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Ataxia
ICD-10 R27.0
ICD-9 438.84, 781.3
MeSH D001259
.Ataxia (from Greek α- [used as a negative prefix] + -τάξις [order], meaning "lack of order") is a neurological sign and symptom consisting of gross lack of coordination of muscle movements.^ Definition Ataxia describes a lack of coordination while performing voluntary movements.

^ Wasting of muscles due to lack of use .
  • What are the symptoms of Multipl 20 September 2009 9:09 UTC www.mold-survivor.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The word "ataxia" comes from the Greek word "a taxis," which means "without order or without coordination."

.Ataxia is a non-specific clinical manifestation implying dysfunction of parts of the nervous system that coordinate movement, such as the cerebellum.^ People with Ataxia have problems with coordination because parts of the Nervous System that control movement and balance are affected.
  • Welcome To :SAMAG Ataxia & Muscular Dystrophy Information. 10 February 2010 11:42 UTC samataxiagroup.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Dysfunction of the central nervous system affects coordination of the muscles in the limbs.
  • Ataxia 10 February 2010 11:42 UTC www.alaska.net [Source type: Academic]
  • CIGNA - Ataxia, Hereditary, Autosomal Dominant 10 February 2010 11:42 UTC www.cigna.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Ataxia [En español] Partial or complete loss of coordination of voluntary muscular movements.
  • AIDSinfo - HIV / AIDS Glossary 10 February 2010 11:42 UTC www.aidsinfo.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

.Several possible causes exist for these patterns of neurological dysfunction.^ Mutations of these conserved amino acids (Arg59, Arg221) cause a severe AVED phenotype .
  • Ataxia with Vitamin E Deficiency -- GeneReviews -- NCBI Bookshelf 10 February 2010 11:42 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ In general, the neurosurgeon will attempt to remove as much of the tumor as possible without causing damage to the normal brain, which can result in permanent neurological deficits.

The term "dystaxia" is rarely used as a synonym.
.The International Ataxia Awareness Day is observed on September 25 each year.^ The ataxia awareness Day is held on 25th September.
  •   the Community of Friedrich Ataxia  - Fact Sheet 10 February 2010 11:42 UTC ataxiapakistan.multiply.com [Source type: Original source]

^ We have celebrated our first Ataxia awareness Day on 25th September 2001.
  •   the Community of Friedrich Ataxia  - Fact Sheet 10 February 2010 11:42 UTC ataxiapakistan.multiply.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Friedreich ataxia (FRDA) is characterized by slowly progressive ataxia with mean age of onset between ten and 15 years and usually before age 25 years.
  • SACSIN; Autosomal recessive spastic ataxia of Charlevoix-Saguenay,ARSACS 10 February 2010 11:42 UTC www.medgen.mcgill.ca [Source type: Academic]

[1]

Contents

Types of ataxia

Cerebellar ataxia

.The term cerebellar ataxia is employed to indicate ataxia due to dysfunction of the cerebellum.^ Most autosomal dominant cerebellar ataxias are due to CAG expansions in coding regions.
  • Friedreich�s ataxia � yesterday, today and tomorrow Chakravarty A Neurol India 10 February 2010 11:42 UTC www.neurologyindia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Ataxia may also be caused by dysfunction of the pathways leading into and out of the cerebellum .
  • Ataxia. Adverse Effects. Fluorinated & Fluoride Pesticides. Fluoride Action Network Pesticide Project. 10 February 2010 11:42 UTC www.fluoridealert.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Acute/Paroxysmal: Acute cerebellar ataxia (acute symptoms are usually due to a virus or frequently following varicella infection).

.This causes a variety of elementary neurological deficits, such as antagonist hypotonia, asynergy, dysmetria, dyschronometria, and dysdiadochokinesia.^ Postmorbid cognitive deficits in schizophrenia have shown association with a variety of phenomenological measures such as poor response to treatment subtype, and severity of negative symptoms.
  • Mental Health - Clinical Research Center - Psychiatry Dept - UI HealthCare - The University of Iowa 20 September 2009 9:09 UTC www.psychiatry.uiowa.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The seizure may be the result of the stroke or may be the cause of a neurologic deficit, as in Todd's paralysis.
  • Emergency Medicine 20 September 2009 9:09 UTC www.emedmag.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In general, the neurosurgeon will attempt to remove as much of the tumor as possible without causing damage to the normal brain, which can result in permanent neurological deficits.

