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Atlantis
Athanasius Kircher's Atlantis.gif
Athanasius Kircher's map of Atlantis, in the middle of the Atlantic Ocean. From Mundus Subterraneus 1669, published in Amsterdam. The map is oriented with south at the top.
Timaeus and Critias
Creator Plato
Type Legendary island
Notable people Atlanteans

Atlantis (in Greek, Ἀτλαντὶς νῆσος, "island of Atlas") is a legendary island first mentioned in Plato's dialogues Timaeus and Critias.

In Plato's account, Atlantis was a naval power lying "in front of the Pillars of Hercules" that conquered many parts of Western Europe and Africa 9,000 years before the time of Solon, or approximately 9600 BC. After a failed attempt to invade Athens, Atlantis sank into the ocean "in a single day and night of misfortune".

Scholars dispute whether and how much Plato's story or account was inspired by older traditions. Some scholars argue Plato drew upon memories of past events such as the Thera eruption or the Trojan War, while others insist that he took inspiration from contemporary events like the destruction of Helike in 373 BC[1] or the failed Athenian invasion of Sicily in 415–413 BC.

The possible existence of a genuine Atlantis was discussed throughout classical antiquity, but it was usually rejected and occasionally parodied by later authors. As Alan Cameron states: "It is only in modern times that people have taken the Atlantis story seriously; no one did so in antiquity".[2] While little known during the Middle Ages, the story of Atlantis was rediscovered by Humanists in the Early Modern period. Plato's description inspired the utopian works of several Renaissance writers, like Francis Bacon's "New Atlantis". Atlantis inspires today's literature, from science fiction to comic books to films, its name having become a byword for any and all supposed advanced prehistoric lost civilizations.

Contents

Plato's account

A 15th-century Latin translation of Plato's Timaeus

Plato's dialogues Timaeus and Critias, written in 360 BC, contain the earliest references to Atlantis. For unknown reasons, Plato never completed Critias; however, the scholar Benjamin Jowett, among others, argues that Plato originally planned a third dialogue titled Hermocrates. John V. Luce assumes that Plato, after describing the origin of the world and mankind in Timaeus and the allegorical perfect society of ancient Athens and its successful defense against an antagonistic Atlantis in Critias, would have made the strategy of the Greek civilization during their conflict with the Persians a subject of discussion in the Hermocrates. Plato introduced Atlantis in Timaeus:

For it is related in our records how once upon a time your State stayed the course of a mighty host, which, starting from a distant point in the Atlantic ocean, was insolently advancing to attack the whole of Europe, and Asia to boot. For the ocean there was at that time navigable; for in front of the mouth which you Greeks call, as you say, 'the pillars of Heracles,' there lay an island which was larger than Libya and Asia together; and it was possible for the travelers of that time to cross from it to the other islands, and from the islands to the whole of the continent over against them which encompasses that veritable ocean. For all that we have here, lying within the mouth of which we speak, is evidently a haven having a narrow entrance; but that yonder is a real ocean, and the land surrounding it may most rightly be called, in the fullest and truest sense, a continent. Now in this island of Atlantis there existed a confederation of kings, of great and marvelous power, which held sway over all the island, and over many other islands also and parts of the continent.[3]

The four persons appearing in those two dialogues are the politicians Critias and Hermocrates as well as the philosophers Socrates and Timaeus of Locri, although only Critias speaks of Atlantis. While most likely all of these people actually lived, these dialogues, written as if recorded, may have been the invention of Plato. In his works Plato makes extensive use of the Socratic dialogues in order to discuss contrary positions within the context of a supposition.

The Timaeus begins with an introduction, followed by an account of the creations and structure of the universe and ancient civilizations. In the introduction, Socrates muses about the perfect society, described in Plato's Republic (ca. 380 BC), and wonders if he and his guests might recollect a story which exemplifies such a society. Critias mentions an allegedly historical tale that would make the perfect example, and follows by describing Atlantis as is recorded in the Critias. In his account, ancient Athens seems to represent the "perfect society" and Atlantis its opponent, representing the very antithesis of the "perfect" traits described in the Republic. Critias claims that his accounts of ancient Athens and Atlantis stem from a visit to Egypt by the legendary Athenian lawgiver Solon in the 6th century BC. In Egypt, Solon met a priest of Sais, who translated the history of ancient Athens and Atlantis, recorded on papyri in Egyptian hieroglyphs, into Greek. According to Plutarch, Solon met with "Psenophis of Heliopolis, and Sonchis the Saite, the most learned of all the priests";[4] Plutarch refers here to events that would have happened five centuries before he wrote of them.

