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A military attack dog undergoing training.

An attack dog is any dog bred, trained or used for the purpose of attacking a target either on command or on sight.[1] Attack dogs have been used often throughout history and are now employed in dog fighting, as well as police and military roles.

Contents

History

Early in recorded history there are records of dogs being trained for the purpose of attacking a target.[2] One of the most well-recorded ancient uses was in a battle between the Greeks and Corinthians, in which dogs were used to keep watch over a fortress and despite being unsuccessful in opposing an enemy attack, were able to alert the sleeping soldiers to the attack. Ancient Romans first adopted the use of dogs as a weapon after hordes of dogs delayed their victory in the Battle of Versella. The Romans not only trained them to attack, but also bred their attack dogs for ferocity. The effect of this was documented by Roman naturalist and writer Pliny the Elder, who wrote that the animals would not back down, even when confronted by swords. The Roman attack dogs were given metal armour covered in razor-sharp spikes, designed to force the enemy out of formation.[3] Napoleon utilised dogs for their superior senses, putting them to work in roles similar to that of modern sentry dogs.[4] The first use of attack dogs in United States of America was suggested by Benjamin Franklin.[5]

Training

Attack dog training is a variation of sentry dog training, only instead of bringing attention to an intruder, is trained to chase, hold and injure, or possibly kill, a perceived hostile target.[6] Attack dogs are trained to interpret a situation and react accordingly. In formal training, the dogs are exposed to gunfire, traffic and other distractions to increase their effectiveness.[7] Attack training is condemned by some as promoting ferocity in dogs; a 1975 American study showed that 10% of dogs that have bitten a person received attack dog training at some point.[8]

Uses

Dogs used in underground dog fighting rings are given attack dog training to raise their ferocity and enhance their fighting ability. These dogs are often trained using live bait, such as cats, rabbits and smaller dogs.[9] Fighting attack dogs are often the product of large, strong dogs being cross bred with pit fighting dogs. Pit fighting breeds, such as Pit Bulls, were historically selectively bred to eliminate the will to submit in a fight.[10]

Various modern military groups also use attack dogs, primarily for sentry purposes. The dogs are trained to defend their post and attack any possible intruders.[11] It is also reported that dogs have been used in psychological torture against prisoners of war.[12]

Additionally, attack dogs are used by almost every police force in the world for apprehending and subduing targets (see police dog). The dogs are trained to identify situations where humans are in danger and respond accordingly.[13] Police attack dogs are generally trained to hold a target rather than to inflict injury.

See also

References

  1. ^ Mish, Frederick C. (2003). Merriam-Webster's collegiate dictionary. Merriam-Webster. p. 79. ISBN 0877798095.  
  2. ^ Lemish, Michael G. (1999). War Dogs: A History of Loyalty and Heroism. Brassey's Inc. p. 1. ISBN 1574882163.  
  3. ^ Lemish, Michael G. (1999). War Dogs: A History of Loyalty and Heroism. Brassey's Inc. p. 2. ISBN 1574882163.  
  4. ^ Lemish, Michael G. (1999). War Dogs: A History of Loyalty and Heroism. Brassey's Inc. p. 4. ISBN 1574882163.  
  5. ^ Lemish, Michael G. (1999). War Dogs: A History of Loyalty and Heroism. Brassey's Inc. p. 6. ISBN 1574882163.  
  6. ^ Buecker, Thomas (2004). Fort Robinson and the American Century, 1900–1948. University of Oklahoma Press. p. 97. ISBN 0806136464.  
  7. ^ United States War Dept.. Technical Manual. United States War Dept.. p. 107.  
  8. ^ United States Congress. Senate. Committee on Commerce. Subcommittee on the Environment (1976). Animal Welfare Improvement Act of 1975: Hearing Before the Subcommittee on the Environment of the Committee on Commerce. United States Government. p. 111. "Nearly 10 per cent of the dogs that have bitten people have received attack dog training."  
  9. ^ "Dogfighting Fact Sheet". The Humane Society of the United States. http://www.hsus.org/hsus_field/animal_fighting_the_final_round/dogfighting_fact_sheet/. Retrieved 2008-08-13.  
  10. ^ "Interview with the owner of pig dogs responsible for attacking a 13-yearold boy". Campbell Live. TV3 (New Zealand). 2008-06-18.
  11. ^ Ricciuti, Edward. Killer Animals. Lyons Press. p. 122. ISBN 1585748684.  
  12. ^ "We were using dogs in the Mosul detention facility". Seattle Post-Intelligencer. http://seattlepi.nwsource.com/opinion/329528_amy30.html. Retrieved 2008-08-19.  
  13. ^ Ricciuti, Edward. Killer Animals. Lyons Press. p. 123. ISBN 1585748684.  
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