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The mushroom cloud over Hiroshima after the dropping of Little Boy
The Fat Man mushroom cloud resulting from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rises 18 km (11 mi, 60,000 ft) into the air from the hypocenter
.During the final stages of World War II in 1945, the United States conducted two atomic bombings against Japan in the cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki.^ On August 6, 1945, the United States dropped a nuclear weapon on Hiroshima, Japan.
  • Asia Pacific Forum - August 8, 2006 Show 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.asiapacificforum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ World War II: 1944-1945 .
  • Heinle, Nick, The Manhattan Project http://www 16 September 2009 21:26 UTC www.rural-tech.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki led to the end of World War Two.
  • Lessons Learned From the Atomic Bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC voa.52en.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.After six months of intense strategic fire-bombing of 67 Japanese cities the Japanese government ignored an ultimatum given by the Potsdam Declaration.^ This was after six months of intense fire-bombing of 67 other Japanese cities.
  • WWII Defining Australia-Japan Relationship | m i s s b e c k y 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC miss-becky.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Japanese government still did not react to the Potsdam Declaration.
  • Final Copy + Bibliography 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC docs.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When Paul Tibbets, pilot of the plane that dropped an atomic bomb on the Japanese city of Hiroshima 62 years ago, died earlier this month, conservative commentators responded true to form.
  • Conservative Revisionists and Hiroshima 15 September 2009 20:54 UTC hnn.us [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.By executive order of President Harry S. Truman the U.S. dropped the nuclear weapon "Little Boy" on the city of Hiroshima on Monday, August 6, 1945,[1][2] followed by the detonation of "Fat Man" over Nagasaki on August 9. These are the only attacks with nuclear weapons in the history of warfare.^ This book is a history of nuclear weapons.
  • Nuclear Weapons - Cambridge University Press 22 September 2009 23:38 UTC www.cambridge.org [Source type: Academic]

^ A man who survived the atomic bomb dropped on Hiroshima on August 6, 1945.
  • Hiroshima survivor speaks in Aiken 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.wrdw.com [Source type: General]

^ On August 6, 1945, the United States dropped a nuclear weapon on Hiroshima, Japan.
  • Asia Pacific Forum - August 8, 2006 Show 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.asiapacificforum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[3]
.Within the first two to four months of the bombings, the acute effects killed 90,000–166,000 people in Hiroshima and 60,000–80,000 in Nagasaki,[4] with roughly half of the deaths in each city occurring on the first day.^ Today, incidentally, is the day the first bomb was dropped on Hiroshima in 1945.

^ Second bomb dropped within days of the first on Nagasaki.
  • Hiroshima: The Lost Photographs: Observatory: Design Observer 15 September 2009 5:52 UTC designobserver.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He was visiting Hiroshima on business the day the first bomb was dropped.
  • Atomic bombings of hiroshima and nagasaki: The right course of action to end WWII? 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.physicsforums.com [Source type: General]

.The Hiroshima prefectural health department estimates that, of the people who died on the day of the explosion, 60% died from flash or flame burns, 30% from falling debris and 10% from other causes.^ The percent of death from falling debris was 30 percent.

^ The Hiroshima prefectural health department placed the proportion of deaths from burns (flash or flame) at 60 percent, from falling debris at 30 percent, and from other injuries at 10 percent; it is generally agreed that burns caused at least 50 percent of the initial casualties.
  • HyperWar: USSBS: The Effects of Atomic Bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki [Chapter 2] 15 September 2009 5:52 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ What were the cause of death in Nagasaki were, burned to death, then by falling debris, also death by flying glass, and by other.

.During the following months, large numbers died from the effect of burns, radiation sickness, and other injuries, compounded by illness.^ Since then, thousands more have died from injuries or illness attributed to exposure to radiation released by the bombs.
  • Main Index 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.cornnet.nl [Source type: General]

^ The Hiroshima bombing killed around 140,000 people -- almost half the city population at the time -- immediately or in the months afterward from radiation injuries or horrific burns.
  • Einstein Ambiguous About the Bomb | Germany | Deutsche Welle | 04.07.2005 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.dw-world.de [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ More than 60,000 died within months from burns, radiation poisoning, and shock.
  • Review of _Why America dropped the atomic bomb_, by Ronald Takaki 22 September 2009 12:29 UTC www.hartford-hwp.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A plausible estimate of the total immediate and short term cause of death, 15–20% died from radiation sickness, 20–30% from flash burns, and 50–60% from other injuries, compounded by illness.^ Other injuries, 50 to 60 percent.
  • HyperWar: USSBS: The Effects of Atomic Bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki [Chapter 2] 15 September 2009 5:52 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The percent of people burned to death was 60 percent.

^ The causes of death in Hiroshima were death by getting burned, by falling debris, and other.

[5] .Since then, more have died from leukemia (231 observed) and solid cancers (334 observed) attributed to exposure to radiation released by the bombs.^ More than that has been suffering from the released radioactive radiations since the bombing till now.
  • Hiroshima Anniversary Marks More Disasters, More Mourning! 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC o3.indiatimes.com [Source type: News]

^ Since then, thousands more have died from injuries or illness attributed to exposure to radiation released by the bombs.
  • Main Index 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.cornnet.nl [Source type: General]

^ A variety of ailments began to arise after the bombing and have since been attributed to exposure to radiation.
  • web page template 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC academic.mu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[6] .In both cities, most of the dead were civilians.^ Most of the dead, of course, were civilians.
  • Topica Email List Directory 16 September 2009 21:26 UTC www.topica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In both cities, the overwhelming majority of the dead were civilians.
  • Main Index 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.cornnet.nl [Source type: General]

^ In both cities, the majority of the dead were civilians.
  • WWII Defining Australia-Japan Relationship | m i s s b e c k y 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC miss-becky.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[7][8][9]
.Six days after the detonation over Nagasaki, on August 15, Japan announced its surrender to the Allied Powers, signing the Instrument of Surrender on September 2, officially ending the Pacific War and therefore World War II. Germany had signed its unavoidable[2] Instrument of Surrender on May 7, ending the war in Europe.^ The first reason is that it ended the World War 2.

^ Japan surrendered, officially bring a closure to the Second World War.
  • Zhong Hua Min Guo (1912-Present) 16 September 2009 21:26 UTC www.yutopian.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ World War II: 1944-1945 .
  • Heinle, Nick, The Manhattan Project http://www 16 September 2009 21:26 UTC www.rural-tech.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The bombings led, in part, to post-war Japan adopting Three Non-Nuclear Principles, forbidding the nation from nuclear armament.^ Japan split over nuclear armament ban .
  • Japan split over nuclear armament ban - RT Top Stories 25 September 2009 4:04 UTC rt.com [Source type: News]

^ Although not banning peaceful nuclear power, it forbids the nation from nuclear armament.
  • Japan split over nuclear armament ban - RT Top Stories 25 September 2009 4:04 UTC rt.com [Source type: News]

^ Mizushima lamented the materialism of post-war Japan, now the world's second largest economy and one of Washington's closest allies.
  • channelnewsasia.com - Japanese film discredits Nanjing massacre 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.channelnewsasia.com [Source type: News]

[10]
.The role of the bombings in Japan's surrender and the U.S.'s ethical justification for them is still debated.^ Japan surrendered the following August, after one more bloody battle, on Okinawa, and the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki.
  • U.S., Japanese Vets Mark 60th Anniversary on Iwo Jima 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC archive.newsmax.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On August 14, 1945, after the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan surrendered.
  • C.C. Bradley - The Aleutians 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.geology.wisc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ His stated intention in ordering the bombings was to bring about a quick resolution of the war by inflicting destruction, and instilling fear of further destruction, that was sufficient to cause Japan to surrender.
  • Final Copy + Bibliography 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC docs.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[11]

Contents

The Manhattan Project

.The U.S., in collaboration with the United Kingdom and Canada, with their respective secret projects Tube Alloys and Chalk River Laboratories,[12][13] designed and built the first atomic bombs under what was called the Manhattan Project.^ This top-secret project was called the Manhattan Project.
  • The Witness: Reactor Tales 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.thewitness.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Where and how was the atomic bomb built?

^ It wasn't the atom bomb (the Manhattan Project).
  • Boeing B-29 Superfortress - Dropped the Atomic Bomb on Japan 16 September 2009 21:26 UTC www.acepilots.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The scientific research was directed by American physicist J. Robert Oppenheimer.^ As a result, many great nuclear physicists came to the U.K. and the U.S. The Manhattan Project was directed by a German Jew named Robert Oppenheimer who came to the U.S. after fleeing the Nazi party.

^ From Harvard, Robert Oppenheimer went to the University of Cambridge, in England, where he worked in atomics under Lord Rutherford, the eminent physicist.
  • J. Robert Oppenheimer, Atom Bomb Pioneer, Dies 20 September 2009 1:28 UTC www.nytimes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "Now I have become death, the destroyer of worlds," said J. Robert Oppenheimer, Scientific Director of the Manhattan Project, which developed the first atomic bomb.
  • Memory, Horror, Resistance, and Hope...Summer '09 | Philadelphia Independent Media Center 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.phillyimc.org [Source type: General]

.The Hiroshima bomb, a gun-type bomb called "Little Boy", was made with uranium-235, a rare isotope of uranium.^ The bomb used on Hiroshima, a uranium bomb, was nicknamed Little Boy.
  • web page template 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC academic.mu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The bomb dropped on HIroshima was a uranium bomb.
  • Hiroshima, Nagasaki Atom Bombs Was Right Decision According To Majority Of Americans: Poll 25 September 2009 4:04 UTC www.huffingtonpost.com [Source type: General]

^ The bomb dropped on Hiroshima from the Enola Gay was known as "Little Boy".
  • What were the names of the two atomic bombs dropped on Japan? 22 September 2009 23:38 UTC www.funtrivia.com [Source type: General]

.The atomic bomb was first tested at Trinity Site, on July 16, 1945, near Alamogordo, New Mexico.^ They were from the segments: First Atomic Bomb - July 16, 1945, and Atomic Bomb - August 6, 1945.

^ While in Potsdam President Truman was informed that the test of the atomic bomb in New Mexico had been successful.
  • The Atomic Bomb 16 September 2009 21:26 UTC www.sagehistory.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As you know the first atomic bomb was dropped on August 6,1945.
  • WebSearch - Dropped Atomic Bomb 16 September 2009 21:26 UTC www.websearch.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Atomic Bomb 16 September 2009 21:26 UTC library.thinkquest.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The test weapon, "the gadget," and the Nagasaki bomb, "Fat Man," were both implosion-type devices made primarily of plutonium-239, a synthetic element.^ Fat Man” was a fission bomb with a 6.4 kg core of plutonium-239.
  • Metals in Medicine and the Environment 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC faculty.virginia.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Hiroshima, Nagasaki, and subsequent weapons testing .

^ Weapons-grade plutonium (Plutonium-239) produced at the B Reactor was used in the Trinity Bomb and the "Fat Man" Bomb.
  • The Witness: Reactor Tales 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.thewitness.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[14]

Choice of targets

Map showing the locations of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan where the two atomic weapons were employed
.On May 10–11, 1945 The Target Committee at Los Alamos, led by J. Robert Oppenheimer, recommended Kyoto, Hiroshima, Yokohama, and the arsenal at Kokura as possible targets.^ Target Committee, Los Alamos, May 10-11, 1945 - Minutes of the Target Committee, meeting in the office of J. Robert Oppenheimer, as they decided the best use of the "gadget."
  • Atomic Bomb: Decision 15 September 2009 5:52 UTC www.unl.edu:2020 [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • ATOMIC BOMB: DECISION (Hiroshima-Nagasaki) 22 September 2009 23:38 UTC www.dannen.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Minutes of the second meeting of the Target Committee Los Alamos, May 10-11, 1945 .
  • Atomic Bomb: Decision -- Target Committee, May 10-11, 1945 15 September 2009 5:52 UTC www.dannen.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The committee, recommended Kyoto, Hiroshima, Yokohama, and the arsenal at Kokura as possible targets.
  • Final Copy + Bibliography 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC docs.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The target selection was subject to the following criteria:
.
  • The target was larger than three miles in diameter and was an important target in a large urban area.
  • The blast would create effective damage.
  • The target was unlikely to be attacked by August 1945. "Any small and strictly military objective should be located in a much larger area subject to blast damage in order to avoid undue risks of the weapon being lost due to bad placing of the bomb."^ The plane which bombed Hiroshima on August 6, 1945.
    • Monuments Related to the Atomic Bomb & to Atomic Power 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC atomic.maripo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The Target Committee rejected the use of the weapon against a strictly military objective because of the chance of missing a small target not surrounded by a larger urban area.
    • Final Copy + Bibliography 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC docs.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The atomic bomb is the subject of much controversy.
    • Questions about Atomic Bomb - Ask.com 16 September 2009 21:26 UTC www.ask.com [Source type: General]

    [15]
.These cities were largely untouched during the nightly bombing raids and the Army Air Force agreed to leave them off the target list so accurate assessment of the weapon could be made.^ The target is the untouched city of Hiroshima.

^ The Army made a list of five military targets, the first of which was the industrial city of Hiroshima.

^ "The bombs we had there during the war, they were only play toys compared to the ones we have today, as far as size is concerned and the TNT force.
  • Atomic horror couldn't stop Canadian 22 September 2009 23:38 UTC www.canada.com [Source type: News]

.Hiroshima was described as "an important army depot and port of embarkation in the middle of an urban industrial area.^ (Classified as an AA Target) (2) Hiroshima - This is an important army depot and port of embarkation in the middle of an urban industrial area.
  • Atomic Bomb: Decision -- Target Committee, May 10-11, 1945 15 September 2009 5:52 UTC www.dannen.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Hiroshima was an army depot and port of embarkation.
  • The Atomic Bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki | We Saved Hitler's Brain | Cracked.com Forums 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.cracked.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Hiroshima was chosen because of its large size, its being an important army depot and the potential that the bomb would cause greater destruction because the city was surrounded by hills which would have a "focusing effect".
  • Final Copy + Bibliography 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC docs.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It is a good radar target and it is such a size that a large part of the city could be extensively damaged.^ It is a good radar target and it is such a size that a large part of the city could be extensively damaged.
  • Atomic Bomb: Decision -- Target Committee, May 10-11, 1945 15 September 2009 5:52 UTC www.dannen.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Hiroshima was chosen as a target, even though it had little military importance, because It is a good radar target and it is such a size that a large part of the city could be extensively damaged.
  • Distributed Intelligence: Hiroshima and Nuclear Weapons 15 September 2009 20:54 UTC distint.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ That enough such weapons exploded in an all-out war might render the entire earth, or large parts of it, uninhabitable, is at least conceivable.
  • Children of the Atomic Bomb 22 September 2009 23:38 UTC www.aasc.ucla.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.There are adjacent hills which are likely to produce a focusing effect which would considerably increase the blast damage.^ There are adjacent hills which are likely to produce a focussing effect which would considerably increase the blast damage.
  • Atomic Bomb: Decision -- Target Committee, May 10-11, 1945 15 September 2009 5:52 UTC www.dannen.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Hiroshima was chosen because of its large size, its being an important army depot and the potential that the bomb would cause greater destruction because the city was surrounded by hills which would have a "focusing effect".
  • Final Copy + Bibliography 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC docs.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Because Hiroshima had not been bombed, ascertaining the effects of the A-bomb would be relatively easy.  Hiroshima had a high concentration of troops, military facilities and military factories that had not yet been subject to significant damage.  .
  • Why the A-bomb was dropped on Hiroshima ? 15 September 2009 5:52 UTC www.hiroshima-spirit.jp [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Due to rivers it is not a good incendiary target."[15] The goal of the weapon was to convince Japan to surrender unconditionally in accordance with the terms of the Potsdam Declaration. .The Target Committee stated that "It was agreed that psychological factors in the target selection were of great importance.^ A. It was agreed that psychological factors in the target selection were of great importance.
  • Atomic Bomb: Decision -- Target Committee, May 10-11, 1945 15 September 2009 5:52 UTC www.dannen.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The psychological effects on Japan were of great importance to the committee members.
  • Final Copy + Bibliography 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC docs.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He also agreed to keep in touch with the target data as it develops and to keep the committee advised of other possible target areas.
  • Atomic Bomb: Decision -- Target Committee, May 10-11, 1945 15 September 2009 5:52 UTC www.dannen.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Two aspects of this are (1) obtaining the greatest psychological effect against Japan and (2) making the initial use sufficiently spectacular for the importance of the weapon to be internationally recognized when publicity on it is released.^ The psychological effects on Japan were of great importance to the committee members.
  • Final Copy + Bibliography 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC docs.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Two aspects of this are (1) obtaining the greatest psychological effect against Japan and (2) making the initial use sufficiently spectacular for the importance of the weapon to be internationally recognized when publicity on it is released.
  • Atomic Bomb: Decision -- Target Committee, May 10-11, 1945 15 September 2009 5:52 UTC www.dannen.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They also agreed that the initial use of the weapon should be sufficiently spectacular for its importance to be internationally recognised.
  • Final Copy + Bibliography 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC docs.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In this respect Kyoto has the advantage of the people being more highly intelligent and hence better able to appreciate the significance of the weapon.^ B. In this respect Kyoto has the advantage of the people being more highly intelligent and hence better able to appreciate the significance of the weapon.
  • Atomic Bomb: Decision -- Target Committee, May 10-11, 1945 15 September 2009 5:52 UTC www.dannen.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ From the psychological point of view there is the advantage that Kyoto is an intellectual center for Japan and the people there are more apt to appreciate the significance of such a weapon as the gadget.
  • Atomic Bomb: Decision -- Target Committee, May 10-11, 1945 15 September 2009 5:52 UTC www.dannen.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ More than seventy thousand people died as a result of the world’s first use of an atomic weapon.
  • Lessons Learned From the Atomic Bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.voanews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Lessons Learned From the Atomic Bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC voa.52en.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Hiroshima has the advantage of being such a size and with possible focussing from nearby mountains that a large fraction of the city may be destroyed.^ Hiroshima has the advantage of being such a size and with possible focussing from nearby mountains that a large fraction of the city may be destroyed.
  • Atomic Bomb: Decision -- Target Committee, May 10-11, 1945 15 September 2009 5:52 UTC www.dannen.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Japan’s cities were being destroyed almost at will.
  • The Information War in the Pacific, 1945 — Central Intelligence Agency 15 September 2009 5:52 UTC www.cia.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The complete silence from that city puzzled the men at Headquarters; they knew that no large enemy raid could have occurred, and they knew that no sizeable store of explosives was in Hiroshima at that time.
  • The Atomic Bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki by The Manhattan Engineer District - Full Text Free Book 22 September 2009 23:38 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Avalon Project - The Atomic Bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC avalon.law.yale.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • The Atomic Bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki - CHAPTER VII 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.worldwideschool.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The Emperor's palace in Tokyo has a greater fame than any other target but is of least strategic value."[15]
.During World War II, Edwin O. Reischauer was the Japan expert for the U.S. Army Intelligence Service, in which role he is incorrectly said to have prevented the bombing of Kyoto.^ He served with the Army during World War II and was discharged in 1946 with the rank of major.
  • Alex Constantine's Anti-Fascist Research Bin: December 2006 16 September 2009 21:26 UTC alexconstantine.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ World War II: 1944-1945 .
  • Heinle, Nick, The Manhattan Project http://www 16 September 2009 21:26 UTC www.rural-tech.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Japan surrendered, ending World War II. .
  • Tsutomu Yamaguchi, survivor of atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, dies in Japan 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.nydailynews.com [Source type: News]

[16] In his autobiography, Reischauer specifically refuted the validity of this broadly-accepted claim:
"...the only person deserving credit for saving Kyoto from destruction is Henry L. Stimson, the Secretary of War at the time, who had known and admired Kyoto ever since his honeymoon there several decades earlier."[17]

The Potsdam ultimatum

.On July 26, Truman and other allied leaders issued the Potsdam Declaration outlining terms of surrender for Japan.^ Japan did not surrender after the Potsdam Declaration on July 26, 1945.
  • Hiroshima & Nagasaki [Archive] - Japan Forum 25 September 2009 4:04 UTC www.jref.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Truman wanted an unconditional surrender of Japan.

^ July 26 was issued at Potsdam.
  • Atomic Bombing of Hiroshima Announcement 15 September 2009 5:52 UTC coursesa.matrix.msu.edu [Source type: Original source]

.It was presented as an ultimatum and stated that without a surrender, the Allies would attack Japan, resulting in "the inevitable and complete destruction of the Japanese armed forces and just as inevitably the utter devastation of the Japanese homeland". The atomic bomb was not mentioned in the communique.^ Without the atomic bombs, a total of 5,000,000 Americans would have to be committed to a Japanese invasion.
  • National Affairs: LEAST ABHORRENT CHOICE - TIME 15 September 2009 5:52 UTC www.time.com [Source type: General]

^ Japan would not accept unconditional surrender.
  • Hiroshima, Nagasaki Atom Bombs Was Right Decision According To Majority Of Americans: Poll 25 September 2009 4:04 UTC www.huffingtonpost.com [Source type: General]

^ I don't think Japan would have surrendered unconditionally without the use of force.
  • Leo Szilard, Interview: President Truman Did Not Understand 16 September 2009 21:26 UTC members.peak.org [Source type: Original source]

.On July 28, Japanese papers reported that the declaration had been rejected by the Japanese government.^ On July 26 in 1945 the Potsdam declaration warned the Japanese that they must surrender unconditionally or face “prompt and utter destruction” [11] .
  • WWII Defining Australia-Japan Relationship | m i s s b e c k y 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC miss-becky.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On August 10, the day after the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, the Japanese government requested that it be permitted to surrender under the terms of the Potsdam declaration of July 26th which it had previously ignored.
  • The Atomic Bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki by The Manhattan Engineer District - Full Text Free Book 22 September 2009 23:38 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ District governors and police chiefs were reporting that the Japanese people were war-weary and despondent, and that popular hostility to the emperor and his government was increasing rapidly.
  • Was the atomic bombing of Japan justifiable? 16 September 2009 21:26 UTC www.users.bigpond.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.That afternoon, Prime Minister Kantaro Suzuki declared at a press conference that the Potsdam Declaration was no more than a rehash (yakinaoshi) of the Cairo Declaration and that the government intended to ignore it (mokusatsu lit.^ On July 28, Prime Minister Suzuki announced that Japan intended to "ignore" the Potsdam Declaration.
  • Was the atomic bombing of Japan justifiable? 16 September 2009 21:26 UTC www.users.bigpond.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He has argued in the past that American church policies regarding Arabs are more balanced than the policies of the U.S. Government, but that the American Church views are not well understood in the Middle East because they are not presented in the Islamic press there.
  • External Event Archives - Interfaith Center of Greater Philadelphia 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.interfaithcenterpa.org [Source type: General]

^ The word mokusatsu was leaked to the papers, meaning kill by silence or ignore, a word that began to be used to describe the position of the government.
  • Strategic Culture Foundation 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC en.fondsk.ru [Source type: Original source]

"kill by silence").[18] .The statement was taken by both Japanese and foreign papers as a clear rejection of the declaration.^ "It is very clear that well before atomic weapons were used, both the Japanese and the U.S. governments had arrived at the same understanding of acceptable terms of surrender.
  • Hiroshima-Nagasaki background 20 September 2009 1:28 UTC www.math.yorku.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ Truman was quickly briefed on the Manhattan Project and authorized use of atomic weapons against the Japanese in August of 1945, after the Japanese Empire rejected the Potsdam Declaration.

