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Attack on Pearl Harbor (Hawaiian Islands Oahu)
Part of the Pacific Theater of World War II
.Attack on Pearl Harbor Japanese planes view.jpg
Photograph from a Japanese plane of Battleship Row at the beginning of the attack.
^ Torpedo planes and the rest of the bombers attack "Battleship Row".
  • Japanese Ships to Pearl Harbor 18 September 2009 10:21 UTC www.ww2pacific.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Japanese torpedo planes attack Battleship Row.
  • Pearl Harbor Attack: National Park Service Photo Collection 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC education.eastwestcenter.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A captured Japanese photo shows Battleship Row under attack.
  • Attack At Pearl Harbor, 1941 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.eyewitnesstohistory.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • advertisement photos: attack harbor pearl photo 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC bonzer5.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The explosion in the center is a torpedo strike on the USS West Virginia
Date December 7, 1941
Location Primarily Pearl Harbor, Hawaii Territory, United States
Result Japanese major tactical victory
Belligerents
 United States Japan Empire of Japan
Commanders
United States Husband Kimmel
United States Walter Short
Empire of Japan Chuichi Nagumo
Empire of Japan Isoroku Yamamoto
Strength
8 battleships,
8 cruisers,
30 destroyers,
4 submarines,
49 other ships,[1]
~390 aircraft
Mobile Unit:
6 aircraft carriers,
2 battleships,
2 heavy cruisers,
1 light cruiser,
9 destroyers,
8 tankers,
23 fleet submarines,
5 midget submarines,
414 aircraft
Casualties and losses
4 battleships sunk,
4 battleships damaged including 1 run aground
2 destroyers sunk, 1 damaged
1 other ship sunk, 3 damaged
3 cruisers damaged[2]

188 aircraft destroyed
155 aircraft damaged,
2,345 military killed
1,247 military wounded
57 civilians killed
35 civilians wounded[3][4]
4 midget submarines sunk,
1 midget submarine run aground,
27 aircraft destroyed,
55 airmen killed
9 submariners killed
1 submariner captured[5]
.The attack on Pearl Harbor (or Hawaii Operation, Operation Z, as it was called by the Japanese Imperial General Headquarters, and Battle of Pearl Harbor by some Americans)[6] was an unannounced military strike conducted by the Japanese navy against the United States naval base at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii on the morning of December 7, 1941. It resulted in the United States' entry into World War II.^ "American Attitude towards the Japanese in World War 2."
  • Clipping the Eagle 18 September 2009 4:39 UTC www-rohan.sdsu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Comparar con Attack on Pearl Harbor .

^ This was the event that brought the United States into WW II, ultima… .
  • December 7 1941 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC buzzup.net [Source type: General]

.The attack was intended as a preventive action in order to keep the U.S. Pacific Fleet from influencing the war that the Empire of Japan was planning in Southeast Asia, against Britain and the Netherlands, as well as the U.S. in the Philippines.^ The attack was intended as a preventive action in order to keep the U.S. Pacific Fleet from influencing the war that the Empire of Japan was planning in Southeast Asia , against Britain and the Netherlands , as well as the U.S. in the Philippines .
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ War with Japan was a given because they had to attack the Philippines.
  • Pearl Harbor - Mother of All Conspiracies 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC whatreallyhappened.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The fleet was the only threat to Japan's plans.
  • Pearl Harbor - Mother of All Conspiracies 20 September 2009 11:011 UTC www.geocities.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Pearl Harbor - Mother of All Conspiracies 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC whatreallyhappened.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The attack consisted of two aerial attack waves totaling 353[7] aircraft, launched from six Japanese aircraft carriers.^ The Japanese attacked in two waves.
  • Attack on Pearl Harbor: Aviation History: Wings Over Kansas 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.wingsoverkansas.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The attack consisted of two aerial attack waves totaling 353 aircraft, launched from six Japanese aircraft carriers.
  • Attack on Pearl Harbor: Aviation History: Wings Over Kansas 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.wingsoverkansas.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The air attack was executed by two waves of aircraft composed of 3 groups each.
  • HyperWar: USSBS: Campaigns of the Pacific War 20 September 2009 11:10 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: Reference]

.Four U.S. Navy battleships were sunk (two of which were raised and returned to service later in the war) and all of the four other battleships present were damaged.^ Eight battleships are damaged, with five sunk.
  • The Attack on Pearl Harbor 18 September 2009 4:25 UTC www.wediditforlove.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The attack sank four U.S. Navy battleships (two of which were raised and returned to service late in the war) and damaged four more.
  • Attack on Pearl Harbor: Aviation History: Wings Over Kansas 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.wingsoverkansas.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Of the eight battleships damaged during the attack, six returned to service.

.The Japanese also sank or damaged three cruisers, three destroyers, an anti-aircraft training ship[8] and one minelayer.^ Three other battleships, three cruisers, three destroyers, and other vessels were also damaged.
  • Pearl Harbor attack (Japanese-United States history) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Another four battleships were damaged, along with three cruisers and three destroyers.
  • Attack on Pearl Harbor Still Vivid for Survivors - 13WHAM.com - Rochester News, Weather, and Sports 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.13wham.com [Source type: News]

^ Eleven smaller ships including cruisers and destroyers were also badly damaged.
  • The Pacific: Pearl Harbor 16 October 2009 6:06 UTC www.worldwar2.be [Source type: Original source]

.188 U.S. aircraft were destroyed, 2,402 personnel were killed[9] and 1,282 were wounded.^ Eight American battleships and 13 other naval vessels were sunk or badly damaged, almost 200 American aircraft were destroyed, and approximately 3,000 naval and military personnel were killed or wounded.
  • Pearl Harbor - MSN Encarta 18 September 2009 10:21 UTC encarta.msn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Aircraft 188 Aircraft destroyed (92 USN and 92 U.S. Army Air Corps.
  • Japanese attack upon Pearl Harbor 16 October 2009 6:06 UTC www.defraudingamerica.com [Source type: News]
  • The Attack on Pearl Harbor 18 September 2009 4:25 UTC www.wediditforlove.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Attack on Pearl Harbor: 18 September 2009 4:25 UTC www.nvo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The attack sank four battleships damaged four additional battleships and destroyed 188 aircraft among other damage.
  • Complete Broadcast 1941 | Old Time Radio 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.otrcat.com [Source type: General]

.The power station, shipyard, maintenance, and fuel and torpedo storage facilities, as well as the submarine piers and headquarters building (also home of the intelligence section) were not attacked.^ The power station, shipyard, maintenance, and fuel and torpedo storage facilities, as well as the submarine piers and headquarters building (also home of the intelligence section ) were not hit.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The power station, shipyard, maintenance, and fuel and torpedo storage facilities, as well as the submarine piers and headquarters building (also home of the intelligence section) were not hit.
  • Attack on Pearl Harbor: Aviation History: Wings Over Kansas 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.wingsoverkansas.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Several Japanese junior officers, including Mitsuo Fuchida and Minoru Genda, the chief architect of the attack, urged Nagumo to carry out a third strike in order to destroy as much of Pearl Harbor's fuel and torpedo storage, maintenance, and dry dock facilities as possible.
  • Attack on Pearl Harbor: Aviation History: Wings Over Kansas 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.wingsoverkansas.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Japanese losses were light, with 29 aircraft and five midget submarines lost, and 65 servicemen killed or wounded.^ Japanese combat losses were light: 29 aircraft and 6 submarines, 5 of them midgets.
  • Pearl Harbor, attack on - FREE Pearl Harbor, attack on information | Encyclopedia.com: Oxford Companion to World War II 20 September 2009 11:011 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Japanese losses were minimal, with 29 aircraft and five midget submarines lost, and 65 servicemen killed or wounded.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Fifty-five Japanese airmen and nine submariners were killed in the action.
  • Attack on Pearl Harbor: Aviation History: Wings Over Kansas 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.wingsoverkansas.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • yawiki.org entry for Attack on Pearl Harbor 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC yawiki.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.One Japanese sailor was captured.^ One Japanese sailor was captured.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Japanese lost 29 planes and five midget submarines, one of which was captured when it ran aground off Bellows Field.
  • Map 1: Hawaii and Japan 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC barney.gonzaga.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The two much older brothers of my best school buddy were Marines, and one of them was captured on Corregidor and spent the war in a Japanese prison camp.
  • Pearl Harbor Revisited by William R. Tonso 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.lewrockwell.com [Source type: Original source]

.The attack was a major engagement of World War II and came as a profound shock to the American people.^ The attack would force Americans to fight in World War Two.
  • 1941: Attack on Pearl Harbor Ends American Effort to Avoid War 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.voanews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ World War II (26) .
  • Remembering Pearl Harbor 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC free.ed.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ World War II – pictures related to World War II .
  • World War II – pictures related to World War II - List of Items - MSN Encarta 18 September 2009 4:39 UTC encarta.msn.com [Source type: General]
  • World War II – pictures related to World War II - List of Items - MSN Encarta 18 September 2009 4:39 UTC ca.encarta.msn.com [Source type: General]

Domestic support for isolationism, which had been strong, disappeared. .Germany's ill-considered declaration of war on the U.S., which was not required by any treaty commitment, moved the U.S. from clandestine support of Britain (for example the Neutrality Patrol) into active alliance and full participation in the European Theater.^ (E) Germany declared war on the United States.
  • Objective questions for the Unit VIII: "The Age of FDR" 18 September 2009 4:25 UTC www.orange.k12.oh.us [Source type: Academic]

^ Germany's prompt declaration of war, unforced by any treaty commitment to Japan , quickly brought the United States into the European Theater as well.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, America had already committed to a large portion of war production in the European Conflict.

Despite numerous historical precedents for unannounced military action, the lack of any formal warning by Japan, particularly while negotiations were still apparently ongoing, led to it being characterized as a "sneak attack", and to President Franklin D. Roosevelt proclaiming December 7 "a date which will live in infamy".

Background to conflict

.The naval strike was intended to neutralize the U.S. Pacific Fleet, and hence protect Japan's advance into Malaya and the Dutch East Indies, where Japan sought access to natural resources such as oil and rubber.^ Main article: Events leading to the attack on Pearl Harbor The naval strike was intended to neutralize the U.S. Pacific Fleet, and hence protect Japan's advance into Malaya and the Dutch East Indies , where Japan sought access to natural resources such as oil and rubber.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Japan needed natural resources, especially oil, for its planned expansion.
  • Pearl Harbor Attack 18 September 2009 10:21 UTC www.u-s-history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The strike was intended to neutralize the U.S. Pacific Fleet, and hence protect Japan's advance into Malaya and the Dutch East Indies, where Japan sought access to natural resources such as oil and rubber.
  • Attack on Pearl Harbor: Aviation History: Wings Over Kansas 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.wingsoverkansas.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Both the U.S. and Japan held long-standing contingency plans for war in the Pacific which were continuously updated as tensions between the two countries steadily increased during the 1930s, with the Japanese expanding into Manchuria and mainland China.^ Both the U.S. and Japan held long-standing contingency plans for war in the Pacific which were continuously updated as tensions between the two countries steadily increased during the 1930s, with the Japanese expansion into Manchuria and French Indochina greeted by steadily increased levels of embargoes and sanctions from the United States and other nations.
  • Attack on Pearl Harbor: Aviation History: Wings Over Kansas 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.wingsoverkansas.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Both the U.S. and Japan held long-standing contingency plans for war in the Pacific which were continuously updated as tensions between the two countries steadily increased during the 1930s, with the Japanese expanding into Manchuria and mainland China .
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Japanese intentions and war plans was .
  • Radio Liberty - Financial Armageddon 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.radioliberty.com [Source type: Reference]

.Japan spent considerable effort trying to isolate China and achieve sufficient resource independence to attain victory on the mainland; the "Southern Operation" was designed to assist these efforts.^ Japan spent considerable effort trying to isolate China and achieve sufficient resource independence to attain victory on the mainland; the "Southern Operation" was designed to assist these efforts.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Roosevelt administration was aware of Japan's incursions into mainland Asia and its designs on strategic resources in the Pacific, but believed that economic sanctions would deter further overt aggression.
  • WWII - 1941: Pearl Harbor 16 October 2009 6:06 UTC www.jcs-group.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Japan wants the U.S. to agree to its southern expansion in Asia diplomatically but if those efforts were unsuccessful, Japan was prepared to go to war.
  • A Pearl Harbor Timeline : NPR 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.npr.org [Source type: General]

[10]
.In 1940, following Japan's invasion of French Indochina and under the authority granted by the Export Control Act, the United States halted shipments of airplanes, parts, machine tools, and aviation gasoline, which was perceived by Japan as an unfriendly act.^ Japan -bashing in the United States.
  • Article: "Pearl Harbor": Fact vs. fiction - VFW, Veterans of Foreign Wars Magazine | HighBeam Research - FREE trial 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.highbeam.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The Government of the United States and the Government of Japan propose to take steps as follows: .
  • FDR provoked the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ In 1940, under the authority granted by the Export Control Act, the U.S. halted shipments of airplanes, parts, machine tools, and aviation gasoline, which was perceived by Japan as an unfriendly act.
  • Attack on Pearl Harbor: Aviation History: Wings Over Kansas 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.wingsoverkansas.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[11] .The U.S. did not stop oil exports to Japan at that time in part because prevailing sentiment in Washington was that such an action would be an extreme step, given Japanese dependence on U.S. oil,[12][13] and likely to be considered a provocation by Japan.^ The U.S. did not stop oil exports to Japan at that time in part because prevailing sentiment in Washington was that such an action would be an extreme step, given Japanese dependence on U.S. oil, and likely to be considered a provocation by Japan.
  • Attack on Pearl Harbor: Aviation History: Wings Over Kansas 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.wingsoverkansas.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, later investigations indicated that, while U.S. officials had been aware that an attack by Japan was probable, they had no knowledge of the time or place at which it would occur.
  • Pearl Harbor attack (Japanese-United States history) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Following Japanese expansion into French Indochina after the fall of France, the U.S. ceased oil exports to Japan in the Summer of 1941, in part because of new American restrictions on domestic oil consumption.
  • Attack on Pearl Harbor: Aviation History: Wings Over Kansas 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.wingsoverkansas.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Japanese planning staff studied the 1940 British attack on the Italian fleet at Taranto intensively.^ Japanese planning staff studied the 1940 British attack on the Italian fleet at Taranto intensively.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Early in 1941, despite the fact that the Chief of the Naval General Staff, Admiral Osami Nagano, had not yet approved a surprise attack on Pearl Harbor, Admiral Yamamoto directed that intensive planning and training for such an attack was to be undertaken.
  • Japan prepares to attack Pearl Harbor 18 September 2009 10:21 UTC www.users.bigpond.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The date was December 7, 1941 as the Japanese Navy had embarked on Operation Z, a surprise attack on the United States Pacific Fleet in order to remove.
  • Pearl Harbor | Latest News | Current Updates at NewsOXY 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.newsoxy.com [Source type: News]

.It was of great use to them when planning their attack on U.S. naval forces in Pearl Harbor.^ Pearl Harbor, attack on - FREE Pearl Harbor, attack on information .
  • Pearl Harbor, attack on - FREE Pearl Harbor, attack on information | Encyclopedia.com: Oxford Companion to World War II 20 September 2009 11:011 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ OS requirements for Attack on Pearl Harbor : .

^ Facts about Attack on Pearl Harbor .
  • Attack on Pearl Harbor: event, pictures and information - Footnote.com 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.footnote.com [Source type: General]

[14][15]
.Following Japanese expansion into French Indochina after the fall of France, the U.S. ceased oil exports to Japan in July 1941, in part because of new American restrictions on domestic oil consumption.^ Following Japanese expansion into French Indochina after the fall of France, the U.S. ceased oil exports to Japan in the Summer of 1941, in part because of new American restrictions on domestic oil consumption.
  • Attack on Pearl Harbor: Aviation History: Wings Over Kansas 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.wingsoverkansas.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The situation worsened, and in 1941 Japan moved into northern Indochina .
  • yawiki.org entry for Attack on Pearl Harbor 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC yawiki.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Following Japanese expansion into French Indochina after the fall of France , the U.S. ceased oil exports to Japan in July 1941, in part because of new American restrictions on domestic oil consumption.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[16] .President Franklin D. Roosevelt had earlier moved the Pacific Fleet to Hawaii and ordered a military buildup in the Philippines in the hope of discouraging Japanese aggression in the Far East.^ President Franklin D. Roosevelt had earlier moved the Pacific Fleet to Hawaii and ordered a military buildup in the Philippines in the hope of discouraging Japanese aggression in the Far East.
  • Attack on Pearl Harbor: Aviation History: Wings Over Kansas 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.wingsoverkansas.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ President Franklin Roosevelt proclaimed Dec.
  • Pearl Harbor | Latest News | Current Updates at NewsOXY 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.newsoxy.com [Source type: News]

^ In 1940, Franklin Delanor Roosevelt introduced the embargo on gasoline, hardware, machine tools, and on the coming products from the Philippines.
  • About the Attack on Pearl Harbor by Discover Hawaii Tours 20 September 2009 11:011 UTC www.discoverhawaiitours.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Because the Japanese high command was (mistakenly)[17] certain any attack on the British Southeast Asian colonies would bring the U.S. into the war,[17] a devastating preventive strike appeared to be the only way[17] to avoid U.S. naval interference.^ As the Japanese high command was (mistakenly) [ 16 ] certain any attack on the British Southeast Asian colonies would bring the U.S. into the war, [ 16 ] a devastating preventive strike appeared to be the only way [ 16 ] for Japan to avoid U.S. naval interference.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As the Japanese high command was (mistakenly) certain any attack on the United Kingdom's Southeast Asian colonies would bring the U.S. into the war, a preventive strike appeared to be the only way for Japan to avoid U.S. naval interference.
  • Attack on Pearl Harbor: Aviation History: Wings Over Kansas 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.wingsoverkansas.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Would not it have been good enough to get into the war if the Japanese attacked us but we were prepared for them.
  • Attack on Pearl Harbor Still Vivid for Survivors - 13WHAM.com - Rochester News, Weather, and Sports 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.13wham.com [Source type: General]

.An invasion of the Philippines was also considered to be necessary by Japanese war planners, while for the U.S., reconquest of the islands had been a given of War Plan Orange for decades.^ An invasion of the Philippines was also considered to be necessary by Japanese war plans, while for the U.S., reconquest of the islands had been a given of War Plan Orange in the interwar years .
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Japanese intentions and war plans was .
  • Radio Liberty - Financial Armageddon 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.radioliberty.com [Source type: Reference]

^ An invasion of the Philippines was also considered to be necessary by Japanese war plans, while for the U.S., reconquest of the islands had been a given of War Plan Orange in the interwar years.
  • Attack on Pearl Harbor: Aviation History: Wings Over Kansas 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.wingsoverkansas.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.War between Japan and the United States had been a possibility each nation had been aware of (and developed contingency plans for) since the 1920s, though tensions did not begin to grow seriously until Japan's 1931 invasion of Manchuria.^ On December 8, 1941 the Congress of the United States declared war on Japan.
  • About the Attack on Pearl Harbor by Discover Hawaii Tours 20 September 2009 11:011 UTC www.discoverhawaiitours.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ (E) Germany declared war on the United States.
  • Objective questions for the Unit VIII: "The Age of FDR" 18 September 2009 4:25 UTC www.orange.k12.oh.us [Source type: Academic]

^ (Asking for a Declaration of a State of War between the United States and Japan, December 8, 1941) .
  • Pearl Harbor Attacked - Expert information and serious discussion on the attack of Pearl Harbor. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC pearlharborattacked.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Over the next decade, Japan continued to expand into China, leading to all-out war in 1937. In 1940, Japan invaded French Indochina in an effort to control supplies reaching China, and as a first step to improve her access to resources in Southeast Asia.^ Hull's ultimatum that Japan must withdraw from Indochina and all China.
  • Pearl Harbor - Mother of All Conspiracies 20 September 2009 11:011 UTC www.geocities.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Pearl Harbor - Mother of All Conspiracies 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC whatreallyhappened.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The next year, Japan declared war on China.
  • Pearl Harbor 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC members.cox.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 1940, Japan invaded French Indochina in an effort to control supplies reaching China, and as a first step to improve her access to resources in Southeast Asia.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This move prompted an American embargo on oil exports to Japan, which in turn caused the Japanese to initiate their planned takeover of oil production in the Dutch East Indies.^ The U.S. response was to freeze Japanese assets and initiate a complete oil embargo.
  • Attack on Pearl Harbor - War, Japan, United States, USA and American warships. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.dark-stories.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This move prompted an American embargo on oil exports to Japan, which in turn caused the Japanese to initiate their planned takeover of oil production in the Dutch East Indies.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This move prompted an American embargo on oil exports to Japan, which in turn caused the Japanese to initiate its planned takeover of oil production in the Dutch East Indies.
  • Attack on Pearl Harbor: Aviation History: Wings Over Kansas 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.wingsoverkansas.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[18] .Furthermore, the transfer of the U.S. Pacific Fleet from its previous base in San Diego to its new base in Pearl Harbor was seen by the Japanese military as a preparation for conflict.^ Over the radio, we heard the news of Pearl Harbor.
  • WWII veterans recall attack on Pearl Harbor - The Times Herald News: Norristown, PA and Montgomery County (timesherald.com) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.timesherald.com [Source type: News]

^ Furthermore, the transfer of the U.S. Pacific Fleet from its previous base in San Diego to its new base in Pearl Harbor was seen by the Japanese military as the U.S. readying itself for a potential conflict between the two countries.
  • Attack on Pearl Harbor: Aviation History: Wings Over Kansas 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.wingsoverkansas.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Pearl Harbors, old and new .
  • Parallels to 9/11: Northwoods, Pearl Harbor, 9/9/99 (Russia) 18 September 2009 10:21 UTC www.oilempire.us [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Pearl Harbor on October 30, 1941.
.Preliminary planning for an attack on Pearl Harbor to protect the move into the "Southern Resource Area" (the Japanese term for the Dutch East Indies and Southeast Asia generally) had begun very early in 1941 under the auspices of Admiral Isoroku Yamamoto, then commanding Japan's Combined Fleet.^ Comparar con Attack on Pearl Harbor .

