin, they successfully stormed it, defeating the Kurds, however Simku escaped and fled.

Assyrians were involved in a number of clashes in Turkey with Ottoman forces, including Kurds and Circassians loyal to the empire. When armed and in sufficient numbers they were able to defend themselves successfully. However, they were often cut off in small pockets, vastly outnumbered and surrounded, and unarmed villagers made easy targets for Ottoman and Kurdish forces.

Massacres in Iranian villages

Ottoman forces learned of the withdrawal of Russian forces from Persia in late 1914. In response, the 36th and 37th divisions of the Ottoman army were sent westward and entered the northwestern part of Persia. Before the end of 1914, Turkish and Kurdish troops had successfully entered the villages in and around Urmia. On February 21, 1915 the Turkish army in Urmia seized 61 leading Assyrians from the French missions as hostages, demanding large ransoms. The mission had enough money to convince the Ottomans to let 20 of the men go. However, on February 22 the remaining 41 were executed, having their heads cut off at the stairs of the Charbachsh Gate. The dead included bishop Mar Denkha.

These villages were completely unarmed. The only protection they had was when the Russian army finally took control of the area, years after the presence of the Ottoman army had been removed. On February 25, 1915, Ottoman troops stormed their way into the villages of Gulpashan and Salamas. Almost all of the men of the village of Golpashan were shot. In Salamas about 750 Armenian and Assyrian refugees were protected by Iranian civilians in the village. The commander of the Ottoman division stormed the houses despite the fact that Iranians lived in them, and roped all the men together in large groups and forced them to march in the fields between Khusrawa and Haftevan. The men were shot or killed in other ways. The protection of Christians by Turkish civilians is also confirmed in the 1915 British report:[15]

Many Moslems tried to save their Christian neighbours and offered them shelter in their houses, but the Turkish authorities were implacable.

During the Winter of 1915, 4,000 Assyrians died from disease, hunger, and exposure, and about 1000 were killed in the villages of Urmia.

Assyrian military retaliation in Iran

The Assyrians in Persia armed themselves under the command of General Agha Petros, who had been approached by the Allies to help fight the Ottomans.

The Assyrians proved to be excellent soldiers, and Agha Petros' volunteer army had quite a few successes over the Ottoman forces and their Kurdish allies, notably at Suldouze where 1500 Assyrian horsemen overcame the far larger Ottoman force of over 8000, commanded by Kheiri Bey [5]. Agha Petros also defeated the Ottoman Turks in a major engagement at Sauj Bulak and drove them back to Rowanduz.

A number of smaller encounters with Ottoman and Kurdish forces also proved successful.

Assyrian forces in Persia were greatly affected by the withdrawal of Russia from the war and the collapse of Armenian armed resistance in the region. They were left cut off, with no supplies, vastly outnumbered and surrounded.

Massacre of Khoi, Iran

In early 1918, many Assyrians started to flee present-day Turkey. Mar Shimun Benyamin had arranged for some 3,500 Assyrians to reside in the district of Khoi. Not long after settling in, Kurdish troops of the Ottoman Army massacred the population almost entirely. One of the few that survived was Reverend John Eshoo. After escaping, he stated:

You have undoubtedly heard of the Assyrian massacre of Khoi, but I am certain you do not know the details.

These Assyrians were assembled into one caravansary, and shot to death by guns and revolvers. Blood literally flowed in little streams, and the entire open space within the caravansary became a pool of crimson liquid. The place was too small to hold all the living victims waiting for execution. They were brought in groups, and each new group was compelled to stand over the heap of the still bleeding bodies and shot to death. The fearful place became literally a human slaughter house, receiving its speechless victims, in groups of ten and twenty at a time, for execution.

At the same time, the Assyrians, who were residing in the suburb of the city, were brought together and driven into the spacious courtyard of a house [...] The Assyrian refugees were kept under guard for eight days, without anything to eat. At last they were removed from their place of confinement and taken to a spot prepared for their brutal killing. These helpless Assyrians marched like lambs to their slaughter, and they opened not their mouth, save by sayings "Lord, into thy hands we commit our spirits. [...]