^ Think of it this way; just imagine for a moment that my sample "statement" came from a mainstream Japanese citizen and not a citizen of a foreign country.
  • Hiroshima & Nagasaki [Archive] - Japan Forum 25 September 2009 4:04 UTC www.jref.com [Source type: Original source]

.Emperor Hirohito, who was waiting for a Soviet reply to noncommittal Japanese peace feelers, made no move to change the government position.^ Nevertheless, it was the Japanese who succeeded in laying down one condition of surrender, the continued rule of Emperor Hirohito , in spite of the fact that many in the west regarded him as a war criminal.
  • unconditional surrender - FREE unconditional surrender information | Encyclopedia.com: Oxford Companion to World War II 22 September 2009 12:29 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On 15 August 1945, Emperor Hirohito announced Japan's surrender to the Japanese people and ordered Japanese forces to lay down their arms.
  • Brief History of WWII: Twin Drives to American Victory 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.worldwariihistory.info [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ POWs: Encyclopedia - Yasukuni Shrine Yasukuni Shrine (literally "peaceful nation shrine") is a controversial Shinto shrine located in Tokyo, Japan dedicated to the spirits of soldiers who died fighting on behalf of the Japanese emperor.

[19] .On July 31, he made clear to his advisor Kōichi Kido that the Imperial Regalia of Japan had to be defended at all costs.^ The analogy he made between Imperial Japan and the U.S. might be provocative to many Americans, though.
  • 62 Years Since The Atomic Bombing Of Hiroshima | Japan Probe 15 September 2009 20:54 UTC www.japanprobe.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ During the potsdam conference however shortly before the dropping of the bomb, Roosevelt made it clear to Japan that they must surrender or face “total destruction”.
  • Hiroshima & Nagasaki [Archive] - Japan Forum 25 September 2009 4:04 UTC www.jref.com [Source type: Original source]

^ And Imperial Japan was considering expanding all the way to austrialia.
  • Hiroshima & Nagasaki [Archive] - Japan Forum 25 September 2009 4:04 UTC www.jref.com [Source type: Original source]

[20]
.In early July, on his way to Potsdam, Truman had re-examined the decision to use the bomb.^ Development of the Atomic Bomb: Decision to use the Bomb #1 .
  • Index to the Barbara Reynolds Collected Papers 25 September 2009 4:04 UTC www.watsonlibrary.org [Source type: News]

^ In early July, on the way to the "Proclamation Defining Terms for Japanese Surrender" (Potsdam) Deceleration, Truman re-examined the decision to use the bomb.
  • Final Copy + Bibliography 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC docs.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Development of the Atomic Bomb: Decision to use the Bomb #2 .
  • Index to the Barbara Reynolds Collected Papers 25 September 2009 4:04 UTC www.watsonlibrary.org [Source type: News]

.In the end, Truman made the decision to drop the atomic bombs on Japan.^ The bombs dropped on Japan were so complicated, it was amazing.

^ How close was Japan to surrendering before the atomic bombs were dropped?

^ "Secret Jewish Government" plans the dropping of Atomic Bomb on Japan ...
  • Alex Constantine's Anti-Fascist Research Bin: December 2006 16 September 2009 21:26 UTC alexconstantine.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.His stated intention in ordering the bombings was to bring about a quick resolution of the war by inflicting destruction and instilling fear of further destruction in sufficient strength to cause Japan to surrender.^ Japan surrendered, officially bring a closure to the Second World War.
  • Zhong Hua Min Guo (1912-Present) 16 September 2009 21:26 UTC www.yutopian.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ His stated intention in ordering the bombings was to bring about a quick resolution of the war by inflicting destruction, and instilling fear of further destruction, that was sufficient to cause Japan to surrender.
  • Final Copy + Bibliography 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC docs.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It was religion that caused Japan to be so hesitant to surrender.
  • Hiroshima: The Lost Photographs: Observatory: Design Observer 15 September 2009 5:52 UTC designobserver.com [Source type: Original source]

[21]

Hiroshima

Hiroshima during World War II

The Enola Gay and its crew, who dropped the "Little Boy" atomic bomb on Hiroshima.
.At the time of its bombing, Hiroshima was a city of some industrial and military significance.^ At the time of its bombing, Hiroshima was a city of some industrial and military significance.
  • National Poison Centre 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.prn.usm.my [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Hiroshima was a city of considerable military importance.
  • The Atomic Bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki by The Manhattan Engineer District - Full Text Free Book 22 September 2009 23:38 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Following are some facts about the bombing of the cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki.
  • Hiroshima Anniversary Marks More Disasters, More Mourning! 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC o3.indiatimes.com [Source type: News]

.A number of military camps were located nearby, including the headquarters of the Fifth Division and Field Marshal Shunroku Hata's 2nd General Army Headquarters, which commanded the defense of all of southern Japan.^ At this time, Hiroshima was the headquarters of Japan's 2nd General Army.
  • Was the atomic bombing of Japan justifiable? 16 September 2009 21:26 UTC www.users.bigpond.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It also contained the headquarters of the Fifth Division and the 2nd General Army Headquarters which commanded the defense of all of southern Japan.

^ At this time it was the headquarters of the 2nd General Army.
  • Was the atomic bombing of Japan justifiable? 16 September 2009 21:26 UTC www.users.bigpond.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Hiroshima was a minor supply and logistics base for the Japanese military.^ Hiroshima was a minor supply and logistics base for the Japanese military.
  • Final Copy + Bibliography 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC docs.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • National Poison Centre 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.prn.usm.my [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On August 6, 1945, during World War II, the United States dropped the first atomic bomb on Hiroshima, a Japanese city and military center.
  • World War II – pictures related to World War II - List of Items - MSN Encarta 15 September 2009 5:52 UTC encarta.msn.com [Source type: General]

^ If we were not aiming for them , then why did we attacked a military base in Japan liked the Japanese attacked Pearl Harbor.
  • Atomic bombings of hiroshima and nagasaki: The right course of action to end WWII? 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.physicsforums.com [Source type: General]

.The city was a communications center, a storage point, and an assembly area for troops.^ The city was a communications centre, a storage point, and an assembly area for troops.
  • Final Copy + Bibliography 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC docs.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The headquarters of the 2nd Army Headquarters was there, an assembly area for troops and a communications center.
  • New York Times Op Ed on the bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki - Joi Ito's Web 15 September 2009 5:52 UTC joi.ito.com [Source type: General]

^ The city was a communications center, a storage point, and an assembly area for troops.
  • The Atomic Bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki by The Manhattan Engineer District - Full Text Free Book 22 September 2009 23:38 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • National Poison Centre 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.prn.usm.my [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It was one of several Japanese cities left deliberately untouched by American bombing, allowing a pristine environment to measure the damage caused by the atomic bomb.^ It is hard to believe how much damage one bomb caused.

^ Americanism one finds in Japanese discussions of the bombings.
  • 62 Years Since The Atomic Bombing Of Hiroshima | Japan Probe 15 September 2009 20:54 UTC www.japanprobe.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ His one gratitude toward the atomic bomb:  it was in the control of the Americans and not his enemies.
  • America's Reaction to the Atomic Bomb 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC users.dickinson.edu [Source type: Original source]

[22][23]
.The center of the city contained several reinforced concrete buildings and lighter structures.^ The center of the city contained several reinforced concrete buildings and lighter structures.
  • National Poison Centre 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.prn.usm.my [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The center of the city contained a number of reinforced concrete buildings as well as lighter structures.
  • The Atomic Bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki by The Manhattan Engineer District - Full Text Free Book 22 September 2009 23:38 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The centre of the city contained several reinforced concrete buildings and lighter structures.
  • Final Copy + Bibliography 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC docs.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Outside the center, the area was congested by a dense collection of small wooden workshops set among Japanese houses.^ Outside the center, the area was congested by a dense collection of small wooden workshops set among Japanese houses.
  • National Poison Centre 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.prn.usm.my [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Outside the center, the area was congested by a dense collection of small wooden workshops set among Japanese houses; a few larger industrial plants lay near the outskirts of the city.
  • The Atomic Bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki by The Manhattan Engineer District - Full Text Free Book 22 September 2009 23:38 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Outside the centre, the area was congested by a dense collection of small wooden workshops set among Japanese houses.
  • Final Copy + Bibliography 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC docs.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A few larger industrial plants lay near the outskirts of the city.^ A few larger industrial plants lay near the outskirts of the city.
  • Final Copy + Bibliography 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC docs.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Outside the center, the area was congested by a dense collection of small wooden workshops set among Japanese houses; a few larger industrial plants lay near the outskirts of the city.
  • The Atomic Bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki by The Manhattan Engineer District - Full Text Free Book 22 September 2009 23:38 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The bulk of the city's output came from large plants located on the outskirts of the city; one-half of the industrial production came from only five firms.
  • HyperWar: USSBS: The Effects of Atomic Bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki [Chapter 2] 15 September 2009 5:52 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The houses were constructed of wood with tile roofs, and many of the industrial buildings were also built around wood frames.^ The houses were of wooden construction with tile roofs, and many of the industrial buildings also were of wood frame construction.
  • Final Copy + Bibliography 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC docs.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • National Poison Centre 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.prn.usm.my [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Many wood-framed industrial buildings were of poor construction by American standards.
  • HyperWar: USSBS: The Effects of Atomic Bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki [Chapter 2] 15 September 2009 5:52 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The houses were of wooden construction with tile roofs.
  • The Atomic Bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki by The Manhattan Engineer District - Full Text Free Book 22 September 2009 23:38 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The city as a whole was highly susceptible to fire damage.^ The city as a whole was highly susceptible to fire damage.
  • The Atomic Bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki by The Manhattan Engineer District - Full Text Free Book 22 September 2009 23:38 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Final Copy + Bibliography 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC docs.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • National Poison Centre 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.prn.usm.my [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The fire damage in both cities was tremendous, but was more complete in Hiroshima than in Nagasaki.
  • The Atomic Bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki by The Manhattan Engineer District - Full Text Free Book 22 September 2009 23:38 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In Nagasaki, no fire storm arose, and the uneven terrain of the city confined the maximum intensity of damage to the valley over which the bomb exploded.
  • HyperWar: USSBS: The Effects of Atomic Bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki [Chapter 2] 15 September 2009 5:52 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The population of Hiroshima had reached a peak of over 381,000 earlier in the war, but prior to the atomic bombing the population had steadily decreased because of a systematic evacuation ordered by the Japanese government.^ The population of Hiroshima had reached a peak of over 380,000 earlier in the war but prior to the atomic bombing the population had steadily decreased because of a systematic evacuation ordered by the Japanese government.
  • The Atomic Bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki by The Manhattan Engineer District - Full Text Free Book 22 September 2009 23:38 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Shishido is an Atomic Bomb survivor from the Hiroshima bombing.
  • Heinle, Nick, The Manhattan Project http://www 16 September 2009 21:26 UTC www.rural-tech.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki ..
  • Museum of Learning : 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.museumstuff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.At the time of the attack the population was approximately 340,000-350,000.[4] Because official documents were burned, the exact population is uncertain.^ At the time of the attack the population was approximately 255,000.
  • The Atomic Bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki by The Manhattan Engineer District - Full Text Free Book 22 September 2009 23:38 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Final Copy + Bibliography 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC docs.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The greatest population density thus approximated 65,000 per square mile even after the evacuations.
  • HyperWar: USSBS: The Effects of Atomic Bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki [Chapter 2] 15 September 2009 5:52 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The atomic bomb had killed some 140,000 people by the end of 1945, out of Hiroshima's estimated population of 350,000.
  • Hiroshima Anniversary Marks More Disasters, More Mourning! 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC o3.indiatimes.com [Source type: News]

The bombing

For the composition of the USAAF mission see 509th Composite Group.
Seizo Yamada's ground level photo taken from approximately 7 km northeast of Hiroshima.
.Hiroshima was the primary target of the first nuclear bombing mission on August 6, with Kokura and Nagasaki being alternative targets.^ August 1995 is the fiftieth anniversary of the atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki.
  • Nagasaki Information on the Web 15 September 2009 5:52 UTC www.cmp.ucr.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The plane which bombed Hiroshima on August 6, 1945.
  • Monuments Related to the Atomic Bomb & to Atomic Power 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC atomic.maripo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ THE ATTACKS Hiroshima Hiroshima was the primary target of the first atomic bomb mission.
  • The Atomic Bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki by The Manhattan Engineer District - Full Text Free Book 22 September 2009 23:38 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.August 6 was chosen because clouds had previously obscured the target.^ August 6 was chosen for the bombing of Hiroshima because there had previously been cloud over the target.
  • Final Copy + Bibliography 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC docs.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Nagasaki On the morning of August 9, 1945, the crew of the American B-29 Superfortress "Bockscar", carrying the nuclear bomb nicknamed "Fat Man" found their primary target, Kokura, to be obscured by cloud.
  • The atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki | Greenpeace UK 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.greenpeace.org.uk [Source type: News]

^ Hiroshima was chosen as a target for the atomic bombing because up until this point in the war, it had not been heavily bombed.
  • web page template 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC academic.mu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The 393d Bombardment Squadron B-29 Enola Gay, piloted and commanded by 509th Composite Group commander Colonel Paul Tibbets, was launched from North Field airbase on Tinian in the West Pacific, about six hours flight time from Japan.^ Dedicated by retired General Paul Tibbets [1915-2007], former commander of the 509th Composite Group and pilot of the B-29 "Enola Gay" on August 6, 1945.
  • Monuments Related to the Atomic Bomb & to Atomic Power 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC atomic.maripo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ (Read more about Tibbets, the Enola Gay, and this mission .
  • Boeing B-29 Superfortress - Dropped the Atomic Bomb on Japan 16 September 2009 21:26 UTC www.acepilots.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Commanded by Colonel Paul W. Tibbets, Jr. Nonetheless, they trained for their secret mission at Wendover, Utah before shipping out to Tinian, where they endured a lot of ribbing from guys in other units, "Oh, yeah, the 509th is gonna win the war."
  • Boeing B-29 Superfortress - Dropped the Atomic Bomb on Japan 16 September 2009 21:26 UTC www.acepilots.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Enola Gay (named after Colonel Tibbets' mother) was accompanied by two other B29s.^ Tibbets named it after his mother.

^ Almost half couldn't remember facts like the name of the plane carrying the bomb (Enola Gay), what time the bombing was (8.15), and some more.
  • New York Times Op Ed on the bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki - Joi Ito's Web 15 September 2009 5:52 UTC joi.ito.com [Source type: General]

^ The crew of the Enola Gay didn't do anything which was different in any way from the millions of other warriors who have slaughtered their fellow men since time immemorial.
  • Crew of the Enola Gay 16 September 2009 21:26 UTC www.larrydewitt.net [Source type: Original source]

.The Great Artiste, commanded by Major Charles W. Sweeney, carried instrumentation; and a then-nameless aircraft later called Necessary Evil (the photography aircraft) was commanded by Captain George Marquardt.^ Charles Sweeney captained the plane on the Nagasaki mission, even though he was not a normal crew member.

^ Perhaps had he been born later and served aboard the USN aircraft carrier Abraham Lincoln, for example, Captain Edward Teach could have helped capture an entire vassal state without so much as risking his neck (he was beheaded).
  • George W. Bush, John Kerry, test the spirit, Skull & Bones occultists and the Mausoleum they're based in at Yale University 22 September 2009 23:38 UTC www.bilderberg.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Was is Evil but at times it must be fought for the survival of man to be free, so please remember the freedoms you have in this great country called The United States of America!!!
  • California Catholic Daily - Sufi chant, balloons, and African drums 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.calcatholic.com [Source type: General]

[24]
.After leaving Tinian the aircraft made their way separately to Iwo Jima where they rendezvoused at 2,440 meters (8,010 ft) and set course for Japan.^ U.S. made the right decision, the part of the war over in Japan was island to island based, we had to take out Japan in a way so devastating that they would be scared of making another attack on us .
  • Were the Americans right in using an atomic bomb on Japan? - gprime.net boards 16 September 2009 21:26 UTC gprime.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Iwo Jima and Okinawa strongly suggested and implied that if the US invaded Japan every Japanese would fight to the death.
  • Hiroshima: The Lost Photographs: Observatory: Design Observer 15 September 2009 5:52 UTC designobserver.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Iwo Jima and Okinawa demonstrate the likely heavy cost in American lives of invading Japan .
  • Was the atomic bombing of Japan justifiable? 16 September 2009 21:26 UTC www.users.bigpond.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The aircraft arrived over the target in clear visibility at 9,855 meters (32,333 ft). .During the journey, Navy Captain William Parsons had armed the bomb, which had been left unarmed to minimize the risks during takeoff.^ My father was in the Navy during WWII. He and my uncles all said the bombs shortened the war and saved millions of lives, the Japanese and the soldiers.
  • Hiroshima: The Lost Photographs: Observatory: Design Observer 15 September 2009 5:52 UTC designobserver.com [Source type: Original source]

His assistant, 2nd Lt. Morris Jeppson, removed the safety devices 30 minutes before reaching the target area.[25]
.
The energy released was powerful enough to burn through clothing.
^ In such cases, it was not unusual to find burns through black but not through white clothing, on the same patient.
  • The Atomic Bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki by The Manhattan Engineer District - Full Text Free Book 22 September 2009 23:38 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This is also called secondary burns, ins which the skin under the clothing received burns through the clothes scorched by the heat rays.
  • PHOTOGRAPHS OF HIROSHIMA AND NAGASAKI (GENSUIKIN) 15 September 2009 5:52 UTC www.gensuikin.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For a sufficiently large explosion, the flash burn produced by this radiated energy will become the dominant cause of damage, since the area of burn damage will increase in proportion to the energy released, whereas the area of blast damage increases only with the two-thirds power of the energy.
  • The Atomic Bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki by The Manhattan Engineer District - Full Text Free Book 22 September 2009 23:38 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The dark portions of the garments this victim wore at the time of the blast were emblazoned on to the flesh as scars.[26]
.About an hour before the bombing, Japanese early warning radar detected the approach of some American aircraft headed for the southern part of Japan.^ About an hour previously, the Japanese early warning radar net had detected the approach of some American aircraft headed for the southern part of Japan.
  • The Atomic Bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki by The Manhattan Engineer District - Full Text Free Book 22 September 2009 23:38 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ About an hour before the bombing, Japanese early warning radar detected the approach of some American aircraft headed for the southern part of Japan.
  • Final Copy + Bibliography 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC docs.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ His stated intention in ordering the bombings was to bring about a quick resolution of the war by inflicting destruction, and instilling fear of further destruction, that was sufficient to cause Japan to surrender.
  • Final Copy + Bibliography 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC docs.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.An alert was given and radio broadcasting stopped in many cities, among them Hiroshima.^ An alert was given and radio broadcasting stopped in many cities, among them Hiroshima.
  • Final Copy + Bibliography 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC docs.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The alert had been given and radio broadcasting stopped in many cities, among them Hiroshima.
  • The Atomic Bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki by The Manhattan Engineer District - Full Text Free Book 22 September 2009 23:38 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The normal radio broadcast warning was given to the people that it might be advisable to go to air-raid shelters if B-29s were actually sighted, but no raid was expected.
  • Final Copy + Bibliography 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC docs.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.At nearly 08:00, the radar operator in Hiroshima determined that the number of planes coming in was very small—probably not more than three—and the air raid alert was lifted.^ At nearly 08:00 (Hiroshima time), the radar operator in Hiroshima determined that the number of planes coming in was very small, probably not more than three and the air raid alert was lifted.
  • Final Copy + Bibliography 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC docs.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ At nearly 8:00 A.M., the radar operator in Hiroshima determined that the number of planes coming in was very small - probably not more than three - and the air raid alert was lifted.
  • The Atomic Bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki by The Manhattan Engineer District - Full Text Free Book 22 September 2009 23:38 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Hiroshima mission consisted of three planes: the Enola Gay, a second plane carrying sensing equipment, and a third plane carrying photography equipment.
  • Atomic bombings of hiroshima and nagasaki: The right course of action to end WWII? 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.physicsforums.com [Source type: General]

.To conserve fuel and aircraft, the Japanese had decided not to intercept small formations.^ To conserve fuel and aircraft, the Japanese had decided not to intercept small formations.
  • Final Copy + Bibliography 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC docs.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The normal radio broadcast warning was given to the people that it might be advisable to go to air-raid shelters if B-29s were actually sighted, but no raid was expected beyond some sort of reconnaissance.^ The normal radio broadcast warning was given to the people that it might be advisable to go to shelter if B-29's were actually sighted, but no raid was expected beyond some sort of reconnaissance.
  • The Atomic Bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki by The Manhattan Engineer District - Full Text Free Book 22 September 2009 23:38 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The normal radio broadcast warning was given to the people that it might be advisable to go to air-raid shelters if B-29s were actually sighted, but no raid was expected.
  • Final Copy + Bibliography 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC docs.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When only two B-29 Super fortresses were sighted at 10:53, the Japanese apparently assumed that the planes were only on reconnaissance and no further alarm was given.
  • Final Copy + Bibliography 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC docs.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The release at 08:15 (Hiroshima time) went as planned, and the gravity bomb known as "Little Boy", a gun-type fission weapon with 60 kilograms (130 lb) of uranium-235, took 57 seconds to fall from the aircraft to the predetermined detonation height about 600 meters (2,000 ft) above the city.^ It's about 15 meters high.