^ Admiral Isoroku Yamamoto, commander-in-chief of Japan's Combined Fleet, had to be careful of his country's position in the Pacific.
  • The Pacific: Pearl Harbor 16 October 2009 6:06 UTC www.worldwar2.be [Source type: Original source]
  • WikiAnswers - What events led up to the bombing of Pearl Harbor 18 September 2009 4:39 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The USS Arizona: a ship, her crew, and the 1941 attack on Pearl Harbor .
  • The USS Arizona: a ship, her crew, and the 1941 attack on Pearl Harbor - - Epinions.com 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.epinions.com [Source type: General]

[19] .He won assent to formal planning and training for an attack from the Imperial Japanese Navy General Staff only after much contention with Naval Headquarters, including a threat to resign his command.^ He won assent to formal planning and training for an attack from the Imperial Japanese Navy General Staff only after much contention with Naval Headquarters, including a threat to resign his command.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ After some pressure on Naval Headquarters (including a threat to resign), managed to get permission to begin formal planning and training for the proposed attack.
  • yawiki.org entry for Attack on Pearl Harbor 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC yawiki.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Imperial Japanese Navy was under the command of under the command of Admiral Isoroku Yamamoto.
  • Complete Broadcast 1941 | Old Time Radio 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.otrcat.com [Source type: General]

[20] .Full-scale planning was underway by early spring 1941, primarily by Captain Minoru Genda.^ Full-scale planning was underway by early spring 1941, primarily by Captain Minoru Genda.
  • Attack on Pearl Harbor: Aviation History: Wings Over Kansas 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.wingsoverkansas.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Full-scale planning was underway by early spring 1941, primarily by Captain Minoru Genda .
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Over the next several months, pilots trained, equipment was adapted, and intelligence collected.^ Over the next several months, pilots trained, equipment was adapted, and intelligence collected.
  • Attack on Pearl Harbor: Aviation History: Wings Over Kansas 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.wingsoverkansas.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ During the next 11 months, the White House followed the Japanese war plans through the intercepted and decoded diplomatic and  military communications intelligence.
  • Educate-Yourself.org-December 7, 1941- A Day of Deceit 16 October 2009 6:06 UTC educate-yourself.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Despite these preparations, the attack plan was not approved by Emperor Hirohito until November 5, after the third of four Imperial Conferences called to consider the matter.^ Despite these preparations, actual approval of the attack plan was not issued by Emperor Hirohito until November 5, after the third of four Imperial Conferences to consider the matter.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Despite these preparations, actual approval of the attack plan was not issued by Emperor Shōwa until November 5, after the third of four Imperial Conferences to consider the matter.
  • Attack on Pearl Harbor: Aviation History: Wings Over Kansas 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.wingsoverkansas.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Emperor knew of the plan to attack the main strength of the United States Pacific Fleet with a carrier task force after the last ultimatum to the United States Government had been delivered.
  • HyperWar: USSBS: Campaigns of the Pacific War 20 September 2009 11:10 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: Reference]

[21] Final authorization was not given by the emperor until December 1, after a majority of Japanese leaders advised him the "Hull Note" would "destroy the fruits of the China incident, endanger Manchukuo and undermine Japanese control of Korea."[22] Though by late 1941 many observers believed that hostilities between the U.S. and Japan were imminent, and U.S. Pacific bases and facilities had been placed on alert on multiple occasions, U.S. officials doubted Pearl Harbor would be the first target. .They expected the Philippines to be attacked first, due to the threat bases there would pose to sea lanes, hence supplies to and from territory to the south,[23] which were Japan's main objective.^ War with Japan was a given because they had to attack the Philippines.
  • Pearl Harbor - Mother of All Conspiracies 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC whatreallyhappened.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ MacArthur became so confident in his forces stationed in the Philippines that on December 5,1941, he said, "Nothing would please me better than if they would give me three months and then attack here."
  • WikiAnswers - What events led up to the bombing of Pearl Harbor 18 September 2009 4:39 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, later investigations indicated that, while U.S. officials had been aware that an attack by Japan was probable, they had no knowledge of the time or place at which it would occur.
  • Pearl Harbor attack (Japanese-United States history) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[24] .They also believed (wrongly) that Japan was not capable of mounting more than one major naval operation at a time.^ The design was simple then for many folks: Many men and women believed that when they married, they became one under God.
  • SitNews - Stories In The News - December 07, 2006 20 September 2009 11:011 UTC www.sitnews.us [Source type: News]

^ If they had been wiped out, "serious [American] operations in the Pacific would have been postponed for more than a year" [ 64 ] ; according to American Admiral Chester Nimitz , later Commander in Chief of the Pacific Fleet, "it would have prolonged the war another two years."
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Second, it was a means to buy time for Japan to consolidate her position and increase her naval strength, before the shipbuilding of the Vinson-Walsh Act erased any chance of victory.
  • Attack on Pearl Harbor: Aviation History: Wings Over Kansas 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.wingsoverkansas.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[25]

Objectives

The attack had several major aims. .First, it was supposed to destroy American fleet units, thereby preventing the Pacific Fleet from interfering with Japanese conquest of the Dutch East Indies and Malaya.^ Japanese Americans in the history of the United States.
  • Japanese American - Factbites 18 September 2009 4:39 UTC www.factbites.com [Source type: Original source]

^ First, it was supposed to destroy American fleet units, thereby preventing the Pacific Fleet from interfering with Japanese conquest of the Dutch East Indies.
  • Attack on Pearl Harbor: Aviation History: Wings Over Kansas 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.wingsoverkansas.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Eighteen months earlier, President Franklin D. Roosevelt had transferred the United States Fleet to Pearl Harbor as a presumed deterrent to Japanese agression.
  • Pearl Harbor Images 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.history.navy.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Second, it was a means to buy time for Japan to consolidate its position and increase its naval strength, before the shipbuilding of the Vinson-Walsh Act erased any chance of victory.^ Second, it was a means to buy time for Japan to consolidate her position and increase her naval strength, before the shipbuilding of the Vinson-Walsh Act erased any chance of victory.
  • Attack on Pearl Harbor: Aviation History: Wings Over Kansas 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.wingsoverkansas.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If by these means Japan could be led to commit an overt act of war, so much the better.
  • FDR provoked the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Upon completion of the air attacks, the Task Force will immediately withdraw and return to Japan and, after taking on new supplies, take its position for Second Period Operations.
  • http://ibiblio.org/pha/monos/097/index.html 20 September 2009 11:10 UTC ibiblio.org [Source type: Reference]

[26][27] .Finally, it was intended as a blow to American morale, one which might discourage further fighting and enable Japan to conquer Southeast Asia without interference.^ Finally, It was intended as a blow against American morale, which might discourage further fighting and enable Japan to conquer Southeast Asia without interference.
  • Attack on Pearl Harbor: Aviation History: Wings Over Kansas 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.wingsoverkansas.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Finally, it was intended as a blow against American morale, which might discourage further fighting and enable Japan to conquer Southeast Asia without interference.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Moreover, Rusbridger does not distinguish between the a and b editions of JN25–and does not make clear why Churchill would try to get the Americans to fight Japan instead of Germany.
  • Attack on Pearl Harbor: Why Weren’t We Warned » HistoryNet 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.historynet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[26] .To maximise the effect on morale, battleships were chosen as the main target, since they were the prestige ships of any navy at the time.^ Making battleships the main target was a means of striking at morale, since they were the prestige ships of any navy at the time.
  • Attack on Pearl Harbor: Aviation History: Wings Over Kansas 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.wingsoverkansas.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the course of their attacks on battleship row and the ships in the navy yard's drydocks, the enemy planes had strafed and bombed the Marine barracks area, and nine men had been wounded.

^ Tiger!” The attack occurred in two waves, the first striking airfields and battleships, and the second targeting other ships and shipyards.
  • Reel American History - Films - List 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC digital.lib.lehigh.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Striking at the US Pacific Fleet while it was at anchor in Pearl Harbor carried two distinct disadvantages: the targeted ships would be in very shallow water, so it would be relatively easy to salvage and possibly repair them; and most of the crews would survive the attack, since many would be on shore leave or would be rescued from the harbor.^ The USS Arizona: a ship, her crew, and the 1941 attack on Pearl Harbor .
  • The USS Arizona: a ship, her crew, and the 1941 attack on Pearl Harbor - - Epinions.com 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.epinions.com [Source type: General]

^ Most of the attacking planes approached Pearl Harbor from the south.
  • The Attack on Pearl Harbor — Hawaii Aviation 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC hawaii.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Pearl Harbor, attack on - FREE Pearl Harbor, attack on information .
  • Pearl Harbor, attack on - FREE Pearl Harbor, attack on information | Encyclopedia.com: Oxford Companion to World War II 20 September 2009 11:011 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Despite these concerns, Yamamoto pressed ahead.
.Japanese confidence in their ability to achieve a short, victorious war also meant other targets in the harbor, especially the Navy Yard, oil tank farms, and Submarine Base, could safely be ignored, since the war would be over before the influence of these facilities would be felt.^ Japanese confidence in their ability to achieve a short, victorious war also meant other targets in the harbor, especially the Navy Yard, oil tank farms, and Submarine Base, could safely be ignored, since the war would be over before the influence of these facilities would be felt.
  • Attack on Pearl Harbor: Aviation History: Wings Over Kansas 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.wingsoverkansas.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Oil storage tanks CINCPAC headquarters building Submarine base Navy Yard .
  • Attack on Pearl Harbor: Aviation History: Wings Over Kansas 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.wingsoverkansas.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, and other targets on .
  • Radio Liberty - Financial Armageddon 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.radioliberty.com [Source type: Reference]

[28]

Approach and attack

Route followed by the Japanese fleet to Pearl Harbor and back
.On November 26, 1941, a Japanese task force (the Striking Force) of six aircraft carriers departed northern Japan en route to a position to northwest of Hawaii, intending to launch its aircraft to attack Pearl Harbor.^ The USS Arizona: a ship, her crew, and the 1941 attack on Pearl Harbor .
  • The USS Arizona: a ship, her crew, and the 1941 attack on Pearl Harbor - - Epinions.com 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.epinions.com [Source type: General]

^ The Imperial Japanese Navy made its attack on Pearl Harbor on the morning of December 7, 1941.
  • Attack on Pearl Harbor - War, Japan, United States, USA and American warships. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.dark-stories.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Although the attack on Pearl Harbor in 1941 led to the immediate collapse of the ...
  • THE PEARL HARBOR DECEPTION 18 September 2009 4:39 UTC www.apfn.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In all, 408 aircraft were intended to be used: 360 for the two attack waves, 48 on defensive combat air patrol (CAP), including nine fighters from the first wave.^ In all, 408 aircraft were intended to be used: 360 for the two attack waves, 48 on defensive combat air patrol (CAP), including nine fighters from the first wave.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Japanese attacked in two waves.
  • Attack on Pearl Harbor: Aviation History: Wings Over Kansas 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.wingsoverkansas.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Fighter Combat Units will attack the enemy aircraft in the air and on the ground.
  • http://ibiblio.org/pha/monos/097/index.html 20 September 2009 11:10 UTC ibiblio.org [Source type: Reference]

.The first wave was to be the primary attack, while the second wave was to finish whatever tasks remained.^ Second attack wave arrives.
  • Japanese Ships to Pearl Harbor 18 September 2009 10:21 UTC www.ww2pacific.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The second attack wave also had airfield strikes among its tasks.
  • WWII - Pearl Harbor, December 7, 1941 16 October 2009 6:06 UTC www.jcs-group.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The first wave was to be the primary attack, while the second wave was to finish whatever tasks remained.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The first wave contained the bulk of the weapons to attack capital ships, mainly specially adapted Type 91 aerial torpedoes which were designed with an anti-roll mechanism and a rudder extension that let them operate in shallow water.^ The first wave contained the bulk of the weapons to attack capital ships, mainly torpedoes.
  • Attack on Pearl Harbor: Aviation History: Wings Over Kansas 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.wingsoverkansas.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ (The Japanese had secretly developed aerial torpedoes that could operate in such shallow water and bombs that could penetrate deck armor.
  • Pearl Harbor, Attack on - History of Pearl Harbor, Attack on | Encyclopedia.com: Oxford Companion to American Military History 20 September 2009 11:011 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In fact, the Japanese, who had learned much from the British raid on Taranto the previous year, had modified their torpedoes to run in shallow water.
  • Pearl Harbor, attack on - FREE Pearl Harbor, attack on information | Encyclopedia.com: Oxford Companion to World War II 20 September 2009 11:011 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[29] .The aircrews were ordered to select the highest value targets (battleships and aircraft carriers) or, if either were not present, any other high value ships (cruisers and destroyers).^ Three other battleships, three cruisers, three destroyers, and other vessels were also damaged.
  • Pearl Harbor attack (Japanese-United States history) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The aircrews were ordered to select the highest value targets (battleships and aircraft carriers) or, if either were not present, any other high value ships (cruisers and destroyers).
  • Attack on Pearl Harbor: Aviation History: Wings Over Kansas 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.wingsoverkansas.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He was instructed to attack, in order, aircraft carriers, battleships, and heavy cruisers.
  • Midget submarine and the attack on Pearl Harbor. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.texasescapes.com [Source type: News]

.Dive bombers were to attack ground targets.^ Dive bombers were to attack ground targets.
  • Attack on Pearl Harbor: Aviation History: Wings Over Kansas 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.wingsoverkansas.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Dive-bombers were targeting the big battleships moored at Ford Island.
  • Survivors recount attack on Pearl Harbor 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.enquirer.com [Source type: News]

^ Dive bombers attacked the ship, registering several hits.

.Fighters were ordered to strafe and destroy as many parked aircraft as possible to ensure they did not get into the air to counterattack the bombers, especially in the first wave.^ At 6 a.m., the first wave of fighters, bombers, and torpedo planes took off.
  • Map 1: Hawaii and Japan 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC barney.gonzaga.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ First wave aircraft began launching.
  • Map 1: Hawaii and Japan 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC barney.gonzaga.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Fighters were ordered to strafe and destroy as many parked aircraft as possible to ensure they did not get into the air to counterattack the bombers, especially in the first wave.
  • Attack on Pearl Harbor: Aviation History: Wings Over Kansas 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.wingsoverkansas.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.When the fighters' fuel got low they were to refuel at the aircraft carriers and return to combat.^ But, eventually, they returned and carried me to the dock.
  • A Marine's Eyewitness Account of the Japanese Attack on Pearl Harbor 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC dolartpublished.com [Source type: Original source]

^ When the fighters' fuel got low they were to refuel at the aircraft carriers and return to combat.
  • Attack on Pearl Harbor: Aviation History: Wings Over Kansas 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.wingsoverkansas.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Before returning to its carrier, after the attack, an element of fighters designated by the Fighter Combat Unit Commander will fly as low and as fast as circumstances permit and observe and determine the extent of damage inflicted upon the enemy aircraft and ships.
  • http://ibiblio.org/pha/monos/097/index.html 20 September 2009 11:10 UTC ibiblio.org [Source type: Reference]

.Fighters were to serve CAP duties where needed, especially over US airfields.^ Fighters were to serve CAP duties where needed, especially over US airfields.
  • Attack on Pearl Harbor: Aviation History: Wings Over Kansas 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.wingsoverkansas.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Before the attack commenced, two reconnaissance aircraft launched from cruisers were sent to scout over Oahu and report on enemy fleet composition and location.^ Before the attack commenced, two reconnaissance aircraft launched from cruisers were sent to scout over Oahu and report on enemy fleet composition and location.
  • Attack on Pearl Harbor: Aviation History: Wings Over Kansas 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.wingsoverkansas.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Two supply ships and 5 tankers are stationed in Atlantic, and scouting ships are sent out in advance of the main vessels to search for suitable prey.
  • SC Military Museum 16 October 2009 6:06 UTC www.scguard.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Before returning to its carrier, after the attack, an element of fighters designated by the Fighter Combat Unit Commander will fly as low and as fast as circumstances permit and observe and determine the extent of damage inflicted upon the enemy aircraft and ships.
  • http://ibiblio.org/pha/monos/097/index.html 20 September 2009 11:10 UTC ibiblio.org [Source type: Reference]

.Another four scout planes patrolled the area between the Kido Butai and Niihau, in order to prevent the task force from being caught by a surprise counterattack.^ Another four scout planes patrolled the area between the Kido Butai and Niihau , in order to prevent the task force from being caught by a surprise counterattack.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Another four scout planes patrolled the area between the Kido Butai and Niihau, in order to prevent the task force from being caught by a surprise counterattack.
  • Attack on Pearl Harbor: Aviation History: Wings Over Kansas 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.wingsoverkansas.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Later, I learned that a flight of six Enterprise planes had been coming in for a landing on Ford Island and four were shot down by friendly forces.
  • A Marine's Eyewitness Account of the Japanese Attack on Pearl Harbor 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC dolartpublished.com [Source type: Original source]

[30]

Submarines

.Fleet submarines I-16, I-18, I-20, I-22, and I-24 each embarked a Type A midget submarine for transport to the waters off Oahu.^ Fleet submarines I-16 , I-18 , I-20 , I-22 , and I-24 each embarked a Type A midget submarine for transport to the waters off Oahu.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Fleet submarines I-16, I-18, I-20, I-22, and I-24 each embarked a Type A midget submarine for transport to the waters off Oahu.
  • Attack on Pearl Harbor: Aviation History: Wings Over Kansas 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.wingsoverkansas.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ North of Hawaii, the attacking Japanese task force increases speed to 25 knots, and six midget submarines are released from their mother boats off Oahu, in a bid to cause additional chaos at Pearl Harbor.