.How and where these abnormalities manifest depend on which cerebellar structures are lesioned, and whether the lesion is bilateral or unilateral.^ In the absence of a sensory deficit or weakness, these types of coordination deficit suggest an ipsilateral cerebellar or brain stem lesion.
  • Emergency Medicine 20 September 2009 9:09 UTC www.emedmag.com [Source type: Academic]

.
  • Dysfunction of the vestibulocerebellum impairs balance and control of eye movements.^ People with Ataxia have problems with coordination because parts of the Nervous System that control movement and balance are affected.
    • Welcome To :SAMAG Ataxia & Muscular Dystrophy Information. 10 February 2010 11:42 UTC samataxiagroup.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Even reading eventually becomes impossible as eye movements become difficult to control.

    ^ Those affected by poor coordination will notice poor balance when walking, inability to run, clumsiness of the hands, a change in speech, or abnormal eye movements.
    • Welcome To :SAMAG Ataxia & Muscular Dystrophy Information. 10 February 2010 11:42 UTC samataxiagroup.org [Source type: Academic]

    .This presents with postural instability, in which the person tends to separate the feet on standing to gain a wider base and avoid oscillations (especially posterior-anterior ones); instability is therefore worsened when standing with the feet together (irrespective of whether the eyes are open or closed: this is a negative Romberg's test, or more accurately, denotes the inability to carry out the test as the individual is unstable even with open eyes).
  • Dysfunction of the spinocerebellum presents with a wide-based "drunken sailor" gait, characterised by uncertain start and stop, lateral deviations, and unequal steps.^ He had broad base walk and loss the balance with open and close eyes.
    • Arquivos de Neuro-Psiquiatria - Cerebellar vermis hypoplasia - non progressive congenital ataxia: clinical and radiological findings in a pair of siblings 10 February 2010 11:42 UTC www.scielo.br [Source type: Academic]

    ^ One or more may be present in any one person.
    • Glossary of Parkinson's Disease and Other Movement Disorders, Neurology 20 September 2009 9:09 UTC cpmcnet.columbia.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The patient stands with eyes open and feet comfortably apart.
    • Glossary of Parkinson's Disease and Other Movement Disorders, Neurology 20 September 2009 9:09 UTC cpmcnet.columbia.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    This part of the cerebellum regulates body and limb movements.
  • Dysfunction of the cerebrocerebellum presents with disturbances in carrying out voluntary, planned movements, including intention tremor (coarse trembling, accentuated over the execution of voluntary movements, possibly involving the head and eyes as well as the limbs and torso), peculiar writing abnormalities (large, unequal letters, irregular underlining), and a peculiar pattern of dysarthria (slurred speech, sometimes characterised by explosive variations in voice intensity despite a regular rhythm).

Sensory ataxia

.The term sensory ataxia is employed to indicate ataxia due to loss of proprioception (sensitivity to joint and body part position), which generally depends on dysfunction of the dorsal columns of the spinal cord, since they carry proprioceptive information up to the brain; in some cases, the cause may instead be dysfunction of the various brain parts that receive that information, including the cerebellum, thalamus, and parietal lobes.^ Ataxia can affect every part of the body including: .
  • Ataxia information from NHS Choices on TheFamilyGP.com 10 February 2010 11:42 UTC www.thefamilygp.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Information comes into the cerebellum from the spinal cord and other parts of the brain, and signals from the cerebellum go out to the spinal cord and to the brain.
  • Ataxia. Adverse Effects. Fluorinated & Fluoride Pesticides. Fluoride Action Network Pesticide Project. 10 February 2010 11:42 UTC www.fluoridealert.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Ataxia is a brain disease of the cerebellum (along with its connections with other parts of the brain and spinal cord).
  • FAQ - University of Chicago Ataxia Center 10 February 2010 11:42 UTC ataxia.uchicago.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Sensory ataxia presents with an unsteady "stomping" gait with heavy heel strikes, as well as postural instability that is characteristically worsened when the lack of proprioceptive input cannot be compensated by visual input, such as in poorly lit environments.^ In adults, brain damage is focal affecting the function of such areas as the cerebellum (ataxia) and the visual cortex (constricted visual fields).
  • There was a strong association between learning disability* and autismspectrum disorder (often combined with hyperactivity di 10 February 2010 11:42 UTC www.flcv.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Her symptoms have been present for the last 7 years, with insidiously progressive gait ataxia with mild limb incoordination.
  • Arquivos de Neuro-Psiquiatria - Spinocerebellar ataxia type 6 in Brazil 10 February 2010 11:42 UTC www.scielo.br [Source type: Academic]