^ On August 6, 1945, the nuclear weapon "Little Boy" was dropped on the city of Hiroshima, followed on August 9, 1945 by the detonation of the "Fat Man" nuclear bomb over Nagasaki.
  • UFO Blog 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.ufo-blog.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Hiroshima Anniversary Marks More Disasters, More Mourning! 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC o3.indiatimes.com [Source type: News]

^ The release at 08:15 (Hiroshima time) was uneventful, and the gravity bomb "Little Boy", took 57 seconds to fall from the aircraft to the predetermined detonation height about 600 meters above the city.
  • Final Copy + Bibliography 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC docs.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Due to crosswind, it missed the aiming point, the Aioi Bridge, by almost 800 feet (240 m) and detonated directly over Shima Surgical Clinic.^ (For convenience, the term "ground zero" will be used to designate the point on the ground directly beneath the point of detonation, or "air zero."
  • HyperWar: USSBS: The Effects of Atomic Bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki [Chapter 2] 15 September 2009 5:52 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[27] .It created a blast equivalent to about 13 kilotons of TNT (54 TJ).^ The resulting explosion had a blast yield equivalent to 21 kilotons of TNT. The explosion generated heat estimated at 7000 degrees Fahrenheit and winds that were estimated at 624 mph.
  • Final Copy + Bibliography 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC docs.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It created a blast equivalent to about 13 kilotons of TNT. The radius of total destruction was about 1.6 km, with resulting fires across 11.4 km².
  • Final Copy + Bibliography 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC docs.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.(The U-235 weapon was considered very inefficient, with only 1.38% of its material fissioning.^ Several subcritical amounts when fired into a small volume, exceed critcal mass and thus fissile material (U-235 or Plutonium-239) fissions with neutrons.
  • The Hydrogen Bomb Homepage, with stuff on the Cuban missile crisis and nuclear testing and transportation 22 September 2009 23:38 UTC www.bilderberg.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

)[28] .The radius of total destruction was about one mile (1.6 km), with resulting fires across 4.4 square miles (11 km2).^ The radius of total destruction was about 1.6 km, followed by fires across the northern portion of the city to 3.2 km south of the bomb.
  • Final Copy + Bibliography 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC docs.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It created a blast equivalent to about 13 kilotons of TNT. The radius of total destruction was about 1.6 km, with resulting fires across 11.4 km².
  • Final Copy + Bibliography 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC docs.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Total destruction spread over an area of about 3 square miles.
  • The Atomic Bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki by The Manhattan Engineer District - Full Text Free Book 22 September 2009 23:38 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[29] .Americans estimated that 4.7 square miles (12 km2) of the city were destroyed.^ On August 9, at 11:02am, another B-29 dropped a bomb on the industrial section of Nagasaki , totally destroying 1-1/2 square miles of the city, killing 39,000 persons, and injuring 25,000 more.
  • STAND - Students Take Action for New Directions 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.wand.org [Source type: News]

^ Of a city area of over 26 square miles, only 7 square miles were completely built-up.
  • The Atomic Bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki by The Manhattan Engineer District - Full Text Free Book 22 September 2009 23:38 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The "fire-wind" and the symmetry of the built-up center of the city gave a roughly circular shape to the 4.4 square miles which were almost completely burned out.
  • HyperWar: USSBS: The Effects of Atomic Bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki [Chapter 2] 15 September 2009 5:52 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Japanese officials determined that 69% of Hiroshima's buildings were destroyed and another 6–7% damaged.^ Another argument made by Zinn is that the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki were not necessary, as the US government had already known that the Japanese were considering surrender beforehand.

^ In Hiroshima, multi-story brick buildings suffered structural damage up to 6,600 feet, and in Nagasaki up to 6,500 feet from X. In both cities overhead electric installations were destroyed up to 5,500 feet; and trolley cars were destroyed up to 5,500 feet, and damaged to 10,500 feet.
  • The Atomic Bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki by The Manhattan Engineer District - Full Text Free Book 22 September 2009 23:38 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In Hiroshima over 60,000 of 90,000 buildings were destroyed or severely damaged by the atomic bomb; this figure represents over 67% of the city's structures.
  • The Atomic Bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki by The Manhattan Engineer District - Full Text Free Book 22 September 2009 23:38 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[5]
.70,000–80,000 people, or some 30%[30] of the population of Hiroshima were killed immediately, and another 70,000 injured.^ Little Boy,” the bomb dropped on Hiroshima killed 70,000 people with an additional 66,000 injured (30-39).
  • Essays.cc - After The Atomic Bomb 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.essays.cc [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Hiroshima had a population of 400,000.
  • The Atomic Bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki by The Manhattan Engineer District - Full Text Free Book 22 September 2009 23:38 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Questioner: "But 80,000 people were killed instantly.
  • Crew of the Enola Gay 16 September 2009 21:26 UTC www.larrydewitt.net [Source type: Original source]

[31] .Over 90% of the doctors and 93% of the nurses in Hiroshima were killed or injured—most had been in the downtown area which received the greatest damage.^ From all the indications, from all the reports we have received so far, they were nearly all killed or injured.
  • The Bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki 15 September 2009 5:52 UTC marxists.org [Source type: Original source]
  • The Bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki 22 September 2009 12:29 UTC www2.cddc.vt.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ People who were in comparatively damaged areas reported their condition under the impression that they had received a direct hit.
  • HyperWar: USSBS: The Effects of Atomic Bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki [Chapter 2] 15 September 2009 5:52 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The zero area, where the damage was most severe, was almost completely wiped out and for a short while after the explosion no reports came out of that area.
  • HyperWar: USSBS: The Effects of Atomic Bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki [Chapter 2] 15 September 2009 5:52 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[32]
.Although the U.S. had previously dropped leaflets warning civilians of air raids on 12 other Japanese cities,[33] the residents of Hiroshima were given no notice of the atomic bomb.^ On August 6, the first atomic bomb was dropped on this city.
  • Was the atomic bombing of Japan justifiable? 16 September 2009 21:26 UTC www.users.bigpond.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ You arrived in Hiroshima and Nagasaki after the atomic bombs were dropped.

^ Shishido is an Atomic Bomb survivor from the Hiroshima bombing.
  • Heinle, Nick, The Manhattan Project http://www 16 September 2009 21:26 UTC www.rural-tech.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[34][35][36]

Japanese realization of the bombing

Hiroshima before the bombing.
Hiroshima after the bombing.
.The Tokyo control operator of the Japanese Broadcasting Corporation noticed that the Hiroshima station had gone off the air.^ At 8:16 A.M., the Tokyo control operator of the Japanese Broadcasting Corporation noticed that the Hiroshima station had gone off the air.
  • The Atomic Bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki by The Manhattan Engineer District - Full Text Free Book 22 September 2009 23:38 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In any case, since the harbor was mined and the U.S. Navy and Air Force were in control of the waters around Japan, whatever troops were stationed in Hiroshima had been effectively neutralized.
  • Thenausea.com 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.thenausea.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A young officer of the Japanese General Staff was instructed to fly immediately to Hiroshima, to land, survey the damage, and return to Tokyo with reliable information for the staff.
  • The Atomic Bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki by The Manhattan Engineer District - Full Text Free Book 22 September 2009 23:38 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Final Copy + Bibliography 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC docs.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.He tried to re-establish his program by using another telephone line, but it too had failed.^ He tried to use another telephone line to reestablish his program, but it too had failed.
  • The Atomic Bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki by The Manhattan Engineer District - Full Text Free Book 22 September 2009 23:38 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In accordance with his Wellsian program, he urged that there be established international controls on atomic research, with the direct involvement of the scientists in the decisions as to its use.
  • Why Hiroshima Was Bombed: The 'Utopians' Duped a Nation 15 September 2009 5:52 UTC www.larouchepub.com [Source type: Original source]

^ "Another program in a state mental hospital in Vacaville, California evaluated the effectiveness of using Succinylcholine (anectine) as a means of suppressing hazardous behavior [e.g.
  • Alex Constantine's Anti-Fascist Research Bin: December 2006 16 September 2009 21:26 UTC alexconstantine.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[37] .About 20 minutes later the Tokyo railroad telegraph center realized that the main line telegraph had stopped working just north of Hiroshima.^ About twenty minutes later the Tokyo railroad telegraph center realized that the main line telegraph had stopped working just north of Hiroshima.
  • The Atomic Bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki by The Manhattan Engineer District - Full Text Free Book 22 September 2009 23:38 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ About five minutes later ...

^ Given that Kōno and Nishioka’s works are undoubtedly about Hiroshima and Nagasaki, the dearth of scenes depicting August 6 or 9 is striking.
  • JapanFocus 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.japanfocus.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.From some small railway stops within 16 kilometers (10 mi) of the city came unofficial and confused reports of a terrible explosion in Hiroshima.^ From some small railway stops within ten miles of the city there came unofficial and confused reports of a terrible explosion in Hiroshima.
  • The Atomic Bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki by The Manhattan Engineer District - Full Text Free Book 22 September 2009 23:38 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The zero area, where the damage was most severe, was almost completely wiped out and for a short while after the explosion no reports came out of that area.
  • HyperWar: USSBS: The Effects of Atomic Bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki [Chapter 2] 15 September 2009 5:52 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Nagasaki Prefectural report describes vividly the effects of the bomb on the city and its inhabitants: "Within a radius of 1 kilometer from X, men and animals died almost instantaneously and outside a radius of 1 kilometer and within a radius of 2 kilometers from X, some men and animals died instantly from the great blast and heat but the great majority were seriously or superficially injured.
  • The Atomic Bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki by The Manhattan Engineer District - Full Text Free Book 22 September 2009 23:38 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.All these reports were transmitted to the headquarters of the Imperial Japanese Army General Staff.^ All these reports were transmitted to the Headquarters of the Japanese General Staff.
  • The Atomic Bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki by The Manhattan Engineer District - Full Text Free Book 22 September 2009 23:38 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A Report was issued by the Attorney General on February 9, 1953 and transmitted to the White House.
  • Secret Judgment 22 September 2009 23:38 UTC www.angelfire.com [Source type: Original source]

^ A young officer of the Japanese General Staff was instructed to fly immediately to Hiroshima, to land, survey the damage, and return to Tokyo with reliable information for the staff.
  • The Atomic Bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki by The Manhattan Engineer District - Full Text Free Book 22 September 2009 23:38 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Military bases repeatedly tried to call the Army Control Station in Hiroshima.^ Military headquarters repeatedly tried to call the Army Control Station in Hiroshima.
  • The Atomic Bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki by The Manhattan Engineer District - Full Text Free Book 22 September 2009 23:38 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In any case, since the harbor was mined and the U.S. Navy and Air Force were in control of the waters around Japan, whatever troops were stationed in Hiroshima had been effectively neutralized.
  • Thenausea.com 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.thenausea.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "Sixteen hours ago an American airplane dropped one bomb on Hiroshima, an important Japanese Army base.
  • Greg Mitchell: The Day After Hiroshima: When the Atomic "Cover-Up" Began, 64 Years Ago 20 September 2009 1:28 UTC www.huffingtonpost.com [Source type: General]

.The complete silence from that city puzzled the men at headquarters; they knew that no large enemy raid had occurred and that no sizeable store of explosives was in Hiroshima at that time.^ The complete silence from that city puzzled the men at Headquarters; they knew that no large enemy raid could have occurred, and they knew that no sizeable store of explosives was in Hiroshima at that time.
  • The Atomic Bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki by The Manhattan Engineer District - Full Text Free Book 22 September 2009 23:38 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When: Monday, August 6, 2007 beginning promptly at 7:30 AM. The commemoration will culminate with an air raid siren and a moment of silence and reflection at 8:15 AM , the exact time of day the first atomic bomb was dropped on Hiroshima.
  • SF Bay Area PSR: Calendar 20 September 2009 1:28 UTC sfbaypsr.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Hiroshima has the advantage of being such a size and with possible focussing from nearby mountains that a large fraction of the city may be destroyed.
  • Atomic Bomb: Decision -- Target Committee, May 10-11, 1945 15 September 2009 5:52 UTC www.dannen.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A young officer of the Japanese General Staff was instructed to fly immediately to Hiroshima, to land, survey the damage, and return to Tokyo with reliable information for the staff.^ A young officer of the Japanese General Staff was instructed to fly immediately to Hiroshima, to land, survey the damage, and return to Tokyo with reliable information for the staff.
  • The Atomic Bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki by The Manhattan Engineer District - Full Text Free Book 22 September 2009 23:38 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In part they did not understand what had happened; in Tokyo all that was immediately certain was that all communications with Hiroshima had stopped.
  • Boeing B-29 Superfortress - Dropped the Atomic Bomb on Japan 16 September 2009 21:26 UTC www.acepilots.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There's a need for Web-sites or information regarding A-bombs in general, Hiroshima and Nagasaki experience, Pearl Harbor experience, the Japanese American Internment experience, the Jewish experience in the Concentration Camps, etc.
  • War on the side of aggressors and victims 22 September 2009 12:29 UTC www.hiroshima-spirit.jp [Source type: Original source]

.It was generally felt at headquarters that nothing serious had taken place and that the explosion was just a rumor.^ It was generally felt at Headquarters that nothing serious had taken place, that it was all a terrible rumor starting from a few sparks of truth.
  • The Atomic Bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki by The Manhattan Engineer District - Full Text Free Book 22 September 2009 23:38 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki had just taken place (August 6 and 9), and Cannon used the occasion to express his outrage at this atrocity.
  • The Bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki 15 September 2009 5:52 UTC marxists.org [Source type: Original source]
  • The Bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki 22 September 2009 12:29 UTC www2.cddc.vt.edu [Source type: Original source]

.The staff officer went to the airport and took off for the southwest.^ The staff officer went to the airport and took off for the southwest.
  • The Atomic Bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki by The Manhattan Engineer District - Full Text Free Book 22 September 2009 23:38 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.After flying for about three hours, while still nearly 100 miles (160 km) from Hiroshima, he and his pilot saw a great cloud of smoke from the bomb.^ After flying for about three hours, while still nearly 100 miles from Hiroshima, he and his pilot saw a great cloud of smoke from the bomb.
  • The Atomic Bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki by The Manhattan Engineer District - Full Text Free Book 22 September 2009 23:38 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This was a great website about the prelude to the bombings.

^ The bomb, nicknamed "Little Boy," exploded about 600 metres above the centre of the city, setting off a surge of heat reaching 4,000 degrees Celsius (7,200 Fahrenheit) across a radius of about 4.5 km (2.8 miles).
  • Hiroshima Anniversary Marks More Disasters, More Mourning! 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC o3.indiatimes.com [Source type: News]

.In the bright afternoon, the remains of Hiroshima were burning.^ In the bright afternoon, the remains of Hiroshima were burning.
  • The Atomic Bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki by The Manhattan Engineer District - Full Text Free Book 22 September 2009 23:38 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Their plane soon reached the city, around which they circled in disbelief.^ Their plane soon reached the city, around which they circled in disbelief.
  • The Atomic Bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki by The Manhattan Engineer District - Full Text Free Book 22 September 2009 23:38 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A great scar on the land still burning and covered by a heavy cloud of smoke was all that was left.^ A great scar on the land, still burning, and covered by a heavy cloud of smoke, was all that was left of a great city.
  • The Atomic Bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki by The Manhattan Engineer District - Full Text Free Book 22 September 2009 23:38 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The ball now loses its brilliance and appears as a great cloud of smoke: the pulverized material of the bomb.
  • The Atomic Bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki by The Manhattan Engineer District - Full Text Free Book 22 September 2009 23:38 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Below through the clouds we could see the pall of black smoke ringed with fire that covered what had been the industrial area of Nagasaki.
  • The Atomic Bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki by The Manhattan Engineer District - Full Text Free Book 22 September 2009 23:38 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.They landed south of the city, and the staff officer, after reporting to Tokyo, immediately began to organize relief measures.^ They landed south of the city, and the staff officer immediately began to organize relief measures, after reporting to Tokyo.
  • The Atomic Bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki by The Manhattan Engineer District - Full Text Free Book 22 September 2009 23:38 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In part they did not understand what had happened; in Tokyo all that was immediately certain was that all communications with Hiroshima had stopped.
  • Boeing B-29 Superfortress - Dropped the Atomic Bomb on Japan 16 September 2009 21:26 UTC www.acepilots.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As bad as the atomic bomb effects on Hiroshima and Nagasaki were, they pale compared to the devastation inflicted by the firebombings of other Japanese cities (primarily Tokyo).
  • Hiroshima: The Lost Photographs: Observatory: Design Observer 15 September 2009 5:52 UTC designobserver.com [Source type: Original source]

.By August 8, 1945, newspapers in the U.S. were reporting that broadcasts from Radio Tokyo had described the destruction observed in Hiroshima.^ The plane which bombed Hiroshima on August 6, 1945.
  • Monuments Related to the Atomic Bomb & to Atomic Power 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC atomic.maripo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The civilian death toll from the August, 1945, U.S. atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki has been put at 140,000 and 80,000, respectively.
  • RADIOACTIVE AMMUNITION FIRED IN THE MIDDLE EAST MAY CLAIM MORE LIVES THAN HIROSHIMA AND NAGASAKI | AfterDowningStreet.org 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.afterdowningstreet.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A single atomic bomb, the first weapon of its type ever used against a target, exploded over the city of Hiroshima at 0815 on the morning of 6 August 1945.
  • HyperWar: USSBS: The Effects of Atomic Bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki [Chapter 2] 15 September 2009 5:52 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

."Practically all living things, human and animal, were literally seared to death," Japanese radio announcers said in a broadcast received by Allied sources.^ The broadcast quoted a photographer of the Yamaha Photographic Institute, who had rushed to the city immediately after the bomb hit, as having said: “Nagasaki is now a dead city, all the areas being literally razed to the ground.
  • The Bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki 15 September 2009 5:52 UTC marxists.org [Source type: Original source]
  • The Bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki 22 September 2009 12:29 UTC www2.cddc.vt.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The radio broadcasts in Japanese had been carried out at regular 15 minute intervals.
  • The Atomic Bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki by The Manhattan Engineer District - Full Text Free Book 22 September 2009 23:38 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the course of this massacre, 200,000 to 300,000 of the Chinese people are said to have been killed at the hands of Japanese army, (one source says that approximately 450,000 Chinese people were killed.
  • War on the side of aggressors and victims 22 September 2009 12:29 UTC www.hiroshima-spirit.jp [Source type: Original source]

[38]

Post-attack casualties

.According to most estimates, the immediate effects of the blast killed approximately 70,000 people in Hiroshima.^ The Nagasaki bomb instantly killed an estimated 40,000 people, while 35,000 others died later from injuries and radiation sickness.
  • Co-pilot of Nagasaki bomb plane has died at 88 - On Deadline - USATODAY.com 22 September 2009 23:38 UTC blogs.usatoday.com [Source type: News]

^ The bombs can be directly related to the deaths of about 220,000 people, although many thousands more died from the after effects of radiation.

^ At least 120,000 people died immediately from the attacks, and many thousands more would die in years to come from the effects of nuclear radiation.

[39] .Estimates of total deaths by the end of 1945 from burns, radiation and related disease, the effects of which were aggravated by lack of medical resources, range from 90,000 to 140,000.[4][40] Some estimates state up to 200,000 had died by 1950, due to cancer and other long-term effects.^ Cases dying of radiation disease showed clear effects on spermatogenesis.
  • HyperWar: USSBS: The Effects of Atomic Bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki [Chapter 2] 15 September 2009 5:52 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some comparative radiation doses and their effects: .

^ By the end of 1950, the toll had reached 200,000, with death rates calculated at 54%!
  • Why Hiroshima Was Bombed: The 'Utopians' Duped a Nation 15 September 2009 5:52 UTC www.larouchepub.com [Source type: Original source]

[1][7][41] .Another study states that from 1950 to 1990, roughly 9% of the cancer and leukemia deaths among bomb survivors was due to radiation from the bombs, the statistical excess being estimated to 89 leukemia and 339 solid cancers.^ The Nagasaki bomb instantly killed an estimated 40,000 people, while 35,000 others died later from injuries and radiation sickness.
  • Co-pilot of Nagasaki bomb plane has died at 88 - On Deadline - USATODAY.com 22 September 2009 23:38 UTC blogs.usatoday.com [Source type: News]

^ The bombs can be directly related to the deaths of about 220,000 people, although many thousands more died from the after effects of radiation.