[31] .The five I-boats left Kure Naval District on November 25, 1941,[32] coming to 10 nm (19 km) off the mouth of Pearl Harbor[33] and launched their charges, at about 01:00 December 7.[34] At 03:42[35] Hawaiian Time, the minesweeper USS Condor spotted a midget submarine periscope southwest of the Pearl Harbor entrance buoy and alerted the destroyer USS Ward.^ Which was the exact time that Pearl Harbor was bombed.
  • Do Freedom of Information Act Files Prove FDR Had Foreknowledge of Pearl Harbor?: Newsroom: The Independent Institute 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.independent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The USS Arizona: a ship, her crew, and the 1941 attack on Pearl Harbor .
  • The USS Arizona: a ship, her crew, and the 1941 attack on Pearl Harbor - - Epinions.com 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.epinions.com [Source type: General]

^ In addition one submarine was detected and depth charged near the entrance to Pearl Harbor.
  • HyperWar: USSBS: Campaigns of the Pacific War 20 September 2009 11:10 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: Reference]

[36] .That midget probably entered Pearl Harbor, but Ward sank another at 06:37[36][37] in the first American shots fired in World War II.^ This period began with the end of World War One and ended with Pearl Harbor.
  • 1941: Attack on Pearl Harbor Ends American Effort to Avoid War 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.voanews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ That midget probably entered Pearl Harbor, but Ward sank another at 06:37 [ 34 ] [ 35 ] in the first American shots fired in World War II .
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ That midget probably entered Pearl Harbor, but Ward sank another at 06:37.
  • Attack on Pearl Harbor: Aviation History: Wings Over Kansas 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.wingsoverkansas.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

A midget on the north side of Ford Island missed the seaplane tender Curtiss with her first torpedo and missed the attacking destroyer Monaghan with her other one before being sunk by Monaghan at 08:43.[36]
.A third midget submarine grounded twice, once outside the harbor entrance and again on the east side of Oahu, where it was captured on December 8.[38] Ensign Kazuo Sakamaki swam ashore and became the first Japanese prisoner of war.^ Ensign Kazuo Sakamaki swam ashore from her and became the first Japanese prisoner of war.
  • Attack on Pearl Harbor: Aviation History: Wings Over Kansas 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.wingsoverkansas.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A third midget submarine grounded twice, once outside the harbor entrance and again on the east side of Oahu, where it was captured on 8 December.
  • Attack on Pearl Harbor: Aviation History: Wings Over Kansas 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.wingsoverkansas.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Among them is a midget sub commanded by Ensign Kazuo Sakamaki.

[39] .A fourth had been damaged by a depth charge attack and was abandoned by its crew before it could fire its torpedoes.^ A fourth had been damaged by a depth charge attack and abandoned by its crew before it could fire its torpedoes.
  • Attack on Pearl Harbor: Aviation History: Wings Over Kansas 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.wingsoverkansas.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A fourth had been damaged by a depth charge attack and was abandoned by its crew before it could fire its torpedoes.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Ward fired her guns at the ship and dropped depth charges, reportedly sinking the midget submarine, one of five launced by the Japanese to participate in the attack.
  • WWII - Pearl Harbor, December 7, 1941 16 October 2009 6:06 UTC www.jcs-group.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[40] .A United States Naval Institute analysis of photographs from the attack conducted in 1999 indicated a midget may have successfully fired a torpedo into USS West Virginia.^ The explosion in the center is a torpedo strike on the USS West Virginia .
  • Attack on Pearl Harbor: Aviation History: Wings Over Kansas 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.wingsoverkansas.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ United States in the attacks on Hickam Army .
  • Radio Liberty - Financial Armageddon 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.radioliberty.com [Source type: Reference]

^ A United States Naval Institute analysis of photographs from the attack conducted in 1999 indicated a midget may have successfully fired a torpedo into USS West Virginia.
  • Attack on Pearl Harbor: Aviation History: Wings Over Kansas 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.wingsoverkansas.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Japanese forces received a radio communications from a midget submarine at 00:41 December 8 claiming damage to one or more large war vessels inside Pearl Harbor.^ And so it was, too, with the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor on December seventh, nineteen forty-one.
  • 1941: Attack on Pearl Harbor Ends American Effort to Avoid War 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.voanews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Japanese forces received a radio communications from a midget submarine at 00:41 December 8 claiming damage to one or more large war vessels inside Pearl Harbor.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ One midget submarine reported the results of the Air Attack as observed on the night of 7 December and at 0041 hours 8 December another message was received from a midget submarine claiming damage to one or more large war vessels inside Pearl Harbor.
  • HyperWar: USSBS: Campaigns of the Pacific War 20 September 2009 11:10 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: Reference]

[41] .That submarine's final disposition has been unknown,[42] but she did not return to her "mother" sub.^ That submarine's final disposition has been unknown, [ 40 ] but she did not return to her "mother" sub.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The final disposition of this submarine is unknown.
  • Attack on Pearl Harbor - War, Japan, United States, USA and American warships. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.dark-stories.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • yawiki.org entry for Attack on Pearl Harbor 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC yawiki.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ That submarine's final disposition is unknown.
  • Attack on Pearl Harbor: Aviation History: Wings Over Kansas 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.wingsoverkansas.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[43] .On December 7, 2009 The Los Angeles Times reported that there is circumstantial evidence that three pieces of a submarine discovered three miles south of Pearl Harbor between 1994 and 2001 could be that of the missing submarine.^ Which was the exact time that Pearl Harbor was bombed.
  • Do Freedom of Information Act Files Prove FDR Had Foreknowledge of Pearl Harbor?: Newsroom: The Independent Institute 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.independent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ There’s no mention of Pearl Harbor.

^ December 7, 1941, attack on Pearl Harbor .
  • Radio Liberty - Financial Armageddon 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.radioliberty.com [Source type: Reference]

.The publication also reported that there is strong circumstantial evidence that the submarine fired two torpedoes at Battleship Row.^ The publication also reported that there is strong circumstantial evidence that the submarine fired two torpedoes at Battleship Row.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On December 7, 2009 The Los Angeles Times reported that there is circumstantial evidence that three pieces of a submarine discovered three miles south of Pearl Harbor between 1994 and 2001 could be that of the missing submarine.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ During the first wave, all the outboard ships in Battleship Row received torpedo hits.

.The debris was dumped outside the harbor as part of an effort to conceal a 1944 ammunition explosion that destroyed six tank landing ships preparing for the secret invasion of Saipan.^ The debris was dumped outside the harbor as part of an effort to conceal a 1944 ammunition explosion that destroyed six tank landing ships preparing for the secret invasion of Saipan .
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ We also found out later that just minutes prior to the attack, a ship patroling the waters just outside the Harbor had sited an unidentified submarine and sank it.

^ In an area of Pearl Harbor known as West Loch, almost three dozen large landing ships brimming with fuel, ammunition and other equipment sat lashed together in preparation for a brutal invasion code-named "Operation Forager.".
  • SurfWax: News, Reviews and Articles On Attack On Pearl Harbor 18 September 2009 4:25 UTC news.surfwax.com [Source type: News]

[44]

Japanese declaration of war

.While the attack ultimately took place before a formal declaration of war by Japan, Admiral Yamamoto originally stipulated the attack should not commence until thirty minutes after Japan had informed the United States peace negotiations were at an end.^ While the attack ultimately took place before a formal declaration of war by Japan, Admiral Yamamoto originally stipulated the attack should not commence until thirty minutes after Japan had informed the United States she considered the peace negotiations at an end.
  • Attack on Pearl Harbor: Aviation History: Wings Over Kansas 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.wingsoverkansas.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The attack was planned by Admiral Isoroku Yamamoto of Japan.
  • Reel American History - Films - List 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC digital.lib.lehigh.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Japan began peace talks in November 1941 with United States.
  • Pearl Harbor Pictures 20 September 2009 11:011 UTC historylink101.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[45] .In this way, the Japanese tried both to uphold the conventions of war as well as achieving surprise.^ In this way, the Japanese tried both to uphold the conventions of war as well as achieving surprise.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Achieving complete tactical surprise, the first wave of 183 planes from 6 Japanese carriers struck U.S. airfields and U.S. battleships moored along Ford Island at 7:55 a.m.
  • Pearl Harbor Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Pearl Harbor 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Perhaps is just as well that this Medal of Honor winner is no longer with us, as he might now be tried by our "emperor" for his "war crimes.".
  • SurfWax: News, Reviews and Articles On Attack On Pearl Harbor 18 September 2009 4:25 UTC news.surfwax.com [Source type: News]

.Despite these intentions, the attack had already begun when the 5,000-word notification was delivered.^ Despite these intentions, the attack had already begun when the 5,000-word notification was delivered.
  • Attack on Pearl Harbor: Aviation History: Wings Over Kansas 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.wingsoverkansas.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Despite these preparations, actual approval of the attack plan was not issued by Emperor Hirohito until November 5, after the third of four Imperial Conferences to consider the matter.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, due to decryption difficulties, the Japanese embassy was not able to deliver the message until the attack had already started.
  • Attack on Pearl Harbor | World War II Database 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC ww2db.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Tokyo transmitted the message (commonly called the "14-Part Message"), in two blocks to the Japanese embassy in Washington, which ultimately took too long transcribing the message to deliver it in time, while U.S. code breakers had already deciphered and translated most of it hours[46] before the Japanese Ambassador was scheduled to deliver it.^ They agree to deliver it at 1 p.m., Washington time, half an hour before the attack.

^ This was long before Hitler took power.
  • Pearl Harbor Remembrance Day in Oregon Honors 65th Anniversary of the Attack - Salem-News.Com 20 September 2009 11:10 UTC salem-news.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Tokyo transmitted the message (commonly called the "14-Part Message"), in two blocks to the Japanese embassy in Washington, which ultimately took too long transcribing the message to deliver it in time, while U.S. code breakers had already deciphered and translated most of it hours [ 44 ] before the Japanese Ambassador was scheduled to deliver it.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The final part of the "14-Part Message", is sometimes described as a declaration of war, but in fact "neither declared war nor severed diplomatic relations".[47] The declaration of war was printed in the front page of Japan's newspapers in the evening edition on December 8,[48] and not delivered to the U.S. government until the day after the attack.^ The_Time_Master : Franco: Even so Japan declared war on us first by attacking us first.
  • FARK.com: (4098408) Frank Miller chats about comics, Iraq and his cats 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.fark.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The_Time_Master: Franco: Even so Japan declared war on us first by attacking us first.
  • FARK.com: (4098408) Frank Miller chats about comics, Iraq and his cats 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.fark.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The declaration of war was printed in the front page of Japan's newspapers in the evening edition on December 8, [ 46 ] and not delivered to the U.S. government until the day after the attack.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

First wave

.
The Japanese attacked in two waves.
^ The Japanese attacked in two waves.
  • Attack on Pearl Harbor: Aviation History: Wings Over Kansas 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.wingsoverkansas.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Tiger!” The attack occurred in two waves, the first striking airfields and battleships, and the second targeting other ships and shipyards.
  • Reel American History - Films - List 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC digital.lib.lehigh.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The second Japanese attack wave's horizontal and dive bombers gave the Navy Yard's drydock area considerable attention.
  • WWII - Pearl Harbor, December 7, 1941 16 October 2009 6:06 UTC www.jcs-group.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The first wave was detected by U.S. Army radar at 136 nautical miles (252 km), but was misidentified as USAAF bombers arriving from mainland U.S.A.
Top:
A. Ford Island NAS B. Hickam Field C. Bellows Field D. Wheeler Field
E. Kaneohe NAS F. Ewa MCAS R-1. Opana Radar Station R-2. Kawailoa RS R-3. Kaaawa RS
G. Haleiwa H. Kahuku I. Wahiawa J. Kaneohe K. Honolulu
0. B-17s from mainland 1. First strike group 1-1. Level bombers 1-2. Torpedo bombers 1-3. Dive bombers 2. Second strike group 2-1. Level bombers 2-1F. Fighters 2-2. Dive bombers
Bottom:
A. Wake Island B. Midway Islands C. Johnston Island D. Hawaii
D-1. Oahu 1. USS Lexington 2. USS Enterprise 3. First Air Fleet
Phdepth.png Attacked targets:
1: USS California
2: USS Maryland
3: USS Oklahoma
4: USS Tennessee
5: USS West Virginia
6: USS Arizona
7: USS Nevada
8: USS Pennsylvania
9: Ford Island NAS
10: Hickam field
Ignored infrastructure targets:
A: Oil storage tanks
B:CINCPAC headquarters building
C: Submarine base
D: Navy Yard
.The first attack wave of 183 planes was launched north of Oahu, commanded by Captain Mitsuo Fuchida.^ Some 183 Japanese planes — the first of two attack waves — were swarming.
  • Survivors recount attack on Pearl Harbor 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.enquirer.com [Source type: News]

^ Vulnerable torpedo bombers led the first wave of 183 planes, exploiting the first moments of surprise by attacking the (hoped for) aircraft carriers and battleships while dive bombers attacked the U.S. air bases across Oahu, starting with Hickam Field, the largest, and Wheeler Air Field, the principal fighter base.
  • Attack on Pearl Harbor - War, Japan, United States, USA and American warships. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.dark-stories.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Vulnerable torpedo bombers led the first wave of 183 planes, exploiting the first moments of surprise by attacking the (hoped for) aircraft carriers and battleships while dive bombers attacked the U.S. air bases across Oahu, starting with Hickam Field , the largest, and Wheeler Air Field, the principal fighter base.
  • yawiki.org entry for Attack on Pearl Harbor 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC yawiki.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Six planes failed to launch due to technical difficulties.^ Four planes failed to launch because of technical difficulties.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Six planes failed to launch due to technical difficulties.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some 360 Japanese planes were launched in three waves from six aircraft carriers during the attack.
  • Survivors, loved ones reflect on Pearl Harbor attack - Metro - cleveland.com 15 September 2009 5:25 UTC blog.cleveland.com [Source type: General]

[30] It included:[49]
A destroyed Vindicator at Ewa field, the victim of one of the smaller attacks on the approach to Pearl Harbor.
.As the first wave approached Oahu a U.S. Army SCR-270 radar at Opana Point near the island's northern tip (a post not yet operational, having been in training mode for months) detected them and called in a warning.^ As the first wave approached Oahu a U.S. Army SCR-270 radar at Opana Point near the island's northern tip (a post not yet operational, having been in training mode for months) detected them and called in a warning.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On the morning of the attack, the Army's Opana Point radar station detected the Japanese force, but the warning was confused, at the only partially active Intelligence Center to which the report was sent, with the expected arrival of U.S. B-17 bombers and discounted.
  • Attack on Pearl Harbor - War, Japan, United States, USA and American warships. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.dark-stories.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Group (targets: battleships and aircraft carriers) 50 Nakajima B5N bombers armed with 800 kg (1760 lb) armor piercing bombs, organised in four sections 0 B5N bombers armed with Type 91 torpedoes, also in four sections 2nd Group — (targets: Ford Island and Wheeler Field) 54 Aichi D3A dive bombers armed with 550 lb (249 kg) general purpose bombs 3rd Group — (targets: aircraft at Ford Island, Hickam Field, Wheeler Field, Barber’s Point, Kaneohe) 45 Mitsubishi A6M fighters for air control and strafing As the first wave approached O'ahu a U.S. Army SCR-270 radar at Opana Point near the island's northern tip (a post not yet operational, having been in training mode for months) detected them and called in a warning.
  • Attack on Pearl Harbor: Aviation History: Wings Over Kansas 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.wingsoverkansas.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Although the operators reported a target echo larger than anything they had ever seen, an untrained officer at the new and only partially activated Intercept Center, Lieutenant Kermit A. Tyler, presumed the scheduled arrival of six B-17 bombers was the source.^ Although the operators reported a target echo larger than anything they had ever seen, an untrained officer at the new and only partially activated Intercept Center, Lieutenant Kermit A. Tyler , presumed the scheduled arrival of six B-17 bombers was the source.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Although the operators reported a sighting larger than anything they had ever seen, the watch officer assumed that the pending arrival of 6 B-17 bombers accounted for the report.
  • yawiki.org entry for Attack on Pearl Harbor 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC yawiki.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Although the operators reported a target echo larger than anything they had ever seen, an untrained officer at the new and only partially activated Intercept Center, Lieutenant Kermit A. Tyler, presumed the scheduled arrival of six B-17 bombers was the source.
  • Attack on Pearl Harbor: Aviation History: Wings Over Kansas 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.wingsoverkansas.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The direction from which the aircraft were coming was close (only a few degrees separated the two inbound courses),[51] while the operators had never seen a formation as large on radar;[52] they neglected to tell Tyler of its size,[53] while Tyler, for security reasons, could not tell them the B-17s were due[53] (even though it was widely known).^ The direction from which the aircraft were coming was close (only a few degrees separated the two inbound courses), while the operators had never seen a formation as large as the U.S. bombers on radar.
  • Attack on Pearl Harbor: Aviation History: Wings Over Kansas 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.wingsoverkansas.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The direction from which the aircraft were coming was close (only a few degrees separated the two inbound courses), [ 49 ] while the operators had never seen a formation as large on radar; [ 50 ] they neglected to tell Tyler of its size, [ 51 ] while Tyler, for security reasons, could not tell them the B-17s were due [ 51 ] (even though it was widely known).
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Although the operators reported a target echo larger than anything they had ever seen, an untrained officer at the new and only partially activated Intercept Center, Lieutenant Kermit A. Tyler , presumed the scheduled arrival of six B-17 bombers was the source.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[53]
.Several U.S. aircraft were shot down as the first wave approached land, and one at least radioed a somewhat incoherent warning.^ Several planes were shot down.