^ The signs included unsteady gait, tremors, hunched posture, and reduced muscle tone.
  • Ataxia. Adverse Effects. Fluorinated & Fluoride Pesticides. Fluoride Action Network Pesticide Project. 10 February 2010 11:42 UTC www.fluoridealert.org [Source type: Academic]

.Doctors can evidence this during physical examination by having the patient stand with his / her feet together and eyes shut, which will cause the patient's instability to markedly worsen, producing wide oscillations and possibly a fall (this is called a positive Romberg's test).^ What does your doctor do in a physical examination?

^ The patient stands with eyes open and feet comfortably apart.
  • Glossary of Parkinson's Disease and Other Movement Disorders, Neurology 20 September 2009 9:09 UTC cpmcnet.columbia.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Sudden, uncoordinated movement Walking problems (unsteady gait) Sudden (nystagmus) or uncoordinated eye movements Clumsy speech pattern (dysarthria) Signs and tests: The doctor will ask you if you have been recently sick, and try to rule out any other causes for the problem.
  • Wilmington/Newark - Acute cerebellar ataxia is sudden onset of uncoordinated... 10 February 2010 11:42 UTC www.christianacare.org [Source type: Academic]

.Worsening of the finger-pointing test with the eyes closed is another feature of sensory ataxia.^ Ataxia may affect the fingers, hands, arms, legs, body, speech, and even eye movements.

^ Stereognosis is tested by asking the patient to identify an object placed in his hand while his eyes are closed.
  • Emergency Medicine 20 September 2009 9:09 UTC www.emedmag.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Finger gnosia (with eyes closed, can tell you which finger you touch) .
  • Evaluation of Clumsiness in Children - October 15, 2002 - American Family Physician 20 September 2009 9:09 UTC www.aafp.org [Source type: Academic]

.Also, when the patient is standing with arms and hands extended toward the examiner, if the eyes are closed, the patient's finger will tend to "fall down" and be restored to the horizontal extended position by sudden extensor contractions ("ataxic hand").^ The examiner stands behind the patient with hands on the patient's shoulders.
  • Glossary of Parkinson's Disease and Other Movement Disorders, Neurology 20 September 2009 9:09 UTC cpmcnet.columbia.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ataxia may affect the fingers, hands, arms, legs, body, speech, and even eye movements.

^ The patient is asked to hold both arms straight out (or at 45 degrees to the horizontal if supine) with palms up (as if holding a tray) and eyes closed.
  • Emergency Medicine 20 September 2009 9:09 UTC www.emedmag.com [Source type: Academic]

Vestibular ataxia

.The term vestibular ataxia is employed to indicate ataxia due to dysfunction of the vestibular system, which in acute and unilateral cases is associated with prominent vertigo, nausea and vomiting.^ About one in five children with ataxia-telangiectasia develops leukemia or lymphoma because of dysfunction in the immune system.
  • Ataxia 10 February 2010 11:42 UTC www.cnn.com [Source type: General]
  • Ataxia 10 February 2010 11:42 UTC edition.cnn.com [Source type: General]

^ Immune system A common feature in ataxia-telangiectasia is the deficiency of immunoglobulin A (IgA) associated with normal or elevated levels of immunoglobulin G (IgG) and immunoglobulin M (IgM).
  • Ataxia-telangiectasia: eMedicine Ophthalmology 10 February 2010 11:42 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Unilateral weakness involving the forehead indicates lower motor neuron dysfunction.
  • Emergency Medicine 20 September 2009 9:09 UTC www.emedmag.com [Source type: Academic]