^ The bombs killed as many as 140,000 people in Hiroshima and 80,000 in Nagasaki by the end of 1945, roughly half the deaths occurring on the days of the bombings.
  • The Martin School of International Studies 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.martin.uidaho.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[42] .At least eleven known prisoners of war died from the bombing.^ The crew carried an atomic bomb nicknamed "Little Boy" that devastated Hiroshima, a city chosen because it was a military center and had no prisoner-of-war camps.
  • BOMBING OF HIROSHIMA 15 September 2009 5:52 UTC members.tripod.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Nobody is more disturbed over the use of Atomic bombs than I am but I was greatly disturbed over the unwarranted attack by the Japanese on Pearl Harbor and their murder of our prisoners of war.
  • Thenausea.com 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.thenausea.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In fact, the Hiroshima bomb didn't do it - at least not before Nagasaki - and the Russian entry into the war may very well have been enough.
  • Hiroshima & Nagasaki [Archive] - Japan Forum 25 September 2009 4:04 UTC www.jref.com [Source type: Original source]

[43]

Survival of some structures

Small-scale recreation of the Nakajima area around ground zero.
.Some of the reinforced concrete buildings in Hiroshima had been very strongly constructed because of the earthquake danger in Japan, and their framework did not collapse even though they were fairly close to the blast center.^ Some of the reinforced concrete buildings were of a far stronger construction than is required by normal standards in America, because of the earthquake danger in Japan.
  • The Atomic Bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki by The Manhattan Engineer District - Full Text Free Book 22 September 2009 23:38 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This exceptionally strong construction undoubtedly accounted for the fact that the framework of some of the buildings which were fairly close to the center of damage in the city did not collapse.
  • The Atomic Bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki by The Manhattan Engineer District - Full Text Free Book 22 September 2009 23:38 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The reinforced concrete chimney, though still vertical, was cracked by the blast.
  • Photographs of the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.allworldwars.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Eizo Nomura (野村 英三 Nomura Eizō?) was the closest known survivor, who was in the basement of a modern "Rest House" only 100 m (330 ft) from ground-zero at the time of the attack.^ I read accounts of Japanese soldiers who fought in Nanking to serve their country, only to be involved in actions that haunted them every moment of the rest of their lives.
  • Hiroshima: The Lost Photographs: Observatory: Design Observer 15 September 2009 5:52 UTC designobserver.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Tens of thousands of elderly survivors, children and dignitaries gathered at the Peace Memorial Park, near ground zero where the bomb was dropped, to remember the more than 250,000 people who ultimately died from the blast.
  • Hiroshima Anniversary Marks More Disasters, More Mourning! 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC o3.indiatimes.com [Source type: News]

^ Outside a radius of 4 kilometers and within a radius of 8 kilometers from the ground zero, living creatures were injured by materials blown about by the blast; the majority were only superficially wounded.
  • HyperWar: USSBS: The Effects of Atomic Bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki [Chapter 2] 15 September 2009 5:52 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[44] Akiko Takakura (高蔵 信子 Takakura Akiko?) was among the closest survivors to the hypocenter of the blast. .She had been in the solidly built Bank of Hiroshima only 300 meters (980 ft) from ground-zero at the time of the attack.^ The left photograph shows the stone steps of the main entrandce of Sumitomo Bank which is only 250 meters from the hypocenter.
  • PHOTOGRAPHS OF HIROSHIMA AND NAGASAKI (GENSUIKIN) 15 September 2009 5:52 UTC www.gensuikin.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ So, when the bank was newly built, the stone steps were removed and are now preserved at the Hiroshima Peace Memorial Museum.
  • PHOTOGRAPHS OF HIROSHIMA AND NAGASAKI (GENSUIKIN) 15 September 2009 5:52 UTC www.gensuikin.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ And, the civilians who paid the horrible price of Hiroshima and Nagasaki were not only attacked by the US, but had been completely at the mercy of their own government for years.
  • Hiroshima: The Lost Photographs: Observatory: Design Observer 15 September 2009 5:52 UTC designobserver.com [Source type: Original source]

[45] .Since the bomb detonated in the air, the blast was directed more downward than sideways, which was largely responsible for the survival of the Prefectural Industrial Promotional Hall, now commonly known as the Genbaku, or A-bomb Dome.^ More than that has been suffering from the released radioactive radiations since the bombing till now.
  • Hiroshima Anniversary Marks More Disasters, More Mourning! 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC o3.indiatimes.com [Source type: News]

^ More than 200,000 people were killed in the blast and fire in the atomic bombings which came at the end of World War II. Thousands upon thousands have died and continue to die from radiation sickness and radiation-induced illnesses.
  • External Event Archives - Interfaith Center of Greater Philadelphia 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.interfaithcenterpa.org [Source type: General]

^ The building was the former Hiroshima Prefecture Industrial Promotion Hall, Where special products of Hiroshima were exhibited and various gatherings were held until the A-bomb was dropped.
  • PHOTOGRAPHS OF HIROSHIMA AND NAGASAKI (GENSUIKIN) 15 September 2009 5:52 UTC www.gensuikin.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This building was designed and built by the Czech architect Jan Letzel, and was only 150 m (490 ft) from ground zero (the hypocenter).^ (For convenience, the term "ground zero" will be used to designate the point on the ground directly beneath the point of detonation, or "air zero."
  • HyperWar: USSBS: The Effects of Atomic Bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki [Chapter 2] 15 September 2009 5:52 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Outside a radius of 4 kilometers and within a radius of 8 kilometers from the ground zero, living creatures were injured by materials blown about by the blast; the majority were only superficially wounded.
  • HyperWar: USSBS: The Effects of Atomic Bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki [Chapter 2] 15 September 2009 5:52 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The ruin was named Hiroshima Peace Memorial and was made a UNESCO World Heritage site in 1996 over the objections of the U.S. and China.^ Hiroshima: Hiroshima Peace Memorial Museum, 1978.
  • Hiroshima Nagasaki – Bibliography 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.cas.umt.edu [Source type: News]

^ Sanjay Basavaraju 11.15.08 at 05:36 I went to Hiroshima to visit the A-Bomb memorial site.
  • Hiroshima: The Lost Photographs: Observatory: Design Observer 15 September 2009 5:52 UTC designobserver.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It has been made a custom to hold the Peace Memorial Ceremony by hanging a big curtain in front of the Statue.
  • PHOTOGRAPHS OF HIROSHIMA AND NAGASAKI (GENSUIKIN) 15 September 2009 5:52 UTC www.gensuikin.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[46] .The Memorial monument for Hiroshima was built in Hiroshima for bombing victims.^ Hibakusha is the term widely used in Japan referring to victims of the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki.
  • Chapter 5 » The Annotated Oscar Wao » Notes and translations for The Brief Wondrous Life of Oscar Wao by Junot Diaz 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC annotated-oscar-wao.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Hiroshima, Nagasaki and surrounding areas are still the graveyards of the A-bomb victims.
  • PHOTOGRAPHS OF HIROSHIMA AND NAGASAKI (GENSUIKIN) 15 September 2009 5:52 UTC www.gensuikin.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On the fate of the bombings victims and the publics restricted knowledge of them, see John W. Dower, "The Bombed: Hiroshimas and Nagasakis in Japanese Memory," in ibid., pp.
  • Thenausea.com 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.thenausea.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[47][48][49]

Events of August 7-9

Problems listening to this file? See media help.
After the Hiroshima bombing, President Truman announced,
.If they do not now accept our terms, they may expect a rain of ruin from the air the likes of which has never been seen on this earth.^ We may never be able to say things like that again.
  • The Decline and Fall of the American Empire [Archive] - eBaum's World Forum 22 September 2009 23:38 UTC forum.ebaumsworld.com [Source type: Original source]

^ As their new empire collapsed they tenaciously defended themselves using tactics never before seen.
  • Hiroshima & Nagasaki [Archive] - Japan Forum 25 September 2009 4:04 UTC www.jref.com [Source type: Original source]

^ For decades now, eyes and sky have met to witness the buzzing of our world by Unidentified Flying Objects, termed UFOs or simply flying saucers.

.The Japanese government, still did not react to the Potsdam Declaration.^ Japan did not surrender after the Potsdam Declaration on July 26, 1945.
  • Hiroshima & Nagasaki [Archive] - Japan Forum 25 September 2009 4:04 UTC www.jref.com [Source type: Original source]

^ PM Ace The Japanese leadership, on the otherhand, was aware of the Potsdam Declaration Where in the Potsdam Declaration is there anything about an atomic bomb?
  • The Decline and Fall of the American Empire [Archive] - eBaum's World Forum 22 September 2009 23:38 UTC forum.ebaumsworld.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It is apparent that in the atomic bomb the Japanese found the opportunity which they had been seeking, to break the existing deadlock within the Government over acceptance of the Potsdam terms.
  • HyperWar: USSBS: The Effects of Atomic Bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki [Chapter 2] 15 September 2009 5:52 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Emperor Hirohito, the government, and the war council were considering four conditions for surrender: the preservation of the kokutai (Imperial institution and national polity), assumption by the Imperial Headquarters of responsibility for disarmament and demobilization, no occupation of the Japanese Home Islands, Korea, or Formosa, and delegation of the punishment of war criminals to the Japanese government.^ The Japanese emperor Hirohito never wanted to go to war with America.

^ The Emperor ordered the government to surrender.
  • Boeing B-29 Superfortress - Dropped the Atomic Bomb on Japan 16 September 2009 21:26 UTC www.acepilots.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Founded by the Japanese national government.
  • Monuments Related to the Atomic Bomb & to Atomic Power 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC atomic.maripo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[50]
.The Soviet Foreign Minister Vyacheslav Molotov had informed Tokyo of the Soviet Union's unilateral abrogation of the Soviet-Japanese Neutrality Pact on April 5. At two minutes past midnight on August 9, Tokyo time, Soviet infantry, armor, and air forces had launched the Manchurian Strategic Offensive Operation.^ At the time the Soviet Union was not at war with Japan.
  • Boeing B-29 Superfortress - Dropped the Atomic Bomb on Japan 16 September 2009 21:26 UTC www.acepilots.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The crowd bowed their heads for a moment of silence as two children rang the Peace Bell at 8:15 a.m., the same time the Enola Gay B-29 bomber dropped the bomb on the western Japanese city on August 6, 1945.
  • Hiroshima Anniversary Marks More Disasters, More Mourning! 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC o3.indiatimes.com [Source type: News]

^ In any case, since the harbor was mined and the U.S. Navy and Air Force were in control of the waters around Japan, whatever troops were stationed in Hiroshima had been effectively neutralized.
  • Thenausea.com 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.thenausea.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Four hours later, word reached Tokyo that the Soviet Union had declared war on Japan.^ At the time the Soviet Union was not at war with Japan.
  • Boeing B-29 Superfortress - Dropped the Atomic Bomb on Japan 16 September 2009 21:26 UTC www.acepilots.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Only after the Soviet declaration of war against Japan on Aug.
  • Hiroshima & Nagasaki [Archive] - Japan Forum 25 September 2009 4:04 UTC www.jref.com [Source type: Original source]

^ That day the Soviets declared war on Japan and invaded Manchuria.
  • Boeing B-29 Superfortress - Dropped the Atomic Bomb on Japan 16 September 2009 21:26 UTC www.acepilots.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The senior leadership of the Japanese Army began preparations to impose martial law on the nation, with the support of Minister of War Korechika Anami, in order to stop anyone attempting to make peace.^ Unlike the previous peace-feelers, these were very official and very high-level, even involving the leadership of the Japanese Army, the only real hold-outs for continued fighting.
  • Why Hiroshima Was Bombed: The 'Utopians' Duped a Nation 15 September 2009 5:52 UTC www.larouchepub.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Later that night, War Minister Anami Korechika, having failed to promote his views and control his soldiers, committed suicide, the first of many such actions in the days that followed.
  • The Information War in the Pacific, 1945 — Central Intelligence Agency 15 September 2009 5:52 UTC www.cia.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Remember, the Japanese attacked us without warning because in their culture anytime two nations are at war, all others are subject to be attacked as well.
  • The Decline and Fall of the American Empire [Archive] - eBaum's World Forum 22 September 2009 23:38 UTC forum.ebaumsworld.com [Source type: Original source]

.Responsibility for the timing of the second bombing was delegated to Colonel Tibbets as commander of the 509th Composite Group on Tinian.^ DR. JESSE MARCEL, JR.: He was the base intelligence officer for the 509th Bomb Group, which is the bomb group that dropped the atomic bomb on Japan that won the war.
  • UFO News Articles 16 September 2009 21:26 UTC www.wanttoknow.info [Source type: News]
  • Government Surveillance, Press Freedom, UFO Evidence 16 September 2009 21:26 UTC www.wanttoknow.info [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Commanded by Colonel Paul W. Tibbets, Jr. Nonetheless, they trained for their secret mission at Wendover, Utah before shipping out to Tinian, where they endured a lot of ribbing from guys in other units, "Oh, yeah, the 509th is gonna win the war."
  • Boeing B-29 Superfortress - Dropped the Atomic Bomb on Japan 16 September 2009 21:26 UTC www.acepilots.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The peculiarity characterizing the heat rays from the A-bomb is that an enormous amount of heat is emitted in a short time -- for 3 seconds after the explosion.
  • PHOTOGRAPHS OF HIROSHIMA AND NAGASAKI (GENSUIKIN) 15 September 2009 5:52 UTC www.gensuikin.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Scheduled for August 11 against Kokura, the raid was moved earlier by two days to avoid a five day period of bad weather forecast to begin on August 10.[51] Three bomb pre-assemblies had been transported to Tinian, labeled F-31, F-32, and F-33 on their exteriors.^ Three days later, at 11:02 a.m.
  • Hiroshima Anniversary Marks More Disasters, More Mourning! 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC o3.indiatimes.com [Source type: News]

^ Three days later, on August 9, Nagasaki is bombed.
  • Canada's Role in the Atomic Bomb Programs of the US, UK, France & India 15 September 2009 5:52 UTC ccnr.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A single atomic bomb, the first weapon of its type ever used against a target, exploded over the city of Hiroshima at 0815 on the morning of 6 August 1945.
  • HyperWar: USSBS: The Effects of Atomic Bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki [Chapter 2] 15 September 2009 5:52 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.On August 8, a dress rehearsal was conducted off Tinian by Maj.^ August 6, 1945, a B-29 bomber took off from the island of Tinian to drop the first atomic bomb on Japan.
  • Mary's Remnant Archives 16 September 2009 21:26 UTC www.marysremnant.org [Source type: Original source]

.Charles Sweeney using Bockscar as the drop airplane.^ Charles Sweeney, dropped an atomic bomb (Fat Man) on Nagasaki.
  • The Decline and Fall of the American Empire [Archive] - eBaum's World Forum 22 September 2009 23:38 UTC forum.ebaumsworld.com [Source type: Original source]

^ One quote was from the pilots of the “Enola Gay”, the name of the B-29 Bomber airplane used to drop the bomb.
  • Heinle, Nick, The Manhattan Project http://www 16 September 2009 21:26 UTC www.rural-tech.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Assembly F-33 was expended testing the components and F-31 was designated for the August 9 mission.[52]

Nagasaki

Nagasaki during World War II

The Bockscar and its crew, who dropped the "Fat Man" atomic bomb on Nagasaki.
.The city of Nagasaki had been one of the largest sea ports in southern Japan and was of great wartime importance because of its wide-ranging industrial activity, including the production of ordnance, ships, military equipment, and other war materials.^ Nagasaki was an industrial city important to the production of wartime materials.
  • The Atomic Bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki | We Saved Hitler's Brain | Cracked.com Forums 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.cracked.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The city of Nagasaki had been one of the largest sea ports in southern Japan and was of great war-time importance because of its many and varied industries, including the production of ordnance, ships, military equipment, and other war materials.
  • The Atomic Bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki by The Manhattan Engineer District - Full Text Free Book 22 September 2009 23:38 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Urakami district, the northern part of Nagasaki City, was originally a quiet residential area; but, from around the time of the Japan-China War, munition factories were constructed one aftere another.
  • PHOTOGRAPHS OF HIROSHIMA AND NAGASAKI (GENSUIKIN) 15 September 2009 5:52 UTC www.gensuikin.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In contrast to many modern aspects of Hiroshima, almost all of the buildings were of old-fashioned Japanese construction, consisting of wood or wood-frame buildings with wood walls (with or without plaster) and tile roofs.^ The houses were of wooden construction with tile roofs.
  • The Atomic Bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki by The Manhattan Engineer District - Full Text Free Book 22 September 2009 23:38 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Typical Japanese dwellings with flimsy wooden frames and tile roofs.
  • Photographs of the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.allworldwars.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In contrast to many modern aspects of Nagasaki, the residences almost without exception were of flimsy, typical Japanese construction, consisting of wood or wood-frame buildings, with wood walls with or without plaster, and tile roofs.
  • The Atomic Bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki by The Manhattan Engineer District - Full Text Free Book 22 September 2009 23:38 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Many of the smaller industries and business establishments were also situated in buildings of wood or other materials not designed to withstand explosions.^ Many of the smaller industries and business establishments were also housed in wooden buildings or flimsily built masonry buildings.
  • The Atomic Bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki by The Manhattan Engineer District - Full Text Free Book 22 September 2009 23:38 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Many of the industrial buildings also were of wood frame construction.
  • The Atomic Bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki by The Manhattan Engineer District - Full Text Free Book 22 September 2009 23:38 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When the bomb was dropped he was inside a brick building where he was working with many other friends.
  • Heinle, Nick, The Manhattan Project http://www 16 September 2009 21:26 UTC www.rural-tech.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Nagasaki had been permitted to grow for many years without conforming to any definite city zoning plan; residences were erected adjacent to factory buildings and to each other almost as closely as possible throughout the entire industrial valley.^ Nagasaki had been permitted to grow for many years without conforming to any definite city zoning plan and therefore residences were constructed adjacent to factory buildings and to each other almost as close as it was possible to build them throughout the entire industrial valley.
  • The Atomic Bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki by The Manhattan Engineer District - Full Text Free Book 22 September 2009 23:38 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When the bomb was dropped he was inside a brick building where he was working with many other friends.
  • Heinle, Nick, The Manhattan Project http://www 16 September 2009 21:26 UTC www.rural-tech.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ During the Hitler years, many of those excess profits were used to acquire other companies and properties, only increasing Opel's assets in Germany.
  • Alex Constantine's Anti-Fascist Research Bin: December 2006 16 September 2009 21:26 UTC alexconstantine.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Nagasaki had never been subjected to large-scale bombing prior to the explosion of a nuclear weapon there.^ There are three types of nuclear weapons.
  • The Hydrogen Bomb Homepage, with stuff on the Cuban missile crisis and nuclear testing and transportation 22 September 2009 23:38 UTC www.bilderberg.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Nagasaki Nagasaki had never been subjected to large scale bombing prior to the explosion of the atomic bomb there.
  • The Atomic Bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki by The Manhattan Engineer District - Full Text Free Book 22 September 2009 23:38 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Others, such as the atomic bomb historian Professor Gar Alperovitz, have argued that the use of nuclear weapons was unnecessary and inherently immoral.

.On August 1, 1945, however, a number of conventional high-explosive bombs were dropped on the city.^ The plane which bombed Hiroshima on August 6, 1945.
  • Monuments Related to the Atomic Bomb & to Atomic Power 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC atomic.maripo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On August 1st, 1945, however, a number of high explosive bombs were dropped on the city.
  • The Atomic Bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki by The Manhattan Engineer District - Full Text Free Book 22 September 2009 23:38 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ POWs: Encyclopedia - Atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki The United States Army Air Force dropped two atomic bombs on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki on the mornings of August 6 and August 9, 1945 during World War II. The goal was to secure the unconditional surrender of Japan.

.A few hit in the shipyards and dock areas in the southwest portion of the city, several hit the Mitsubishi Steel and Arms Works, and six bombs landed at the Nagasaki Medical School and Hospital, with three direct hits on buildings there.^ Both gas works in Nagasaki were severely damaged by the bomb.
  • The Atomic Bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki by The Manhattan Engineer District - Full Text Free Book 22 September 2009 23:38 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Arms Plant and the Steel Works were in the main area of damage.
  • HyperWar: USSBS: The Effects of Atomic Bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki [Chapter 2] 15 September 2009 5:52 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Nagasaki Medical University Hospital in background.
  • HyperWar: USSBS: The Effects of Atomic Bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki [Chapter 2] 15 September 2009 5:52 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.While the damage from these bombs was relatively small, it created considerable concern in Nagasaki and many people—principally school children—were evacuated to rural areas for safety, thus reducing the population in the city at the time of the nuclear attack.^ By the time the interviewing was done, only about 2 percent of the populations in rural areas and 1 percent in the cities had not heard of the bomb.
  • HyperWar: USSBS: The Effects of Atomic Bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki [Chapter 2] 15 September 2009 5:52 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ While the damage from these few bombs were relatively small, it created considerable concern in Nagasaki and a number of people, principally school children, were evacuated to rural areas for safety, thus reducing the population in the city at the time of the atomic attack.
  • The Atomic Bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki by The Manhattan Engineer District - Full Text Free Book 22 September 2009 23:38 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ How many people were a sacrifice to this bomb?
  • The Atomic Bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki by The Manhattan Engineer District - Full Text Free Book 22 September 2009 23:38 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.To the north of Nagasaki there was a camp holding British Commonwealth prisoners of war, some of whom were working in the coal mines and only found out about the bombing when they came to the surface.^ He then became a prisoner of war near Nagasaki, the atomic bomb target.

^ Following are some facts about the bombing of the cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki.
  • Hiroshima Anniversary Marks More Disasters, More Mourning! 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC o3.indiatimes.com [Source type: News]

^ Atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki - Prelude to the bombings Atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki - Choice of targets Atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki - Hiroshima Atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki - Hiroshima during World War II Atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki - The bombing Atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki - Japanese realization of the bombing Atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki - Survival of some structures Atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki - Nagasaki Atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki - Nagasaki during World War II Atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki - The bombing Atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki - Debate over the decision to drop the bombs Atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki - Support for use of atomic bombs Atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki - Opposition to use of atomic bombs Atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki - Cultural notes .