^ Several U.S. aircraft were shot down as the air attack approached land; one, at least, radioed a somewhat incoherent warning.
  • Attack on Pearl Harbor - War, Japan, United States, USA and American warships. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.dark-stories.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • yawiki.org entry for Attack on Pearl Harbor 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC yawiki.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Several U.S. aircraft were shot down as the first wave approached land, and one at least radioed a somewhat incoherent warning.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Other warnings from ships off the harbor entrance were still being processed or awaiting confirmation when the attacking planes began bombing and strafing.^ Other warnings from ships off the harbor entrance were still being processed or awaiting confirmation when the attacking planes began bombing and strafing.
  • Attack on Pearl Harbor: Aviation History: Wings Over Kansas 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.wingsoverkansas.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The attack on Pearl Harbor began at 7:53 a.m.
  • yawiki.org entry for Attack on Pearl Harbor 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC yawiki.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Other warnings were still being processed, or awaiting confirmation, when the shooting began.
  • Attack on Pearl Harbor - War, Japan, United States, USA and American warships. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.dark-stories.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • yawiki.org entry for Attack on Pearl Harbor 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC yawiki.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Nevertheless it is not clear any warnings would have had much effect even if they had been interpreted correctly and much more promptly.^ It is not clear that these forewarnings would have had much effect even if they had been interpreted perfectly.
  • yawiki.org entry for Attack on Pearl Harbor 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC yawiki.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Nevertheless it is not clear any warnings would have had much effect even if they had been interpreted correctly and much more promptly.
  • Attack on Pearl Harbor: Aviation History: Wings Over Kansas 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.wingsoverkansas.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They defeated the original proposal in Congress and forced him to settle for a much more modest bill in 1939.
  • Franklin D. Roosevelt - American Heritage Center, Inc. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.fdrheritage.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The results the Japanese achieved in the Philippines were essentially the same as at Pearl Harbor, though MacArthur had almost nine hours warning that the Japanese had already attacked at Pearl and specific orders to commence operations before they actually struck his command.^ The results the Japanese achieved in the Philippines were essentially the same as at Pearl Harbor, though MacArthur had almost nine hours warning that the Japanese had already attacked at Pearl and specific orders to commence operations before they actually struck his command.
  • Attack on Pearl Harbor: Aviation History: Wings Over Kansas 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.wingsoverkansas.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Pearl Harbor survivor remembers attack .
  • Schofield Barracks News - Topix 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.topix.com [Source type: General]

^ He agreed with a plan to attack Pearl Harbor.
  • Pearl Harbor Pictures 20 September 2009 11:011 UTC historylink101.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The air portion of the attack on Pearl Harbor began at 7:48 a.m.^ The air portion of the attack on Pearl Harbor began at 7:48 a.m.
  • Attack on Pearl Harbor: Aviation History: Wings Over Kansas 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.wingsoverkansas.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Pearl Harbor survivor remembers attack .
  • Schofield Barracks News - Topix 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.topix.com [Source type: General]

^ He agreed with a plan to attack Pearl Harbor.
  • Pearl Harbor Pictures 20 September 2009 11:011 UTC historylink101.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Hawaiian Time (3:18 a.m.^ Hawaiian Time (3:18 a.m.
  • Attack on Pearl Harbor: Aviation History: Wings Over Kansas 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.wingsoverkansas.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.December 8 Japanese Standard Time, as kept by ships of the Kido Butai), with the attack on Kaneohe.^ December 8 Japanese Standard Time, as kept by ships of the Kido Butai), with the attack on Kaneohe.
  • Attack on Pearl Harbor: Aviation History: Wings Over Kansas 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.wingsoverkansas.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ December 8 Japanese Standard Time , as kept by ships of the Kido Butai ), with the attack on Kaneohe.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Ward fired her guns at the ship and dropped depth charges, reportedly sinking the midget submarine, one of five launced by the Japanese to participate in the attack.
  • WWII - Pearl Harbor, December 7, 1941 16 October 2009 6:06 UTC www.jcs-group.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[54] .A total of 353[7] Japanese planes in two waves reached Oahu.^ The Japanese attacked in two waves.
  • Attack on Pearl Harbor: Aviation History: Wings Over Kansas 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.wingsoverkansas.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Japanese planes attacked in two waves, in which a total of 353 planes reached Oahu.
  • Attack on Pearl Harbor - War, Japan, United States, USA and American warships. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.dark-stories.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A total of 353 Japanese planes in two waves reached Oʻahu.
  • Attack on Pearl Harbor: Aviation History: Wings Over Kansas 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.wingsoverkansas.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Slow, vulnerable torpedo bombers led the first wave, exploiting the first moments of surprise to attack the most important ships present (the battleships), while dive bombers attacked U.S. air bases across Oahu, starting with Hickam Field, the largest, and Wheeler Field, the main U.S. Army Air Force fighter base.^ Slow, vulnerable torpedo bombers led the first wave, exploiting the first moments of surprise to attack the most important ships present (the battleships), while dive bombers attacked U.S. air bases across Oahu, starting with Hickam Field, the largest, and Wheeler Field, the main U.S. Army Air Force fighter base.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The first wave contained the bulk of the weapons to attack capital ships, mainly torpedoes.
  • Attack on Pearl Harbor: Aviation History: Wings Over Kansas 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.wingsoverkansas.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Dive bombers were to attack ground targets.
  • Attack on Pearl Harbor: Aviation History: Wings Over Kansas 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.wingsoverkansas.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The 171 planes in the second wave attacked the Air Corps' Bellows Field near Kaneohe on the windward side of the island, and Ford Island.^ Second attack wave arrives.
  • Japanese Ships to Pearl Harbor 18 September 2009 10:21 UTC www.ww2pacific.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Was a second air attack coming?
  • Survivors recount attack on Pearl Harbor 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.enquirer.com [Source type: News]

^ The 170 planes of the second wave attacked Bellows Field and Ford Island, a marine and naval air base in the middle of Pearl Harbor.
  • Attack on Pearl Harbor - War, Japan, United States, USA and American warships. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.dark-stories.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The only aerial opposition came from a handful of P-36 Hawks, P-40 Warhawks and some SBD Dauntless dive bombers from the carrier USS Enterprise.^ The only aerial opposition came from a handful of P-36 Hawks and P-40 Warhawks .
  • Attack on Pearl Harbor: Aviation History: Wings Over Kansas 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.wingsoverkansas.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The only aerial opposition came from a handful of P-36 Hawks , P-40 Warhawks and some SBD Dauntless dive bombers from the carrier USS Enterprise .
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The only significant opposition came from some P-36 Hawk s and P-40 Warhawk s that flew 25 sortie s and from naval anti-aircraft fire.
  • yawiki.org entry for Attack on Pearl Harbor 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC yawiki.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[55]
.Men aboard U.S. ships awoke to the sounds of alarms, bombs exploding, and gunfire, prompting bleary-eyed men into dressing as they ran to General Quarters stations.^ Men aboard U.S. ships awoke to the sounds of alarms, bombs exploding, and gunfire, prompting bleary-eyed men into dressing as they ran to General Quarters stations.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Men aboard U.S. ships awoke to the sounds of alarms, bombs exploding, and gunfire prompting bleary eyed men into dressing as they ran to General Quarters stations.
  • Attack on Pearl Harbor: Aviation History: Wings Over Kansas 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.wingsoverkansas.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But trained men soon awaken to reality as an alarm sounds and the boatswain shouts: "This is no drill!
  • The USS Arizona: a ship, her crew, and the 1941 attack on Pearl Harbor - - Epinions.com 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.epinions.com [Source type: General]

.(The famous message, "Air raid Pearl Harbor.^ Attack On Pearl Harbor + de messages : Attack .
  • Attack On Pearl Harbor PC : code, demo 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.jeuxvideopc.com [Source type: General]

^ Pearl Harbor Raid, December 7, 1941.
  • Reel American History - Films - List 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC digital.lib.lehigh.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ (The famous message, "Air raid Pearl Harbor.
  • Attack on Pearl Harbor: Aviation History: Wings Over Kansas 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.wingsoverkansas.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This is not drill.",[56] was sent from the headquarters of Patrol Wing Two, the first senior Hawaiian command to respond.^ This is not drill.", was sent from the headquarters of Patrol Wing Two, the first senior Hawaiian command to respond.
  • Attack on Pearl Harbor: Aviation History: Wings Over Kansas 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.wingsoverkansas.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This is not drill.", [ 54 ] was sent from the headquarters of Patrol Wing Two, the first senior Hawaiian command to respond.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

) .The defenders were very unprepared.^ The defenders were very unprepared.
  • Attack on Pearl Harbor: Aviation History: Wings Over Kansas 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.wingsoverkansas.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Ammunition lockers were locked, aircraft parked wingtip to wingtip in the open to deter sabotage,[57] guns unmanned (none of the Navy's 5"/38s, only a quarter of its machine guns, and only four of 31 Army batteries got in action).^ Ammunition lockers were locked, aircraft parked wingtip to wingtip in the open to deter sabotage, [ 55 ] guns unmanned (none of the Navy's 5"/38s , only a quarter of its machine guns , and only four of 31 Army batteries got in action).
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ammunition lockers were locked, aircraft parked wingtip to wingtip in the open to deter sabotage, guns unmanned (none of the Navy's 5"/38s and only a quarter of its machine guns, and only four of 31 Army batteries got in action).
  • Attack on Pearl Harbor: Aviation History: Wings Over Kansas 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.wingsoverkansas.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Aircraft are therefore left parked wingtip to wingtip on airfields, anti-aircraft guns are unmanned with many ammunition boxes kept locked in accordance with peacetime regulations.
  • The Attack on Pearl Harbor 18 September 2009 4:25 UTC www.wediditforlove.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[57] .Despite this low alert status, many American military personnel responded effectively during the battle.^ Despite this and low alert status , many American military personnel responded effectively during the battle.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Despite this and low alert status, many American military personnel responded effectively during the battle.
  • Attack on Pearl Harbor: Aviation History: Wings Over Kansas 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.wingsoverkansas.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Despite the lack of preparation, which included locked ammunition lockers, aircraft parked wing to wing against sabotage, and a lack of heightened alert status, there were many American military personnel who served with distinction during the battle.
  • yawiki.org entry for Attack on Pearl Harbor 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC yawiki.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[58] .Ensign Joe Taussig, Jr., the only commissioned officer aboard USS Nevada, got the ship underway during the attack but lost a leg.^ Ensign Joe Taussig, Jr. USS Nevada , underway from dead cold during the attack.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ensign Joe Taussig got his ship, USS Nevada, underway from dead cold during the attack.
  • Attack on Pearl Harbor: Aviation History: Wings Over Kansas 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.wingsoverkansas.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ensign Joe Taussig got his ship, Nevada, under way from a dead cold start during the attack.
  • Attack on Pearl Harbor - War, Japan, United States, USA and American warships. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.dark-stories.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The ship was beached in the harbor by the Senior Quartermaster.[59] .One of the destroyers, USS Aylwin, got underway with only four officers aboard, all ensigns, none with more than a year's sea duty; she operated at sea for four days before her commanding officer managed to get back aboard.^ One of the destroyers, USS Aylwin, got underway with only four officers aboard, all Ensigns, none with more than a year's sea duty; she operated at sea for four days before her commanding officer managed to get aboard.
  • Attack on Pearl Harbor: Aviation History: Wings Over Kansas 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.wingsoverkansas.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ One of the destroyers, USS Aylwin , got underway with only four officers aboard, all Ensigns, none with more than a year's sea duty; she operated at sea for four days before her commanding officer managed to get aboard.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ One of the destroyers got under way with only four officers onboard, all Ensigns, none of whom had more than a year's sea duty.
  • yawiki.org entry for Attack on Pearl Harbor 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC yawiki.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Captain Mervyn Bennion, commanding USS West Virginia (Kimmel's flagship), led his men until he was cut down by fragments from a bomb which hit USS Tennessee, moored alongside.^ Captain Mervyn Bennion, commanding USS West Virginia (Kimmel's flagship), led his men until he was cut down by fragments from a bomb hit to USS Tennessee, moored alongside.
  • Attack on Pearl Harbor: Aviation History: Wings Over Kansas 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.wingsoverkansas.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Captain Mervyn Bennion , commanding officer of the ''West Virginia'' , led his men until he was cut down by fragments from a bomb hit aboard the ''Tennessee'' , moored alongside.
  • yawiki.org entry for Attack on Pearl Harbor 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC yawiki.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Captain Mervyn Bennion, commanding officer of West Virginia, calmly led his men in battle until he was cut down by fragments from a bomb hit aboard Tennessee, moored alongside.
  • Attack on Pearl Harbor - War, Japan, United States, USA and American warships. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.dark-stories.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Gallantry was widespread. .In all, 14 officers and sailors were awarded the Medal of Honor.^ In all, 14 officers and sailors were awarded the Medal of Honor .
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Recipients of the Medal of Honor Awarded posthumously.
  • yawiki.org entry for Attack on Pearl Harbor 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC yawiki.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Both were posthumously awarded the Medal of Honor.
  • Attack on Pearl Harbor - War, Japan, United States, USA and American warships. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.dark-stories.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A special military award, the Pearl Harbor Commemorative Medal, was later authorized for all military veterans of the attack.^ Pearl Harbor attack .
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A special military award , the Pearl Harbor Commemorative Medal , was later authorized for all military veterans of the attack.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Survivors recount attack on Pearl Harbor .
  • Survivors recount attack on Pearl Harbor 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.enquirer.com [Source type: News]

Second wave composition

.The second wave consisted of 171 planes: 54 B5Ns, 81 D3As, and 36 A6Ms, commanded by Lieutenant-Commander Shigekazu Shimazaki.^ The second wave consisted of 171 planes: 54 B5Ns, 81 D3As, and 36 A6Ms, commanded by Lieutenant-Commander Shigekazu Shimazaki .
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The 170 planes in the second wave attacked Bellows Field and Ford Island , a Marine and Naval air base in the middle of Pearl Harbor.
  • yawiki.org entry for Attack on Pearl Harbor 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC yawiki.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Near Oahu - At 7:15 a.m., a second attack wave of 167 planes takes off from the Japanese carriers and heads for Pearl Harbor.
  • The Attack on Pearl Harbor 18 September 2009 4:25 UTC www.wediditforlove.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[49] .Four planes failed to launch because of technical difficulties.^ Four planes failed to launch because of technical difficulties.
  • Attack on Pearl Harbor: Aviation History: Wings Over Kansas 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.wingsoverkansas.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Six planes failed to launch due to technical difficulties.
  • Attack on Pearl Harbor: Aviation History: Wings Over Kansas 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.wingsoverkansas.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Four Gambo planes were in the air that day, two failed to return.
  • The Attack on Pearl Harbor — Hawaii Aviation 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC hawaii.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[30] This wave and its targets comprised:[49]
  • 1st Group — 54 B5Ns armed with 550 lb (249 kg) and 132 lb (60 kg) general purpose bombs[50]
    • 27 B5Ns — aircraft and hangars on Kaneohe, Ford Island, and Barbers Point
    • 27 B5Ns — hangars and aircraft on Hickam Field
  • 2nd Group (targets: aircraft carriers and cruisers)
    • 81 D3As armed with 550 lb (249 kg) general purpose bombs, in four sections
  • 3rd Group — (targets: aircraft at Ford Island, Hickham Field, Wheeler Field, Barber’s Point, Kaneohe)
    • 36 A6Ms for defense and strafing
.The second wave was divided into three groups.^ The episode, which is divided into three stages in the series' game version, ends with Japanese troops landing at all islands in Hawaii.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.One was tasked to attack Kāneʻohe, the rest Pearl Harbor proper.^ He agreed with a plan to attack Pearl Harbor.
  • Pearl Harbor Pictures 20 September 2009 11:011 UTC historylink101.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Pearl Harbor attack .
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The attack on Pearl Harbor began at 7:53 a.m.
  • yawiki.org entry for Attack on Pearl Harbor 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC yawiki.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The separate sections arrived at the attack point almost simultaneously, from several directions.^ The separate sections arrived at the attack point almost simultaneously, from several directions.
  • Attack on Pearl Harbor: Aviation History: Wings Over Kansas 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.wingsoverkansas.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The War involved attacked from Manchuria, and at several points along China's Pacific coast.
  • yawiki.org entry for Attack on Pearl Harbor 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC yawiki.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Second Attack Units All units will storm the enemy skies almost simultaneously and launch the attacks.
  • http://ibiblio.org/pha/monos/097/index.html 20 September 2009 11:10 UTC ibiblio.org [Source type: Reference]

.Ninety minutes after it began, the attack was over.^ Ninety minutes after it began, the attack was over.
  • Attack on Pearl Harbor: Aviation History: Wings Over Kansas 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.wingsoverkansas.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Attack on Pearl Harbor - War, Japan, United States, USA and American warships. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.dark-stories.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • yawiki.org entry for Attack on Pearl Harbor 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC yawiki.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Breaking off negotiations Part of the Japanese plan for the attack included breaking off negotiations with the United States 30 minutes before the attack began.
  • yawiki.org entry for Attack on Pearl Harbor 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC yawiki.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ American response Ninety minutes before the attack on Pearl Harbor began ( December 8 , 1941 Japan time, on the other side of the International Date Line ), Japan invaded British Malaya .
  • yawiki.org entry for Attack on Pearl Harbor 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC yawiki.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.2,386 Americans died (55 were civilians, most killed by unexploded American anti-aircraft shells landing in civilian areas), a further 1,139 wounded.^ Americans died (68 were civilians, many killed by American anti-aircraft shrapnel and shells landing in civilian areas, including Honolulu), and a further 1,178 were wounded.
  • yawiki.org entry for Attack on Pearl Harbor 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC yawiki.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Americans died (55 were civilians, most killed by unexploded American anti-aircraft shells landing in civilian areas), a further 1,139 wounded.
  • Attack on Pearl Harbor: Aviation History: Wings Over Kansas 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.wingsoverkansas.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Over 2,400 American were killed (this figure includes civilian deaths of 68 caused by friendly fire: American anti-aircraft shells were landing in the city of Honolulu), with minimal Japanese casualties (29 planes shot down and 6 midget submarines lost).
  • Attack on Pearl Harbor | World War II Database 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC ww2db.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Eighteen ships were sunk or run aground, including five battleships.^ Eighteen ships were sunk, including five battleships.
  • Attack on Pearl Harbor: Aviation History: Wings Over Kansas 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.wingsoverkansas.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Attack on Pearl Harbor - War, Japan, United States, USA and American warships. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.dark-stories.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • yawiki.org entry for Attack on Pearl Harbor 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC yawiki.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Eighteen ships were sunk or seriously damaged including 5 battleships (USS Arizona photo ).
  • Pearl Harbor - Mother of All Conspiracies 20 September 2009 11:011 UTC www.geocities.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Pearl Harbor - Mother of All Conspiracies 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC whatreallyhappened.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ At the end of the attack, 21 ships were sunk, including eight battleships.
  • Pearl Harbor Pictures 20 September 2009 11:011 UTC historylink101.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[3][4]
USS Arizona (BB-39) during the attack
.Of the American fatalities, nearly half of the total were due to the explosion of Arizona's forward magazine after it was hit by a modified 40 cm (16 in.^ Nearly half of the American fatalities — 1,102 men — were caused by the explosion and sinking of the ''Arizona'' .
  • yawiki.org entry for Attack on Pearl Harbor 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC yawiki.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Of the American fatalities, nearly half of the total were due to the explosion of Arizona 's forward magazine after it was hit by a modified 40 cm (16 in.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Nearly half of the American fatalities—1,102 men—were caused by the explosion and sinking of the Arizona .
  • Attack on Pearl Harbor - War, Japan, United States, USA and American warships. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.dark-stories.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

) shell.[60]
.Already damaged by a torpedo and on fire forward, Nevada attempted to exit the harbor.^ Already damaged by a torpedo and on fire forward, Nevada attempted to exit the harbor.
  • Attack on Pearl Harbor: Aviation History: Wings Over Kansas 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.wingsoverkansas.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Already damaged by a torpedo and on fire forward, Nevada was targeted by many Japanese bombers as it got underway.
  • Attack on Pearl Harbor - War, Japan, United States, USA and American warships. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.dark-stories.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • yawiki.org entry for Attack on Pearl Harbor 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC yawiki.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The five midget subs, each capable of penetrating Pearl Harbor and each firing two torpedoes: Ha.
  • Japanese Ships to Pearl Harbor 18 September 2009 10:21 UTC www.ww2pacific.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.She was targeted by many Japanese bombers as she got under way, sustaining more hits from 250 lb (113 kg) bombs, and she was deliberately beached to avoid blocking the harbor entrance.^ One 250-kg Ordinary Bomb .
  • HyperWar: USSBS: Campaigns of the Pacific War 20 September 2009 11:10 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: Reference]

