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Ατροπατήνη
Atropatene

320s BC–200s AD
Western Asia and the Eastern Mediterranean following the Fourth War of the Diadochi in 301 BCE.
  • Media Atropatene, off to the immediate south-west of the Caspian Sea, had declared independence by then.
  • The rest, and greater part, of Media lies to the immediate south and remained a Seleucid governate.
Capital Ganzak
Government Monarchy
Historical era Antiquity
 - Established 320s BC
 - Disestablished 200s AD

Atropatene or Media Atropatene (Greek: Ατροπατήνη) was an ancient kingdom established in the 4th century BC in modern Iranian Azarbaijan[1] and Iranian Kurdistan. Its capital was Gazaca. Atropatene also was the nominal ancestor of the name Azarbaijan.

History

Following the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BCE, the Macedonian's conquests were divided amongst the diadochi at the Partition of Babylon. The former Achaemenid satrapy of Media was divided into two states: The greater (southern) part - Media Magna was assigned to Peithon, one of Alexander's bodyguards. The smaller (northern) region, which had been the sub-satrapy of Matiene, became Media Atropatene under Atropates, the former Achaemenid governor of all Media, who had by then become father-in-law of Perdiccas, regent of Alexander's designated successor.

Shortly thereafter, Atropates refused to pay allegiance to Seleucus, and made Media Atropatene an independent kingdom. It subsequently lost the Media prefix in the name and came to be known simply as Atropatene (Greek: ᾿Ατροπατήνη).

The dynasty Atropates founded would rule the kingdom for several centuries, first independently, then as vassals of the Arsacids (who called it 'Aturpatakan'). It was eventually annexed by the Arsacids, who then lost it to the Sassanids, who again called it 'Aturpatakan'. The Arabs under the Rashidun took control of the area during the reign of Umar, at some time between 639 and 643. Atropatene formed a separate province of the early Islamic caliphate and was considered to have had strategic importance. It was during the Arab period that Middle Iranian (i.e. Parthian and Middle Persian) Aturpatakan became Adarbaygan, Adarbayjan, Azarbaijan,.

List of rulers

  1. Artabazanes, ruled 221 BCE or 220 BCE, a contemporary of Antiochus III the Great.
  2. Mithridates I, (b. 100 BCE - d. ca. 66 BCE), ruled from 67 BCE to ca. 66 BCE, a son-in-law of Tigranes the Great.
  3. Aristobanes I, (b. 85 BCE-d. 56 BCE), ruled from 65 BCE to 56 BCE.
  4. Darius, (b. ca.85 BCE-d. ca.65 BCE), ruled ca. 65 BCE.
  5. Artavasdes I, (b. 65 BCE-d. 20 BCE), ruled from 56 BCE to 31 BCE, a son-in-law of Antiochus I Theos of Commagene.
  6. Aristobanes II, (b. 40 BCE-d. AD 2), ruled from 28 BCE to 8 BCE, also as Aristobanes, king of Armenia from 2 BCE to AD 2.
  7. Artavasdes III, (b. 20 BCE-d. AD 4), as Artavasdes IV, king of Armenia from AD 2 to AD 4.

References

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Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

Contents

English

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Etymology

From Ancient Greek Ἀτροπατηνή (Atropatēnē).

Proper noun

Singular
Atropatene

Plural
-

Atropatene

  1. (historical) An ancient kingdom established in the 4th century BC in modern-day Iranian Azerbaijan by the satrap Atropates.

Translations


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