The executioners began by cutting first the fingers of their victims, join by joint, till the two hands were entirely amputated. Then they were stretched on the ground, after the manner of the animals that are slain in the Fast, but these with their faces turned upward, and their heads resting upon the stones or blocks of wood Then their throats were half cut, so as to prolong their torture of dying, and while struggling in the agony of death, the victims were kicked and clubbed by heavy poles the murderers carried Many of them, while still laboring under the pain of death, were thrown into ditches and buried before their souls had expired.

The young men and the able-bodied men were separated from among the very young and the old. They were taken some distance from the city and used as targets by the shooters. They all fell, a few not mortally wounded. One of the leaders went to the heaps of the fallen and shouted aloud, swearing by the names of Islam's prophets that those who had not received mortal wounds should rise and depart, as they would not be harmed any more. A few, thus deceived, stood up, but only to fall this time killed by another volley from the guns of the murderers.

Some of the younger and good looking women, together with a few little girls of attractive appearance, pleaded to be killed. Against their will were forced into Islam's harems. Others were subjected to such fiendish insults that I cannot possibly describe. Death, however, came to their rescue and saved them from the vile passions of the demons. The death toll of Assyrians totaled 2,770 men, women and children.[21]

Baquba camps

By mid-1918, the British army had convinced the Ottomans to let them have access to about 30,000 Assyrians from various parts of Persia. The British decided to deport all 30,000 from Persia to Baquba, Iraq. The transferring took just 25 days, but at least 7,000 of them had died during the trip.[22] Some died of exposure, hunger or disease, other civilians fell prey to attacks from armed bands of Kurds and Arabs. At Baquba, Assyrians were forced to defend themselves from further Arab raids.

A memorandum from American Presbyterian Missionaries at Urmia During the Great War 16 to British Minister Sir Percy Cox had this to say:

Capt. Gracey doubtless talked rather big in the hopes of putting heart into the Syrians and holding up this front against the Turks. [Consequently,] We have met all the orders issued by the late Dr. Shedd which have been presented to us and a very large number of Assyrian refugees are being maintained at Baquba, chiefly at H.M.G.'s expense.

In 1920, the British decided to close down the Baquba camps. The majority of Assyrians of the camp decided to go back to the Hakkari mountains, while the rest were dispersed throughout Iraq, where there was already an ancient Assyrian community established over 5000 years. In 1933 a massacre of thousands of unarmed Assyrians took place at Simele and other areas in Iraq at the hands of the Iraqi Army and Kurdish irregulars. In 1961 many Assyrian villages were razed in Iraq, and further widespread destruction was wrought during the Al Anfal Campaign by Saddam Hussein in 1988. To this day Assyrians in Iraq make up an important Iraqi minority group.

Massacres in the late Ottoman Empire

The Assyrians were not going to be an easy group to deport, as they had always been armed and were as ferocious as their Kurdish neighbors.[23]

Christian population in Diyarbakır Province before and after World War I[24]
Sect Before World War I Disappeared After World War I
Armenians Gregorians (Apostolic) 60,000 58,000 2,000
Armenian Catholics 12,500 11,500 1,000
Assyrians Chaldean Catholics 11,120 10,010 1,110
Syrian Catholic 5,600 3,450 2,150
Syrian Jacobite 84,725 60,725 24,000
Total 173,945 143,685 30,260
Christian population in Mardin province before and after World War I[24]
Sect Before World War I Disappeared After World War I
Armenians Catholics 10,500 10,200 300
Assyrians Chaldean Catholics 7,870 6,800 1,070
Syrian Catholic 3,850 700 3,150
Syrian Jacobite 51,725 29,725 22,000
Total 73,945 49,875 24,070

Eyewitness accounts and quotes

Statement of German Missionaries on Urmia.