^ She was targeted by many Japanese bombers as she got under way, sustaining more hits from 250 lb (113 kg) bombs as she was deliberately beached to avoid blocking the harbor entrance.
  • Attack on Pearl Harbor: Aviation History: Wings Over Kansas 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.wingsoverkansas.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ She was targeted by many Japanese bombers as she got under way, sustaining more hits from 250 lb (113 kg) bombs, and she was deliberately beached to avoid blocking the harbor entrance.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.California was hit by two bombs and two torpedoes.^ The ''California'' was hit by two bombs and two torpedoes.
  • yawiki.org entry for Attack on Pearl Harbor 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC yawiki.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The torpedoes and bombs hit with precision.
  • Attack on Pearl Harbor | World War II Database 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC ww2db.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ USS California was hit by two bombs and two torpedoes.
  • Attack on Pearl Harbor: Aviation History: Wings Over Kansas 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.wingsoverkansas.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The crew might have kept her afloat, but were ordered to abandon ship just as they were raising power for the pumps.^ The crew might have kept her afloat if they had not been ordered to abandon ship just as they were raising power for the pumps.
  • Attack on Pearl Harbor - War, Japan, United States, USA and American warships. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.dark-stories.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The crew might have kept her afloat, but were ordered to abandon ship just as they were raising power for the pumps.
  • Attack on Pearl Harbor: Aviation History: Wings Over Kansas 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.wingsoverkansas.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • yawiki.org entry for Attack on Pearl Harbor 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC yawiki.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He also manned a .50-caliber Browning anti-aircraft machine gun, which he had not been trained to operate, until he ran out of ammunition and was ordered to abandon ship.
  • Gallery: Memories of World War II - The Herald Dispatch 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.herald-dispatch.com [Source type: General]

.Burning oil from Arizona and West Virginia drifted down on her, and probably made the situation look worse than it was.^ Burning oil from the Arizona and the West Virginia drifted down on her, and probably made the situation look worse than it was.
  • Attack on Pearl Harbor - War, Japan, United States, USA and American warships. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.dark-stories.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • yawiki.org entry for Attack on Pearl Harbor 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC yawiki.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Burning oil from Arizona and West Virginia drifted down on her, and probably made the situation look worse than it was.
  • Attack on Pearl Harbor: Aviation History: Wings Over Kansas 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.wingsoverkansas.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The leaking fuel caught fire; flooding the dry dock in an effort to fight fire made the burning oil rise, and so the ships were burned out.
  • Attack on Pearl Harbor: Aviation History: Wings Over Kansas 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.wingsoverkansas.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The disarmed target ship Utah was holed twice by torpedoes.^ The disarmed Utah was holed twice by torpedoes.
  • Attack on Pearl Harbor - War, Japan, United States, USA and American warships. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.dark-stories.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The disarmed target ship ''Utah'' was holed twice by torpedoes.
  • yawiki.org entry for Attack on Pearl Harbor 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC yawiki.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The disarmed target ship Utah was holed twice by torpedoes.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.West Virginia was hit by seven torpedoes, the seventh tearing away her rudder.^ West Virginia was hit by seven torpedoes, the seventh tearing away her rudder.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The ''West Virginia'' was hit by seven torpedoes, the seventh tearing away the ship's rudder.
  • yawiki.org entry for Attack on Pearl Harbor 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC yawiki.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ West Virginia was hit by no fewer than seven torpedoes, the seventh tearing away the ship's rudder.
  • Attack on Pearl Harbor - War, Japan, United States, USA and American warships. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.dark-stories.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Oklahoma was hit by four torpedoes, the last two above her belt armor, which caused her to capsize.^ The ''Oklahoma'' was hit by four torpedoes, the last two above its side armor belt which caused it to capsize .
  • yawiki.org entry for Attack on Pearl Harbor 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC yawiki.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ USS Oklahoma was hit by four torpedoes, the last two above her belt armor, which caused her to capsize.
  • Attack on Pearl Harbor: Aviation History: Wings Over Kansas 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.wingsoverkansas.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The ''California'' was hit by two bombs and two torpedoes.
  • yawiki.org entry for Attack on Pearl Harbor 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC yawiki.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Maryland was hit by two of the converted 40 cm shells, but neither caused serious damage.^ USS Maryland was hit by two of the converted 40 cm shells, but neither caused serious damage.
  • Attack on Pearl Harbor: Aviation History: Wings Over Kansas 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.wingsoverkansas.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The ''Maryland'' was hit by two of the converted 40 cm shells, but neither caused serious damage.
  • yawiki.org entry for Attack on Pearl Harbor 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC yawiki.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Maryland was hit by two of the converted 40 cm shells, but neither caused serious damage.
  • Attack on Pearl Harbor - War, Japan, United States, USA and American warships. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.dark-stories.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Although the Japanese concentrated on battleships (the largest vessels present), they did not ignore other targets.^ Although the Japanese concentrated on battleships (the largest vessels present), they did not ignore other targets.
  • Attack on Pearl Harbor: Aviation History: Wings Over Kansas 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.wingsoverkansas.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Attack on Pearl Harbor - War, Japan, United States, USA and American warships. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.dark-stories.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • yawiki.org entry for Attack on Pearl Harbor 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC yawiki.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They consist of shooting down other planes, sinking ships, or blowing up targets on the ground.
  • PC Review: Attack on Pearl Harbor Review - ComputerAndVideoGames.com 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.computerandvideogames.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Tiger!” The attack occurred in two waves, the first striking airfields and battleships, and the second targeting other ships and shipyards.
  • Reel American History - Films - List 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC digital.lib.lehigh.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The light cruiser Helena was torpedoed, and the concussion from the blast capsized the neighboring minelayer Oglala.^ The light cruiser Raleigh was holed by a torpedo.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The light cruiser Helena was torpedoed, and the concussion from the blast capsized the neighboring minelayer Oglala .
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The light cruiser Helena was torpedoed, and the concussion from the blast capsized the neighboring minelayer Oglala.
  • Attack on Pearl Harbor - War, Japan, United States, USA and American warships. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.dark-stories.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Two destroyers in dry dock, Cassin and Downes were destroyed when bombs penetrated their fuel bunkers.^ Two destroyers in dry dock were destroyed when bombs penetrated their fuel bunkers.
  • Attack on Pearl Harbor: Aviation History: Wings Over Kansas 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.wingsoverkansas.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Attack on Pearl Harbor - War, Japan, United States, USA and American warships. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.dark-stories.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • yawiki.org entry for Attack on Pearl Harbor 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC yawiki.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The refineries producing the special fuel for them were bombed and destroyed and the extended runways which had to be constructed for them were easily detected by Allied pilots, who destroyed the jets on the ground."
  • Parallels to 9/11: Northwoods, Pearl Harbor, 9/9/99 (Russia) 18 September 2009 10:21 UTC www.oilempire.us [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The destroyer Cassin capsized, and Downes, also a destroyer, was heavily damaged.
  • Attack on Pearl Harbor - War, Japan, United States, USA and American warships. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.dark-stories.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The leaking fuel caught fire; flooding the dry dock in an effort to fight fire made the burning oil rise, and both were burned out.^ The leaking fuel caught fire; flooding the dry dock in an effort to fight fire made the burning oil rise, and so the ships were burned out.
  • Attack on Pearl Harbor: Aviation History: Wings Over Kansas 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.wingsoverkansas.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The leaking fuel caught fire and flooding the dry dock with water made the oil rise, which burned out the ships.
  • yawiki.org entry for Attack on Pearl Harbor 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC yawiki.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The leaking fuel caught fire; flooding the dry dock in an effort to fight fire made the burning oil rise, and both were burned out.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Cassin slipped from her keel blocks and rolled against Downes.^ Cassin slipped from her keel blocks and rolled against Downes .
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The light cruiser Raleigh was holed by a torpedo.^ The light cruiser Raleigh was holed by a torpedo.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The light cruiser ''Raleigh'' was hit by a torpedo and holed.
  • yawiki.org entry for Attack on Pearl Harbor 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC yawiki.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The light cruiser Raleigh was hit by a torpedo and holed.
  • Attack on Pearl Harbor - War, Japan, United States, USA and American warships. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.dark-stories.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The light cruiser Honolulu was damaged but remained in service.^ The light cruiser Honolulu was damaged but remained in service.
  • Attack on Pearl Harbor - War, Japan, United States, USA and American warships. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.dark-stories.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The light cruiser USS Honolulu was damaged but remained in service.
  • Attack on Pearl Harbor: Aviation History: Wings Over Kansas 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.wingsoverkansas.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The light cruiser ''Honolulu'' was damaged but remained in service.
  • yawiki.org entry for Attack on Pearl Harbor 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC yawiki.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The repair vessel Vestal, moored alongside Arizona, was heavily damaged and beached.^ The repair vessel USS Vestal, moored alongside Arizona, was heavily damaged and beached.
  • Attack on Pearl Harbor: Aviation History: Wings Over Kansas 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.wingsoverkansas.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The repair vessel ''Vestal'' , moored alongside the Arizona at the time it exploded, was heavily damaged and was beached.
  • yawiki.org entry for Attack on Pearl Harbor 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC yawiki.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The repair vessel Vestal , moored alongside Arizona , was heavily damaged and beached.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The seaplane tender Curtiss was also damaged.^ The seaplane tender USS Curtiss was also damaged.
  • Attack on Pearl Harbor: Aviation History: Wings Over Kansas 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.wingsoverkansas.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The seaplane tender Curtiss was also damaged.
  • Attack on Pearl Harbor - War, Japan, United States, USA and American warships. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.dark-stories.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The seaplane tender ''Curtiss'' was also damaged.
  • yawiki.org entry for Attack on Pearl Harbor 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC yawiki.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The destroyer Shaw was badly damaged when two bombs penetrated her forward magazine.^ Two destroyers in dry dock were destroyed when bombs penetrated their fuel bunkers.
  • Attack on Pearl Harbor: Aviation History: Wings Over Kansas 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.wingsoverkansas.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Attack on Pearl Harbor - War, Japan, United States, USA and American warships. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.dark-stories.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • yawiki.org entry for Attack on Pearl Harbor 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC yawiki.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The destroyer Shaw was badly damaged when two bombs penetrated her forward magazine.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ USS Shaw was badly damaged when two bombs penetrated her forward magazine.
  • Attack on Pearl Harbor: Aviation History: Wings Over Kansas 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.wingsoverkansas.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[61]
.Of the 402[7] American aircraft in Hawaii, 188 were destroyed and 159 damaged,[7] 155 of them on the ground.^ Of the 402 [ 7 ] American aircraft in Hawaii, 188 were destroyed and 159 damaged, [ 7 ] 155 of them on the ground.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Of the 402 American aircraft in Hawaii, 188 were destroyed and 159 damaged, 155 of them on the ground.
  • Attack on Pearl Harbor: Aviation History: Wings Over Kansas 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.wingsoverkansas.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Nineteen naval vessels, including eight battleships, were sunk or severely damaged; 188 U.S. aircraft were destroyed.
  • Pearl Harbor Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Pearl Harbor 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Pearl Harbor: Free Encyclopedia Articles at Questia.com Online Library 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.questia.com [Source type: Academic]

.Almost none were actually ready to take off to defend the base.^ Almost none were actually ready to take off to defend the base.
  • Attack on Pearl Harbor: Aviation History: Wings Over Kansas 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.wingsoverkansas.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In Hawaii, there were several indications of the incoming attack, but none caused increased local readiness by defenders.
  • Attack on Pearl Harbor - War, Japan, United States, USA and American warships. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.dark-stories.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • yawiki.org entry for Attack on Pearl Harbor 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC yawiki.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Of 33 PBYs in Hawaii, 24 were destroyed, and six others damaged beyond repair.^ Twenty-seven of the 33 planes on base were destroyed and six damaged.
  • The Attack on Pearl Harbor — Hawaii Aviation 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC hawaii.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Of 33 PBYs in Hawaii, 24 were destroyed, and six others damaged beyond repair.
  • Attack on Pearl Harbor: Aviation History: Wings Over Kansas 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.wingsoverkansas.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Yamato and light cruiser Yahagi southwest of Nagasaki, destroyers Asashimo , Hamakaze, Isokaze and Kasumi and damage three other destroyers.
  • Japanese Ships to Pearl Harbor 18 September 2009 10:21 UTC www.ww2pacific.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.(The three on patrol returned undamaged.^ (The three on patrol returned undamaged.
  • Attack on Pearl Harbor: Aviation History: Wings Over Kansas 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.wingsoverkansas.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

) .Friendly fire brought down some U.S. planes on top of that, including five from an inbound flight from Enterprise.^ Friendly fire brought down several planes.
  • Attack on Pearl Harbor - War, Japan, United States, USA and American warships. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.dark-stories.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Friendly fire brought down several U.S. planes on top of that, including some from an inbound flight from USS Enterprise.
  • Attack on Pearl Harbor: Aviation History: Wings Over Kansas 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.wingsoverkansas.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Friendly fire brought down several US planes.
  • yawiki.org entry for Attack on Pearl Harbor 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC yawiki.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Japanese attacks on barracks killed additional personnel.^ Attacks on barracks killed additional pilots.
  • Attack on Pearl Harbor - War, Japan, United States, USA and American warships. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.dark-stories.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Japanese attacks on barracks killed additional personnel.
  • Attack on Pearl Harbor: Aviation History: Wings Over Kansas 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.wingsoverkansas.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Attacks on barracks killed additional pilots and other personnel.
  • yawiki.org entry for Attack on Pearl Harbor 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC yawiki.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Fifty-five Japanese airmen and nine submariners were killed in the action, and one was captured.^ Fifty-five Japanese airmen and nine submariners were killed in the action.
  • Attack on Pearl Harbor: Aviation History: Wings Over Kansas 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.wingsoverkansas.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • yawiki.org entry for Attack on Pearl Harbor 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC yawiki.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Fifty-five Japanese airmen and nine submariners were killed in action.
  • Attack on Pearl Harbor - War, Japan, United States, USA and American warships. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.dark-stories.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Of the ten sailors aboard the five submarines, nine died; the only survivor, Kazuo Sakamaki , was captured, becoming the first Japanese prisoner of war in World War II. United States Naval Institute photographic analysis conducted in 1999 indicates one midget submarine entered the harbor and successfully fired a torpedo into the ''West Virginia'' .
  • yawiki.org entry for Attack on Pearl Harbor 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC yawiki.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Of Japan's 414[49] available planes, 29 were lost during the battle[62] (nine in the first attack wave, 20 in the second),[63] with another 74 damaged by antiaircraft fire from the ground.^ Of Japan's 414 [ 47 ] available planes, 29 were lost during the battle [ 59 ] (nine in the first attack wave, 20 in the second), [ 60 ] with another 74 damaged by antiaircraft fire from the ground.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Of Japan's 441 available planes (350 took part in the attack), 29 were lost during the battle (nine in the first attack wave and 20 in the second wave) and another 74 were damaged by flak and machine gunfire from the ground.
  • Attack on Pearl Harbor - War, Japan, United States, USA and American warships. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.dark-stories.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • yawiki.org entry for Attack on Pearl Harbor 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC yawiki.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The battle cry of the first Japanese attack wave was “Tora!
  • Reel American History - Films - List 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC digital.lib.lehigh.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Possible third wave

.Several Japanese junior officers, including Mitsuo Fuchida and Minoru Genda, the chief architect of the attack, urged Nagumo to carry out a third strike in order to destroy as much of Pearl Harbor's fuel and torpedo[64] storage, maintenance, and dry dock facilities as possible.^ Two destroyers in dry dock were destroyed when bombs penetrated their fuel bunkers.
  • Attack on Pearl Harbor: Aviation History: Wings Over Kansas 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.wingsoverkansas.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Attack on Pearl Harbor - War, Japan, United States, USA and American warships. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.dark-stories.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • yawiki.org entry for Attack on Pearl Harbor 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC yawiki.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some senior officers and flight leaders urged Nagumo to attack with a third strike to destroy the oil storage depots, machine shops, and dry docks at Pearl Harbor.
  • Attack on Pearl Harbor - War, Japan, United States, USA and American warships. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.dark-stories.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • yawiki.org entry for Attack on Pearl Harbor 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC yawiki.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Pearl Harbor attack .
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[65] .Military historians have suggested the destruction of these would have hampered the U.S. Pacific Fleet far more seriously than loss of its battleships.^ Some military historians have suggested that the destruction of oil tanks and repair facilities would have crippled the U.S. Pacific Fleet more seriously than the loss of several battleships.
  • Attack on Pearl Harbor - War, Japan, United States, USA and American warships. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.dark-stories.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • yawiki.org entry for Attack on Pearl Harbor 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC yawiki.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Military historians have suggested the destruction of these would have hampered the U.S. Pacific Fleet far more seriously than loss of its battleships.
  • Attack on Pearl Harbor: Aviation History: Wings Over Kansas 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.wingsoverkansas.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If they had been wiped out, "serious [American] operations in the Pacific would have been postponed for more than a year" [ 64 ] ; according to American Admiral Chester Nimitz , later Commander in Chief of the Pacific Fleet, "it would have prolonged the war another two years."
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[66] If they had been wiped out, "serious [American] operations in the Pacific would have been postponed for more than a year"[67]; according to American Admiral Chester Nimitz, later Commander in Chief of the Pacific Fleet, "it would have prolonged the war another two years."[68] Nagumo, however, decided to withdraw for several reasons:
.
  • American anti-aircraft performance had improved considerably during the second strike, and two thirds of Japan's losses were incurred during the second wave.^ American anti-aircraft performance had improved considerably during the second strike, and two thirds of Japan's losses were incurred during the second wave.
    • Attack on Pearl Harbor: Aviation History: Wings Over Kansas 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.wingsoverkansas.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Anti-aircraft performance during the second strike was much improved over that during the first, and two-thirds of the Japanese losses happened during the second wave, due in part to the Americans being alerted.
    • Attack on Pearl Harbor - War, Japan, United States, USA and American warships. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.dark-stories.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Nagumo decided to forgo a third attack in favor of withdrawing for several reasons: Anti-aircraft performance during the second strike was much improved over that during the first, and two-thirds of Japan's losses happened during the second wave, due in part to the Americans being alerted.
    • yawiki.org entry for Attack on Pearl Harbor 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC yawiki.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    [69] .Nagumo felt if he launched a third strike, he would be risking three quarters of the Combined Fleet's strength to wipe out the remaining targets (which included the facilities) while suffering higher aircraft losses.^ A third strike could have been expected to suffer still worse losses.
    • Attack on Pearl Harbor - War, Japan, United States, USA and American warships. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.dark-stories.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • yawiki.org entry for Attack on Pearl Harbor 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC yawiki.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Nagumo felt if he launched a third strike, he would be risking three quarters of the Combined Fleet's strength to wipe out the remaining targets (which included the facilities) while suffering higher aircraft losses.
    • Attack on Pearl Harbor: Aviation History: Wings Over Kansas 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.wingsoverkansas.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Several Japanese junior officers, including Mitsuo Fuchida and Minoru Genda, the chief architect of the attack, urged Nagumo to carry out a third strike in order to destroy as much of Pearl Harbor's fuel and torpedo storage, maintenance, and dry dock facilities as possible.
    • Attack on Pearl Harbor: Aviation History: Wings Over Kansas 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.wingsoverkansas.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    [69]
  • .
  • The location of the American carriers remained unknown.^ The location of the American carriers was and remained unknown to Nagumo.
    • Attack on Pearl Harbor - War, Japan, United States, USA and American warships. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.dark-stories.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • yawiki.org entry for Attack on Pearl Harbor 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC yawiki.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The location of the American carriers remained unknown.
    • Attack on Pearl Harbor: Aviation History: Wings Over Kansas 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.wingsoverkansas.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Also, since the whereabouts of the American carriers was unknown and the chances of locating them by air search were small, it was considered that a quick withdrawal would be most advantageous.
    • HyperWar: USSBS: Campaigns of the Pacific War 20 September 2009 11:10 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: Reference]