According to Critias, the Hellenic gods of old divided the land so that each god might own a lot; Poseidon was appropriately, and to his liking, bequeathed the island of Atlantis. The island was larger than Ancient Libya and Asia Minor combined,[5] but it afterwards was sunk by an earthquake and became an impassable mud shoal, inhibiting travel to any part of the ocean. The Egyptians, Plato asserted, described Atlantis as an island comprising mostly mountains in the northern portions and along the shore, and encompassing a great plain of an oblong shape in the south "extending in one direction three thousand stadia [about 555 km; 345 mi], but across the center inland it was two thousand stadia [about 370 km; 230 mi]." Fifty stadia [9 km; 6 mi] from the coast was a mountain that was low on all sides...broke it off all round about[6]... the central island itself was five stades in diameter [about 0.92 km; 0.57 mi].[7]

In Plato's myth, Poseidon fell in love with Cleito, the daughter of Evenor and Leucippe, who bore him five pairs of male twins. The eldest of these, Atlas, was made rightful king of the entire island and the ocean (called the Atlantic Ocean in his honor), and was given the mountain of his birth and the surrounding area as his fiefdom. Atlas's twin Gadeirus, or Eumelus in Greek, was given the extremity of the island towards the Pillars of Hercules.[8] The other four pairs of twins—Ampheres and Evaemon, Mneseus and Autochthon, Elasippus and Mestor, and Azaes and Diaprepes—were also given "rule over many men, and a large territory."

Poseidon carved the mountain where his love dwelt into a palace and enclosed it with three circular moats of increasing width, varying from one to three stadia and separated by rings of land proportional in size. The Atlanteans then built bridges northward from the mountain, making a route to the rest of the island. They dug a great canal to the sea, and alongside the bridges carved tunnels into the rings of rock so that ships could pass into the city around the mountain; they carved docks from the rock walls of the moats. Every passage to the city was guarded by gates and towers, and a wall surrounded each of the city's rings. The walls were constructed of red, white and black rock quarried from the moats, and were covered with brass, tin and the precious metal orichalcum, respectively.[9]

According to Critias, 9,000 years before his lifetime a war took place between those outside the Pillars of Hercules at the Strait of Gibraltar and those who dwelt within them. The Atlanteans had conquered the parts of Libya within the Pillars of Hercules as far as Egypt and the European continent as far as Tyrrhenia, and subjected its people to slavery. The Athenians led an alliance of resistors against the Atlantean empire, and as the alliance disintegrated, prevailed alone against the empire, liberating the occupied lands.

But at a later time there occurred portentous earthquakes and floods, and one grievous day and night befell them, when the whole body of your warriors was swallowed up by the earth, and the island of Atlantis in like manner was swallowed up by the sea and vanished; wherefore also the ocean at that spot has now become impassable and unsearchable, being blocked up by the shoal mud which the island created as it settled down.[10]

Reception

Ancient

Other than Plato's Timaeus and Critias there is no primary ancient account of Atlantis, which means every other account of Atlantis relies on Plato in one way or another.

Some ancient writers viewed Atlantis as fiction while others believed it was real.[11] The philosopher Crantor, a student of Plato's student Xenocrates, is often cited as an example of a writer who thought the story to be historical fact. His work, a commentary on Plato's Timaeus, is lost, but Proclus, a Christian historian of the fifth century AD, reports on it.[12] The passage in question has been represented in the modern literature as both claiming that Crantor actually visited Egypt and had conversations with priests and saw hieroglyphs confirming the story, or as learning about them from other visitors to Egypt.[13] Proclus wrote

As for the whole of this account of the Atlanteans, some say that it is unadorned history, such as Crantor, the first commentator on Plato. Crantor also says that Plato's contemporaries used to criticize him jokingly for not being the inventor of his Republic but copying the institutions of the Egyptians. Plato took these critics seriously enough to assign to the Egyptians this story about the Athenians and Atlanteans, so as to make them say that the Athenians really once lived according to that system.

The next sentence is often translated as Crantor adds, that this is testified by the prophets of the Egyptians, who assert that these particulars [which are narrated by Plato] are written on pillars which are still preserved. But in the original, the sentence starts not with the name Crantor but with the word 'He', and whether this referred to Crantor or Plato is the subject of considerable debate. Proponents of both Atlantis as a myth and Atlantis as history have argued that the word should be translated as Crantor[14] Alan Cameron argues that it should be interpreted as 'Plato', and that when Proclus writes we must bear in mind concerning this whole feat of the Athenians, that it is neither a mere myth nor unadorned history, although some take it as history and others as myth... he is treating "Crantor's view as mere personal opinion, nothing more; in fact he first quotes and then dismisses it as representing one of the two unacceptable extremes."[15] Cameron also points out that whether 'he' refers to Plato or Crantor, it does not support statements such as Otto Muck's "Crantor came to Sais and saw there in the temple of Neith the column, completely covered with hieroglyphs, on which the history of Atlantis was recorded. Scholars translated it for him, and he testified that their account fully agreed with Plato's account of Atlantis...." or J.V. Luce's suggestion that Crantor sent "a special enquiry to Egypt" and that he may simply be referring to Plato's own claims.[15]

Another passage from Proclus' commentary on the Timaeus gives a description of the geography of Atlantis: "That an island of such nature and size once existed is evident from what is said by certain authors who investigated the things around the outer sea. For according to them, there were seven islands in that sea in their time, sacred to Persephone, and also three others of enormous size, one of which was sacred to Pluto, another to Ammon, and another one between them to Poseidon, the extent of which was a thousand stadia [200 km]; and the inhabitants of it—they add—preserved the remembrance from their ancestors of the immeasurably large island of Atlantis which had really existed there and which for many ages had reigned over all islands in the Atlantic sea and which itself had like-wise been sacred to Poseidon. Now these things Marcellus has written in his Aethiopica".[16] Marcellus remains unidentified.