.In slow-onset, chronic bilateral cases of vestibular dysfunction, these characteristic manifestations may be absent, and dysequilibrium may be the sole presentation.^ Gluten Ataxia is a common Neurological manifestation of Gluten sensitivity and it unknown why some patients with Gluten sensitivity present solely with neurological dysfunction when others present with Gastrointentestinal symptoms or an itchy skin rash.
  • Welcome To :SAMAG Ataxia & Muscular Dystrophy Information. 10 February 2010 11:42 UTC samataxiagroup.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Slow initiation and performance of all voluntary activity and muscular hypotonia are characteristic and are also manifestations of cerebellar symptomatology.
  • Ataxia-Telangiectasia: eMedicine Dermatology 10 February 2010 11:42 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Rarely, milder forms may have age of onset of cerebellar symptoms as late as 9 years of age, or may present with the gaze apraxia and resting tremor along with the systemic signs.
  • FAQ - University of Chicago Ataxia Center 10 February 2010 11:42 UTC ataxia.uchicago.edu [Source type: Academic]

Causes of ataxia

.The three types of ataxia have overlapping causes, and can therefore either coexist or occur in isolation.^ Research the causes of these more general types of symptom: Muscle symptoms (4230 causes) more symptoms...» Causes of Similar Symptoms to Ataxia .

^ These ataxias are caused by a deficit in a gene that is present from the start of a person's life and can be either dominantly inherited or recessively inherited.

^ Another type is autosomal dominant, meaning it can be inherited through either parent; an autosomal recessive type occurs when a faulty Gene is inherited from each parent.
  • Welcome To :SAMAG Ataxia & Muscular Dystrophy Information. 10 February 2010 11:42 UTC samataxiagroup.org [Source type: Academic]

Focal lesions

.Any type of focal lesion of the central nervous system (such as stroke, brain tumour, multiple sclerosis) will cause the type of ataxia corresponding to the site of the lesion: cerebellar if in the cerebellum, sensory if in the dorsal spinal cord (and rarely in the thalamus or parietal lobe), vestibular if in the vestibular system (including the vestibular areas of the cerebral cortex).^ In adults, brain damage is focal affecting the function of such areas as the cerebellum (ataxia) and the visual cortex (constricted visual fields).
  • There was a strong association between learning disability* and autismspectrum disorder (often combined with hyperactivity di 10 February 2010 11:42 UTC www.flcv.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Many conditions may cause ataxia, including alcohol abuse, stroke, tumor, cerebral palsy and multiple sclerosis.

^ Primary angiitis of the central nervous system ...

Exogenous substances

.Exogenous substances that cause ataxia mainly do so because they have a depressant effect on central nervous system function.^ Primary angiitis of the central nervous system ...

^ The central nervous system may be affected.
  • Medical Glossary 20 September 2009 9:09 UTC www.asap.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Central nervous system lymphoma, primary ...

.The most common example is ethanol, which is capable of causing reversible cerebellar and vestibular ataxia.^ The most common Recessive Ataxia is Friedreich’s Ataxia.
  • Welcome To :SAMAG Ataxia & Muscular Dystrophy Information. 10 February 2010 11:42 UTC samataxiagroup.org [Source type: Academic]

^ It is also the most common cause of all the tremors.
  • Glossary of Parkinson's Disease and Other Movement Disorders, Neurology 20 September 2009 9:09 UTC cpmcnet.columbia.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Friedreich's ataxia is the most common inherited ataxia.
  • Spinocerebellar Ataxia 10 February 2010 11:42 UTC www.tchain.com [Source type: Academic]

.Other examples include various prescription drugs (e.g.^ As in other diseases caused by triplet-repeat expansion, normal variation of the number of repeats includes a subset of alleles with a large but non-pathogenetic number of units.
  • Friedreich�s ataxia � yesterday, today and tomorrow Chakravarty A Neurol India 10 February 2010 11:42 UTC www.neurologyindia.com [Source type: Academic]

most .antiepileptic drugs have cerebellar ataxia as a possible adverse effect), marijuana ingestion [2] and various other recreational drugs (e.g.^ Approximately 1/3 of these patients develop a condition characterized by cerebellar ataxia alone, i.e., with little or involvement of other regions of the nervous system.
  • FAQ - University of Chicago Ataxia Center 10 February 2010 11:42 UTC ataxia.uchicago.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ See detailed information below for a list of 504 causes of Ataxia , including diseases and drug side effect causes.