    .In addition, the Admiral was concerned his force was now within range of American land-based bombers.^ In addition, the Admiral was concerned his force was now within range of American land-based bombers.
    • Attack on Pearl Harbor: Aviation History: Wings Over Kansas 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.wingsoverkansas.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ IN addition it was planned to use fighter aircraft to destroy American aircraft in order to prevent a counterattack, on the main Japanese attack units or an attack by American bombers against the task force itself.
    • HyperWar: USSBS: Campaigns of the Pacific War 20 September 2009 11:10 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: Reference]

    ^ In the event the screening unit is returned to the home base, the patrol unit [age 12] will screen the advance of the main force and the launching and the landing of aircraft.
    • http://ibiblio.org/pha/monos/097/index.html 20 September 2009 11:10 UTC ibiblio.org [Source type: Reference]

    [69] .Nagumo was uncertain whether the U.S. had enough surviving planes remaining on Hawaii to launch an attack against his carriers.^ Type 97 Carrier Attack Plane .
    • HyperWar: USSBS: Campaigns of the Pacific War 20 September 2009 11:10 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: Reference]

    ^ Nagumo was uncertain whether the U.S. had enough surviving planes remaining on Hawaii to launch an attack against his carriers.
    • Attack on Pearl Harbor: Aviation History: Wings Over Kansas 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.wingsoverkansas.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Consideration was also given to the probability of a counterattack by the estimated 50 or more large land-based planes that remained in Hawaii after the attack.
    • HyperWar: USSBS: Campaigns of the Pacific War 20 September 2009 11:10 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: Reference]

    [70]
  • .
  • A third wave would have required substantial preparation and turnaround time, and would have meant returning planes would have had to land at night.^ A third wave would have required substantial preparation and turnaround time, and would have meant returning planes would have had to land at night.
    • Attack on Pearl Harbor: Aviation History: Wings Over Kansas 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.wingsoverkansas.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Dorn prepared a plan for an airplane mishap, in which there would be engine problems and, in the process of bailing out of the plane, Chiang and his wife would be given faulty parachutes.
    • FDR Scandal Page 20 September 2009 11:011 UTC www.geocities.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ At the time, no navy had developed night carrier techniques, so this was a substantial risk.
    • Attack on Pearl Harbor: Aviation History: Wings Over Kansas 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.wingsoverkansas.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .At the time, only the Royal Navy had developed night carrier techniques, so this was a substantial risk.
  • The task force's fuel situation did not permit him to remain in waters north of Pearl Harbor much longer, since he was at the very limits of logistical support.^ Which was the exact time that Pearl Harbor was bombed.
    • Do Freedom of Information Act Files Prove FDR Had Foreknowledge of Pearl Harbor?: Newsroom: The Independent Institute 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.independent.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The bunker fuel situation did not permit remaining on station north of Pearl Harbor much longer.
    • yawiki.org entry for Attack on Pearl Harbor 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC yawiki.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ To remain in those waters for much longer would have risked running unacceptably low on fuel.
    • Attack on Pearl Harbor - War, Japan, United States, USA and American warships. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.dark-stories.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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    .To do so risked running unacceptably low on fuel, perhaps even having to abandon destroyers en route home.^ To do so risked running unacceptably low on fuel, perhaps even having to abandon destroyers en route home.
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    • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ To remain in those waters for much longer would have risked running unacceptably low on fuel.
    • yawiki.org entry for Attack on Pearl Harbor 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC yawiki.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    [71]
  • .
  • He believed the second strike had essentially satisfied the main objective of his mission — the neutralization of the Pacific Fleet — and did not wish to risk further losses.^ The second strike had essentially completed the entire mission: neutralization of the American Pacific Fleet.
    • yawiki.org entry for Attack on Pearl Harbor 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC yawiki.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ He believed the second strike had essentially satisfied the main objective of his mission — the neutralization of the Pacific Fleet — and did not wish to risk further losses.
    • Attack on Pearl Harbor: Aviation History: Wings Over Kansas 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.wingsoverkansas.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The Emperor knew of the plan to attack the main strength of the United States Pacific Fleet with a carrier task force after the last ultimatum to the United States Government had been delivered.
    • HyperWar: USSBS: Campaigns of the Pacific War 20 September 2009 11:10 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: Reference]

    [72] .Moreover, it was Japanese Navy practice to prefer the conservation of strength over the total destruction of the enemy.^ Moreover, it was Japanese Navy practice to prefer the conservation of strength over the total destruction of the enemy.
    • Attack on Pearl Harbor: Aviation History: Wings Over Kansas 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.wingsoverkansas.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ [Page 14] If the destruction of enemy land-based air strength progresses favorably, repeated attacks will be made immediately and thus decisive results will be achieved.
    • http://ibiblio.org/pha/monos/097/index.html 20 September 2009 11:10 UTC ibiblio.org [Source type: Reference]

    ^ This was mainly a Japanese Navy preference; the Japanese Army would have chosen to attack the Soviet Union.
    • Attack on Pearl Harbor: Aviation History: Wings Over Kansas 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.wingsoverkansas.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    [73]
.At a conference aboard Yamato the following morning, Yamamoto initially supported Nagumo.^ At a conference aboard Yamato the following morning, Yamamoto initially supported Nagumo.
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[72] .In retrospect, sparing the vital dockyards, maintenance shops, and oil depots meant the U.S. could respond relatively quickly to Japanese activities in the Pacific.^ In retrospect, sparing the vital dockyards, maintenance shops, and oil depots meant the U.S. could respond relatively quickly to Japanese activities in the Pacific.
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  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ To meet this threat to their oil supplies, the Japanese laid plans to seize the oil-producing British and Dutch possessions in the Pacific.
  • Franklin D. Roosevelt - American Heritage Center, Inc. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.fdrheritage.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In addition to fueling Japanese military operations, oil was vital for much of Japan's core economic activities.
  • Attack on Pearl Harbor - War, Japan, United States, USA and American warships. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.dark-stories.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Yamamoto later regretted Nagumo's decision to withdraw and categorically stated it had been a great mistake not to order a third strike.^ Nagumos decision to withdraw after two strikes .
  • yawiki.org entry for Attack on Pearl Harbor 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC yawiki.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Nagumo's decision to withdraw after two strikes .
  • Attack on Pearl Harbor - War, Japan, United States, USA and American warships. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.dark-stories.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Yamamoto later regretted Nagumo's decision to withdraw and categorically stated it had been a great mistake not to order a third strike.
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  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[74]

Gallery

Salvage

Captain Homer N. Wallin (center) supervises salvage operations aboard USS California, early 1942
After a systematic search for survivors, formal salvage operations began. .Captain Homer N. Wallin, Material Officer for Commander, Battle Force, U.S. Pacific Fleet, was immediately retained to lead salvage operations.^ Daniel Madsen, Resurrection-Salvaging the Battle Fleet at Pearl Harbor .
  • Attack on Pearl Harbor: Aviation History: Wings Over Kansas 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.wingsoverkansas.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ And I quote the chief cryptographer for the Pacific fleet, who said, “It was a pretty cheap price to pay for unifying the country.” That cryptographer, Commander Joseph Rochefort, was a confidant of McCollum’s.
  • Do Freedom of Information Act Files Prove FDR Had Foreknowledge of Pearl Harbor?: Newsroom: The Independent Institute 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.independent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Admiral James Richardson, the commander of the Pacific fleet, strongly opposed keeping the ships in harm’s way in Hawaii.
  • Do Freedom of Information Act Files Prove FDR Had Foreknowledge of Pearl Harbor?: Newsroom: The Independent Institute 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.independent.org [Source type: Original source]

[75]
.Around Pearl Harbor, divers from the Navy (shore and tenders), the Naval Shipyard, and civilian contractors (Pacific Bridge and others) began work on the ships that could be refloated.^ Ships at anchor Pearl Harbor p.m.
  • Pearl Harbor - Mother of All Conspiracies 20 September 2009 11:011 UTC www.geocities.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Pearl Harbor - Mother of All Conspiracies 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC whatreallyhappened.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The attack on Pearl Harbor began at 7:53 a.m.
  • yawiki.org entry for Attack on Pearl Harbor 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC yawiki.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Navy divers worked inside the damaged ships.
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.They patched holes, cleared debris, and pumped water out of ships.^ They patched holes, cleared debris, and pumped water out of ships.
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^ The leaking fuel caught fire and flooding the dry dock with water made the oil rise, which burned out the ships.
  • yawiki.org entry for Attack on Pearl Harbor 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC yawiki.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The crew might have kept her afloat if they had not been ordered to abandon ship just as they were raising power for the pumps.
  • Attack on Pearl Harbor - War, Japan, United States, USA and American warships. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.dark-stories.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Navy divers worked inside the damaged ships.^ Navy divers worked inside the damaged ships.
  • Attack on Pearl Harbor: Aviation History: Wings Over Kansas 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.wingsoverkansas.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ships present at Pearl Harbor 0800 December 7, 1941 US Navy Historical Center CinCP report of damage to ships in Pearl Harbor from www.ibiblio.org/hyperwar.
  • Attack on Pearl Harbor: Aviation History: Wings Over Kansas 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.wingsoverkansas.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ships present at Pearl Harbor 0800 December 7, 1941 US Navy Historical Center ^ CinCP report of damage to ships in Pearl Harbor from www.ibiblio.org/hyperwar.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Within six months, five battleships and two cruisers were patched or refloated so they could be sent to shipyards in Pearl and on the mainland for extensive repair.^ Within six months, five battleships and two cruisers were patched or refloated so they could be sent to shipyards in Pearl and on the mainland for extensive repair.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Two battleships (Oklahoma, Nevada), 1 aircraft carrier (Enterprise) 2 heavy cruisers, 12 destroyers sailed.
  • Pearl Harbor - Mother of All Conspiracies 20 September 2009 11:011 UTC www.geocities.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Pearl Harbor - Mother of All Conspiracies 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC whatreallyhappened.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These were able to penetrate the armored decks of battleships and cruisers they might hit when dropped from 10,000 feet (3,000 m).
  • yawiki.org entry for Attack on Pearl Harbor 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC yawiki.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Intensive salvage operations continued for another year, a total of some 20,000 man–hours under water.^ Intensive salvage operations continued for another year, a total of some 20,000 hours under water.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This was the program that plowed crops under and senselessly slaughtered millions of animals at a cost of $700,000,000 over two years.
  • FDR Scandal Page 20 September 2009 11:011 UTC www.geocities.com [Source type: Original source]

[76] .Oklahoma, while successfully raised, was never repaired.^ Oklahoma , while successfully raised, was never repaired.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Arizona and the target ship Utah were too heavily damaged for salvage, though much of their armament and equipment was removed and put to use aboard other vessels.^ Arizona and the target ship Utah were too heavily damaged for salvage, though much of their armament and equipment was removed and put to use aboard other vessels.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ And there were other ships, merchant ships, and other ships in the North Atlantic that were sunk or damaged.
  • Do Freedom of Information Act Files Prove FDR Had Foreknowledge of Pearl Harbor?: Newsroom: The Independent Institute 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.independent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Eighteen ships were sunk or seriously damaged including 5 battleships (USS Arizona photo ).
  • Pearl Harbor - Mother of All Conspiracies 20 September 2009 11:011 UTC www.geocities.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Pearl Harbor - Mother of All Conspiracies 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC whatreallyhappened.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Today, the two hulks remain where they were sunk,[77] with Arizona becoming a war memorial.^ Today, the two hulks remain where they were sunk, [ 74 ] with Arizona becoming a war memorial .
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Today, the two hulks remain where they were sunk.
  • Attack on Pearl Harbor: Aviation History: Wings Over Kansas 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.wingsoverkansas.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They are always trying to relive world war two, the glory years.
  • FARK.com: (4098408) Frank Miller chats about comics, Iraq and his cats 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.fark.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Aftermath

USS Pennsylvania, behind the wreckage of the USS Downes and USS Cassin.
.In the wake of the attack, 16 Medals of Honor, 51 Navy Crosses, 53 Silver Crosses, four Navy and Marine Corps Medals, one Distinguished Flying Cross, four Distinguished Service Crosses, one Distinguished Service Medal, and three Bronze Stars were awarded to the American servicemen who distinguished themselves in combat at Pearl Harbor.^ Pearl Harbor attack .
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The attack on Pearl Harbor began at 7:53 a.m.
  • yawiki.org entry for Attack on Pearl Harbor 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC yawiki.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Recipients of the Medal of Honor Awarded posthumously.
  • yawiki.org entry for Attack on Pearl Harbor 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC yawiki.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[78]
In Europe, Nazi Germany and the Kingdom of Italy subsequently declared war on the United States immediately after they began operations against a fellow Axis member, with Hitler stating in a delivered speech:
.
The fact that the Japanese Government, which has been negotiating for years with this man [Franklin D. Roosevelt], has at last become tired of being mocked by him in such an unworthy way, fills us all, the German people, and all other decent people in the world, with deep satisfaction ...^ The fact that the Japanese Government, which has been negotiating for years with this man [Franklin D. Roosevelt], has at last become tired of being mocked by him in such an unworthy way, fills us all, the German people, and all other decent people in the world, with deep satisfaction ...
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In February 1942, Roosevelt signed United States Executive Order 9066 , requiring all Japanese American s to submit themselves for arrest and internment .
  • yawiki.org entry for Attack on Pearl Harbor 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC yawiki.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ (For a number of years, acting on military request, Niihau Ranch kept all flat lands unusable in this manner for just such a purpose).
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.Germany and Italy have been finally compelled, in view of this, and in loyalty to the Tripartite Pact, to carry on the struggle against the U.S.A. and England jointly and side by side with Japan for the defense and thus for the maintenance of the liberty and independence of their nations and empires ...^ Germany and Italy have been finally compelled, in view of this, and in loyalty to the Tripartite Pact , to carry on the struggle against the U.S.A. and England jointly and side by side with Japan for the defense and thus for the maintenance of the liberty and independence of their nations and empires ...
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^ Hitler and Mussolini were under no obligation to declare war under the mutual-defense terms of the Tripartite Pact .
  • yawiki.org entry for Attack on Pearl Harbor 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC yawiki.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ United States declares war on the Empire of Japan Nazi Germany and Kingdom of Italy declare war on the United States .
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.As a consequence of the further extension of President Roosevelt's policy, which is aimed at unrestricted world domination and dictatorship, the U.S.A. together with England have not hesitated from using any means to dispute the rights of the German, Italian and Japanese nations to the basis of their natural existence ...^ As a consequence of the further extension of President Roosevelt's policy, which is aimed at unrestricted world domination and dictatorship, the U.S.A. together with England have not hesitated from using any means to dispute the rights of the German, Italian and Japanese nations to the basis of their natural existence ...
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^ Eighteen months earlier, President Franklin D. Roosevelt had transferred the United States Fleet to Pearl Harbor as a presumed deterrent to Japanese aggression.
  • Sunday December 7th is Pearl Harbor Remembrance Day 20 September 2009 11:10 UTC www.freerepublic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Japanese Government cannot tolerate the perpetuation of such a situation since it directly runs counter to Japan's fundamental policy to enable all nations to enjoy each its proper place in the world.
  • Modern History Sourcebook: Pearl Harbour Attack Documents, 1941 16 October 2009 6:06 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]


Not only because we are the ally of Japan, but also because Germany and Italy have enough insight and strength to comprehend that, in these historic times, the existence or non-existence of the nations, is being decided perhaps forever.
.Though the attack inflicted large-scale destruction on US vessels and aircraft, it did not affect Pearl Harbor's fuel storage, maintenance, submarine, and intelligence facilities.^ Pearl Harbor attack .
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor.
  • Attack on Pearl Harbor: Aviation History: Wings Over Kansas 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.wingsoverkansas.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Though the attack inflicted large-scale destruction, the damage was not significant in terms of American fuel storage, maintenance, and intelligence capabilities.
  • Attack on Pearl Harbor: Aviation History: Wings Over Kansas 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.wingsoverkansas.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The attack was an initial shock to all the Allies in the Pacific Theater.^ The attack was an initial shock to all the Allies in the Pacific Theater.
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.Further losses compounded the alarming setback.^ Further losses compounded the alarming setback.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Three days later, the Prince of Wales and Repulse were sunk off the coast of Malaya, causing British Prime Minister Winston Churchill later to recollect "In all the war I never received a more direct shock.^ This was followed by an early morning attack on the New Territories of Hong Kong and within hours or days by attacks on the Philippines , Wake Island , and Thailand and by the sinking of HMS ''Prince of Wales'' and ''Repulse'' .
  • yawiki.org entry for Attack on Pearl Harbor 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC yawiki.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This was in response to extreme German pressure on November 29 for Japan to strike the US and promises to join with Japan in war against the US. The second of its three parts has never been released.
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  • Pearl Harbor - Mother of All Conspiracies 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC whatreallyhappened.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A request by one member of the committee for the appearance of the former Prime Minister of England, Mr. Winston Churchill, was disapproved by a majority of the committee.
  • INVESTIGATION OF THE PEARL HARBOR ATTACK 20 September 2009 11:011 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: Original source]