Other ancient historians and philosophers believing in the existence of Atlantis were Strabo and Posidonius.[17]

Plato's account of Atlantis may have also inspired parodic imitation: writing only a few decades after the Timaeus and Critias, the historian Theopompus of Chios wrote of a land beyond the ocean known as Meropis. This description was included in Book 8 of his voluminous Philippica, which contains a dialogue between King Midas and Silenus, a companion of Dionysus. Silenus describes the Meropids, a race of men who grow to twice normal size, and inhabit two cities on the island of Meropis (Cos?): Eusebes (Εὐσεβής, "Pious-town") and Machimos (Μάχιμος, "Fighting-town"). He also reports that an army of ten million soldiers crossed the ocean to conquer Hyperborea, but abandoned this proposal when they realized that the Hyperboreans were the luckiest people on earth. Heinz-Günther Nesselrath has argued that these and other details of Silenus' story are meant as imitation and exaggeration of the Atlantis story, for the purpose of exposing Plato's ideas to ridicule.[18]

Zoticus, a Neoplatonist philosopher of the 3rd century AD, wrote an epic poem based on Plato's account of Atlantis.[19]

The 4th century AD historian Ammianus Marcellinus, relying on a lost work by Timagenes, a historian writing in the 1st century BC, writes that the Druids of Gaul said that part of the inhabitants of Gaul had migrated there from distant islands. Some have understood Ammianus's testimony as a claim that at the time of Atlantis's actual sinking into the sea, its inhabitants fled to western Europe; but Ammianus in fact says that “the Drasidae (Druids) recall that a part of the population is indigenous but others also migrated in from islands and lands beyond the Rhine" (Res Gestae 15.9), an indication that the immigrants came to Gaul from the north (Britain, the Netherlands or Germany), not from a theorized location in the Atlantic Ocean to the south-west.[20] Instead, the Celts that dwelled along the ocean were reported to venerate twin gods (Dioscori) that appeared to them coming from that ocean.[21]

A Hebrew treatise on computational astronomy dated to AD 1378/79, alludes to the Atlantis myth in a discussion concerning the determination of zero points for the calculation of longitude:

Some say that they [the inhabited regions] begin at the beginning of the western ocean [the Atlantic] and beyond. For in the earliest times [literally: the first days] there was an island in the middle of the ocean. There were scholars there, who isolated themselves in [the pursuit of] philosophy. In their day, that was the [beginning for measuring] the longitude[s] of the inhabited world. Today, it has become [covered by the?] sea, and it is ten degrees into the sea; and they reckon the beginning of longitude from the beginning of the western sea.[22]
A map showing the supposed extent of the Atlantean Empire. From Ignatius L. Donnelly's Atlantis: the Antediluvian World, 1882.

Modern

Francis Bacon's 1627 essay The New Atlantis describes a utopian society that he called Bensalem, located off the western coast of America. A character in the narrative gives a history of Atlantis that is similar to Plato's and places Atlantis in America. It is not clear whether Bacon means North or South America. Isaac Newton's 1728 The Chronology of the Ancient Kingdoms Amended studies a variety of mythological links to Atlantis.[23] In the middle and late 19th century, several renowned Mesoamerican scholars, starting with Charles Etienne Brasseur de Bourbourg, and including Edward Herbert Thompson and Augustus Le Plongeon proposed that Atlantis was somehow related to Mayan and Aztec culture. The 1882 publication of Atlantis: the Antediluvian World by Ignatius L. Donnelly stimulated much popular interest in Atlantis. Donnelly took Plato's account of Atlantis seriously and attempted to establish that all known ancient civilizations were descended from its high Neolithic culture. He also said that Atlantis was technologically advanced, saying that Atlantians invented gunpowder and the compass thousands of years before the rest of the world invented written language.

Ignatius L. Donnelly, American congressman, and writer on Atlantis.

During the late 19th century, ideas about the legendary nature of Atlantis were combined with stories of other lost continents such as Mu and Lemuria. Helena Blavatsky wrote in The Secret Doctrine that the Atlanteans were cultural heroes (contrary to Plato who describes them mainly as a military threat), and are the fourth "Root Race", succeeded by the "Aryan race". Theosophists believe the civilization of Atlantis reached its peak between 1,000,000 and 900,000 years ago but destroyed itself through internal warfare brought about by the inhabitants' dangerous use of magical powers. Rudolf Steiner wrote of the cultural evolution of Atlantis[24]in much the same vein. Edgar Cayce first mentioned Atlantis in 1923,[25] and later suggested that it was originally a continent-sized region extending from the Azores to the Bahamas, holding an ancient, highly evolved civilization which had ships and aircraft powered by a mysterious form of energy crystal. He also predicted that parts of Atlantis would rise in 1968 or 1969. The Bimini Road, a submerged rock formation of large rectangular stones just off North Bimini Island in the Bahamas, was claimed by Robert Ferro and Michael Grumley[26] to be evidence of the lost civilization.