There was absolutely no human power to protect these unhappy people from the savage onslaught of the invading hostile forces. It was an awful situation. At midnight the terrible exodus began; a concourse of 25,000 men, women, and children, Assyrians and Armenians, leaving cattle in the stables, all their household hoods and all the supply of food for winter, hurried, panic-stricken, on a long and painful journey to the Russian border, enduring the intense privations of a foot journey in the snow and mud, without any kind of preparation… It was a dreadful sight,… many of the old people and children died along the way.

[25]

The latest news is that four thousand Assyrians and one hundred Armenians have died of disease alone, at the mission, within the last five months. All villages in the surrounding district with two or three exceptions have been plundered and burnt; twenty thousand Christians have been slaughtered in Armenia and its environs. In Haftewan, a village of Salmas, 750 corpses without heads have been recovered from the wells and cisterns alone. Why? Because the commanding officer had put a price on every Christian head… In Dilman crowds of Christians were thrown into prison and driven to accept Islam.

[26]

Recognition

Genocide monument in Paris, France

On 11 March 2010, the Genocide of the Assyrians was officially recognized by the Parliament of Sweden, alongside that of the Armenians and Pontic Greeks.[27][28][29]

The Assyrian genocide is recognised by the New South Wales (NSW) Local Government in Australia.[30]

The Assyrian Genocide has also been recognized by the last three governors of the state of New York.[31][32]

This is in contrast to the Armenian Genocide, which has been recognized by many countries and international organizations. Assyrian historians attribute the limited recognition to the small number of Assyrian survivors, whose leader Mar Shimun XIX Benjamin was killed in 1918.[33] For example, there are one million Armenians living in the United States alone, but even they were unable to persuade Congress to pass a United States resolution on Armenian genocide. In addition, the widespread massacres of all Ottoman Christians in Asia Minor is sometimes referred to by Armenian authors as an "Armenian Genocide". On April 24, 2001, Governor of the US state of New York, George Pataki, proclaimed that "killings of civilians and food and water deprivation during forced marches across harsh, arid terrain proved successful for the perpetrators of genocide, who harbored a prejudice against ... Assyrian Christians."[34] In December 2007, the International Association of Genocide Scholars, the world's leading genocide scholars organization, overwhelmingly passed a resolution officially recognizing the Assyrian genocide, along with the genocide against Ottoman Greeks.[35] The vote in favour was 83%. The full text of the resolution reads:

WHEREAS the denial of genocide is widely recognized as the final stage of genocide, enshrining impunity for the perpetrators of genocide, and demonstrably paving the way for future genocides;

WHEREAS the Ottoman genocide against minority populations during and following the First World War is usually depicted as a genocide against Armenians alone, with little recognition of the qualitatively similar genocides against other Christian minorities of the Ottoman Empire;

BE IT RESOLVED that it is the conviction of the International Association of Genocide Scholars that the Ottoman campaign against Christian minorities of the Empire between 1914 and 1923 constituted a genocide against Armenians, Assyrians, and Pontian and Anatolian Greeks.

BE IT FURTHER RESOLVED that the Association calls upon the government of Turkey to acknowledge the genocides against these populations, to issue a formal apology, and to take prompt and meaningful steps toward restitution.

Monuments

Monument in California.

The only governments that have allowed Assyrians to establish monuments commemorating the victims of the Assyrian genocide are France, Sweden, and the United States. Sweden's government has pledged to pay for all the expenses of a future monument, after strong lobbying from the large Assyrian community there, led by Konstantin Sabo. There are two monuments in the U.S., one in Chicago and the newest in Tarzana, California.

