An astrologer practices one or more forms of astrology. Typically an astrologer draws a horoscope for the time of an event, such as a person's birth, and interprets celestial points and their placements at the time of the event to better understand someone, determine the auspiciousness of an undertaking's beginning, etc. However, the methods employed by astrologers are variable and depend on the particular astrological tradition they employ and the information desired. In the far past, the role often entailed astronomical observation or manual calculation of celestial phenomena. In more modern times, however, these methods have largely been replaced by pre-calculated ephemerides and astrological software. Astrology is not supported by scientific consensus.
In the United States, the practice of astrology is largely unregulated. Certification is not required by legislation for an astrologer to offer his or her services. However, there are various examinations offered by private organizations such as the American Federation of Astrologers and the National Council for Geocosmic Research that allow those wishing to become professional astrologers to demonstrate their proficiency.
The first organized system of astrology was developed in Mesopotamia in the second millennium BCE. The Babylonians' system of omen astrology was relatively simple and direct compared to later developments, foretelling mundane occurrences such as famine, war, peace, and so on based on predefined celestial indicators. Babylonian astrologers provided a service for those in power, advising them in their decision-making.
At this time astrology and astronomy were not distinguished as separate disciplines; the act of astronomical observation was often done by someone who had astrological motives for doing so. Indeed, astrologers' professional responsibility and desire for predictive knowledge for a large part spurred the advancement of astronomy, and the Babylonians developed a very precise ability to mathematically predict the location of celestial points and phenomena based upon their observable cycles.
There are 18 pioneers in Indian Astrology, who contributed to its development. They are: 1. Surya, 2. Pitamaha, 3. Vyasa, 4. Vasishta, 5. Atri, 6. Parasara, 7. Kasyapa, 8. Narada, 9. Garga, 10. Mareechi, 11.Manu, 12.Angeerasa, 13.Lomasa, 14.Poulisa, 15.Chyavana, 16.Yavana, 17. Bhrigu, and 18. Saunaka. Each of the above sages has one Siddhantha to each name to their credit.
In modern times, astrologers can be divided into broad groupings as per the system of astrology used. The following astrologers have brought innovations to their respective fields.
During the middle of the 20th century, Alfred Witte and following him Reinhold Ebertin pioneered the use of midpoints (see midpoint (astrology)) in horoscopic analysis. From the 1930s to the 1980s, astrologers including Dane Rudhyar, Liz Greene and Stephen Arroyo pioneered the use of astrology for psychological analysis, with some following the lead of psychologists like Carl Jung. In the 1930s, Don Neroman developed and popularised in Europe a form of locational astrology under the name of "astrogeography." In the 1970s, American astrologer Jim Lewis developed and popularized a different approach under the name of astrocartography. Both methods purport to identify varying life conditions through differences in location.
In the 1960s, H.R. Seshadri Iyer, introduced a new system including the yoga point, which became popular with some astrologers in the West. From the early 1990s, Indian vedic astrologer and author, V.K. Choudhry has created and developed the Systems' Approach for Interpreting Horoscopes, a simplified system of Jyotish (predictive astrology). The system, also known as "SA", helps those who are trying to learn Jyotisha. The late K. S. Krishnamurti developed the Krishnamurti Paddhati system based on the analysis of the stars (nakshatras), by sub-dividing the stars in the ratio of the dasha of the concerned planets. The system is also known as "KP" and "sub theory".
(Dan 1:20; 2:2, 10, 27, etc.) Heb. 'ashshaph', an enchanter, one who professes to divine future events by the appearance of the stars. This science flourished among the Chaldeans. It was positively forbidden to the Jews (Deut 4:19; 18:10; Isa 47:13).
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