According to Herodotus (c. 430 BC), a Phoenician expedition had circumnavigated Africa at the behest of pharaoh Necho, sailing south down the Red Sea and Indian Ocean and northwards in the Atlantic, re-entering the Mediterranean Sea through the Pillars of Hercules. His description of northwest Africa makes it very clear that he located the Pillars of Hercules precisely where they are located today. Nevertheless, a supposed belief that they had been placed at the Strait of Sicily prior to Eratosthenes, has been cited in some Atlantis theories.

American psychic Edgar Cayce, 1910

In Nazi mysticism

The concept of Atlantis attracted Nazi theorists. In 1938, Reichsführer-SS Heinrich Himmler organized a German expedition to Tibet in 1939 to search for Aryan Atlanteans[citation needed], although this suggestion has been criticised as inaccurate[27] and that the expedition was looking for the origins of the 'Europid' race or that it was a more general biological expedition[28]. According to Julius Evola, writing in 1934,[29] the Atlanteans were Hyperboreans—Nordic supermen who originated on the North pole (see Thule). Similarly, Alfred Rosenberg (The Myth of the Twentieth Century, 1930) spoke of a "Nordic-Atlantean" or "Aryan-Nordic" master race.

Recent times

As continental drift became more widely accepted during the 1960s, and the increased understanding of plate tectonics demonstrated the impossibility of a lost continent in the geologically recent past,[30] most “Lost Continent” theories of Atlantis began to wane in popularity. Instead, the fictional nature of elements of Plato's story became widely emphasized.

Plato scholar Dr. Julia Annas, Regents Professor of Philosophy at the University of Arizona, has had this to say on the matter:

The continuing industry of discovering Atlantis illustrates the dangers of reading Plato. For he is clearly using what has become a standard device of fiction—stressing the historicity of an event (and the discovery of hitherto unknown authorities) as an indication that what follows is fiction. The idea is that we should use the story to examine our ideas of government and power. We have missed the point if instead of thinking about these issues we go off exploring the sea bed. The continuing misunderstanding of Plato as historian here enables us to see why his distrust of imaginative writing is sometimes justified.[31]

Kenneth Feder points out that Critias's story in the Timaeus provides a major clue. In the dialogue, Critias says, referring to Socrates' hypothetical society:

And when you were speaking yesterday about your city and citizens, the tale which I have just been repeating to you came into my mind, and I remarked with astonishment how, by some mysterious coincidence, you agreed in almost every particular with the narrative of Solon. ...[32]

Feder quotes A. E. Taylor, who wrote, "We could not be told much more plainly that the whole narrative of Solon's conversation with the priests and his intention of writing the poem about Atlantis are an invention of Plato's fancy."[33]

Location hypotheses

Since Donnelly's day, there have been dozens of locations proposed for Atlantis, to the point where the name has become a generic concept, divorced from the specifics of Plato's account. This is reflected in the fact that many proposed sites are not within the Atlantic at all. Few today are scholarly or archaeological hypotheses, while others have been made by psychic or other pseudoscientific means. Many of the proposed sites share some of the characteristics of the Atlantis story (water, catastrophic end, relevant time period), but none has been demonstrated to be a true historical Atlantis.

In or near the Mediterranean Sea

Satellite image of the islands of Santorini. This location is one of many sites purported to have been the location of Atlantis.

Most of the historically proposed locations are in or near the Mediterranean Sea: islands such as Sardinia, Crete and Santorini, Sicily, Cyprus, and Malta; land-based cities or states such as Troy, Tartessos, and Tantalus (in the province of Manisa), Turkey; Israel-Sinai or Canaan;[citation needed] and northwestern Africa.[34][35] The Thera eruption, dated to the 17th or 16th century BC, caused a large tsunami that experts hypothesize devastated the Minoan civilization on the nearby island of Crete, further leading some to believe that this may have been the catastrophe that inspired the story.[36] A. G. Galanopoulos argued that the time scale has been distorted by an error in translation, probably from Egyptian into Greek, which produced "thousands" instead of "hundreds"; this same error would rescale Plato's Kingdom of Atlantis to the size of Crete, while leaving the city the size of the crater on Thera; 900 years before Solon would be the 15th century BC.[37] In the area of the Black Sea the following locations have been proposed: Bosporus and Ancomah (a legendary place near Trabzon). The Sea of Azov was proposed in 2003.[38]