The bombing

For the composition of the USAAF mission see 509th Composite Group.
A post-war "Fat Man" model.
.On the morning of August 9, 1945, the U.S. B-29 Superfortress Bockscar, flown by the crew of 393rd Squadron commander Major Charles W. Sweeney, carried the nuclear bomb code-named "Fat Man", with Kokura as the primary target and Nagasaki the secondary target.^ The plane which bombed Hiroshima on August 6, 1945.
  • Monuments Related to the Atomic Bomb & to Atomic Power 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC atomic.maripo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The primary target of the second bomber was to be Kokura Arsenal, with Nagasaki as the secondary target.
  • Hiroshima Day 22 September 2009 23:38 UTC delong.typepad.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On August 6, 1945, the nuclear weapon "Little Boy" was dropped on the city of Hiroshima, followed on August 9, 1945 by the detonation of the "Fat Man" nuclear bomb over Nagasaki.
  • Hiroshima Anniversary Marks More Disasters, More Mourning! 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC o3.indiatimes.com [Source type: News]

.The mission plan for the second attack was nearly identical to that of the Hiroshima mission, with two B-29s flying an hour ahead as weather scouts and two additional B-29s in Sweeney's flight for instrumentation and photographic support of the mission.^ The performance faculty encompass nearly every instrument available and are supportive and encouraging, eager to help their students improve and enjoy their instrument.
  • ASW academics 16 September 2009 21:26 UTC www.wellesley.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Hiroshima bomb was ready awaiting suitable weather on July 31st, and the Nagasaki bomb was used as soon after the Hiroshima bomb as it was practicable to operate the second mission.
  • The Atomic Bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki by The Manhattan Engineer District - Full Text Free Book 22 September 2009 23:38 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ After flying for about three hours, while still nearly 100 miles from Hiroshima, he and his pilot saw a great cloud of smoke from the bomb.
  • The Atomic Bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki by The Manhattan Engineer District - Full Text Free Book 22 September 2009 23:38 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Sweeney took off with his weapon already armed but with the electrical safety plugs still engaged.[53]
Observers aboard the weather planes reported both targets clear. When Sweeney's aircraft arrived at the assembly point for his flight off the coast of Japan, the third plane, Big Stink, flown by the group's Operations Officer, Lt. Col. James I. Hopkins,  Jr. failed to make the rendezvous. Bockscar and the instrumentation plane circled for 40 minutes without locating Hopkins. .Already 30 minutes behind schedule, Sweeney decided to fly on without Hopkins.^ We waited 30 minutes and then proceeded without the second plane toward the target area.
  • The Atomic Bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki by The Manhattan Engineer District - Full Text Free Book 22 September 2009 23:38 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[53]
Nagasaki before and after bombing.
.By the time they reached Kokura a half hour later, a 70% cloud cover had obscured the city, prohibiting the visual attack required by orders.^ The boat returns about one-half hour later and the pastor requests that several of us help in the rescue of two children whom he had seen in the river.
  • The Atomic Bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki by The Manhattan Engineer District - Full Text Free Book 22 September 2009 23:38 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They would not have been able to field the huge number of fighters and bombers that were required to attack Germany proper.
  • The Decline and Fall of the American Empire [Archive] - eBaum's World Forum 22 September 2009 23:38 UTC forum.ebaumsworld.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Perhaps a half-hour after the explosion, a procession of people begins to stream up the valley from the city.
  • The Atomic Bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki by The Manhattan Engineer District - Full Text Free Book 22 September 2009 23:38 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.After three runs over the city, and with fuel running low because a transfer pump on a reserve tank had failed before take-off, they headed for their secondary target, Nagasaki.^ They sent off kids barely over 16 in planes that didn't even have enough fuel to make a round trip flight.
  • The Atomic Bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki | We Saved Hitler's Brain | Cracked.com Forums 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.cracked.com [Source type: Original source]

^ When states and cities, in search of a richer tax base, can take your land and give it to a private developer -- they have license to trample on everyone's rights.
  • Government Surveillance, Press Freedom, UFO Evidence 16 September 2009 21:26 UTC www.wanttoknow.info [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They failed to carry out any rescue work when something could have been saved by a cooperative effort, and fatalistically let the catastrophe take its course.
  • The Atomic Bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki by The Manhattan Engineer District - Full Text Free Book 22 September 2009 23:38 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[53] .Fuel consumption calculations made en route indicated that Bockscar had insufficient fuel to reach Iwo Jima and would be forced to divert to Okinawa.^ Iwo Jima and Okinawa strongly suggested and implied that if the US invaded Japan every Japanese would fight to the death.
  • Hiroshima: The Lost Photographs: Observatory: Design Observer 15 September 2009 5:52 UTC designobserver.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Historians look at the battles of Saipan, Iwo Jima and Okinawa and project casualty estimates based upon these.
  • Hiroshima & Nagasaki [Archive] - Japan Forum 25 September 2009 4:04 UTC www.jref.com [Source type: Original source]

^ U.S. capture of islands such as Iwo Jima and Okinawa brought the Japanese homeland within range of naval and air attack.
  • The Decline and Fall of the American Empire [Archive] - eBaum's World Forum 22 September 2009 23:38 UTC forum.ebaumsworld.com [Source type: Original source]

.After initially deciding that if Nagasaki were obscured on their arrival the crew would carry the bomb to Okinawa and dispose of it in the ocean if necessary, the weaponeer Navy Commander Frederick Ashworth decided that a radar approach would be used if the target was obscured.^ Atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki - Prelude to the bombings Atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki - Choice of targets Atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki - Hiroshima Atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki - Hiroshima during World War II Atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki - The bombing Atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki - Japanese realization of the bombing Atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki - Survival of some structures Atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki - Nagasaki Atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki - Nagasaki during World War II Atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki - The bombing Atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki - Debate over the decision to drop the bombs Atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki - Support for use of atomic bombs Atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki - Opposition to use of atomic bombs Atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki - Cultural notes .

^ A single atomic bomb, the first weapon of its type ever used against a target, exploded over the city of Hiroshima at 0815 on the morning of 6 August 1945.
  • HyperWar: USSBS: The Effects of Atomic Bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki [Chapter 2] 15 September 2009 5:52 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If it hadn't been dropped back then, a larger, bigger, more powerful bomb would have been used later.
  • Should the A-bomb Have Been Dropped - TeakDoor.com - The Thailand Forum 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC teakdoor.com [Source type: General]

[54]
.At about 07:50 Japanese time, an air raid alert was sounded in Nagasaki, but the "all clear" signal was given at 08:30. When only two B-29 Superfortresses were sighted at 10:53, the Japanese apparently assumed that the planes were only on reconnaissance and no further alarm was given.^ When only two B-29 superfortresses were sighted at 10:53 the Japanese apparently assumed that the planes were only on reconnaissance and no further alarm was given.
  • The Atomic Bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki by The Manhattan Engineer District - Full Text Free Book 22 September 2009 23:38 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ No one paid any attention and at about eight o'clock, the all-clear was sounded.
  • The Atomic Bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki by The Manhattan Engineer District - Full Text Free Book 22 September 2009 23:38 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ At any given time, only about 600 or so members of the Order are alive.
  • George W. Bush, John Kerry, test the spirit, Skull & Bones occultists and the Mausoleum they're based in at Yale University 22 September 2009 23:38 UTC www.bilderberg.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A few minutes later at 11:00, The Great Artiste, the support B-29 flown by Captain Frederick C. Bock, dropped instruments attached to three parachutes.^ Three days later, at 11:02 a.m.
  • Hiroshima Anniversary Marks More Disasters, More Mourning! 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC o3.indiatimes.com [Source type: News]

^ A few moments later, at 11:00 o'clock, the observation B-29 dropped instruments attached to three parachutes and at 11:02 the other plane released the atomic bomb.
  • The Atomic Bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki by The Manhattan Engineer District - Full Text Free Book 22 September 2009 23:38 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ After a few minutes, the lights moved closer and it became apparent that they were actually three charcoal-gray, triangular craft, flying in a tight wedge.

.These instruments also contained an unsigned letter to Professor Ryokichi Sagane, a nuclear physicist at the University of Tokyo who studied with three of the scientists responsible for the atomic bomb at the University of California, Berkeley, urging him to tell the public about the danger involved with these weapons of mass destruction.^ This is like the weapons of mass destruction thing.
  • Transcript-Larry King Live on UFOs, 07-13-07-UFO Casebook Files 16 September 2009 21:26 UTC www.ufocasebook.com [Source type: Original source]

^ OPINIONS: Talk about these opinions on Hiroshima and nuclear weapons.
  • Breaking News English ESL Lesson Plan on Hiroshima Bombing 15 September 2009 20:54 UTC www.breakingnewsenglish.com [Source type: General]

^ (University of California Press, Berkeley, California 94720.
  • Nuclear Technology: The Inappropriate Exercise of Human Intelligence 16 September 2009 21:26 UTC www.ratical.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The messages were found by military authorities but not turned over to Sagane until a month later.^ The first atomic bomb test didn't happen until July 16, 1945- over two months later.
  • Hiroshima & Nagasaki [Archive] - Japan Forum 25 September 2009 4:04 UTC www.jref.com [Source type: Original source]

[55] In 1949 one of the authors of the letter, Luis Alvarez, met with Sagane and signed the document.[56]
A Japanese report on the bombing characterized Nagasaki as "like a graveyard with not a tombstone standing".
.At 11:01, a last minute break in the clouds over Nagasaki allowed Bockscar's bombardier, Captain Kermit Beahan, to visually sight the target as ordered.^ Nocturnal 11-01-2005, 10:55 PM Those that were killed in Hiroshima and Nagasaki had no direct involvement in that event.
  • The Decline and Fall of the American Empire [Archive] - eBaum's World Forum 22 September 2009 23:38 UTC forum.ebaumsworld.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Cancon 11-01-2005, 03:42 PM Viceroy: the quote you have by me in your last post was meant to be hypothetical, not factual.
  • The Decline and Fall of the American Empire [Archive] - eBaum's World Forum 22 September 2009 23:38 UTC forum.ebaumsworld.com [Source type: Original source]

^ His wife was then led in,at 7:11, and she was dead at 7:16, just 15 minutes before the last rays of the setting sun betokened the start of the Hebrew Sabbath.
  • Secret Judgment 22 September 2009 23:38 UTC www.angelfire.com [Source type: Original source]

.The "Fat Man" weapon, containing a core of ~6.4 kg (14.1 lbs.^ Fat Man (Nagasaki, Aug 9th) was a 6kg Pu alloy core of which about 20% was converted into blast energy.
  • The Decline and Fall of the American Empire [Archive] - eBaum's World Forum 22 September 2009 23:38 UTC forum.ebaumsworld.com [Source type: Original source]

^ On August 6, 1945, the nuclear weapon "Little Boy" was dropped on the city of Hiroshima, followed on August 9, 1945 by the detonation of the "Fat Man" nuclear bomb over Nagasaki.
  • Hiroshima Anniversary Marks More Disasters, More Mourning! 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC o3.indiatimes.com [Source type: News]

) of .plutonium-239, was dropped over the city's industrial valley.^ August 9, 1945, the United States dropped a 10,000-pound plutonium-239 bomb, nicknamed "Fat Man", on Nagasaki.
  • Hiroshima Anniversary Marks More Disasters, More Mourning! 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC o3.indiatimes.com [Source type: News]

.It exploded 43 seconds later at 469 meters (1,540 ft) above the ground exactly halfway between the Mitsubishi Steel and Arms Works in the south and the Mitsubishi-Urakami Ordnance Works (Torpedo Works) in the north.^ The bomb exploded high over the industrial valley of Nagasaki, almost midway between the Mitsubishi Steel and Arms Works, in the south, and the Mitsubishi-Urakami Ordnance Works (Torpedo Works), in the north, the two principal targets of the city.
  • The Atomic Bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki by The Manhattan Engineer District - Full Text Free Book 22 September 2009 23:38 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The damage to the Mitsubishi Arms Works and the Torpedo Works was spectacular, but not overwhelming.
  • The Atomic Bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki by The Manhattan Engineer District - Full Text Free Book 22 September 2009 23:38 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As intended, the bomb was exploded at an almost ideal location over Nagasaki to do the maximum damage to industry, including the Mitsubishi Steel and Arms Works, the Mitsubishi-Urakami Ordnance Works (Torpedo Works), and numerous factories, factory training schools, and other industrial establishments, with a minimum destruction of dwellings and consequently, a minimum amount of casualties.
  • The Atomic Bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki by The Manhattan Engineer District - Full Text Free Book 22 September 2009 23:38 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This was nearly 3 kilometers (2 mi) northwest of the planned hypocenter; the blast was confined to the Urakami Valley and a major portion of the city was protected by the intervening hills.^ From my window, I have a wonderful view down the valley to the edge of the city.
  • The Atomic Bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki by The Manhattan Engineer District - Full Text Free Book 22 September 2009 23:38 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Because the most intense destruction was confined to the Urakami Valley, the impact of the bomb on the city as a whole was less shattering than at Hiroshima.
  • HyperWar: USSBS: The Effects of Atomic Bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki [Chapter 2] 15 September 2009 5:52 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The city is almost entirely flat and only slightly above sea level; to the northwest and northeast of the city some hills rise to 700 feet.
  • The Atomic Bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki by The Manhattan Engineer District - Full Text Free Book 22 September 2009 23:38 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[57] .The resulting explosion had a blast yield equivalent to 21 kilotons of TNT (88 TJ).^ The explosion yield was estimated at ~ 4kt, but resulted in a yield < 1 kiloton.
  • Report on North Korean Nuclear Program 22 September 2009 23:38 UTC www.nautilus.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The damages to man-made structures and other inanimate objects was the result in both cities of the following effects of the explosions: A. Blast, or pressure wave, similar to that of normal explosions.
  • The Atomic Bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki by The Manhattan Engineer District - Full Text Free Book 22 September 2009 23:38 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The explosion yields of the first nuclear test conducted by the seven declared nuclear weapons states range from approximately 10 to 60 kilotons.
  • Report on North Korean Nuclear Program 22 September 2009 23:38 UTC www.nautilus.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[58] .The explosion generated heat estimated at 3,900 degrees Celsius (4,200 K, 7,000 °F) and winds that were estimated at 1005 km/h (624 mph).^ The bomb, nicknamed "Little Boy," exploded about 600 metres above the centre of the city, setting off a surge of heat reaching 4,000 degrees Celsius (7,200 Fahrenheit) across a radius of about 4.5 km (2.8 miles).
  • Hiroshima Anniversary Marks More Disasters, More Mourning! 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC o3.indiatimes.com [Source type: News]

^ It is estimated that this factory was subjected to a wind velocity of 200 meters per second arid a wind pressure of 10 tons per square meter.
  • PHOTOGRAPHS OF HIROSHIMA AND NAGASAKI (GENSUIKIN) 15 September 2009 5:52 UTC www.gensuikin.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ By a flash of the heat rays with temperatures well over a 1,000 degrees or possibly 2,000 degrees centigrade, that person was incineratied on the stone steps.
  • PHOTOGRAPHS OF HIROSHIMA AND NAGASAKI (GENSUIKIN) 15 September 2009 5:52 UTC www.gensuikin.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Casualty estimates for immediate deaths range from 40,000 to 75,000.[59][60][61] Total deaths by the end of 1945 may have reached 80,000.[4] At least eight known POWs died from the bombing and as many as 13 POWs may have died:
.
  • One British Commonwealth citizen[62][63][64][65][66]
  • Seven Dutch POWs (two names known)[67] died in the bombing.
  • At least two POWs reportedly died postwar from cancer thought to have been caused by the atomic bomb.^ Prior to the dropping of the atomic bombs, the people of the two target cities appear to have had fewer misgivings about the war than people in other cities.
    • HyperWar: USSBS: The Effects of Atomic Bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki [Chapter 2] 15 September 2009 5:52 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The Center for Studying Health System Change (HSC) said the proportion of Americans under 65 with employer coverage fell from 67% in 2001 to 63% in 2003.
    • Rhino's Blog 16 September 2009 21:26 UTC radio.weblogs.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ As one of the concluding acts of the last “good war” the atomic bombing of Hiroshima initiated a more morally ambiguous era, one of increased uncertainty and fear.
    • Hiroshima: The Lost Photographs: Observatory: Design Observer 15 September 2009 5:52 UTC designobserver.com [Source type: Original source]

    [68][69]
.The radius of total destruction was about a mile (1–2 km), followed by fires across the northern portion of the city to two miles (3 km) south of the bomb.^ Total destruction spread over an area of about 3 square miles.
  • The Atomic Bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki by The Manhattan Engineer District - Full Text Free Book 22 September 2009 23:38 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ K) Information about the History of the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission In response to requests for information about the early years of ABCC, the following list of publications has been compiled as a recommended resource list.
  • Nagasaki Information on the Web 15 September 2009 5:52 UTC www.cmp.ucr.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These photos certainly show the total destruction of a one mile circle in the city of Hiroshima.
  • Hiroshima: The Lost Photographs: Observatory: Design Observer 15 September 2009 5:52 UTC designobserver.com [Source type: Original source]

[70][71]
.An unknown number of survivors from the Hiroshima bombing had made their way to Nagasaki, where they were bombed again.^ I have spoken with a survivor of the Hiroshima bomb personally.
  • Hiroshima & Nagasaki [Archive] - Japan Forum 25 September 2009 4:04 UTC www.jref.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Yamaoka is a survivor of the Hiroshima bombing.
  • Heinle, Nick, The Manhattan Project http://www 16 September 2009 21:26 UTC www.rural-tech.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Shishido is an Atomic Bomb survivor from the Hiroshima bombing.
  • Heinle, Nick, The Manhattan Project http://www 16 September 2009 21:26 UTC www.rural-tech.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[72][73]
.The Mitsubishi-Urakami Ordnance Works, the factory that manufactured the type 91 torpedoes released in Pearl Harbor, was subsequently destroyed in the blast.^ A shop building approximately 0.9 miles from X, in the Mitsubishi-Urakami Ordnance Works.
  • Photographs of the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.allworldwars.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As intended, the bomb was exploded at an almost ideal location over Nagasaki to do the maximum damage to industry, including the Mitsubishi Steel and Arms Works, the Mitsubishi-Urakami Ordnance Works (Torpedo Works), and numerous factories, factory training schools, and other industrial establishments, with a minimum destruction of dwellings and consequently, a minimum amount of casualties.
  • The Atomic Bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki by The Manhattan Engineer District - Full Text Free Book 22 September 2009 23:38 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Had the bomb been dropped farther south, the Mitsubishi-Urakami Ordnance Works would not have been so severely damaged, but the main business and residential districts of Nagasaki would have sustained much greater damage casualties.
  • The Atomic Bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki by The Manhattan Engineer District - Full Text Free Book 22 September 2009 23:38 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[74]
.There are also a peace monument and Bell of Nagasaki in the Kokura.^ The Park also contains the Hiroshima Peace Memorial Museum , the Hiroshima Peace Bell , and many other peace monuments.
  • Monuments Related to the Atomic Bomb & to Atomic Power 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC atomic.maripo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There seems little doubt, however, that the bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki weakened their inclination to oppose the peace group.
  • HyperWar: USSBS: The Effects of Atomic Bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki [Chapter 2] 15 September 2009 5:52 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 1978, the city of Nagasaki established a "Peace Symbols Zone" on both sides of the park and invited donations of peace monuments from countries around the world.
  • Monuments Related to the Atomic Bomb & to Atomic Power 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC atomic.maripo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[75]

Plans for more atomic attacks on Japan

.The U.S. expected to have another atomic bomb ready for use in the third week of August, with three more in September and a further three in October.^ The use of atomic bombs was horrible.
  • Hiroshima & Nagasaki [Archive] - Japan Forum 25 September 2009 4:04 UTC www.jref.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Development of the Atomic Bomb: Decision to use the Bomb #1 .
  • Index to the Barbara Reynolds Collected Papers 25 September 2009 4:04 UTC www.watsonlibrary.org [Source type: News]

^ Atomic bomb use .

[76] .On August 10, Major General Leslie Groves, military director of the Manhattan Project, sent a memorandum to General of the Army George Marshall, Army Chief of Staff, in which he wrote that "the next bomb .^ In 1942 General Leslie Groves was chosen to lead the project.
  • Heinle, Nick, The Manhattan Project http://www 16 September 2009 21:26 UTC www.rural-tech.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Leslie R. Groves, in charge of the $2-billion Manhattan Engineer District, as the bomb project was code-named, who selected him for the post of director and who ordered him cleared for the job despite Army Counter-Intelligence qualms over his past associations.
  • J. Robert Oppenheimer, Atom Bomb Pioneer, Dies 20 September 2009 1:28 UTC www.nytimes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Military commander of the Manhattan Project General Leslie Groves and Secretary of War Henry Stimson were the directors of the birth and only military use ever of atomic weapons.
  • Nuclear Technology: The Inappropriate Exercise of Human Intelligence 16 September 2009 21:26 UTC www.ratical.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

. should be ready for delivery on the first suitable weather after .17 or August 18." On the same day, Marshall endorsed the memo with the comment, "It is not to be released over Japan without express authority from the President."^ Grew later reported that the president had expressed interest "because his own thoughts had been following the same line".
  • Hiroshima & Nagasaki [Archive] - Japan Forum 25 September 2009 4:04 UTC www.jref.com [Source type: Original source]

[76] .There was already discussion in the War Department about conserving the bombs in production until Operation Downfall, the projected invasion of Japan, had begun.^ These included documents relating to the Teheran, Cairo and Casablanca conferences, at which Allied strategies were discussed, including Operation Overlord and the disposition of Europe after the war in the event of an Allied victory.
  • Library News- The University of Iowa Libraries 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC blog.lib.uiowa.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The building was the former Hiroshima Prefecture Industrial Promotion Hall, Where special products of Hiroshima were exhibited and various gatherings were held until the A-bomb was dropped.
  • PHOTOGRAPHS OF HIROSHIMA AND NAGASAKI (GENSUIKIN) 15 September 2009 5:52 UTC www.gensuikin.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Communist 11-01-2005, 05:48 PM And then there is a clear foundation for a civil war, the liberals and conservatives.
  • The Decline and Fall of the American Empire [Archive] - eBaum's World Forum 22 September 2009 23:38 UTC forum.ebaumsworld.com [Source type: Original source]

."The problem now [August 13] is whether or not, assuming the Japanese do not capitulate, to continue dropping them every time one is made and shipped out there or whether to hold them .^ The crowd bowed their heads for a moment of silence as two children rang the Peace Bell at 8:15 a.m., the same time the Enola Gay B-29 bomber dropped the bomb on the western Japanese city on August 6, 1945.
  • Hiroshima Anniversary Marks More Disasters, More Mourning! 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC o3.indiatimes.com [Source type: News]

^ Unlike the previous peace-feelers, these were very official and very high-level, even involving the leadership of the Japanese Army, the only real hold-outs for continued fighting.
  • Why Hiroshima Was Bombed: The 'Utopians' Duped a Nation 15 September 2009 5:52 UTC www.larouchepub.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Nor did I even hear it on any of the major news media of the US save for a one-time blurb here and there on a few major stations.
  • Hiroshima & Nagasaki [Archive] - Japan Forum 25 September 2009 4:04 UTC www.jref.com [Source type: Original source]

. . and then pour them all on in a reasonably short time. .Not all in one day, but over a short period.^ In short, we have had to expand what we mean by war to include all systematic political violence in which at least one of the parties is a sovereign state.