^ The hereditary ataxias are a group of neurological disorders (ataxias) of varying degrees of rarity that are inherited, in contrast to a related group of neurological disorders that are acquired through accidents, injuries, or other external agents.
  • CIGNA - Ataxia, Hereditary, Autosomal Dominant 10 February 2010 11:42 UTC www.cigna.com [Source type: Academic]

ketamine, PCP or dextromethorphan, all of which are NMDA receptor antagonists that produce a dissociative state at high doses).

Vitamin B12 deficiency

.Vitamin B12 deficiency may cause, among several neurological abnormalities, overlapping cerebellar and sensory ataxia.^ Vitamin E is the treatment of choice in ataxia caused by vitamin E deficiency.
  • Ataxia - Patient Education - Neurology - Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas 10 February 2010 11:42 UTC www.bcm.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Ataxia with vitamin E deficiency .
  • Ataxia information from NHS Choices on TheFamilyGP.com 10 February 2010 11:42 UTC www.thefamilygp.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ataxia with vitamin E deficiency (AVED) .
  • SACSIN; Autosomal recessive spastic ataxia of Charlevoix-Saguenay,ARSACS 10 February 2010 11:42 UTC www.medgen.mcgill.ca [Source type: Academic]

Causes of isolated sensory ataxia

.Peripheral neuropathies may cause generalised or localised sensory ataxia (e.g.^ Ataxia, oculomotor apraxia, may have chorea and peripheral neuropathy.
  • Ataxia - Patient Education - Neurology - Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas 10 February 2010 11:42 UTC www.bcm.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Severe vitamin E deficiency results mainly in neurological symptoms, including impaired balance and coordination (ataxia), injury to the sensory nerves (peripheral neuropathy), muscle weakness (myopathy), and damage to the retina of the eye (pigmented retinopathy).
  • Linus Pauling Institute at Oregon State University 10 February 2010 11:42 UTC lpi.oregonstate.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Many conditions may cause ataxia, including alcohol abuse, stroke, tumor, cerebral palsy and multiple sclerosis.
  • Ataxia 10 February 2010 11:42 UTC www.cnn.com [Source type: General]
  • Ataxia 10 February 2010 11:42 UTC edition.cnn.com [Source type: General]

a limb only) depending on the extent of the neuropathic involvement. .Spinal disorders of various types may cause sensory ataxia from the lesioned level below, when they involve the dorsal columns.^ They each carry a recessive gene which may cause ataxia in their offspring.
  •   the Community of Friedrich Ataxia  - Fact Sheet 10 February 2010 11:42 UTC ataxiapakistan.multiply.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In some cases, the metabolic disorders that cause ataxia may be treated with controlled diets and special medications.

^ Many conditions may cause ataxia, including alcohol abuse, stroke, tumor, cerebral palsy and multiple sclerosis.
  • Ataxia 10 February 2010 11:42 UTC www.cnn.com [Source type: General]
  • Ataxia 10 February 2010 11:42 UTC edition.cnn.com [Source type: General]

Non-hereditary cerebellar degeneration

.Non-hereditary causes of cerebellar degeneration include chronic ethanol abuse, paraneoplastic cerebellar degeneration, high altitude cerebral oedema, coeliac disease, normal pressure hydrocephalus and cerebellitis.^ These include cerebral palsy (often associated with injury to the brain at birth due to lack of oxygen or blood supply), hydrocephalus (increased pressure caused by blockage or build up of cerebrospinal fluid) or brain tumors, and other injuries to the brain.
  • Ataxia - Patient Education - Neurology - Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas 10 February 2010 11:42 UTC www.bcm.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Other acquired causes of late-onset ataxia include [ Fogel & Perlman 2006 ]: neurosyphilis, subacute combined degeneration, vitamin E deficiency, subcortical vascular disease, multiple sclerosis , normal-pressure hydrocephalus, copper myelopathy, gluten-sensitive enteropathy, paraneoplastic cerebellar ataxia, and brain tumors and metastases.
  • SACSIN; Autosomal recessive spastic ataxia of Charlevoix-Saguenay,ARSACS 10 February 2010 11:42 UTC www.medgen.mcgill.ca [Source type: Academic]