In the Atlantic Ocean

The location of Atlantis in the Atlantic Ocean has certain appeal given the closely related names. Popular culture often places Atlantis there, perpetuating the original Platonic setting. Several hypotheses place the sunken island in northern Europe, including Sweden (by Olof Rudbeck in Atland, 1672–1702), or in the North Sea. Some have proposed the Celtic Shelf and Andalusia as possible locations, and that there is a link to Ireland.[39] The Canary Islands have also been identified as a possible location, west of the Straits of Gibraltar but in proximity to the Mediterranean Sea. Various islands or island groups in the Atlantic were also identified as possible locations, notably the Azores. However detailed geological studies of the Canary Islands, the Azores, and the ocean bottom surrounding them found a complete lack of any evidence for the catastrophic subsidence of these islands at any time during their existence and a complete lack of any evidence that the ocean bottom surrounding them was ever dry land at any time in the past.[40] The submerged island of Spartel near the Strait of Gibraltar has also been suggested.[41]

Other locations

Caribbean locations such as Cuba, the Bahamas, and the Bermuda Triangle[42] have been proposed as sites of Atlantis. Areas in the Pacific and Indian Oceans have also been proposed including Indonesia (i.e. Sundaland).[43] The stories of a lost continent off India named "Kumari Kandam" have inspired some to draw parallels to Atlantis, as has the Yonaguni Monument of Japan. Antarctica has also been suggested.

Art, literature and popular culture

The Last of Atlantis by Nicholas Roerich

The legend of Atlantis is featured in many books, films, television series, games, songs and other creative works. Recent examples of Atlantis on-screen include the television series Stargate Atlantis and the Disney animated film Atlantis: The Lost Empire. The first Tomb Raider video game features Atlantis as the basis of its plot and the location for its climactic ending. It is also featured prominently and somewhat philosophically in Robert Anton Wilson and Robert Shea's The Illuminatus! Trilogy, and is a staple of New Age philosophies.

Notes

  1. ^ Plato's Timaeus is usually dated 360 BC; it was followed by his Critias.
  2. ^ Alan Cameron, Greek Mythography in the Roman World, Oxford University Press (2004) p. 124
  3. ^ Timaeus 24e–25a, R. G. Bury translation (Loeb Classical Library).
  4. ^ Plutarch, Life of Solon.
  5. ^ Atlantis—Britannica Online Encyclopedia
  6. ^ Critias 113, Bury translation.
  7. ^ Critias 116a, Bury translation.
  8. ^ The name is a back-formation from Gades, the Greek name for Cadiz.
  9. ^ Critias 116bc
  10. ^ Timaeus 25c–d, Bury translation.
  11. ^ Nesselrath (2005), pp. 161–171.
  12. ^ Timaeus 24a: τὰ γράμματα λαβόντες.
  13. ^ Cameron 2002
  14. ^ Castleden 2001, p,168
  15. ^ a b Cameron 1983
  16. ^ Proclus, Commentary on Plato's Timaeus, p. 117.10–30 (=FGrHist 671 F 1), trans. Taylor, Nesselrath).
  17. ^ Strabo 2.3.6
  18. ^ Nesselrath 1998, pp. 1–8.
  19. ^ Porphyry, Life of Plotinus, 7=35.
  20. ^ Fitzpatrick-Matthews, Keith. Lost Continents: Atlantis.
  21. ^ [1] Bibliotheca historica - Diodorus Siculus 4.56.4: "And the writers even offer proofs of these things, pointing out that the Celts who dwell along the ocean venerate the Dioscori above any of the gods, since they have a tradition handed down from ancient times that these gods appeared among them coming from the ocean. Moreover, the country which skirts the ocean bears, they say, not a few names which are derived from the Argonauts and the Dioscori."
  22. ^ Selin, Helaine 2000, Astronomy Across Cultures: The History of Non-Western Astronomy, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Netherlands, pg 574. ISBN 0-7923-6363-9
  23. ^ Isaac Newton (1728). The Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms Amended
  24. ^ Steiner, Rudolf (1922), An Outline of Occult Science
  25. ^ Robinson, Lytle, 1972, Edgar Cayce’s Story of the Origin and Destiny of Man, Berkeley Books, New York, pg 51.
  26. ^ Ferro and Grumley, Atlantis: the Autobiography of a Search (New York: Doubleday) 1970.
  27. ^ Fortean Times, October 2003, Christopher Hale, Page 31
  28. ^ Fortean Times, October 2003, Christopher Hale, Page 38
  29. ^ Evola, Revolt Against the Modern World, 1934.
  30. ^ Runnels, Curtis; Murray, Priscilla (2004). Greece Before History: An Archaeological Companion and Guide. Stanford: Stanford UP. p. 130. ISBN 0-8047-4036-4. http://books.google.com/books?id=rg4rTjo0OCQC&pg=PA130. Retrieved 17 January 2010. 
  31. ^ J. Annas, Plato: A Very Short Introduction (OUP 2003), p.42 (emphasis not in the original)
  32. ^ Timaeus 25e, Jowett translation.
  33. ^ Feder, Kenneth L., Frauds, Myths and Mysteries: Science and Pseudoscience in Archaeology, Mayfield Publishing, 1999, p. 164.
  34. ^ http://asalas.org/doku.php Plato's Atlantis in South Morocco?
  35. ^ http://www.atlantis-bakhu.com/ Atlantis-Bakhu
  36. ^ The wave that destroyed Atlantis Harvey Lilley, BBC News Online, 2007-04-20. Retrieved 2007-04-21.
  37. ^ Galanopoulos, Angelos Geōrgiou, and Edward Bacon, Atlantis: The Truth Behind the Legend, Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill, 1969
  38. ^ Eagle, Wind, Atlantis Motherland, Maui, HI: Cosmic Vortex, 2003 ISBN 0-9719580-0-9
  39. ^ Lovgren, Stefan (2004-08-19). "Atlantis "Evidence" Found in Spain and Ireland". National Geographic. http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2004/08/0819_040819_atlantis.html. Retrieved 2007-12-05. 
  40. ^ Location hypotheses of Atlantis
  41. ^ http://antiquity.ac.uk/ProjGall/kuhne/ A location for "Atlantis"? Rainer W. Kühne Antiquity Vol 78 No 300 June 2004
  42. ^ Hanson, Bill. The Atlantis Triangle. 2003.
  43. ^ Atlantis - The Lost Continent Finally Found Santos, Arysio; Atlantis Publications, August 2005, ISBN: 0-9769550-0-8.