^ The first one is assembled by putting together a few kilograms of fissionable or fissile material within as short a period as possible -- (within some microseconds if possible).
  • The Hydrogen Bomb Homepage, with stuff on the Cuban missile crisis and nuclear testing and transportation 22 September 2009 23:38 UTC www.bilderberg.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Perhaps one day I'll make sense of it all.
  • The Atomic Bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki | We Saved Hitler's Brain | Cracked.com Forums 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.cracked.com [Source type: Original source]

.And that also takes into consideration the target that we are after.^ I also think the US should have taken all other workable possilibites into consideration before deciding to take the route of straight dropping the A-bombs.
  • Hiroshima & Nagasaki [Archive] - Japan Forum 25 September 2009 4:04 UTC www.jref.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The point is that most of these are quite plausible, plausible enough to take into consideration when you decide those 3 options for the end of a war.
  • The Atomic Bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki | We Saved Hitler's Brain | Cracked.com Forums 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.cracked.com [Source type: Original source]

.In other words, should we not concentrate on targets that will be of the greatest assistance to an invasion rather than industry, morale, psychology, and the like?^ I think its time to open up and learn about what other people rather than live in an ideological cultures that neglect others presumably because 'we are the best'.
  • Hiroshima: The Lost Photographs: Observatory: Design Observer 15 September 2009 5:52 UTC designobserver.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Your studies make it clear that all the parties in the war should repent their evil deeds rather than blaming the other parties.
  • War on the side of aggressors and victims 22 September 2009 12:29 UTC www.hiroshima-spirit.jp [Source type: Original source]

^ It should be the "greatest generation" who have the right to moral statements, not their sons who've done nothing to earn it.
  • New York Times Op Ed on the bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki - Joi Ito's Web 15 September 2009 5:52 UTC joi.ito.com [Source type: General]

.Nearer the tactical use rather than other use."^ I think its time to open up and learn about what other people rather than live in an ideological cultures that neglect others presumably because 'we are the best'.
  • Hiroshima: The Lost Photographs: Observatory: Design Observer 15 September 2009 5:52 UTC designobserver.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Your studies make it clear that all the parties in the war should repent their evil deeds rather than blaming the other parties.
  • War on the side of aggressors and victims 22 September 2009 12:29 UTC www.hiroshima-spirit.jp [Source type: Original source]

^ She urged us to use language that reflects our worldview rather than the worldview that we oppose.
  • WWFOR Pacific Call May-June 2005 22 September 2009 23:38 UTC www.scn.org [Source type: General]

[76]

Surrender of Japan and subsequent occupation

.Until August 9, the war council had still insisted on its four conditions for surrender.^ In the Supreme War Guidance Council voting remained divided, with the war minister and the two chiefs of staff unwilling to accept surrender.
  • HyperWar: USSBS: The Effects of Atomic Bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki [Chapter 2] 15 September 2009 5:52 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Supreme Council for the Direction of the War, composed of four military and two civilian members, was deadlocked, unable to present the Cabinet and the Emperor with its customary unanimous decision.
  • The Information War in the Pacific, 1945 — Central Intelligence Agency 15 September 2009 5:52 UTC www.cia.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The cold war would have happened even with a conditional surrender, and japan would have been operating in a world divided into two nuclear armed camps.
  • The Atomic Bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki | We Saved Hitler's Brain | Cracked.com Forums 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.cracked.com [Source type: Original source]

On that day Hirohito ordered Kido to "quickly control the situation ... because the .Soviet Union has declared war against us."^ Only after the Soviet declaration of war against Japan on Aug.
  • Hiroshima & Nagasaki [Archive] - Japan Forum 25 September 2009 4:04 UTC www.jref.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Since the fall of the Soviet Union there hasn't been a player on the world stage that could by itself compete with us.
  • The Decline and Fall of the American Empire [Archive] - eBaum's World Forum 22 September 2009 23:38 UTC forum.ebaumsworld.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Truman, the man who dropped the bombs on Japan, refused to use them against the Soviets and the Chinese during the Korean War.
  • Hiroshima & Nagasaki [Archive] - Japan Forum 25 September 2009 4:04 UTC www.jref.com [Source type: Original source]

He then held an Imperial conference during which he authorized minister Tōgō to notify the Allies that Japan would accept their terms on one condition, that the declaration "does not compromise any demand which prejudices the prerogatives of His Majesty as a Sovereign ruler."[77]
.On August 10, the Japanese government presented a letter of protest for the atomic bombings to the government of the United States via the government of Switzerland.^ The United States government is another.
  • Alex Constantine's Anti-Fascist Research Bin: December 2006 16 September 2009 21:26 UTC alexconstantine.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On August 10, the day after the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, the Japanese government requested that it be permitted to surrender under the terms of the Potsdam declaration of July 26th which it had previously ignored.
  • The Atomic Bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki by The Manhattan Engineer District - Full Text Free Book 22 September 2009 23:38 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A single atomic bomb, the first weapon of its type ever used against a target, exploded over the city of Hiroshima at 0815 on the morning of 6 August 1945.
  • HyperWar: USSBS: The Effects of Atomic Bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki [Chapter 2] 15 September 2009 5:52 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[78] .On August 12, the Emperor informed the imperial family of his decision to surrender.^ I also think one should not underestimate the importance of the emperor's decision to surrender, or his power.
  • Hiroshima Day 22 September 2009 23:38 UTC delong.typepad.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Complicating the "conditional" versus "unconditional" surrender decision was the Emperor-as-God religio-politico-philosophy of the Japanese.
  • Hiroshima: The Lost Photographs: Observatory: Design Observer 15 September 2009 5:52 UTC designobserver.com [Source type: Original source]

.One of his uncles, Prince Asaka, then asked whether the war would be continued if the kokutai could not be preserved.^ Had they succeeded, the war would have continued.
  • Hiroshima, Nagasaki Atom Bombs Was Right Decision According To Majority Of Americans: Poll 25 September 2009 4:04 UTC www.huffingtonpost.com [Source type: General]

^ He said human beings could even consider another life form an "extraterrestrial brother" because it, too, would be one of God's creatures.

^ Additionally, one has to ask what did the Japanese leaders really think prolonging the war as long as they did was going to accomplish?
  • Hiroshima: The Lost Photographs: Observatory: Design Observer 15 September 2009 5:52 UTC designobserver.com [Source type: Original source]

Hirohito simply replied "of course."[79] .As the Allied terms seemed to leave intact the principle of the preservation of the Throne, Hirohito recorded on August 14 his capitulation announcement which was broadcast to the Japanese nation the next day despite a short rebellion by militarists opposed to the surrender.^ The Japanese agreed to surrender on August 14 and then formally on September 2.

^ Japanese National ID is the next category.
  • New York Times Op Ed on the bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki - Joi Ito's Web 15 September 2009 5:52 UTC joi.ito.com [Source type: General]

^ Then they get a deal that preserves japan for all ethnic japanese and leaves the emperor "in power."
  • The Atomic Bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki | We Saved Hitler's Brain | Cracked.com Forums 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.cracked.com [Source type: Original source]

In his declaration, Hirohito referred to the atomic bombings:
.Moreover, the enemy now possesses a new and terrible weapon with the power to destroy many innocent lives and do incalculable damage.^ They emphasized, “DPRK needs the deterrent; otherwise it can’t defend its sovereignty.” We probed their view of nuclear weapons as a deterrent and what they considered their new responsibility now that they have demonstrated a nuclear capability.
  • Report on North Korean Nuclear Program 22 September 2009 23:38 UTC www.nautilus.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The new strategic doctrines of some of the nuclear weapons powers go considerably beyond the old ones.
  • _Nuclear_Weapon_ related news and documents from resources selected byThe Global Anti-Nuclear Alliance 22 September 2009 23:38 UTC www.cornnet.nl [Source type: News]

^ I guess if the U.S.'s purpose was not experiment,the U.S. should have urged surrender threateningly at first, before Hiroshima, "We have terrible new weapons.
  • Hiroshima & Nagasaki [Archive] - Japan Forum 25 September 2009 4:04 UTC www.jref.com [Source type: Original source]

.Should we continue to fight, not only would it result in an ultimate collapse and obliteration of the Japanese nation, but also it would lead to the total extinction of human civilization.^ Would a few of those not have deterred the Japanese army from continuing to fight?
  • The Atomic Bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki | We Saved Hitler's Brain | Cracked.com Forums 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.cracked.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Would fighting protect or weaken national security , including the security of its borders, population, and resources?

^ (I used the words "few more deaths" as symbolic only, considering the end result of a land invasion would have been far worse) .
  • The Decline and Fall of the American Empire [Archive] - eBaum's World Forum 22 September 2009 23:38 UTC forum.ebaumsworld.com [Source type: Original source]

.Such being the case, how are We to save the millions of Our subjects, or to atone Ourselves before the hallowed spirits of Our Imperial Ancestors?^ In the light that no man, in our position and subject to our responsibilities, holding in his hands a weapon of such possibilities for accomplishing this purpose and saving those lives, could have failed to use it and afterwards looked his countrymen in the face."
  • George W. Bush, John Kerry, test the spirit, Skull & Bones occultists and the Mausoleum they're based in at Yale University 22 September 2009 23:38 UTC www.bilderberg.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ How the United States and British governments have secretly spent millions of pounds attempting to solve the UFO mystery and that it is 'the most highly classified subject on earth'.

^ How did his case become such a cause celebre?

.This is the reason why We have ordered the acceptance of the provisions of the Joint Declaration of the Powers.^ A police-blotter type review of Russell's organization will show why the secret order, though powerful, was not the unique organ of ``conspiracy'' for the U.S. Eastern Establishment.
  • George W. Bush, John Kerry, test the spirit, Skull & Bones occultists and the Mausoleum they're based in at Yale University 22 September 2009 23:38 UTC www.bilderberg.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In his "Rescript to the soldiers and sailors" delivered on August 17, he stressed the impact of the Soviet invasion and his decision to surrender, omitting any mention of the bombs.^ Supporters of Truman's decision to use the bomb argue that it saved hundreds of thousands of lives that would have been lost in an invasion of mainland Japan.

^ Nearly every soldier and sailor who served in the Pacific, and certainly every POW that was held by the Japanese will credit the bomb with saving their lives.
  • Hiroshima & Nagasaki [Archive] - Japan Forum 25 September 2009 4:04 UTC www.jref.com [Source type: Original source]

^ General Marshall for example thought it'd be necessary whether the a-bombs were dropped or not (though some say he thought a Soviet declaration of war would make the invasion unnecessary).
  • Hiroshima & Nagasaki [Archive] - Japan Forum 25 September 2009 4:04 UTC www.jref.com [Source type: Original source]

.During the year after the bombing, approximately 40,000 U.S. troops occupied Hiroshima, while Nagasaki was occupied by 27,000 troops.^ This type of bomb was dropped n Hiroshima and on Nagasaki.
  • The Hydrogen Bomb Homepage, with stuff on the Cuban missile crisis and nuclear testing and transportation 22 September 2009 23:38 UTC www.bilderberg.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ News/Current_Events (3K) University of Missouri Press News Robert James Maddox, the author of Weapons for Victory: The Hiroshima Decision Fifty Years Later, has been widely interviewed in conjunction with the fiftieth anniversary of the Hiroshima and Nagasaki bombings.
  • Nagasaki Information on the Web 15 September 2009 5:52 UTC www.cmp.ucr.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Re: The Atomic Bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki « Reply #49 on: January 06, 2010, 12:52 PM » .
  • The Atomic Bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki | We Saved Hitler's Brain | Cracked.com Forums 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.cracked.com [Source type: Original source]

Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission

.In the spring of 1948, the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission (ABCC) was established in accordance with a presidential directive from Harry S. Truman to the National Academy of Sciences-National Research Council to conduct investigations of the late effects of radiation among the survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki.^ This is a National Science Digital Library web site devoted to the bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki.

^ August 1995 is the fiftieth anniversary of the atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki.
  • Nagasaki Information on the Web 15 September 2009 5:52 UTC www.cmp.ucr.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I have spoken with a survivor of the Hiroshima bomb personally.
  • Hiroshima & Nagasaki [Archive] - Japan Forum 25 September 2009 4:04 UTC www.jref.com [Source type: Original source]

.Among the casualties were found many unintended victims, including Allied POWs, Korean and Chinese laborers, students from Malaya on scholarships, and some 3,200 Japanese American citizens.^ Also they weren't POW's, they were American citizens.
  • The Decline and Fall of the American Empire [Archive] - eBaum's World Forum 22 September 2009 23:38 UTC forum.ebaumsworld.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In Okinawa, twice as many Japanese were killed as Americans.
  • Hiroshima & Nagasaki [Archive] - Japan Forum 25 September 2009 4:04 UTC www.jref.com [Source type: Original source]

^ We would need to search for a book written by a political American, and we found many books, as well as people that stressed these aspects.
  • Heinle, Nick, The Manhattan Project http://www 16 September 2009 21:26 UTC www.rural-tech.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[80]
.One of the early studies conducted by the ABCC was on the outcome of pregnancies occurring in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, and in a control city, Kure located 18 miles (29 km) south from Hiroshima, in order to discern the conditions and outcomes related to radiation exposure.^ These photos certainly show the total destruction of a one mile circle in the city of Hiroshima.
  • Hiroshima: The Lost Photographs: Observatory: Design Observer 15 September 2009 5:52 UTC designobserver.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Within 1500m (1 mile) of the blast site the background radiation was less then normal background radiation (less then exposure to sunlight).
  • The Decline and Fall of the American Empire [Archive] - eBaum's World Forum 22 September 2009 23:38 UTC forum.ebaumsworld.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In Nagasaki, from an observation point at the air-raid lookout post on Kouyagi Island located about 8 kilometers south of the city, just after the flash it appeared that a huge fireball covered the city, as if it were suppressing the city from the sky.
  • PHOTOGRAPHS OF HIROSHIMA AND NAGASAKI (GENSUIKIN) 15 September 2009 5:52 UTC www.gensuikin.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.One author has claimed that the ABCC refused to provide medical treatment to the survivors for better research results.^ It also examines peaceful uses of nuclear energy for the generation of electricity and for medical diagnosis and treatment, as well as the waste-disposal problems that result from these uses.
  • ASW academics 16 September 2009 21:26 UTC www.wellesley.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[81] In 1975, the Radiation Effects Research Foundation was created to assume the responsibilities of ABCC.[82]

The hibakusha

Panoramic view of the monument marking the hypocenter, or ground zero, of the atomic bomb explosion over Nagasaki.
Citizens of Hiroshima walk by the Hiroshima Peace Memorial, the closest building to have survived the city's atomic bombing.
The surviving victims of the bombings are called hibakusha (被爆者?), a Japanese word that literally translates to "explosion-affected people." The suffering caused by the bombing has led Japan to seek the abolition of nuclear weapons from the world ever since, exhibiting one of the world's firmest non-nuclear policies. .As of March 31, 2009, 235,569 hibakusha were recognized by the Japanese government, most living in Japan.^ A land invasion of Japan, like the invasion on Okinawa, would have been extremely bloody, it would have cost millions of lives - both American and Japanese.
  • Hiroshima & Nagasaki [Archive] - Japan Forum 25 September 2009 4:04 UTC www.jref.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Japan was loosing the war, it was a matter of time and nothing more, but because of this race to end it, thousands upon thousands of japanese died in the most inhuman fashion.
  • Hiroshima & Nagasaki [Archive] - Japan Forum 25 September 2009 4:04 UTC www.jref.com [Source type: Original source]

^ By March 1941 one of the most uncertain pieces of information was confirmed - the fission cross-section of U-235.
  • Outline History of Nuclear Energy 22 September 2009 23:38 UTC www.world-nuclear.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[83] .The government of Japan recognizes about 1% of these as having illnesses caused by radiation.^ There are also the recent demonstrations in China and South Korea about Japan's invasion or colonization of these countries.
  • New York Times Op Ed on the bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki - Joi Ito's Web 15 September 2009 5:52 UTC joi.ito.com [Source type: General]

^ These men went off to war having been led to believe that they were to fight for a 'good' cause.
  • Hiroshima: The Lost Photographs: Observatory: Design Observer 15 September 2009 5:52 UTC designobserver.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The energy radiated by these active substances will amount to about 20 percent of the energy liberated in the explosion, and the radiations would be fatal to living beings even a long time after the explosion.
  • Nuclear Technology: The Inappropriate Exercise of Human Intelligence 16 September 2009 21:26 UTC www.ratical.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[84] .The memorials in Hiroshima and Nagasaki contain lists of the names of the hibakusha who are known to have died since the bombings.^ This type of bomb was dropped n Hiroshima and on Nagasaki.
  • The Hydrogen Bomb Homepage, with stuff on the Cuban missile crisis and nuclear testing and transportation 22 September 2009 23:38 UTC www.bilderberg.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ WHEN I visited Hiroshima and Nagasaki, what impressed me most was not the landscape of destruction - which has been replaced by green lawns and pink azaleas, carp ponds and statues, billboards for Coca-Cola and museums full of tourists - but the continuing public presence and quiet grace of the bomb victims, known in Japanese as hibakusha, who still populate these cities in the tens of thousands.
  • Hiroshima Day 22 September 2009 23:38 UTC delong.typepad.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This is a National Science Digital Library web site devoted to the bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki.

.Updated annually on the anniversaries of the bombings, as of August 2009 the memorials record the names of more than 410,000 hibakusha—263,945[85] in Hiroshima and 149,226[86] in Nagasaki.^ August 1995 is the fiftieth anniversary of the atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki.
  • Nagasaki Information on the Web 15 September 2009 5:52 UTC www.cmp.ucr.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ NHK: 60th anniversary of atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki .
  • EBU.CH :: EBU News Archives (2005) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.ebu.ch [Source type: General]

^ More Japanese died in the firbombings of Tokyo than died in Hiroshima and Nagasaki.
  • The Decline and Fall of the American Empire [Archive] - eBaum's World Forum 22 September 2009 23:38 UTC forum.ebaumsworld.com [Source type: Original source]

Korean survivors

.During the war, Japan brought many Korean conscripts to both Hiroshima and Nagasaki to work as forced labor.^ Next week marks the anniversary of the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki Friday August 04 2006 11:11:03 AM BDT Paul Kokoski, Canada Next week marks the anniversary of the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki which brought a sudden end to the long Second World War.
  • http://bangladesh-web.com/view.php?hidDate=2006-08-05&hidType=OPT&hidRecord=0000000000000000121011 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC bangladesh-web.com [Source type: News]

^ Thus, at the ripe old age of 44, Stimson joined the Army during World War I and served in the American Expeditionary Force in Europe.
  • George W. Bush, John Kerry, test the spirit, Skull & Bones occultists and the Mausoleum they're based in at Yale University 22 September 2009 23:38 UTC www.bilderberg.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The fire damage in both cities was tremendous, but was more complete in Hiroshima than in Nagasaki.
  • The Atomic Bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki by The Manhattan Engineer District - Full Text Free Book 22 September 2009 23:38 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.According to recent estimates, about 20,000 Koreans were killed in Hiroshima and about 2,000 died in Nagasaki.^ Han Chan Aug 10, 2006, 23:52 Please do not forget about Hiroshima and Nagasaki I agree!
  • Hiroshima & Nagasaki [Archive] - Japan Forum 25 September 2009 4:04 UTC www.jref.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I feel the same way about Hiroshima and Nagasaki.
  • Hiroshima & Nagasaki [Archive] - Japan Forum 25 September 2009 4:04 UTC www.jref.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I think it's just stupid to say that the killing of innocent people in Hiroshima and Nagasaki was the solution to end the war...
  • Hiroshima & Nagasaki [Archive] - Japan Forum 25 September 2009 4:04 UTC www.jref.com [Source type: Original source]

.It is estimated that one in seven of the Hiroshima victims was of Korean ancestry.^ Both ends of this bridge, which was the longest one in Hiroshima at that time, were filled with A-bomb victims.
  • PHOTOGRAPHS OF HIROSHIMA AND NAGASAKI (GENSUIKIN) 15 September 2009 5:52 UTC www.gensuikin.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Believing these bones were remains of A-bomb victims, the Hiroshima municipality dug the area for about one month and recovered the remains of 617 bodies.
  • PHOTOGRAPHS OF HIROSHIMA AND NAGASAKI (GENSUIKIN) 15 September 2009 5:52 UTC www.gensuikin.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[8] .For many years, Koreans had a difficult time fighting for recognition as atomic bomb victims and were denied health benefits.^ K) Information about the History of the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission In response to requests for information about the early years of ABCC, the following list of publications has been compiled as a recommended resource list.
  • Nagasaki Information on the Web 15 September 2009 5:52 UTC www.cmp.ucr.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ July 2008 Chinese A-bomb victims honored The Japan Times http://search.japantimes.co.jp/cgi-bin/nn20080708b3.html .
  • CNIC(Citizens' Nuclear Information Center) 22 September 2009 23:38 UTC cnic.jp [Source type: News]

^ I know there were many Koreans in Hiroshima who were also exposed to the A-bomb.
  • War on the side of aggressors and victims 22 September 2009 12:29 UTC www.hiroshima-spirit.jp [Source type: Original source]

.However, most issues have been addressed in recent years through lawsuits.^ However, a year later Heron wrote another song that brought national attention to the issue of nuclear weapons.
  • From Harlem to Hiroshima: 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC fch.fiu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[87]