There have been recent reports indicating that Armenia is ready to create a monument dedicated to the Assyrian genocide, placed in the capital next to the Armenian genocide monument.[36]

A monument to the victims of the Assyrian genocide has been proposed by Fairfield Council in Australia, where one in ten of the population is of Assyrian descent. The statue would be of a hand of a martyr draped in an Assyrian flag and 4.5 meters tall. It was designed by Lewis Batros. The memorial would be placed in a reserve to be named the Garden of Nineveh. The memorial statue and the name for the reserve were proposed in August 2009 by the Assyrian Universal Alliance. After consultation with the community, Fairfield Council received more than 100 submissions for the memorial, including some from overseas, and two petitions. The proposal has been condemned by the Australian Turkish community. No Australian government has ever officially recognised the Assyrian account of the genocide. [37]

School institutions

In Canada, the Assyrian Genocide, along with the Armenian Genocide, are included in a course covering historical genocides. Turkish organizations, along with other non-Turkish Muslim organizations, have reacted to this and protested. In 2009, the Prime Minister of Turkey declared two genocides that were much smaller than the Assyrian genocide, i.e. the alleged Chinese genocide of Uighur Muslems in East Turkestan, involving less than 200 deaths in the July 2009 Ürümqi riots.[38] Two Turkish Prime Ministers, Bülent Ecevit and Recep Tayyip Erdoğan, have accused Israel of genocide for preventing the creation of a Palestinian state, even though the Palestinian population is one of the fastest-growing in the world according to the List of countries by population growth rate.[39][40]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Hannibal Travis, Native Christians Massacred”: The Ottoman Genocide of the Assyrians During World War I, Genocide Studies and Prevention, Vol. 1, No. 3, p. 327, December 2006. Retrieved 2010-02-02.
  2. ^ Ibid., pp. 335, 337.
  3. ^ Joseph Yacoub, La question assyro-chaldéenne, les Puissances européennes et la SDN (1908–1938), 4 vol., thèse Lyon, 1985, p. 156.
  4. ^ David Gaunt, Massacres, Resistance, Protectors: Muslim-Christian Relations in Eastern Anatolia During World War I, at 21-28, 300-3, 406, 435 (Piscataway, New Jersey: Gorgias Press, 2006).
  5. ^ Gaunt, op cit., at 76-77, 164, 181-96, 226-30, 264-67.
  6. ^ Amill Gorgis, “Der Völkermord an den Syro-Aramäern,” in Verfolgung, Vertreibung und Vernichtung der Christen im Osmanischen Reich 20 (Tessa Hoffman ed. London and Berlin: LIT Verlag, 2004).
  7. ^ Anahit Khosroeva, “The Assyrian Genocide,” in The Armenian Genocide: Cultural and Ethical Legacies 270 (R. Hovannisian ed., 2007).
  8. ^ Travis, “Native Christians Massacred”, at 333-36. Retrieved 2010-02-02.
  9. ^ Schaller, Dominik J. and Zimmerer, Jürgen (2008) "Late Ottoman genocides: the dissolution of the Ottoman Empire and Young Turkish population and extermination policies - introduction," Journal of Genocide Research, 10:1, 7 - 14.
  10. ^ a b Genocide Scholars Association Officially Recognizes Assyrian Greek Genocides, 16 December 2007. Retrieved 2010-02-02.
  11. ^ Assyrian Genocide,” in Samuel Totten, Paul Robert Bartrop, & Steven L. Jacobs, Dictionary of Genocide‎ 25-26 (Westport, CT: Greenwood Publishing Group, 2008).
  12. ^ Hannibal Travis (2006), "Native Christians Massacred": The Ottoman Genocide of the Assyrians During World War I, Genocide Studies and Prevention: An International Journal, vol. 1.3, pp. 334, 337-38. DOI:10.3138/YV54-4142-P5RN-X055.