^ Conditions that may present as a form of sporadic SCA include Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, subacute cerebellar degeneration, hypothyroidism, vitamin deficiency, chronic ethanol abuse, or a mitochondrial disorder.
  • FAQ - University of Chicago Ataxia Center 10 February 2010 11:42 UTC ataxia.uchicago.edu [Source type: Academic]

Hereditary ataxias

.Ataxia may depend on hereditary disorders consisting of degeneration of the cerebellum and/or of the spine; most cases feature both to some extent, and therefore present with overlapping cerebellar and sensory ataxia, even though one is often more evident than the other.^ Some ataxias are hereditary, some have other causes, and sometimes ataxia can be a symptom of other disorders.
  • CIGNA - Ataxia, Friedreich's 10 February 2010 11:42 UTC stage.cigna.com [Source type: Academic]

^ It is more common among sporadic cases than autosomal dominant cerebellar ataxias (5.2% as compared with 4.4%).
  • Friedreich�s ataxia � yesterday, today and tomorrow Chakravarty A Neurol India 10 February 2010 11:42 UTC www.neurologyindia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Other symptoms of hereditary ataxia can include: .
  • Ataxia information from NHS Choices on TheFamilyGP.com 10 February 2010 11:42 UTC www.thefamilygp.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Hereditary disorders causing ataxia include autosomal dominant ones such as spinocerebellar ataxia, episodic ataxia, and dentatorubropallidoluysian atrophy, as well as autosomal recessive disorders such as Friedreich's ataxia (sensory and cerebellar, with the former predominating) and Niemann Pick disease, ataxia-telangiectasia (sensory and cerebellar, with the latter predominating), and abetalipoproteinaemia.^ Autosomal dominant ataxia .
  • Ataxia information from NHS Choices on TheFamilyGP.com 10 February 2010 11:42 UTC www.thefamilygp.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The most common Recessive Ataxia is Friedreich’s Ataxia.
  • Welcome To :SAMAG Ataxia & Muscular Dystrophy Information. 10 February 2010 11:42 UTC samataxiagroup.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Dominant ataxia is passed on as a dominant hereditary disease.
  •   the Community of Friedrich Ataxia  - Fact Sheet 10 February 2010 11:42 UTC ataxiapakistan.multiply.com [Source type: Original source]

.An example of X-linked ataxic condition is the rare fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome.^ As hereditary ataxia is such a rare condition, if you are diagnosed with it, it is likely that you will be referred to a specialist ataxia centre so that a care plan can be drawn up.
  • Ataxia information from NHS Choices on TheFamilyGP.com 10 February 2010 11:42 UTC www.thefamilygp.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ataxia Syndromes: Other Recessive X-linked Congenital DNA repair defects Metabolic disorders Mitochondrial Multisystem disorders Spastic Acquired .

^ Infarction in the distribution of the posterior inferior cerebellar artery (lateral medullary syndrome or Wallenberg syndrome) is the most common pattern of brainstem infarction that is associated with a specific syndrome of ataxia.
  • NGC - NGC Summary 10 February 2010 11:42 UTC www.guideline.gov [Source type: Academic]

Arnold-Chiari Malformation

.Arnold-Chiari malformation is a malformation of the brain.^ Arnold Chiari Malformation (CM): Herniation of the brainstem and lower cerebellum through the foramen magnum into the cervical vertebral canal.
  • Medical Glossary 20 September 2009 9:09 UTC www.asap.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Arnold-Chiari malformation type 4 ...

^ Arnold-Chiari malformation type 3 ...

.It consists of a downward displacement of the cerebellar tonsils and the medulla through the foramen magnum, sometimes causing hydrocephalus as a result of obstruction of CSF (cerebrospinal fluid) outflow.^ These include cerebral palsy (often associated with injury to the brain at birth due to lack of oxygen or blood supply), hydrocephalus (increased pressure caused by blockage or build up of cerebrospinal fluid) or brain tumors, and other injuries to the brain.
  • Ataxia - Patient Education - Neurology - Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas 10 February 2010 11:42 UTC www.bcm.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Foramen Magnum: A large opening in the base of the skull through which the spinal cord becomes continuous with the medulla oblongata.
  • Medical Glossary 20 September 2009 9:09 UTC www.asap.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Arnold Chiari Malformation (CM): Herniation of the brainstem and lower cerebellum through the foramen magnum into the cervical vertebral canal.
  • Medical Glossary 20 September 2009 9:09 UTC www.asap.org [Source type: Reference]