Double survivors

.On March 24, 2009, the Japanese government officially recognized Tsutomu Yamaguchi (1916–2010) as a double hibakusha.^ War is evil, but change begins at home - you need to make sure Japanese militarism never rises again - write to your government officials about it.
  • War on the side of aggressors and victims 22 September 2009 12:29 UTC www.hiroshima-spirit.jp [Source type: Original source]

^ Quote from: apophenia on January 06, 2010, 04:30 PM The Japanese government wanted out of the war by that point.
  • The Atomic Bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki | We Saved Hitler's Brain | Cracked.com Forums 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.cracked.com [Source type: Original source]

.Tsutomu Yamaguchi was confirmed to be 3 kilometers from ground zero in Hiroshima on a business trip when the bomb was detonated.^ M from ground zero" has no meaning at all, inside the atomic bomb heat power.
  • Hiroshima & Nagasaki [Archive] - Japan Forum 25 September 2009 4:04 UTC www.jref.com [Source type: Original source]

^ (For convenience, the term "ground zero" will be used to designate the point on the ground directly beneath the point of detonation, or "air zero."
  • HyperWar: USSBS: The Effects of Atomic Bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki [Chapter 2] 15 September 2009 5:52 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ At whatever elevation the Hiroshima bomb detonated, it should have been 10 times that elevation and the bomb would still have demonstrated its destructive powers.
  • Hiroshima & Nagasaki [Archive] - Japan Forum 25 September 2009 4:04 UTC www.jref.com [Source type: Original source]

He was seriously burnt on his left side and spent the night in Hiroshima. .He got back to his home city of Nagasaki on August 8, a day before the bomb in Nagasaki was dropped, and he was exposed to residual radiation while searching for his relatives.^ Second bomb dropped within days of the first on Nagasaki.
  • Hiroshima: The Lost Photographs: Observatory: Design Observer 15 September 2009 5:52 UTC designobserver.com [Source type: Original source]

^ A second bomb was dropped on Nagasaki three days later.
  • Library News- The University of Iowa Libraries 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC blog.lib.uiowa.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The bomb dropped on Nagasaki was a plutonium bomb.
  • Hiroshima, Nagasaki Atom Bombs Was Right Decision According To Majority Of Americans: Poll 25 September 2009 4:04 UTC www.huffingtonpost.com [Source type: General]

.He was the first officially recognised survivor of both bombings.^ Just in the news this morning: the only survivor of BOTH atomic bombings has died.
  • The Atomic Bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki | We Saved Hitler's Brain | Cracked.com Forums 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.cracked.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Writing on singular, unprecedented events such as the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki raises particular issues for both survivors and later generations.
  • JapanFocus 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.japanfocus.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[88] Tsutomu Yamaguchi died Monday January 4, 2010 after a battle with stomach cancer. He was 93.[89]
.In the book The Last Train From Hiroshima, Charles Pellegrino writes about an interview with Tsutomu Yamaguchi in which Yamaguchi described injured survivors in the aftermath of the atomic bombs.^ I have spoken with a survivor of the Hiroshima bomb personally.
  • Hiroshima & Nagasaki [Archive] - Japan Forum 25 September 2009 4:04 UTC www.jref.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Shishido is an Atomic Bomb survivor from the Hiroshima bombing.
  • Heinle, Nick, The Manhattan Project http://www 16 September 2009 21:26 UTC www.rural-tech.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ An atomic bomb was dropped on Hiroshima, Japan.
  • Library News- The University of Iowa Libraries 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC blog.lib.uiowa.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Yamaguchi called the victims "ant-walking alligators" who "were now eyeless and faceless—with their heads transformed into blackened alligator hides displaying red holes, indicating mouths.^ We must plan and follow our own course into the future now and not grant any further legitimacy or credence to those who indicated by their deceitful pronouncements just how illegitimate their "authority" truly is.
  • Nuclear Technology: The Inappropriate Exercise of Human Intelligence 16 September 2009 21:26 UTC www.ratical.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Now you walk headlong into one of the most curious and profound and troubling Comair crash mysteries of all ...
  • Alex Constantine's Anti-Fascist Research Bin: December 2006 16 September 2009 21:26 UTC alexconstantine.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Seals, the elder Liddy maintained, are taught a method of execution called "double popping", which consists of two shots fired in rapid succession into the head of the victim.
  • Alex Constantine's Anti-Fascist Research Bin: December 2006 16 September 2009 21:26 UTC alexconstantine.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[...] The alligator people did not scream. Their mouths could not form the sounds. The noise they made was worse than screaming. They uttered a continuous murmur—like locusts on a midsummer night. .One man, staggering on charred stumps of legs, was carrying a dead baby upside down."^ No one pays any attention to a dead man lying nearby.
  • The Atomic Bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki by The Manhattan Engineer District - Full Text Free Book 22 September 2009 23:38 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[90]
.There were other people who suffered the effects of both bombings, known as nijyuu hibakusha in Japan.^ As bad as the atomic bomb effects on Hiroshima and Nagasaki were, they pale compared to the devastation inflicted by the firebombings of other Japanese cities (primarily Tokyo).
  • Hiroshima: The Lost Photographs: Observatory: Design Observer 15 September 2009 5:52 UTC designobserver.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Prior to the dropping of the atomic bombs, the people of the two target cities appear to have had fewer misgivings about the war than people in other cities.
  • HyperWar: USSBS: The Effects of Atomic Bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki [Chapter 2] 15 September 2009 5:52 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On the other hand, Japan donned the mantle of nuclear victim, whilst refusing to acknowledge the suffering of their own victims, even today.
  • The Decline and Fall of the American Empire [Archive] - eBaum's World Forum 22 September 2009 23:38 UTC forum.ebaumsworld.com [Source type: Original source]

.A documentary produced in 2006 documented 165 nijyuu hibakusha, called Twice Survived: The Doubly Atomic Bombed of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, which was screened at the United Nations.^ Around the Web: Atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki - Wikipedia, the free ...
  • Hiroshima, Nagasaki Atom Bombs Was Right Decision According To Majority Of Americans: Poll 25 September 2009 4:04 UTC www.huffingtonpost.com [Source type: General]

^ August 1995 is the fiftieth anniversary of the atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki.
  • Nagasaki Information on the Web 15 September 2009 5:52 UTC www.cmp.ucr.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Shishido is an Atomic Bomb survivor from the Hiroshima bombing.
  • Heinle, Nick, The Manhattan Project http://www 16 September 2009 21:26 UTC www.rural-tech.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[91]

Debate over bombings

.The atomic bomb was more than a weapon of terrible destruction; it was a psychological weapon.^ When compared to other bombing campaigns in the war, the atomic weapons were substantially more destructive.
  • The Atomic Bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki | We Saved Hitler's Brain | Cracked.com Forums 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.cracked.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Others, such as the atomic bomb historian Professor Gar Alperovitz, have argued that the use of nuclear weapons was unnecessary and inherently immoral.

^ A single atomic bomb, the first weapon of its type ever used against a target, exploded over the city of Hiroshima at 0815 on the morning of 6 August 1945.
  • HyperWar: USSBS: The Effects of Atomic Bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki [Chapter 2] 15 September 2009 5:52 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

—Former U.S. Secretary of War Henry L. Stimson, 1947[92]

.The role of the bombings in Japan's surrender and the U.S.'s ethical justification for them has been the subject of scholarly and popular debate for decades.^ If we did not drop those bombs, Japan was not going to surrender.
  • Hiroshima: The Lost Photographs: Observatory: Design Observer 15 September 2009 5:52 UTC designobserver.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Assuming that the bombs were never dropped and Japan eventually surrenderred, do you think that the events following World War 2 would've been significantly different?
  • The Atomic Bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki | We Saved Hitler's Brain | Cracked.com Forums 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.cracked.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The conventional bombing of Japan did far more damage than the atomic bombs, but still Japan did not surrender.
  • Hiroshima: The Lost Photographs: Observatory: Design Observer 15 September 2009 5:52 UTC designobserver.com [Source type: Original source]

.J. Samuel Walker wrote in an April 2005 overview of recent historiography on the issue, "the controversy over the use of the bomb seems certain to continue."^ This site had letter that Harry Truman wrote with his justification for the use of the atomic bomb on Japan.
  • Heinle, Nick, The Manhattan Project http://www 16 September 2009 21:26 UTC www.rural-tech.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Opinion: The bombing was the continuation of a general strategy that was used against European and Asian adversaries.
  • Hiroshima, Nagasaki Atom Bombs Was Right Decision According To Majority Of Americans: Poll 25 September 2009 4:04 UTC www.huffingtonpost.com [Source type: General]

^ Stanky105 11-01-2005, 09:57 PM The atomic bomb was used to save American lives.
  • The Decline and Fall of the American Empire [Archive] - eBaum's World Forum 22 September 2009 23:38 UTC forum.ebaumsworld.com [Source type: Original source]

.Walker noted that "The fundamental issue that has divided scholars over a period of nearly four decades is whether the use of the bomb was necessary to achieve victory in the war in the Pacific on terms satisfactory to the United States."^ Wars and atrocities are not the invention of the United States.
  • Hiroshima: The Lost Photographs: Observatory: Design Observer 15 September 2009 5:52 UTC designobserver.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The United States declared war on Japan.
  • Alex Constantine's Anti-Fascist Research Bin: December 2006 16 September 2009 21:26 UTC alexconstantine.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I am not sure whether the use of nuclear weapons was strategically necessary, because after battle of Okinawa the Imperial Army was more or less annihilated.
  • Hiroshima & Nagasaki [Archive] - Japan Forum 25 September 2009 4:04 UTC www.jref.com [Source type: Original source]

[11]
.Supporters of the bombings generally assert that they caused the Japanese surrender, preventing massive casualties on both sides in the planned invasion of Japan: Kyūshū was to be invaded in October 1945 and Honshū five months later.^ The invasion of Okinawa was a massacre on both sides with casualties in the hundred-thousands.
  • Hiroshima & Nagasaki [Archive] - Japan Forum 25 September 2009 4:04 UTC www.jref.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It was religion that caused Japan to be so hesitant to surrender.
  • Hiroshima: The Lost Photographs: Observatory: Design Observer 15 September 2009 5:52 UTC designobserver.com [Source type: Original source]

^ BUT, they were: (1) Warned by the Potsdam Declaration that such weapons would be used, and ignored it (2) The Japanese refused to surrender after the first bombing, and many in the military wanted to keep fighting even after the second (3) A continued firebombing campaign and then conventional invasion would have led to hundreds of thousands of casualties on the Allied side and conceivably a million plus on the Japanese side.
  • The Decline and Fall of the American Empire [Archive] - eBaum's World Forum 22 September 2009 23:38 UTC forum.ebaumsworld.com [Source type: Original source]

.Some estimate Allied forces would have suffered 1 million casualties in such a scenario, while Japanese casualties would have been in the millions.^ It has been estimated that an invasion of Japan (Operation Downfall/O­lympic/Cor­onet) would have resulted in 500,000 or 1,000,000 casualties amongst Japanese, Americans and Allied forces, so in some ways as terrible as Hiroshima and Nagasaki were, they may have prevented even greater bloodshed.
  • Hiroshima, Nagasaki Atom Bombs Was Right Decision According To Majority Of Americans: Poll 25 September 2009 4:04 UTC www.huffingtonpost.com [Source type: General]

^ End the war with massive Japanese casualties, or end the war with massive Allied and Japanese casualties?
  • Hiroshima & Nagasaki [Archive] - Japan Forum 25 September 2009 4:04 UTC www.jref.com [Source type: Original source]

^ BUT, they were: (1) Warned by the Potsdam Declaration that such weapons would be used, and ignored it (2) The Japanese refused to surrender after the first bombing, and many in the military wanted to keep fighting even after the second (3) A continued firebombing campaign and then conventional invasion would have led to hundreds of thousands of casualties on the Allied side and conceivably a million plus on the Japanese side.
  • The Decline and Fall of the American Empire [Archive] - eBaum's World Forum 22 September 2009 23:38 UTC forum.ebaumsworld.com [Source type: Original source]

[93] .Others who oppose the bombings argue that it was simply an extension of the already fierce conventional bombing campaign[94] and, therefore, militarily unnecessary,[95] inherently immoral, a war crime, or a form of state terrorism.^ Also, at the time of the bombing General Eisenhower stated that he thought it was unnecessary and immoral.
  • Hiroshima, Nagasaki Atom Bombs Was Right Decision According To Majority Of Americans: Poll 25 September 2009 4:04 UTC www.huffingtonpost.com [Source type: General]

^ Others, such as the atomic bomb historian Professor Gar Alperovitz, have argued that the use of nuclear weapons was unnecessary and inherently immoral.

^ By October, 53.5 percent endorsed the bombing of both cities and an additional 22.7 percent regretted that the United States had not quickly used atomic weapons to bomb other cities.
  • From Harlem to Hiroshima: 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC fch.fiu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[96]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b Rezelman, David; F.G. Gosling and Terrence R. Fehner (2000). "The atomic bombing of hiroshima". The Manhattan Project: An Interactive History. U.S. Department of Energy. http://www.cfo.doe.gov/me70/manhattan/hiroshima.htm. Retrieved 2007-09-18.  page on Hiroshima casualties.
  2. ^ a b Adams, S. & Crawford, A.. 2000. World War II. First edition. Printed in association with the Imperial War Museum. Eyewitness Books series. New York, Doring Kindersley Limited.
  3. ^ Hakim, Joy (1995). A History of Us: War, Peace and all that Jazz. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-509514-6. 
  4. ^ a b c d "Frequently Asked Questions #1". Radiation Effects Research Foundation. http://www.rerf.or.jp/general/qa_e/qa1.html. Retrieved 2007-09-18. 
  5. ^ a b Harry S. Truman Library & Museum. U. S. Strategic Bombing Survey: The Effects of the Atomic Bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, June 19, 1946. President's Secretary's File, Truman Papers. 2. Hiroshima., page 22 of 51.
  6. ^ The somatic effects of exposure to atomic radiation: The Japanese experience, 1947–1997
  7. ^ a b The Spirit of Hiroshima: An Introduction to the Atomic Bomb Tragedy. Hiroshima Peace Memorial Museum. 1999. 
  8. ^ a b Mikiso Hane (2001). Modern Japan: A Historical Survey. Westview Press. ISBN 0-8133-3756-9. 
  9. ^ Trinity and Beyond: The atomic bomb movie. Dir. Kuran, P., Nar. Shatner, W.. 1997. VHS. Goldhil Video, 1997.
  10. ^ Koizumi, Junichiro (2005-08-06). "Address by Prime Minister Junichiro Koizumi at the Hiroshima Memorial Service for the Hiroshima Peace Memorial Ceremony". Prime Minister of Japan and His Cabinet. http://www.kantei.go.jp/foreign/koizumispeech/2005/08/06aisatu_e.html. Retrieved 2007-11-28. 
  11. ^ a b Walker, J. Samuel (April 2005). "Recent Literature on Truman's Atomic Bomb Decision: A Search for Middle Ground". Diplomatic History 29 (2): 334. doi:10.1111/j.1467-7709.2005.00476.x. 
  12. ^ Roosevelt, Frankin D; Churchill, Winston (August 19, 1943). "Quebec Agreement". atomicarchive.com. http://www.atomicarchive.com/Docs/ManhattanProject/Quebec.shtml. 
  13. ^ Edwards, Gordon. "Canada's Role in the Atomic Bomb Programs of the United States, Britain, France and India". Canadian Coalition for Nuclear Responsibility. http://www.ccnr.org/chronology.html. Retrieved 2007-12-04. 
  14. ^ Gosling, F.G. (January 1999). "The Manhattan Project: Making the Atomic Bomb" (PDF). United States Department of Energy. http://www.cfo.doe.gov/me70/manhattan/publications/DE99001330.pdf. Retrieved 2007-12-04. 
  15. ^ a b c "Atomic Bomb: Decision—Target Committee, May 10–11, 1945". http://www.dannen.com/decision/targets.html. Retrieved August 6, 2005. 
  16. ^ "A-bomb targets/decision-making record (1945)". Dannen.com. http://www.dannen.com/decision/targets.html. Retrieved 2009-03-25. 
  17. ^ Reischauer, Edwin. (1986). My Life Between Japan And America, p. 101.
  18. ^ Frank, Richard B.. Downfall. pp. 233–234.  The meaning of the word mokusatsu can fall anywhere in the range of "ignore" to "treat with contempt".
  19. ^ Bix, Herbert (1996). "Japan's Delayed Surrender: A Reinterpretation". in Michael J. Hogan, ed.. .Hiroshima in History and Memory.^ Hiroshima/Nagasaki Memorial Collection: Organizational History .
    • Index to the Barbara Reynolds Collected Papers 25 September 2009 4:04 UTC www.watsonlibrary.org [Source type: News]

    Cambridge University Press. p. 290. ISBN 0-521-56682-7.
     
  20. ^ Kido Koichi nikki, Tokyo, Daigaku Shuppankai, 1966, p.1120-1121
  21. ^ Allen, Thomas; Norman Polmar (1995). Code-Name Downfall. New York, NY: Simon & Schuster. pp. 266–270. ISBN 0684804069. 
  22. ^ Goldstein, Donald (1999), Rain of Ruin, Washington: Potomac Books, p. 41, ISBN 9781574882216 
  23. ^ Hastings, Max (2008), Nemesis: The Battle for Japan, 1944-45, HarperCollins, p. 509, ISBN 9780007219810 
  24. ^ "Timeline #2- the 509th; The Hiroshima Mission". Children of the Manhattan Project. Archived from the original on 2006-10-09. http://web.archive.org/web/20061009095411/http://www.childrenofthemanhattanproject.org/CG/CG_09C1.htm. Retrieved July 26, 2006. 
  25. ^ "Timeline #2- the 509th; The Hiroshima Mission". The Atomic Heritage Foundation. http://www.mphpa.org/classic/HISTORY/H-07L1.htm. Retrieved May 5, 2007. 
  26. ^ "Radiation Event Medical Management. ''Thermal Skin Burns: Example after Nuclear Blast''". Remm.nlm.gov. http://www.remm.nlm.gov/flashburn2.htm. Retrieved 2009-03-25. 
  27. ^ Enola Gay, ISBN 0-671-81499-0-250, page 309
  28. ^ "The Bomb-"Little Boy"". The Atomic Heritage Foundation. http://www.mphpa.org/classic/HISTORY/little_boy.htm. Retrieved May 5, 2007. 
  29. ^ "RADIATION DOSE RECONSTRUCTION U.S. OCCUPATION FORCES IN HIROSHIMA AND NAGASAKI, JAPAN, 1945-1946 (DNA 5512F)" (PDF). Archived from the original on 2006-06-24. http://web.archive.org/web/20060624185903/http://www.dtra.mil/toolbox/directorates/td/programs/nuclear_personnel/docs/DNATR805512F.pdf. Retrieved June 9, 2006. 
  30. ^ Harry S. Truman Library & Museum. U. S. Strategic Bombing Survey: The Effects of the Atomic Bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, June 19, 1946. President's Secretary's File, Truman Papers. 2. Hiroshima., page 11 of 51. Retrieved on March 15, 2009.
  31. ^ Harry S. Truman Library & Museum. U. S. Strategic Bombing Survey: The Effects of the Atomic Bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, June 19, 1946. President's Secretary's File, Truman Papers. Effort and Results., page 42 of 51. Retrieved on March 15, 2009.
  32. ^ Harry S. Truman Library & Museum. U. S. Strategic Bombing Survey: The Effects of the Atomic Bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, June 19, 1946. President's Secretary's File, Truman Papers. 2. Hiroshima., page 12 of 51. Retrieved on March 15, 2009.
  33. ^ "The Information War in the Pacific, 1945". https://www.cia.gov/library/center-for-the-study-of-intelligence/csi-publications/csi-studies/studies/vol46no3/article07.html. 
  34. ^ "Decision to Drop Atomic Bomb". Cia.gov. http://www.atomicmuseum.com/tour/decision.cfm. Retrieved 2009-03-25. 
  35. ^ "The Myths of Hiroshima". Commondreams.org. http://www.commondreams.org/views05/0805-24.htm. Retrieved 2009-03-25. 
  36. ^ "Hiroshima: Historians' Letter to the Smithsonian". Doug-long.com. http://www.doug-long.com/letter.htm. Retrieved 2009-03-25. 
  37. ^ "No High Ground by Knebel et al. p175 to p201" (PDF). http://www.uncp.edu/home/berrys/courses/hist102/hist102_docs_abomb.pdf. Retrieved April 30, 2007. 
  38. ^ "Fulton Sun Retrospective". http://www.fultonsun.com/articles/2005/08/07/news/146news11.txt. Retrieved July 8, 2007. 
  39. ^ U.S. Department of Energy. Office of History & Heritage Resources. The Manhattan Project: An Interactive History. The Atomic Bombing of Hiroshima, August 6, 1945. Retrieved on January 8, 2010.
  40. ^ "Chapter II: The Effects of the Atomic Bombings". United States Strategic Bombing Survey. Originally by U.S. G.P.O.; stored on ibiblio.org. 1946. http://www.ibiblio.org/hyperwar/AAF/USSBS/AtomicEffects/AtomicEffects-2.html. Retrieved 2007-09-18. 
  41. ^ Another review and analysis of the various death toll estimates is in: Richard B. Frank (2001). Downfall: The End of the Imperial Japanese Empire. Penguin Publishing. ISBN 0-679-41424-X. 
  42. ^ "Frequently Asked Questions #2". Radiation Effects Research Foundation. http://www.rerf.or.jp/general/qa_e/qa2.html. 
  43. ^ "David Rubin, 2005, "Remembering Normand Brissette" (Downloaded 28/10/06)". Wagingpeace.org. http://www.wagingpeace.org/articles/2005/08/20_rubin_remembering-normand-brissette.htm. Retrieved 2009-03-25. 
  44. ^ "A Short-Sighted Parrot". Geocities.jp. http://www.geocities.jp/cato1963/kinganE.html. Retrieved 2009-03-25. 
  45. ^ "Testimony of Akiko Takakura". http://www.inicom.com/hibakusha/akiko.html. Retrieved April 30, 2007. 
  46. ^ "unesco.org". http://whc.unesco.org/archive/repco96x.htm#annex5. Retrieved August 6, 2005. 
  47. ^ (原爆死没者慰霊碑)碑文趣旨・説明板
  48. ^ 原爆慰霊碑碑文論争
  49. ^ 原爆碑損壊事件声明文
  50. ^ H. Bix, Hirohito and the Making of Modern Japan, 2001, p. 512.
  51. ^ Martin J. Sherwin (2003). A World Destroyed: Hiroshima and its Legacies (2nd ed.). Stanford University Press. pp. 233–234. 
  52. ^ Richard H. Campbell (2005). ."Chapter 2: Development and Production". The Silverplate Bombers: A History and Registry of the Enola Gay and Other B-29s Configured to Carry Atomic Bombs.^ As bad as the atomic bomb effects on Hiroshima and Nagasaki were, they pale compared to the devastation inflicted by the firebombings of other Japanese cities (primarily Tokyo).
    • Hiroshima: The Lost Photographs: Observatory: Design Observer 15 September 2009 5:52 UTC designobserver.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Jul 26, 2005, 14:46 The atomic bomb of Nagasaki exploded above the Urakami Catholic Church that has a history of miserable martyrdom.
    • Hiroshima & Nagasaki [Archive] - Japan Forum 25 September 2009 4:04 UTC www.jref.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Development of the Atomic Bomb: White Paper on the Atomic Bombings #3 .
    • Index to the Barbara Reynolds Collected Papers 25 September 2009 4:04 UTC www.watsonlibrary.org [Source type: News]

    McFarland & Company, Inc.. pp. 114. ISBN 0-7864-2139-8.
     