.As I turned and twisted in bed the full horror of the news sank in upon me.^ As I turned and twisted in bed the full horror of the news sank in upon me.
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.There were no British or American capital ships in the Indian Ocean or the Pacific except the American survivors of Pearl Harbor who were hastening back to California.^ Ships at anchor Pearl Harbor p.m.
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^ There were no British or American capital ships in the Indian Ocean or the Pacific except the American survivors of Pearl Harbor who were hastening back to California.
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^ It was a triple priority message from the British Admiralty in London that the United States of America was going to be attacked at Pearl Harbor on December 7th.
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  • Pearl Harbor - Mother of All Conspiracies 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC whatreallyhappened.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Over this vast expanse of waters Japan was supreme and we everywhere were weak and naked".[79]
.Fortunately for the United States, the American aircraft carriers were untouched by the Japanese attack, otherwise the Pacific Fleet's ability to conduct offensive operations would have been crippled for a year or so (given no diversions from the Atlantic Fleet).^ Had Japan destroyed the American carriers, the Pacific Fleet's ability to conduct offensive operations would have been crippled for a year or so (given no diversions from the Atlantic Fleet).
  • Attack on Pearl Harbor: Aviation History: Wings Over Kansas 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.wingsoverkansas.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If the fleets met in the middle of the Pacific, most Americans would not be as affected.
  • FARK.com: (4098408) Frank Miller chats about comics, Iraq and his cats 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.fark.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He systematically and deliberately provoked the Japanese into attacking the United States.
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.As it was, the elimination of the battleships left the U.S. Navy with no choice but rely on its aircraft carriers and submarines — the very weapons with which the U.S. Navy halted and eventually reversed the Japanese advance.^ As it was, the elimination of the battleships left the U.S. Navy with no choice but to put its faith in aircraft carriers and submarines—and these were the tools with which the U.S. Navy would halt and eventually reverse the Japanese advance.
  • yawiki.org entry for Attack on Pearl Harbor 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC yawiki.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As it was, the elimination of the battleships left the U.S. Navy with no choice but rely on its aircraft carriers and submarines — the very weapons with which the U.S. Navy halted and eventually reversed the Japanese advance.
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  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A single carefully-planned and well-executed stroke removed the United States Navy’s battleship force as a possible threat to the Japanese Empire’s southward expansion.
  • Sunday December 7th is Pearl Harbor Remembrance Day 20 September 2009 11:10 UTC www.freerepublic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Six of the eight battleships were repaired and returned to service, but their slow speed limited their deployment, serving mainly in shore bombardment roles.^ Five of the eight battleships were repaired and returned to service, but their slow speed limited their deployment, serving mainly in shore bombardment roles.
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^ Within six months, five battleships and two cruisers were patched or refloated so they could be sent to shipyards in Pearl and on the mainland for extensive repair.
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^ The attack sank four U.S. Navy battleships (two of which were raised and returned to service later in the war) and damaged four more.
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.A major flaw of Japanese strategic thinking was a belief the ultimate Pacific battle would be fought by battleships, in keeping with the doctrine of Captain Alfred Mahan.^ A major flaw of Japanese strategic thinking was a belief the ultimate Pacific battle would be fought by battleships, in keeping with the doctrine of Captain Alfred Mahan .
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^ One particular flaw of Japanese strategic thinking was that the ultimate Pacific battle would be between battleships of both sides.
  • yawiki.org entry for Attack on Pearl Harbor 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC yawiki.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As a result, Yamamoto hoarded his battleships for a decisive battle that would never happen.
  • yawiki.org entry for Attack on Pearl Harbor 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC yawiki.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.As a result, Yamamoto (and his successors) hoarded battleships for a "decisive battle" that never happened.^ As a result, Yamamoto (and his successors) hoarded battleships for a "decisive battle" that never happened.
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  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As a result, Yamamoto hoarded his battleships for a decisive battle that would never happen.
  • yawiki.org entry for Attack on Pearl Harbor 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC yawiki.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Ultimately, targets not on Genda's list, such as the submarine base and the old headquarters building, proved more important than any battleship.^ Ultimately, targets that never made the list, the Submarine Base and the old Headquarters Building, were more important than any of them.
  • yawiki.org entry for Attack on Pearl Harbor 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC yawiki.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ultimately, targets not on Genda's list, such as the submarine base and the old headquarters building, proved more important than any battleship.
  • Attack on Pearl Harbor: Aviation History: Wings Over Kansas 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.wingsoverkansas.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Also, the basement of the Old Administration Building was the home of the cryptanalytic unit which contributed significantly to the Midway ambush and the Submarine Force's success.
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.It was submarines that immobilized the Imperial Japanese Navy's heavy ships and brought Japan's economy to a standstill by crippling the transportation of oil and raw materials.^ It was submarines that immobilized the Imperial Japanese Navy's heavy ships and brought Japan's economy to a standstill by crippling the transportation of oil and raw materials.
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^ It was submarines that brought Japan's economy to a standstill and crippled its transportation of oil, immobilizing heavy ships.
  • yawiki.org entry for Attack on Pearl Harbor 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC yawiki.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Japanese military, deeply engaged in the seemingly endless war it had started against China in mid-1937, badly needed oil and other raw materials.
  • Sunday December 7th is Pearl Harbor Remembrance Day 20 September 2009 11:10 UTC www.freerepublic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Also, the basement of the Old Administration Building was the home of the cryptanalytic unit which contributed significantly to the Midway ambush and the Submarine Force's success.^ Also, the basement of the Old Administration Building was the home of the cryptanalytic unit which contributed significantly to the Midway ambush and the Submarine Force's success.
  • Attack on Pearl Harbor: Aviation History: Wings Over Kansas 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.wingsoverkansas.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ And in the basement of the old Headquarters Building was the cryptanalytic unit, Station Hypo .
  • yawiki.org entry for Attack on Pearl Harbor 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC yawiki.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Each constitutes a strong striking force of heavy and light cruisers, units of the Combined Air Force, destroyer and submarine squadrons.
  • Modern History Sourcebook: Pearl Harbour Attack Documents, 1941 16 October 2009 6:06 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]


.One further consequence of the attacks on Pearl Harbor was that Japanese American residents and citizens were relocated to Japanese American internment camps.^ The attacks on Pearl Harbor were depicted in the joint American-Japanese film ''Tora!
  • yawiki.org entry for Attack on Pearl Harbor 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC yawiki.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor.
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^ The attack on Pearl Harbor began at 7:53 a.m.
  • yawiki.org entry for Attack on Pearl Harbor 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC yawiki.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Within hours of the attack, hundreds of Japanese American leaders were rounded up and brought to high-security camps.^ Within hours of the attack, hundreds of Japanese American leaders were rounded up and brought to high-security camps.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Mangoose: Actually, American Naval forces sunk a Japanese submarine that surfaced near Pearl an hour before any planes attacked the fleet.
  • FARK.com: (4098408) Frank Miller chats about comics, Iraq and his cats 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.fark.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ (Hawaiian time) over 300 Japanese planes launched from 6 aircraft carriers attacked the island of Oahu and the American Pacific Fleet at Pearl Harbor in the Territory of Hawaii.
  • INVESTIGATION OF THE PEARL HARBOR ATTACK 20 September 2009 11:011 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: Original source]

[80] .Later, over 110,000 Japanese Americans, including United States citizens, were removed from their homes and transferred to internment camps.^ Japanese were planning to do was known to the United States..."
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  • Pearl Harbor - Mother of All Conspiracies 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC whatreallyhappened.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Eighteen months earlier, President Franklin D. Roosevelt had transferred the United States Fleet to Pearl Harbor as a presumed deterrent to Japanese aggression.
  • Sunday December 7th is Pearl Harbor Remembrance Day 20 September 2009 11:10 UTC www.freerepublic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A single carefully-planned and well-executed stroke removed the United States Navy’s battleship force as a possible threat to the Japanese Empire’s southward expansion.
  • Sunday December 7th is Pearl Harbor Remembrance Day 20 September 2009 11:10 UTC www.freerepublic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[81]

Strategic implications

.Admiral Hara Tadaichi summed up the Japanese result by saying, "We won a great tactical victory at Pearl Harbor and thereby lost the war."^ Admiral Hara Tadaichi summed up the Japanese result by saying, "We won a great tactical victory at Pearl Harbor and thereby lost the war."
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Eighteen months earlier, President Franklin D. Roosevelt had transferred the United States Fleet to Pearl Harbor as a presumed deterrent to Japanese aggression.
  • Sunday December 7th is Pearl Harbor Remembrance Day 20 September 2009 11:10 UTC www.freerepublic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[82] .While the attack accomplished its intended objective, it turned out to be largely unnecessary.^ While the attack accomplished its intended objective, it was completely unnecessary.
  • Attack on Pearl Harbor: Aviation History: Wings Over Kansas 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.wingsoverkansas.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Unbeknownst to Yamamoto, who conceived the original plan, the U.S. Navy had decided as far back as 1935 to abandon 'charging' across the Pacific towards the Philippines in response to an outbreak of war (in keeping with the evolution of Plan Orange).^ Unbeknownst to Yamamoto, who conceived the original plan, the U.S. Navy had decided as far back as 1935 to abandon 'charging' across the Pacific towards the Philippines in response to an outbreak of war (in keeping with the evolution of Plan Orange).
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^ War Plan Orange: Dreadnoughts in the Pacific 1922-1930 Cheats .
  • GameZone Forums - Attack on Pearl Harbor 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC forums.gamezone.com [Source type: General]

^ An invasion of the Philippines was also considered to be necessary by Japanese war plans, while for the U.S., reconquest of the islands had been a given of War Plan Orange in the interwar years .
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[17] .The U.S. instead adopted "Plan Dog" in 1940, which emphasized keeping the IJN out of the eastern Pacific and away from the shipping lanes to Australia while the U.S. concentrated on defeating Nazi Germany.^ The U.S. instead adopted " Plan Dog " in 1940, which emphasized keeping the IJN out of the eastern Pacific and away from the shipping lanes to Australia while the U.S. concentrated on defeating Nazi Germany.
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^ The U.S. instead adopted "Plan Dog" in 1940, which emphasized keeping the Imperial Japanese Navy (IJN) out of the eastern Pacific and away from the shipping lanes to Australia while the U.S. concentrated on defeating Nazi Germany.
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^ Admiral James Richardson, the commander of the Pacific fleet, strongly opposed keeping the ships in harm’s way in Hawaii.
  • Do Freedom of Information Act Files Prove FDR Had Foreknowledge of Pearl Harbor?: Newsroom: The Independent Institute 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.independent.org [Source type: Original source]

[83]

Controversy

.Allegations have been made by conspiracy theorists and former armed forces personnel that some members of the Roosevelt administration had advance knowledge of the attack, but purposefully ignored it in order to gain public and Congressional support for America entering the war on the side of the British Empire and her allies.^ Further information: Pearl Harbor advance-knowledge debate There has been ongoing controversy due to allegations made by conspiracy theorists , and former armed forces personnel, suggesting some members of the Roosevelt administration had advance knowledge of the attack, which was purposefully ignored in order to gain public and Congressional support for America entering the war on the side of the British Empire and her allies.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There has been ongoing controversy due to allegations made by conspiracy theorists that some members of the Roosevelt administration had advance knowledge of the attack, and that this was purposefully ignored in order to gain public and Congressional support for the U.S. entering WWII on the side of the British Empire.
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^ America entered the war.
  • THE PEARL HARBOR DECEPTION 18 September 2009 4:39 UTC www.apfn.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Media

.Problems listening to these files?^ Problems listening to these files?
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

See media help.

Films, books, and games

Fiction

.
  • In Harm's Way A 1965 Otto Preminger film version of a James Bassett novel which opens on the eve of 6 December 1941 in Hawaii, and depicts the attack from the point of view of the men of a ship that is able to leave the harbor.
  • The Final Countdown is a movie set around Pearl Harbor, in which the nuclear aircraft carrier, USS Nimitz, from 1980 is time-warped back to December 6, 1941, one day before the attack on the base.
  • From Here to Eternity by James Jones.^ Ships at anchor Pearl Harbor p.m.
    • Pearl Harbor - Mother of All Conspiracies 20 September 2009 11:011 UTC www.geocities.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • Pearl Harbor - Mother of All Conspiracies 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC whatreallyhappened.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Although the attack on Pearl Harbor in 1941 led to the immediate collapse of the ...
    • THE PEARL HARBOR DECEPTION 18 September 2009 4:39 UTC www.apfn.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Zero hour is December 8 at Pearl Harbor.'
    • Pearl Harbor - Mother of All Conspiracies 20 September 2009 11:011 UTC www.geocities.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    The attack on Pearl Harbor plays a crucial role for Robert E. Lee Prewitt.

Historical fiction

.
  • Air Force (film) A 1943 propaganda film depicting the fate of the crew of the Mary-Ann, one of the B-17 Flying Fortress bombers that fly into Hickam Field during the attack.
  • Storm Over the Pacific also known as Hawai Middouei daikaikusen: Taiheiyo no arashi (Hawaii-Midway Battle of the Sea and Sky: Storm in the Pacific Ocean) was produced by the Japanese studio Toho Company Ltd. in 1960 telling the story of Japanese airmen who served in the Pearl Harbor Raid and Battle of Midway.^ Pearl Harbor attack .
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    ^ Who failed to warn and encouraged the attack on Pearl Harbor?
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    ^ The operating Pearl Harbor attack story long has been that the Japanese Navy task force, commanded by Adm.
    • THE PEARL HARBOR DECEPTION 18 September 2009 4:39 UTC www.apfn.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    An edited version dubbed into English as I Bombed Pearl Harbor was given U.S. release in 1961.
  • Tora! Tora! .Tora! is a movie about the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor.^ Pearl Harbor attack .
    • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor.
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    • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Pearl Harbor is the title of a 2001 film about the 1941 attack.
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    • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Many consider this the most faithful movie re-telling of the attack as it deals with many aspects of the battle, from both American and Japanese points of view, with attention to historical fact, including the use of ULTRA.
  • The Winds of War, a novel by American writer Herman Wouk, written between 1963-71. The novel finishes in December 1941 with the aftermath of the attack.^ Many consider this to be the most faithful movie re-telling of the attack as it deals with many aspects of the battle with attention to historical fact.
    • Attack on Pearl Harbor: Aviation History: Wings Over Kansas 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.wingsoverkansas.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Many consider this the most faithful movie re-telling of the attack as it deals with many aspects of the battle, from both American and Japanese points of view, with attention to historical fact, including the use of ULTRA .
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    ^ Fichida led the Japanese attack on 7 December 1941."
    • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    The TV miniseries produced by Dan Curtis was aired in 1984. Starring Robert Mitchum, Ali Mc. .Graw, J-M. Vincent and Ralph Bellamy, as President Roosevelt.
  • Pearl Harbor is the title of a 2001 film about the 1941 attack.^ Although the attack on Pearl Harbor in 1941 led to the immediate collapse of the ...
    • THE PEARL HARBOR DECEPTION 18 September 2009 4:39 UTC www.apfn.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Pearl Harbor on October 30, 1941.
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    • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Pearl Harbor attack .
    • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .The film is a love story rather than an accurate chronicle of the event, although some of the events portrayed actually took place.^ The film is a love story rather than an accurate chronicle of the event, although some of the events portrayed actually took place.
    • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The film is a love story rather than an accurate portrayal of the event, although some of the events portrayed actually took place.
    • Attack on Pearl Harbor: Aviation History: Wings Over Kansas 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.wingsoverkansas.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Other documentaries, as well as media stories, have mistakenly replayed images from this film, passing them off as authentic footage of the actual Pearl Harbor attack.
    • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .A number of the shipboard scenes were filmed on the USS Lexington in Corpus Christi, Texas.^ A number of the shipboard scenes were filmed on the USS Lexington in Corpus Christi, Texas.
    • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ A number of the shipboard scenes were actually filmed on the USS Lexington Template:WP Ships USS instances in Corpus Christi, TX. The film is directed by Michael Bay and stars Ben Affleck, Josh Hartnett, Cuba Gooding Jr. Kate Beckinsale.
    • Attack on Pearl Harbor: Aviation History: Wings Over Kansas 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.wingsoverkansas.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    The film is directed by Michael Bay and stars Ben Affleck, Josh Hartnett, Cuba .Gooding Jr. and Kate Beckinsale.
  • December 7th, directed by John Ford for the U.S. Navy in 1943, is a film that recreates the attacks of the Japanese forces.^ December 7th , directed by John Ford for the U.S. Navy in 1943, is a film that recreates the attacks of the Japanese forces.
    • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ A number of the shipboard scenes were actually filmed on the USS Lexington Template:WP Ships USS instances in Corpus Christi, TX. The film is directed by Michael Bay and stars Ben Affleck, Josh Hartnett, Cuba Gooding Jr. Kate Beckinsale.
    • Attack on Pearl Harbor: Aviation History: Wings Over Kansas 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.wingsoverkansas.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ A single carefully-planned and well-executed stroke removed the United States Navy’s battleship force as a possible threat to the Japanese Empire’s southward expansion.
    • Sunday December 7th is Pearl Harbor Remembrance Day 20 September 2009 11:10 UTC www.freerepublic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Other documentaries, as well as media stories, have mistakenly replayed images from this film, passing them off as authentic footage of the actual Pearl Harbor attack.^ Pearl Harbor attack .
    • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Other documentaries, as well as media stories, have mistakenly replayed images from this film, passing them off as authentic footage of the actual Pearl Harbor attack.
    • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor.
    • Attack on Pearl Harbor: Aviation History: Wings Over Kansas 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.wingsoverkansas.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    [84]
  • .
  • Medal of Honor: Rising Sun is a first-person shooter which begins at Pearl Harbor.^ Therefore, Pearl Harbor was "the first shot without too much danger to ourselves" he sought.
    • Pearl Harbor - Mother of All Conspiracies 20 September 2009 11:011 UTC www.geocities.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • Pearl Harbor - Mother of All Conspiracies 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC whatreallyhappened.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ He supplied the portions of his personal diary requested by committee counsel and informed the committee that the portions of his diary now in evidence are the only portions thereof having any relationship to the Pearl Harbor investigation.
    • INVESTIGATION OF THE PEARL HARBOR ATTACK 20 September 2009 11:011 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The publication for the first time of more than a hundred JN-25B messages in their original 1941 pre-Pearl Harbor decryption.
    • Pearl Harbor - Mother of All Conspiracies 20 September 2009 11:011 UTC www.geocities.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • Pearl Harbor - Mother of All Conspiracies 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC whatreallyhappened.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    It is possible for a player to single-handedly shoot down more than twice the number of Japanese planes than were shot down in real life.

Non-fiction/historical

.
  • Day of Infamy by Walter Lord was one of the most popular nonfiction accounts of the attack on Pearl Harbor.^ Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor.
    • Attack on Pearl Harbor: Aviation History: Wings Over Kansas 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.wingsoverkansas.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Michael V. Gannon, Pearl Harbor Betrayed (Henry Holt, 2001) is a recent examination of the issues surrounding the surprise of the attack.
    • Attack on Pearl Harbor: Aviation History: Wings Over Kansas 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.wingsoverkansas.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The Final Countdown is a movie set around Pearl Harbor, in which the nuclear aircraft carrier, USS Nimitz Template:WP Ships USS instances, from 1980 is time-warped back to December 6, 1941, one day before the attack on the base.
    • Attack on Pearl Harbor: Aviation History: Wings Over Kansas 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.wingsoverkansas.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    [85]
  • .
  • At Dawn We Slept: The Untold Story of Pearl Harbor by Gordon W. Prange is an extremely comprehensive account of the events leading up to the Pearl Harbor attack.^ Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor.
    • Attack on Pearl Harbor: Aviation History: Wings Over Kansas 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.wingsoverkansas.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ At Dawn We Slept: The Untold Story of Pearl Harbor by Gordon W. Prange is an extremely comprehensive account of the events leading up to the Pearl Harbor attack.
    • Attack on Pearl Harbor: Aviation History: Wings Over Kansas 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.wingsoverkansas.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Michael V. Gannon, Pearl Harbor Betrayed (Henry Holt, 2001) is a recent examination of the issues surrounding the surprise of the attack.
    • Attack on Pearl Harbor: Aviation History: Wings Over Kansas 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.wingsoverkansas.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .It is a balanced account that gives both the perspective of the Japanese and United States.^ Japanese were planning to do was known to the United States..."
    • Pearl Harbor - Mother of All Conspiracies 20 September 2009 11:011 UTC www.geocities.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • Pearl Harbor - Mother of All Conspiracies 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC whatreallyhappened.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ It is a balanced account that gives both the perspective of the Japanese and United States.
    • Attack on Pearl Harbor: Aviation History: Wings Over Kansas 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.wingsoverkansas.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ He systematically and deliberately provoked the Japanese into attacking the United States.
    • THE PEARL HARBOR DECEPTION 18 September 2009 4:39 UTC www.apfn.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Prange spent 37 years researching the book by studying documents about Pearl Harbor and interviewing surviving participants to attempt the most exhaustive truth about what happened to bring the Japanese to attack the United States at Pearl Harbor, why the United States intelligence failed to predict the attack, and why a peace agreement was not attained.^ He systematically and deliberately provoked the Japanese into attacking the United States.
    • THE PEARL HARBOR DECEPTION 18 September 2009 4:39 UTC www.apfn.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Pearl Harbor attack .
    • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Pearl Harbor is the title of a 2001 film about the 1941 attack.
    • Attack on Pearl Harbor: Aviation History: Wings Over Kansas 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.wingsoverkansas.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .The Village said about At Dawn We Slept, "By far the most exhaustive and complete account we are likely to have of exactly what happened and how and why."
  • The Attack on Pearl Harbor: An Illustrated History by Larry Kimmett and Margaret Regis is a careful recreation of the "Day of Infamy" using maps, photos, unique illustrations, and an animated CD. From the early stages of Japanese planning, through the attack on Battleship Row, to the salvage of the U.S. Pacific fleet, this book provides a detailed overview of the attack.
  • Pearl Harbor Countdown: Admiral James O. Richardson by Skipper Steely is an insightful and detailed account of the events leading up to the Pearl Harbor disaster.^ To: omega4179 Aerial photo of Battleship Row taken by Japanese high-level bomber early on during the surprise attack on the US Pacific fleet, anchored at Pearl Harbor.
    • Sunday December 7th is Pearl Harbor Remembrance Day 20 September 2009 11:10 UTC www.freerepublic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Route followed by the Japanese fleet to Pearl Harbor and back .
    • Attack on Pearl Harbor: Aviation History: Wings Over Kansas 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.wingsoverkansas.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The Attack on Pearl Harbor: An Illustrated History by Larry Kimmett and Margaret Regis is a careful recreation of the " Day of Infamy " using maps, photos, unique illustrations, and an animated CD. From the early stages of Japanese planning, through the attack on Battleship Row, to the salvage of the U.S. Pacific fleet, this book provides a detailed overview of the attack.
    • Attack on Pearl Harbor: Aviation History: Wings Over Kansas 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.wingsoverkansas.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Through his comprehensive treatment of the life and times of Admiral James O. Richardson, Steely explores four decades of American foreign policy, traditional military practice, U.S. intelligence, and the administrative side of the military, exposing the largely untold story of the events leading up to the Japanese attack.
  • Pearl Harbor: Final Judgment by Henry C. Clausen and Bruce Lee tells of Clausen's top-secret investigation of the events leading up to the Pearl Harbor attack.^ Which was the exact time that Pearl Harbor was bombed.
    • Do Freedom of Information Act Files Prove FDR Had Foreknowledge of Pearl Harbor?: Newsroom: The Independent Institute 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.independent.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Through his comprehensive treatment of the life and times of Admiral James O. Richardson, Steely explores four decades of American foreign policy, traditional military practice, U.S. intelligence, and the administrative side of the military, exposing the largely untold story of the events leading up to the Japanese attack.
    • Attack on Pearl Harbor: Aviation History: Wings Over Kansas 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.wingsoverkansas.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Pearl Harbor Countdown: Admiral James O. Richardson by Skipper Steely is an insightful and detailed account of the events leading up to the Pearl Harbor disaster.
    • Attack on Pearl Harbor: Aviation History: Wings Over Kansas 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.wingsoverkansas.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Much of the information in this book was still classified when previous books were published.