Further reading

Ancient sources
Modern sources
  • Bichler, R (1986). 'Athen besiegt Atlantis. Eine Studie über den Ursprung der Staatsutopie', Canopus, vol. 20, no. 51, pp. 71–88.
  • Cameron, Alan (1983). 'Crantor and Posidonius on Atlantis', The Classical Quarterly, New Series, Vol. 33, No. 1 (1983), pp. 81–91
  • Cayce, Edgar Evans (1968). Edgar Cayce's Atlantis. ISBN 9780876045121
  • Crowley, Aleister - Lost Continent
  • De Camp, LS (1954). Lost Continents: The Atlantis Theme in History, Science, and Literature, New York: Gnome Press.
  • Castleden, Rodney (2001) Atlantis Destroyed', London:Routledge
  • Donnelly, I (1882). Atlantis: The Antediluvian World, New York: Harper & Bros. Retrieved November 6, 2001, from Project Gutenberg.
  • Ellis, R (1998). Imaging Atlantis, New York: Knopf. ISBN 0-679-44602-8
  • Erlingsson, U (2004). Atlantis from a Geographer's Perspective: Mapping the Fairy Land, Miami: Lindorm. ISBN 0-9755946-0-5
  • Flem-Ath R, Wilson C (2001). The Atlantis Blueprint: Unlocking the Ancient Mysteries of a Long-Lost Civilization, Delacorte Press
  • Frau, S (2002). Le Colonne d'Ercole: Un'inchiesta, Rome: Nur neon. ISBN 88-900740-0-0
  • Gill, C (1976). 'The origin of the Atlantis myth', Trivium, vol. 11, pp. 8–9.
  • Gordon, J.S. (2008). 'The Rise and Fall of Atlantis: and the mysterious origins of human civilization', Watkins Publishing, London. ISBN 978-1-905857-24-1
  • Görgemanns, H (2000). 'Wahrheit und Fiktion in Platons Atlantis-Erzählung', Hermes, vol. 128, pp. 405–420.
  • Griffiths, JP (1985). 'Atlantis and Egypt', Historia, vol. 34, pp. 35f.
  • Heidel, WA (1933). 'A suggestion concerning Platon's Atlantis', Daedalus, vol. 68, pp. 189–228.
  • Jakovljevic, Ranko (2005) Gvozdena vrata Atlantide, IK Beoknjiga Belgrade. ISBN 86-7694-042-8
  • Jakovljevic, Ranko (2008) Atlantida u Srbiji IK Pesic i sinovi Belgrade. ISBN 978-86-7540-091-2
  • Jordan, P (1994). The Atlantis Syndrome, Stroud: Sutton Publishing. ISBN 0-7509-3518-9
  • King, D. (1970). Finding Atlantis: A true story of genius, madness, and an extraordinary quest for a lost world. Harmony Books, New York. ISBN 1-4000-4752-8
  • Luce, J V (1982). End of Atlantis: New Light on an Old Legend, Efstathiadis Group: Greece
  • Martin, TH [1841] (1981). 'Dissertation sur l'Atlantide', in TH Martin, Études sur le Timée de Platon, Paris: Librairie philosophique J. Vrin, pp. 257–332.
  • Morgan, KA (1998). 'Designer history: Plato's Atlantis story and fourth-century ideology', Journal of Hellenic Studies, vol. 118, pp. 101–118.
  • Muck, Otto Heinrich, The Secret of Atlantis, Translation by Fred Bradley of Alles über Atlantis (Econ Verlag GmbH, Düsseldorf-Wien, 1976), Times Books, a division of Quadrangle/The New York Times Book Co., Inc., Three Park Avenue, New York, N.Y. 10016, 1978
  • Nesselrath, HG (1998). 'Theopomps Meropis und Platon: Nachahmung und Parodie', Göttinger Forum für Altertumswissenschaft, vol. 1, pp. 1–8.
  • Nesselrath, HG (2001a). 'Atlantes und Atlantioi: Von Platon zu Dionysios Skytobrachion', Philologus, vol. 145, pp. 34–38.
  • Nesselrath, HG (2001b). 'Atlantis auf ägyptischen Stelen? Der Philosoph Krantor als Epigraphiker', Zeitschrift für Papyrologie und Epigraphik, vol. 135, pp. 33–35.
  • Nesselrath, HG (2002). Platon und die Erfindung von Atlantis, München/Leipzig: KG Saur Verlag. ISBN 3-598-77560-1
  • Nesselrath, HG (2005). 'Where the Lord of the Sea Grants Passage to Sailors through the Deep-blue Mere no More: The Greeks and the Western Seas', Greece & Rome, vol. 52, pp. 153–171.
  • Phillips, ED (1968). 'Historical Elements in the Myth of Atlantis', Euphrosyne, vol. 2, pp. 3–38
  • Ramage, ES (1978). Atlantis: Fact or Fiction?, Bloomington: Indiana University Press. ISBN 0-253-10482-3
  • Settegast, M. (1987). Plato Prehistorian: 10,000 to 5000 B.C. in Myth and Archaeology, Cambridge, MA, Rotenberg Press.
  • Spence, L [1926] (2003). The History of Atlantis, Mineola, NY: Dover Publications. ISBN 0-486-42710-2
  • Stiebing, William H., Jr. (1984). Ancient Astronauts, Cosmic Collisions and Other Popular Theories about Man's Past. Amherst, New York: Prometheus Books. ISBN 0-87975-285-8. .
  • Szlezák, TA (1993). 'Atlantis und Troia, Platon und Homer: Bemerkungen zum Wahrheitsanspruch des Atlantis-Mythos', Studia Troica, vol. 3, pp. 233–237.
  • Vidal-Naquet, P (1986). 'Athens and Atlantis: Structure and Meaning of a Platonic Myth', in P Vidal-Naquet, The Black Hunter, Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, pp. 263–284. ISBN 0-8018-3251-9
  • Wilson, Colin (1996). From Atlantis to the Sphinx ISBN 1-85227-526-X
  • Zangger, E (1993). The Flood from Heaven: Deciphering the Atlantis legend, New York: William Morrow and Company. ISBN 0-688-11350-8
  • Zhirov, Nikolai F., Atlantis – Atlantology: Basic Problems, Translated from the Russian by David Skvirsky, Progress Publishers, Moscow, 1970