  13. ^ "Turkish Horrors in Persia". New York Times: p. 4. 1915-10-11. http://query.nytimes.com/gst/abstract.html?res=9806E4DD1239E333A25752C1A9669D946496D6CF. Retrieved 2008-08-19. 
  14. ^ H.P. Packard, The Plight of Assyria, N.Y. Times, 18 September 1916. Retrieved 2010-02-02.
  15. ^ a b Bryce, James Lord. British Government Report on the Armenian Massacres of April-December 1915.
  16. ^ Akçam, Taner. A Shameful Act: The Armenian Genocide and the Question of Turkish Responsibility, p. 201. ISBN 080508665X.
  17. ^ a b Genocides Against the Assyrian Nation. Retrieved 2010-02-02.
  18. ^ Rev. Joseph Naayem, O.I. - Shall This Nation Die?, 1921.
  19. ^ Gaunt, Massacres, Resistance, Protectors, p. 436.
  20. ^ Yves Ternon, Mardin 1915, Book I, Part IV, the elimination of Christians Sandzak Mardin, (Paris: Center for Armenian History, 2000). Retrieved 2010-02-02.
  21. ^ Joel Euel Werda. The Flickering Light of Asia: Or, the Assyrian Nation and Church, ch. 26.
  22. ^ Austin, H. H.(Brig.-Gen.): The Baquba Refugee Camp - An account of the work on behalf of the persecuted Assyrian Christians. London 1920.
  23. ^ David Gaunt (2006). Massacres, resistance, protectors: Muslim-Christian relations in Eastern Anatolia during World War I. Gorgias Press LLC. p. 311. ISBN 1593333013. OCLC 85766950. http://books.google.com/books?id=4mug9LrpLKcC&printsec=frontcover. 
  24. ^ a b Courtois (2004), pp. 194-195.
  25. ^ Abraham Yohannan The Death of a Nation: Or, The Ever Persecuted Nestorians Or Assyrian Christians ISBN 0524062358, pp. 119–120.
  26. ^ Abraham Yohannan The Death of a Nation: Or, The Ever Persecuted Nestorians Or Assyrian Christians ISBN 0524062358, pp. 126–127.
  27. ^ "Motion 2008/09:U332 Genocide of Armenians, Assyrians/Syriacs/Chaldeans and Pontiac Greeks in 1915". Stockholm: Riksdag. 11 March 2010. http://riksdagen.se/templates/R_PageExtended____21484.aspx. Retrieved 12 March 2010. 
  28. ^ "Sweden to recognize Armenian genocide". The Local. 11 March 2010. http://www.thelocal.se/25468/20100311/. Retrieved 12 March 2010. 
  29. ^ http://www.aina.org/news/20100311192620.htm
  30. ^ http://www.fairfieldcity.nsw.gov.au/upload/hutxy19692/FINAL_Assyrian_Memorial_ConsultationPaper.pdf
  31. ^ State of New York, Gov. David Paterson, Proclamation, 24 April 2008. Retrieved 2010-02-02.
  32. ^ Governor Pataki Commemorates Armenian Genocide, Proclamation, 05 May, 2004. Retrieved 2010-02-02.
  33. ^ Travis, "Native Christians Massacred," at 345-46.
  34. ^ "New York State Governor Proclamation". April 1 2001. http://www.armenian-genocide.org/keyword_search.assyrian/Affirmation.196/current_category.40/affirmation_detail.html. Retrieved 2006-06-16. 
  35. ^ Jones, Adam (2007-12-15). "International Genocide Scholars Association Officially Recognizes Assyrian, Greek Genocides". AINA. http://www.aina.org/news/20071215131949.htm. Retrieved 2008-08-19. 
  36. ^ Call for Architectural Sketches for Assyrian Genocide Monument in Yerevan, Armenia. Retrieved 2010-02-02.
  37. ^ Fairfield City Champion, 16 December 2009.
  38. ^ China Demands Turkish Retraction, BBC News (U.K.), 14 July 2009. Retrieved 2010-02-02.
  39. ^ Mooradian, Moorad, Turkey Accuses Israel of Genocide!, The Armenian Reporter, 20 April 2002. Retrieved 2010-02-02.
  40. ^ Turkish prosecutor probes Israel's Gaza genocide, Al Arabiya Sat Television, 06 February 2009. Retrieved 2010-02-02.

Literature

See also


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