Treatment

.There is no specific treatment for ataxia, although the consequent disability may also be reduced by physical therapy, including exercises, along with leg braces or shoe splints, if foot alignment has been affected; a cane or walker is often used in the effort to prevent falls.^ There is no direct treatment for Friedreich's Ataxia and no cure.
  •   the Community of Friedrich Ataxia  - Fact Sheet 10 February 2010 11:42 UTC ataxiapakistan.multiply.com [Source type: Original source]

^ There is no specific treatment.
  •   the Community of Friedrich Ataxia  - Fact Sheet 10 February 2010 11:42 UTC ataxiapakistan.multiply.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Physical therapy may prolong use of the arms and legs.
  • Welcome To :SAMAG Ataxia & Muscular Dystrophy Information. 10 February 2010 11:42 UTC samataxiagroup.org [Source type: Academic]

.Severe cases may require the use of a wheelchair.^ In severe cases, the spinal cord protrudes through the back and may be covered by skin or a thin membrane.
  • Medical Glossary 20 September 2009 9:09 UTC www.asap.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Enlargement of the heart, irregular heartbeat, or other symptoms of heart trouble (cardiomyopathy) occur in most individuals with Friedreich's ataxia; the heart trouble may be very mild, but in most cases it can be severe.
  •   the Community of Friedrich Ataxia  - Fact Sheet 10 February 2010 11:42 UTC ataxiapakistan.multiply.com [Source type: Original source]

Other uses of the term

.The term "ataxia" is sometimes used in a broader sense to indicate lack of coordination in some physiological process.^ Ataxia is a term that is used to describe abnormality in the coordination of movement.
  • NGC - NGC Summary 10 February 2010 11:42 UTC www.guideline.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ They have suggested that as a starting point, we refer to those negative symptoms presumed to be etiologically related to underlying brain dysfunction as "deficit" symptoms, and use the term "negative symptoms" in a broader, purely descriptive sense.
  • Mental Health - Clinical Research Center - Psychiatry Dept - UI HealthCare - The University of Iowa 20 September 2009 9:09 UTC www.psychiatry.uiowa.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Some of the possible treatments listed in sources for treatment of Ataxia may include: Vitamin B12 - possibly used for related vitamin B12 deficiency more treatments...» Review further information on Ataxia Treatments .

.Examples include optic ataxia (lack of coordination between visual inputs and hand movements, resulting in inability to reach and grab objects, usually part of Balint's syndrome, but can be seen in isolation with injuries to the superior parietal lobule, as it represents a disconnection between visual-association cortex and the frontal premotor and motor cortex[3]), and ataxic respiration (lack of coordination in respiratory movements, usually due to dysfunction of the respiratory centres in the medulla oblongata).^ Definition Ataxia describes a lack of coordination while performing voluntary movements.

^ Ataxic: lacking motor coordination; marked or caused by ataxia.
  • Archaic Medical Terms English List A 10 February 2010 11:42 UTC www.antiquusmorbus.com [Source type: Reference]

^ These include cerebral palsy (often associated with injury to the brain at birth due to lack of oxygen or blood supply), hydrocephalus (increased pressure caused by blockage or build up of cerebrospinal fluid) or brain tumors, and other injuries to the brain.
  • Ataxia - Patient Education - Neurology - Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas 10 February 2010 11:42 UTC www.bcm.edu [Source type: Academic]

References

  1. ^ "National Ataxia Foundation - International Ataxia Awareness Day". http://www.ataxia.org/events/international-ataxia-awareness-day.aspx. Retrieved 2008-03-25.  
  2. ^ "Inadvertent Ingestion of Marijuana --- Los Angeles, California, 2009". http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm5834a2.htm?s_cid=mm5834a2. Retrieved 2009-09-03.  
  3. ^ Giuseppe Vallar, MD, Spatial Neglect, Balint-Holmes’ and Gerstmann’s Syndromes, and Other Spatial Disorders CNS Spectr. 2007;12(7):527-536

External links


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