External links


Source material

Up to date as of January 22, 2010

From Wikisource

Atlantis
by Clark Ashton Smith
1912.

Above its domes the gulfs accumulate.
Far up, the sea-gales blare their bitter screed:
But here the buried waters take no heed—
Deaf, and with welded lips pressed down by weight
Of the upper ocean. Dim, interminate,
In cities over-webbed with somber weed,
Where galleons crumble and the krakens breed,
The slow tide coils through sunken court and gate.

From out the ocean's phosphor-starry dome,
A ghostly light is dubitably shed
On altars of a goddess garlanded
With blossoms of some weird and hueless vine;
And, wingéd, fleet, through skies beneath the foam,
Like silent birds the sea-things dart and shine.

PD-icon.svg This work is in the public domain in the United States because it was published before January 1, 1923. It may be copyrighted outside the U.S. (see Help:Public domain). Flag of the United States.svg

1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

ATLANTIS, ATALANTIS, or Atlantica, a legendary island in the Atlantic Ocean, first mentioned by Plato in the Timaeus. Plato describes how certain Egyptian priests, in a conversation with Solon, represented the island as a country larger than Asia Minor and Libya united, and situated just beyond the Pillars of Hercules (Straits of Gibraltar). Beyond it lay an archipelago of lesser islands. According to the priests, Atlantis had been a powerful kingdom nine thousand years before the birth of Solon, and its armies had overrun the lands which bordered the Mediterranean. Athens alone had withstood them with success. Finally the sea had overwhelmed Atlantis, and had thenceforward become unnavigable owing to the shoals which marked the spot. In the Critias Plato adds a history of the ideal commonwealth of Atlantis. It is impossible to decide how far this legend is due to Plato's invention, and how far it is based on facts of which no record remains. Medieval writers, for whom the tale was preserved by the Arabian geographers, believed it true, and were fortified in their belief by numerous traditions of islands in the western sea, which offered various points of resemblance to Atlantis. Such in particular were the Greek Isles of the Blest, or Fortunate Islands, the Welsh Avalon, the Portuguese Antilia or Isle of Seven Cities, and St Brendan's island, the subject of many sagas in many languages. These, which are described in separate articles, helped to maintain the tradition of an earthly paradise which had become associated with the myth of Atlantis; and all except Avalon were marked in maps of the 14th and 15th centuries, and formed the object of voyages of discovery, in one case (St Brendan's island) until the 18th century. In early legends, of whatever nationality, they are almost invariably described in terms which closely resemble Homer's account of the island of the Phaeacians (Od. viii.) - a fact which may be an indication of their common origin in some folk-tale current among several races. Somewhat similar legends are those of the island of Brazil, of Lyonnesse, the sunken land off the Cornish coast, of the lost Breton city of Is, and of Mayda or Asmaide - the French Isle Verte and Portuguese Ilha Verde or "Green Island" - which appears in many folk-tales from Gibraltar to the Hebrides, and until 1853 was marked on English charts as a rock in 44° 48' N. and 26° 10 W. After the Renaissance, with its renewal of interest in Platonic studies, numerous attempts were made to rationalize the myth of Atlantis. The island was variously identified with America, Scandinavia, the Canaries and even Palestine; ethnologists saw in its inhabitants the ancestors of the Guanchos, the Basques or the ancient Italians; and even in the 17th and 18th centuries the credibility of the whole legend was seriously debated, and sometimes admitted, even by Montaigne, Buffon and Voltaire.