  53. ^ a b c "Timeline #3- the 509th; The Nagasaki Mission". The Atomic Heritage Foundation. http://www.mphpa.org/classic/HISTORY/H-07m1.htm. Retrieved May 5, 2007. 
  54. ^ "Spitzer Personal Diary Page 25 (CGP-ASPI-025)". The Atomic Heritage Foundation. http://www.mphpa.org/classic/COLLECTIONS/CG-ASPI/01/Pages/CGP-ASPI-025.htm. Retrieved May 5, 2007. 
  55. ^ Lillian Hoddeson, et al., Critical Assembly: A Technical History of Los Alamos During the Oppenheimer Years, 1943-1945 (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1993), on 295.
  56. ^ "Stories from Riken" (PDF). http://www.riken.jp/r-world/info/release/riken88/text/image/pdf/no09e.pdf. Retrieved April 30, 2007. 
  57. ^ Dennis D. Wainstock (1996). The Decision to Drop the Atomic Bomb. Praeger. p. 92. 
  58. ^ [http://www.pbs.org/thewar/detail_5234.htm The Atomic Bomb
  59. ^ Rinjiro Sodei. Were We the Enemy?: American Survivors of Hiroshima. Boulder: Westview Press, 1998, ix.
  60. ^ Rezelman, David; F.G. Gosling and Terrence R. Fehner (2000). "The atomic bombing of nagasaki". The Manhattan Project: An Interactive History. U.S. Department of Energy. http://www.cfo.doe.gov/me70/manhattan/nagasaki.htm. Retrieved 2007-09-18. 
  61. ^ ""Nagasaki's Mayor Slams U.S. for Nuke Arsenal"". Associated Press. 2005-08-09. http://www.foxnews.com/story/0,2933,165148,00.html. Retrieved 2007-09-18. 
  62. ^ "Nagasaki memorial adds British POW as A-bomb victim | The Japan Times Online". Search.japantimes.co.jp. 1945-08-09. http://search.japantimes.co.jp/print/news/nn06-2005/nn20050625f3.htm. Retrieved 2009-01-09. 
  63. ^ [1] This reference also lists at least three other POWS who died on 9-8-1945
  64. ^ "CWGC :: Casualty Details". Cwgc.org. http://www.cwgc.org/search/casualty_details.aspx?casualty=2207628. Retrieved 2009-01-09. 
  65. ^ "CWGC :: Casualty Details". Cwgc.org. http://www.cwgc.org/search/casualty_details.aspx?casualty=2815865. Retrieved 2009-01-09. 
  66. ^ [2] does not tell if these were Nagasaki casualties
  67. ^ "Two Dutch POWs join Nagasaki bomb victim list | The Japan Times Online". Search.japantimes.co.jp. 1945-08-09. http://search.japantimes.co.jp/print/news/nn08-2005/nn20050805a7.htm. Retrieved 2009-01-09. 
  68. ^ [3]
  69. ^ It Gave Him Life - It Took It, Too United States Merchant Marine.org website
  70. ^ "Radiation Dose Reconstruction; U.S. Occupation Forces in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan, 1945-1946 (DNA 5512F)" (PDF). Archived from the original on 2006-06-24. http://web.archive.org/web/20060624185903/http://www.dtra.mil/toolbox/directorates/td/programs/nuclear_personnel/docs/DNATR805512F.pdf. Retrieved June 9, 2006. 
  71. ^ "Nagasaki marks tragic anniversary". People's Daily. 2005-08-10. http://english.people.com.cn/200508/10/eng20050810_201424.html. Retrieved April 14, 2007. 
  72. ^ "'I saw both of the bombs and lived'". Observer (reported in The Guardian). 2005-07-24. http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2005/jul/24/secondworldwar.japan2. Retrieved April 14, 2007. 
  73. ^ Trumbull, Robert (1957). Nine Who Survived Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Tokyo, Japan: Tuttle Publishing. 
  74. ^ Cook, Haruko & Theadore (1992). Japan at War: An Oral History. New York, New York: The New Press. 
  75. ^ 小倉にある平和記念碑と長崎の鐘
  76. ^ a b c "The Atomic Bomb and the End of World War II, A Collection of Primary Sources," (PDF). National Security Archive Electronic Briefing Book No. 162. George Washington University. 1945-08-13. http://www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/NSAEBB/NSAEBB162/72.pdf. 
  77. ^ Kido Koichi nikki,Tokyo, Daigaku Shuppankai, 1966, p.1223
  78. ^ The Atomic Bombing of Japan Bombing Hiroshima & Nagasaki
  79. ^ Terasaki Hidenari, Shôwa tennô dokuhakuroku, 1991, p.129
  80. ^ Forgotten Wars: Freedom and Revolution in Southeast Asia, Prologue:An Unending War, Christopher Bayly & Tim Harper, The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, pp. 3 ISBN 0674021533
  81. ^ M. Susan Lindee (1994). Suffering Made Real: American Science and the Survivors at Hiroshima. University Of Chicago Press. ISBN 0226482375. 
  82. ^ "The Radiation Effects Research Foundation Website". Rerf.or.jp. http://www.rerf.or.jp/index_e.html. Retrieved 2009-03-25. 
  83. ^ ""Hiroshima sides with Obama on nukes"". The Japan Times. August 7, 2009. http://search.japantimes.co.jp/cgi-bin/nn20090807a2.html. Retrieved 2009-08-17. 
  84. ^ "Relief for A-bomb victims". The Japan Times. 2007-08-15. http://search.japantimes.co.jp/cgi-bin/ed20070815a2.html. Retrieved 2007-10-02. 
  85. ^ ""On anniversary of A-bombing, Hiroshima mayor says 'yes we can' to no more nukes"". Mainichi Daily News. August 6, 2009. http://mdn.mainichi.jp/mdnnews/news/20090806p2a00m0na005000c.html. Retrieved 2009-08-17. 
  86. ^ ""Japan marks 64th anniversary of Nagasaki atomic bombing"". Xinhua. August 9, 2009. http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/2009-08/09/content_11851094.htm. Retrieved 2009-08-17. 
  87. ^ Hibakusha: A Korean's fight to end discrimination toward foreign A-bomb victims, Mainichi Daily News. May 9, 2008.
  88. ^ Japan Confirms First Double A-Bomb Survivor
  89. ^ "Man who survived two atom bombs dies". CNN. January 8, 2010. http://www.cnn.com/2010/WORLD/asiapcf/01/06/japan.bomb.victim.dies/index.html. Retrieved 2010-01-08. 
  90. ^ http://www.nytimes.com/2010/01/20/books/20garner.html
  91. ^ "Twice Bombed, Twice Survived: Film Explores Untold Stories from Hiroshima & Nagasaki". Columbia University. August 2, 2006. http://www.columbia.edu/cu/news/06/08/twicesurvived.html. Retrieved 2009-03-31. 
  92. ^ "LEAST ABHORRENT CHOICE", TIME Magazine, February 3, 1947
  93. ^ http://www.ww2pacific.com/downfall.html
  94. ^ Ward Wilson. The Winning Weapon? Rethinking Nuclear Weapons in Light of Hiroshima. International Security, Vol. 31, No. 4 (Spring 2007), pp. 162–179
  95. ^ The Collins Encyclopedia of Military History, Dupuy & Dupuy, BCA 1994, page 1308
  96. ^ Stohl, Michael (1988). "National Interest and State terrorism". The Politics of terrorism. CRC Press. p. 279. ISBN 9780824778149. http://books.google.de/books?id=R60c_2nCcnYC&pg=PA279. 

Further reading

The black marker indicates "ground zero" of the Nagasaki atomic bomb explosion.
.There is an extensive body of literature concerning the bombings, the decision to use the bombs, and the surrender of Japan.^ Development of the Atomic Bomb: Decision to use the Bomb #1 .
  • Index to the Barbara Reynolds Collected Papers 25 September 2009 4:04 UTC www.watsonlibrary.org [Source type: News]

^ Development of the Atomic Bomb: Decision to use the Bomb #2 .
  • Index to the Barbara Reynolds Collected Papers 25 September 2009 4:04 UTC www.watsonlibrary.org [Source type: News]

^ There was no indication of any desire to surrender until after both bombs had fallen.
  • Hiroshima & Nagasaki [Archive] - Japan Forum 25 September 2009 4:04 UTC www.jref.com [Source type: Original source]

.The following sources provide a sampling of prominent works on this subject matter.^ Titles and descriptions of sample URLs (and other information provided) were subjective and promotional rather than unbiased and objective.
  • George W. Bush, John Kerry, test the spirit, Skull & Bones occultists and the Mausoleum they're based in at Yale University 22 September 2009 23:38 UTC www.bilderberg.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.
  • The Committee for the Compilation of Materials on Damage Caused by the Atomic Bombs in Hiroshima and Nagasaki (1981).^ Estimated Deaths Attributed to the Atomic Bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki .
    • Nagasaki Information on the Web 15 September 2009 5:52 UTC www.cmp.ucr.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ As bad as the atomic bomb effects on Hiroshima and Nagasaki were, they pale compared to the devastation inflicted by the firebombings of other Japanese cities (primarily Tokyo).
    • Hiroshima: The Lost Photographs: Observatory: Design Observer 15 September 2009 5:52 UTC designobserver.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ New York Times Op Ed on the bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki - Joi Ito's Web Joi Ito's Web Joi Ito's conversation with the living web.
    • New York Times Op Ed on the bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki - Joi Ito's Web 15 September 2009 5:52 UTC joi.ito.com [Source type: General]

    .Hiroshima and Nagasaki: The Physical, Medical, and Social Effects of the Atomic Bombings.^ Oh yea thats also another great point to make for all the defenders of Hiroshima/Nagasaki bombings.
    • Hiroshima: The Lost Photographs: Observatory: Design Observer 15 September 2009 5:52 UTC designobserver.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Countdown to '95 - in 1995 the world will observe the 50th Anniversary of the UN, the bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, and the re-ratificaton of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation ...
    • Nagasaki Information on the Web 15 September 2009 5:52 UTC www.cmp.ucr.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ A single atomic bomb, the first weapon of its type ever used against a target, exploded over the city of Hiroshima at 0815 on the morning of 6 August 1945.
    • HyperWar: USSBS: The Effects of Atomic Bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki [Chapter 2] 15 September 2009 5:52 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Basic Books. ISBN 046502985X. 
  • Campbell, Richard H. (2005). ."Chapter 2: Development and Production". The Silverplate Bombers: A History and Registry of the Enola Gay and Other B-29s Configured to Carry Atomic Bombs.^ As bad as the atomic bomb effects on Hiroshima and Nagasaki were, they pale compared to the devastation inflicted by the firebombings of other Japanese cities (primarily Tokyo).
    • Hiroshima: The Lost Photographs: Observatory: Design Observer 15 September 2009 5:52 UTC designobserver.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Jul 26, 2005, 14:46 The atomic bomb of Nagasaki exploded above the Urakami Catholic Church that has a history of miserable martyrdom.
    • Hiroshima & Nagasaki [Archive] - Japan Forum 25 September 2009 4:04 UTC www.jref.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Development of the Atomic Bomb: White Paper on the Atomic Bombings #3 .
    • Index to the Barbara Reynolds Collected Papers 25 September 2009 4:04 UTC www.watsonlibrary.org [Source type: News]

    McFarland & Company, Inc.. ISBN 0-7864-2139-8.
     
  • Goldstein, Donald M; Dillon, Katherine V. & Wenger, J. Michael (1995). .Rain of Ruin: A Photographic History of Hiroshima and Nagasaki.^ Social_Science/History/Military_History/World_War_II/Bombing_of_Hiroshima_and_Nagasaki/50th_Anniversary/ (1K) Hiroshima and Nagasaki Gallery Exhibition Hiroshima and Nagasaki Exhibition .
    • Nagasaki Information on the Web 15 September 2009 5:52 UTC www.cmp.ucr.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Hiroshima & Nagasaki [Archive] - Japan Forum Japan Forum > Japan Forum > All Things Japanese > History & Traditions > Hiroshima & Nagasaki .
    • Hiroshima & Nagasaki [Archive] - Japan Forum 25 September 2009 4:04 UTC www.jref.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Social Science:History:Military History:World War II:Bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki .
    • Nagasaki Information on the Web 15 September 2009 5:52 UTC www.cmp.ucr.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Brasseys, Washington & London. .ISBN 1-57488-033-0. 
  • Hein, Laura and Selden, Mark (Editors) (1997).^ Dower describes Americans genocidal rage towards the Japanese after Pearl Harbor; Laura Hein and Mark Selden, ed.
    • From Harlem to Hiroshima: 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC fch.fiu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Sadao Asada, The Mushroom Cloud and National Psyches: Japanese and American Perceptions of the Atomic-Bomb Decision, 1945-1995, in Laura Hein and Mark Selden, ed.
    • From Harlem to Hiroshima: 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC fch.fiu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Living with the Bomb: American and Japanese Cultural Conflicts in the Nuclear Age.^ Living With the Bomb: American and Japanese Cultural Conflicts in the Nuclear Age (New York: M.E. Sharpe, 1997), 177.
    • From Harlem to Hiroshima: 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC fch.fiu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ But some people feel that the Americans did not give the Japanese sufficient warnings of the power of the bomb so that the Japanese could have the opportunity to surrender without the devastation of the bomb.
    • Hiroshima & Nagasaki [Archive] - Japan Forum 25 September 2009 4:04 UTC www.jref.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Either continue firebombing, which was doing just as much, if not more damage then the atomic bombs, full scale invasion which military strategists at the time predicted would cost millions of American and Japanese lives, or use the atomic bombs.
    • The Decline and Fall of the American Empire [Archive] - eBaum's World Forum 22 September 2009 23:38 UTC forum.ebaumsworld.com [Source type: Original source]

    M. E. Sharpe. ISBN 1-56324-967-9. 
  • Hogan, Michael J. (1996). .Hiroshima in History and Memory.^ Hiroshima/Nagasaki Memorial Collection: Organizational History .
    • Index to the Barbara Reynolds Collected Papers 25 September 2009 4:04 UTC www.watsonlibrary.org [Source type: News]

    Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521562066.
     
  • Knebel, Fletcher and Bailey, Charles W. (1960). No High Ground. Harper and Row. .ISBN 0313242216.  A history of the bombings, and the decision-making to use them.
  • Merton, Thomas (1962).^ Development of the Atomic Bomb: Decision to use the Bomb #1 .
    • Index to the Barbara Reynolds Collected Papers 25 September 2009 4:04 UTC www.watsonlibrary.org [Source type: News]

    ^ Development of the Atomic Bomb: Decision to use the Bomb #2 .
    • Index to the Barbara Reynolds Collected Papers 25 September 2009 4:04 UTC www.watsonlibrary.org [Source type: News]

    ^ The American decision to use the Bombs forestalled more extensive Soviet conquest in China, and most sources I've read say that this was with clear intent to do so.
    • Hiroshima: The Lost Photographs: Observatory: Design Observer 15 September 2009 5:52 UTC designobserver.com [Source type: Original source]

    Original Child Bomb: Points for meditation to be scratched on the walls of a cave. New Directions. ISBN B0007EVXX2 A look at the universal ramifications of this event.. 
  • Murakami, Chikayasu (2007). Hiroshima no shiroi sora ~The white sky in Hiroshima~. Bungeisha. ISBN 4286037088. 
  • Ogura, Toyofumi (1948). .Letters from the End of the World: A Firsthand Account of the Bombing of Hiroshima.^ Social Science:History:Military History:World War II:Bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki .
    • Nagasaki Information on the Web 15 September 2009 5:52 UTC www.cmp.ucr.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The dropping of the atomic bomb on Hiroshima and Nagasaki did put an end to the war.
    • Hiroshima & Nagasaki [Archive] - Japan Forum 25 September 2009 4:04 UTC www.jref.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The totally unnecessary, and absolutely criminal, dropping of the atomic bomb on Hiroshima and Nagasaki was their attempt to impose this Wellsian nightmare on an unwitting world.
    • Why Hiroshima Was Bombed: The 'Utopians' Duped a Nation 15 September 2009 5:52 UTC www.larouchepub.com [Source type: Original source]

    Kodansha International Ltd.. ISBN 4-7700-2776-1.
     
  • Pellegrino, Charles (2010). The Last Train from Hiroshima: The Survivors Look Back. Henry Holt and Co.. ISBN 9780805087963. 
  • Rhodes, Richard (1977). .Enola Gay: The Bombing of Hiroshima.^ Later on 6 August 1945, the B-29 "Enola Gay", piloted by Col. Paul Tibbets, dropped an atomic bomb (Little Boy) on Hiroshima, effectively destroying it.
    • The Decline and Fall of the American Empire [Archive] - eBaum's World Forum 22 September 2009 23:38 UTC forum.ebaumsworld.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ On the morning of August 6, 1945, the B-29 bomber Enola Gay dropped an atomic bomb on Hiroshima, Japan.

    ^ One quote was from the pilots of the “Enola Gay”, the name of the B-29 Bomber airplane used to drop the bomb.
    • Heinle, Nick, The Manhattan Project http://www 16 September 2009 21:26 UTC www.rural-tech.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Konecky & Konecky. ISBN 1568525974.
     
  • Sekimori, Gaynor (1986). .Hibakusha: Survivors of Hiroshima and Nagasaki.^ On June 6, 1964 three Japanese writers and atomic bomb survivors ( Hibakusha ) arrived in Harlem as part of the Hiroshima/Nagasaki World Peace Study Mission.
    • From Harlem to Hiroshima: 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC fch.fiu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Hibakusha, Non-Japanese: Committee for US Veterans of Hiroshima & Nagasaki .
    • Index to the Barbara Reynolds Collected Papers 25 September 2009 4:04 UTC www.watsonlibrary.org [Source type: News]

    ^ Medical Effects of Hiroshima/Nagasaki Bombing: Medical Papers on Hiroshima Survivors .
    • Index to the Barbara Reynolds Collected Papers 25 September 2009 4:04 UTC www.watsonlibrary.org [Source type: News]

    Kosei Publishing Company. ISBN 4-333-01204-X.
     
  • Sherwin, Martin J. (2003). A World Destroyed: Hiroshima and its Legacies. Stanford University Press. ISBN 0-8047-3957-9. 
  • Sodei, Rinjiro (1998). Were We the Enemy? American Survivors of Hiroshima. Westview Press. ISBN 081333750X. 
  • Sweeney, Charles, et al. (1999). .War's End: An Eyewitness Account of America's Last Atomic Mission.^ Last march our visitors opted that Hiroshima and Nagasaki did not constitute war crimes, nuclear attacks were necessary to end the war.
    • Hiroshima & Nagasaki [Archive] - Japan Forum 25 September 2009 4:04 UTC www.jref.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ As one of the concluding acts of the last “good war” the atomic bombing of Hiroshima initiated a more morally ambiguous era, one of increased uncertainty and fear.
    • Hiroshima: The Lost Photographs: Observatory: Design Observer 15 September 2009 5:52 UTC designobserver.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ First-person, eyewitness accounts of key events of the war.
    • Websites on World War II 16 September 2009 21:26 UTC www.cjims.org [Source type: News]

    Quill Publishing. ISBN 0380788748.
     

External links

.

Simple English

over Hiroshima after the dropping of Little Boy]]
mushroom cloud resulting from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rises 18 km (11 mi, 60,000 ft) into the air from the hypocenter.]]

The atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki were nuclear attacks at the end of World War II against the Empire of Japan by the United States ordered by the U.S. President Harry S. Truman on August 6 and 9, 1945.
The bombs killed as many as 140,000 people in Hiroshima and 80,000 in Nagasaki by the end of 1945. In both cities, most of the dead people were civilians, or non-soldiers.

One reason why the bombs killed so many people is because a lot of Japanese houses were made of wood. When the bombs exploded, the wooden buildings caught fire, which spread quickly.

Six days after the explosion over Nagasaki, on August 15, Japan announced its surrender to the Allied Powers, signing the surrender paper on September 2, officially ending the Pacific War and World War II.

Some people say that the atomic bombs actually saved many lives, because an Allied invasion of Japan would kill more people on both sides. Others say that the bombings were not necessary and a war crime. People still argue about this.

The bombings led, in part, to post-war Japan adopting Three Non-Nuclear Principles, forbidding that nation from nuclear armament.


Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 09, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, which are similar to those in the above article.








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