For the theory that Atlantis is to be identified with Crete in the Minoan period, see "The Lost Continent" in The Times (London) for the 19th of February 1909. See also "Dissertation sur l'Atlantide" in T. H. Martin's Etudes sur le Timee (1841).


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Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

Contents

English

Etymology

From Ancient Greek Ἀτλαντίς (Atlantis).

Pronunciation

  • IPA: /ətˈlæntəs/, SAMPA: /@t'l{nt@s/

Proper noun

Singular
Atlantis

Plural
-

Atlantis

  1. Mythical country said to have sunk into the Atlantic Ocean.

Translations

Derived terms

Anagrams


Gaming

Up to date as of February 01, 2010

From Wikia Gaming, your source for walkthroughs, games, guides, and more!

Atlantis

Developer(s) Imagic
Publisher(s) Imagic
Release date Atari 2600:
1982 (NA)
Intellivision:
1982 (NA)
Magnavox Odyssey 2:
1983 (NA)
1983 (BR)
Genre Fixed Shooter Shoot 'em up
Mode(s) Single player
Age rating(s) N/A
Atari 2600
Magnavox Odyssey 2
Intellivision
Platform(s) Atari 2600
Magnavox Odyssey 2
Intellivision
Input Atari 2600 Joystick
Magnavox Odyssey 2 Controller
Intellivision Controller
Credits | Soundtrack | Codes | Walkthrough


Atlantis is a game released for the Atari 2600, the Intellivision, and the Odyssey 2. It was followed on the 2600 by Cosmic Ark.

Gameplay

The lost city of Atlantis is under attack! Wave after wave of Gorgon vessels are approaching, each armed with weapons capable of destroying a part of the city. You are in charge of the command posts at the edges of the city and need to defend it from the invaders. The various gorgon craft will keep flying by on the screen in varying numbers and in different flight patterns. At first they fly high in the sky but then progressively lower. If an enemy makes it low enough before you destroy it, it will use it's weapons and destroy one of the buildings in Atlantis. As you progress in the game, the enemy craft will keep increasing in speed. The game ends when all remaining buildings in the city have been destroyed.

The Intellivision version has the additional challenge of both day and night attacks where the enemies can only be seen through panning light beams. The player can also enter into a ship and take on the enemies directly.

Scoring

Atari 2600 Version:

During a wave:

  • Large Gorgon Vessel -- 100 points using Command Post shots, 200 points for using Sentry Post shots
  • Gorgon Bandit Bomber -- 1000 points using Command Post shots, 2000 points for using Sentry Post shots

At the end of a wave:

  • Untouched landmark of Atlantis -- 500 points

Gallery

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Simple English

Atlantis is a name for a large island or small continent that supposedly had been in the Atlantic Ocean a long time ago, but sank into the sea and disappeared.

The story of Atlantis first appears in the stories Timaeus and Critias by the Greek philosopher Plato. In all of his books, Plato used many interesting stories to help explain his ideas about government and philosophy. No other ancient writer gave specific details about Atlantis until after Plato wrote, so most people today think that Plato just made up this story.

After Plato, the idea of Atlantis was mostly forgotten until 1882, when a writer named Ignatius Donnelly wrote a book saying that Atlantis was real and that the culture of Atlantis had started many other ancient cultures, such as the Egyptian and Mayan.

After Donnelly's book, many people became interested in Atlantis and began to say that it had aircraft, submarines, powerful energy crystals, and other things that are not known from ancient times.

By studying the types of rock that are found in the bottom of the Atlantic Ocean, scientists are sure that there was never really any large island or small continent there, so many people today think that Plato may have heard a story about another place and moved it to the Atlantic Ocean in his book.

Different people have thought that many places all over the world have been the place of the "real Atlantis" Curiously, many cultures from around the world who had no contact shared a similar story of a civilization sinking into the sea.








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