Alternate history

.
  • Days of Infamy is a novel by Harry Turtledove in which the Japanese attack on Hawaii is not limited to a strike on Pearl Harbor, but is instead a full-scale invasion and eventual occupation after U.S. forces are driven off the islands (something one of the key planners of the attack, Commander Minoru Genda wanted but the senior officers realized was impossible).^ Pearl Harbor attack .
    • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The operating Pearl Harbor attack story long has been that the Japanese Navy task force, commanded by Adm.
    • THE PEARL HARBOR DECEPTION 18 September 2009 4:39 UTC www.apfn.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Day of Infamy by Walter Lord was one of the most popular nonfiction accounts of the attack on Pearl Harbor.
    • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    [86] .The many viewpoint characters (a Turtledove trademark) are drawn from Hawaiian civilians (both white and Japanese) as well as soldiers and sailors from both Japan and the USA. Turtledove has to date written one sequel, The End of the Beginning.
  • The airstrike and Hawaii-invasion premise of Days of Infamy was earlier used in the first episode of the anime OVA series Konpeki no Kantai.^ The airstrike and Hawaii-invasion premise of Days of Infamy was earlier used in the first episode of the anime OVA series Konpeki no Kantai .
    • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ One Japanese sailor was captured.
    • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The many viewpoint characters (a Turtledove trademark) are drawn from Hawaiian civilians (both white and Japanese) as well as soldiers and sailors from both Japan and the USA. Turtledove has to date written one sequel, The End of the Beginning .
    • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .In the episode, Japan carries out the attack in the early hours of the morning, having perfected night carrier operations.^ In the episode, Japan carries out the attack in the early hours of the morning, having perfected night carrier operations.
    • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ In that last intercept Japan gave the deadline for when it was breaking off relations with the U.S.—the deadline was the exact hour when Pearl Harbor was attacked.
    • Do Freedom of Information Act Files Prove FDR Had Foreknowledge of Pearl Harbor?: Newsroom: The Independent Institute 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.independent.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ PEARL HARBOR ATTACK XI FOREWORD On Sunday morning, December 7, 1941, the United States and Japan were at peace.
    • INVESTIGATION OF THE PEARL HARBOR ATTACK 20 September 2009 11:011 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: Original source]

    .The raid begins with a flare drop by pathfinders.^ The raid begins with a flare drop by pathfinders.
    • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .The entire base (including the repair facilities) and a number of supply ships in the harbor are destroyed by daybreak.^ The entire base (including the repair facilities) and a number of supply ships in the harbor are destroyed by daybreak.
    • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ There were many key military needs that were missing from Pearl Harbor, and they were; a lack of training facilities, lack of large-scale ammunition and fuel supplies, lack of support craft such as tugs and repair ships, and a lack of overhaul facilities such as dry-docking and machine shops.
    • THE PEARL HARBOR DECEPTION 18 September 2009 4:39 UTC www.apfn.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ On 7 December 1941, without warning, a wave of Japanese bombers struck the American naval base in Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, killing more than 2,000 American servicemen and damaging or destroying dozens of ships and airplanes.
    • Franklin D. Roosevelt - American Heritage Center, Inc. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.fdrheritage.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .As for the main body of the Pacific Fleet, the Combined Fleet regroups and annihilates them while they return to Pearl Harbor.^ As for the main body of the Pacific Fleet, the Combined Fleet regroups and annihilates them while they return to Pearl Harbor.
    • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Eighteen months earlier, President Franklin D. Roosevelt had transferred the United States Fleet to Pearl Harbor as a presumed deterrent to Japanese aggression.
    • Sunday December 7th is Pearl Harbor Remembrance Day 20 September 2009 11:10 UTC www.freerepublic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Naval intelligence, the FBI, and Roosevelt knew this man was spying on the fleet in Pearl Harbor, and they let the espionage go on.
    • Do Freedom of Information Act Files Prove FDR Had Foreknowledge of Pearl Harbor?: Newsroom: The Independent Institute 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.independent.org [Source type: Original source]

    The episode, which is divided into three stages in the series' game version, ends with Japanese troops landing at all islands in Hawaii.

See also

References

Notes

  1. ^ Ships present at Pearl Harbor 0800 December 7, 1941 US Navy Historical Center
  2. ^ CinCP report of damage to ships in Pearl Harbor from www.ibiblio.org/hyperwar. Unless otherwise stated, all vessels listed were salvageable.
  3. ^ a b Conn 2000, p. 194 (Navy and Marines: 2,117 killed in action or died of wounds, 779 wounded; Army 215 killed in action or died of wounds, 360 wounded).
  4. ^ a b GPO 1946, pp. 64-65
  5. ^ Martin Gilbert, The Second World War(1989) pg. 272
  6. ^ Fukudome, Shigeru, "Hawaii Operation". United States Naval Institute, Proceedings, 81 (December 1955), pp.1315-1331
  7. ^ a b c d Parillo 2006, p. 288
  8. ^ USS Utah (AG-16, formerly BB-31)
  9. ^ Full Pearl Harbor casualty list
  10. ^ Barnhart, Michael. Japan Prepares for Total War (Cornell, 1987).
  11. ^ GPO 1943, p. 96 After it was announced in September iron and steel scrap export would also be prohibited, Japanese Ambassador Horinouchi protested to Secretary Hull on October 8, 1940 warning this might be considered an "unfriendly act".
  12. ^ GPO 1943, p. 94
  13. ^ Toland, Japan's War.
  14. ^ "The Dorn report did not state with certainty that Kimmel and Short knew about Taranto. There is, however, no doubt that they did know, as did the Japanese. Lt. Cdr. Takeshi Naito, the assistance naval attaché to Berlin, flew to Taranto to investigate the attack first hand, and Naito subsequently had a lenghty conversation with Cdr. Mitsuo Fuchida about his observations. Fichida led the Japanese attack on 7 December 1941." Kimmel, Short, and Pearl Harbor: The Final Report Revealed. By Frederic L. Borch, Daniel Martinez Contributor Donald M. Goldstein Published by Naval Institute Press, 2005, pp. 53-54. ISBN 1591140900
  15. ^ "A torpedo bomber needed a long, level flight, and when released, its conventional torpedo would plunge nearly a hundred feet deep before swerving upward to strike a hull. Pearl Harbor deep averages 42 feet. But the Japanese borrowed an idea from the British carrier-based torpedo raid on the Italian naval base of Taranto. They fashioned auxiliary wooden tail fins to keep the torpedoes horizontal, so they would dive to only 35 feet, and they added a break-away "nosecone" of soft wood to cushion the impact with the surface of the water." Hellions of the Deep: The Development of American Torpedoes in World War II. By Robert Gannon Published by Penn State Press, 1996, page 49. ISBN 027101508X
  16. ^ GPO 1943, p. 125
  17. ^ a b c d Peattie 1997
  18. ^ This was mainly a Japanese Navy preference; the Japanese Army would have chosen to attack the Soviet Union. Peattie 1997; Coox, Kobun.
  19. ^ Gailey 1995, p. 68
  20. ^ Gailey 1995, p. 70
  21. ^ Peter Wetzler, Hirohito and War, 1998, p.39
  22. ^ Bix, Herbert. Hirohito and the Making of Modern Japan, 2000, p.417, citing the Sugiyama memo
  23. ^ Noted by Arthur MacArthur in the 1890s. Manchester, William. American Caesar
  24. ^ Barnhart, Japan Prepares for Total War.
  25. ^ Peattie & Evans, Kaigun
  26. ^ a b Willmott, Barrier and the Javelin, p.14.
  27. ^ Fukudome, Shigeru. Shikan: Shinjuwan Kogeki (Tokyo, 1955), p.150.
  28. ^ Willmott, Barrier and the Javelin
  29. ^ Peattie 2001 p. 145.
  30. ^ a b c Order of Battle - Pearl Harbor - December 7, 1941
  31. ^ Stewart, A.J., Lieutenant Commander, USN. "Those Mysterious Midgets", United States Naval Institute Proceedings, December 1974, p.56
  32. ^ Stewart, p.56
  33. ^ Goldstein & Dillon 2000, p. [1]
  34. ^ Stewart, "Those Mysterious Midgets", p.57
  35. ^ Smith 1999, p. 36
  36. ^ a b c Stewart, "Those Mysterious Midgets", p.58
  37. ^ She was located by a University of Hawaii research submersible on August 28, 2002 in 400 meters of water, five miles outside the harbor."Japanese Midget Submarine". http://www.soest.hawaii.edu/HURL/midget.html. Retrieved 2008-09-07. 
  38. ^ Stewart, pp.59-61
  39. ^ Sakamaki's unexpected survival was despised by many Japanese, who referred to his dead companions as "The Nine Young Gods."
  40. ^ Stewart, "Those Mysterious Midgets", p.61-2
  41. ^ Ofstie, R.A., Rear Admiral, USN. The Campaigns of the Pacific War (United States Government Printing Office, 1946), p.19
  42. ^ Rodgaard 1999
  43. ^ Mochitsura Hashimoto (1954). Sunk. p. 31. 
  44. ^ Pearl Harbor mini-submarine mystery solved? Researchers think they have found the remains of a Japanese mini-submarine that probably fired on U.S. battleships on Dec. 7, 1941 Los Angeles Times December 7, 2009
  45. ^ Calvocoressi et al., The Penguin History of the Second World War, p.952
  46. ^ Toland, Infamy.
  47. ^ Prange, Goldstein & Dillon 1988, p. 58
  48. ^ Declaration of War handout
  49. ^ a b c d e AIRCRAFT ATTACK ORGANIZATION The Japanese Attack on Pearl Harbor, Planning and Execution. First wave: 189 planes, 50 Kates w/bombs, 40 Kates with torpedoes, 54 Vals, 45 Zekes Second wave: 171 planes, 54 Kates w/bombs, 81 Vals, 36 Zekes. The Combat Air Patrol over the carriers alternated 18 plane shifts every two hours with 18 more ready for takeoff on the flight decks and an additional 18 ready on hangar decks.
  50. ^ a b NavSource 2003
  51. ^ Prange 1999, p. 98
  52. ^ Prange et al., At Dawn We Slept, p.500.
  53. ^ a b c Prange et al., At Dawn We Slept, p.501.
  54. ^ Prange 1999, p. 174
  55. ^ In the twenty-five sorties flown, USAF Historical Study No.85 credits six pilots with ten planes destroyed: 1st Lt Lewis M. Sanders (P-36) and 2nd Lts Philip M Rasmussen (P-36), Gordon H. Sterling Jr. (P-36, killed in action), Harry W. Brown (P-36), Kenneth M. Taylor (P-40, 2), and George S. Welch (P-40, 4). Three of the P-36 kills were not verified by the Japanese and may have been shot down by naval anti-aircraft fire.
  56. ^ Odd though it may sound, "not" is correct, in keeping with standard Navy telegraphic practice. This was confirmed by Beloite and Beloite after years of research and debate.
  57. ^ a b Parillo 2006, p. 293
  58. ^ The gunners that did get in action scored most of the victories against Japanese aircraft that morning, including the first of the attack by Tautog, and Dorie Miller's Navy Cross-worthy effort. Miller was an African-American cook aboard West Virginia who took over an unattended anti-aircraft gun on which he had no training. He was the first African-American sailor to be awarded the Navy Cross.
  59. ^ Final Voyages, by Kermit Bonner.
  60. ^ The wreck has become a memorial to those lost that day, most of whom remain within the ship. She continues to leak small amounts of fuel oil, over 60 years after the attack.
  61. ^ USS Shaw (DD-373)
  62. ^ Ofstie 1946, p. 18
  63. ^ USAAF pilots of the 46th and 47th Pursuit Squadrons, 15th Pursuit Group, claim to have destroyed 10.
  64. ^ In the event, loss of these might have been a net benefit to the U.S. Blair, passim.
  65. ^ Gailey 1997, p. 68
  66. ^ Willmott, Barrier and the Javelin; Blair, Silent Victory.
  67. ^ Gailey 1997, pp. 97–98
  68. ^ Yergin, Daniel (1991). The Prize: The Epic Quest for Oil, Money & Power. New York: Simon & Schuster. ISBN 0-671-79932-0.  p. 327
  69. ^ a b c Hoyt 2000, p. 190
  70. ^ Hoyt 2000, p. 191
  71. ^ Prange 1999
  72. ^ a b Gailey 1997, p. 97
  73. ^ Willmott, p.16.
  74. ^ Gailey 1997, p. 98
  75. ^ Commander Edward Ellsberg was ordered to Massawa as his replacement, to assist the British in clearing scuttled Italian and German ships. This arguably delayed by several months British hopes for a useful port on the Red Sea. Commander Edward Ellsberg, O.B.E. Under the Red Sea Sun (Dodd, Mead, and Co., 1946).
  76. ^ Raymer, E.C: "Descent Into Darkness", Presidio Press, 1996.
  77. ^ Post-attack ship salvage 1942-1944
  78. ^ =Pearl Harbor 1941=Osprey Campaign Series #62
  79. ^ Churchill, Winston; Martin Gilbert (2001). "December 1941". The Churchill War Papers: The Ever-Widening War. Volume 3: 1941. London, New York: W.W. Norton. pp. 1593–1594. ISBN 0393019594. http://books.google.com/books?id=vx3lMi6AKmIC&pg=PA1593. 
  80. ^ Levine, E. (1995). A fence away from freedom: Japanese Americans and World War II. New York: G.P. Putnam’s Sons.
  81. ^ Daniels, R. (1972). Concentration camps USA: Japanese Americans and World War II. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, Inc.
  82. ^ Haufler, Herve. Codebreaker's Victory: How the Allied Cryptographers Won World War II (New York: NAL, 2003), quoted p.127.
  83. ^ Hakim, Joy (1995). .A History of Us: War, Peace and all that Jazz.^ A History of Us: War, Peace and all that Jazz .
    • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ No national leader in history has ever so brazenly lied to his people about such an important national issue: war or peace, life or death.
    • FDR Scandal Page 20 September 2009 11:011 UTC www.geocities.com [Source type: Original source]

    .New York: Oxford University Press.^ New York: The Free Press, 2000.
    • THE PEARL HARBOR DECEPTION 18 September 2009 4:39 UTC www.apfn.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ New York: Oxford University Press.
    • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ New York: Prentice Hall Press, 1991.
    • THE PEARL HARBOR DECEPTION 18 September 2009 4:39 UTC www.apfn.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ISBN 0-19-509514-6.
     
  84. ^ History News Network (2001-06-10). "CNN's Pearl Harbor Mistake". History News Network. http://hnn.us/articles/88.html. Retrieved 2009-03-13. 
  85. ^ Walter Lord, Day of Infamy (Henry Holt and Co., 1957. ASIN: B002A503FA; Holt Paperbacks, 60th ed. 2001, ISBN 0805068031, ISBN 978-0805068030)
  86. ^ Stefan. Hawaii Under the Rising Sun.

Bibliography

Books

.

U.S. Government Documents

Magazine articles

Online sources

Further reading

  • James Dorsey. ."Literary Tropes, Rhetorical Looping, and the NIne Gods of War: 'Fascist Proclivities' Made Real," in The Culture of Japanese Fascism, ed.^ "Literary Tropes, Rhetorical Looping, and the NIne Gods of War: 'Fascist Proclivities' Made Real," in The Culture of Japanese Fascism , ed.
    • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Stewart, pp.59-61 Sakamaki's unexpected survival was despised by many Japanese, who referred to his dead companions as "The Nine Young Gods."
    • Attack on Pearl Harbor: Aviation History: Wings Over Kansas 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.wingsoverkansas.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Clear Japanese tactical victory; strategic and grand strategic failure; United States declares war on the Empire of Japan; Nazi Germany and Fascist Italy declare war on the United States.
    • Attack on Pearl Harbor: Aviation History: Wings Over Kansas 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.wingsoverkansas.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    by .Alan Tansman (Durham & London: Duke UP, 2009), pp 409–431. A study of Japanese wartime media representations of the submarine component of the attack on Pearl Harbor.
  • McCollum memo A 1940 memo from a Naval headquarters staff officer to his superiors outlining possible provocations to Japan, which might lead to war (declassified in 1994).
  • Gordon W. Prange, At Dawn We Slept (McGraw-Hill, 1981), Pearl Harbor: The Verdict of History (McGraw-Hill, 1986), and December 7, 1941: The Day the Japanese Attacked Pearl Harbor (McGraw-Hill, 1988).^ Following the eighth provocation, Japan attacked.
    • Pearl Harbor - Mother of All Conspiracies 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC whatreallyhappened.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Pearl Harbor on October 30, 1941.
    • Attack on Pearl Harbor: Aviation History: Wings Over Kansas 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.wingsoverkansas.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Pearl Harbor attack .
    • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .This monumental trilogy, written with collaborators Donald M. Goldstein and Katherine V. Dillon, is considered the authoritative work on the subject.
  • Larry Kimmett and Margaret Regis, The Attack on Pearl Harbor: An Illustrated History (NavPublishing, 2004).^ Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor.
    • Attack on Pearl Harbor: Aviation History: Wings Over Kansas 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.wingsoverkansas.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ This monumental trilogy, written with collaborators Donald M. Goldstein and Katherine V. Dillon, is considered the authoritative work on the subject.
    • Attack on Pearl Harbor: Aviation History: Wings Over Kansas 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.wingsoverkansas.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ He worked closely with Kimmel in Pearl Harbor.
    • Do Freedom of Information Act Files Prove FDR Had Foreknowledge of Pearl Harbor?: Newsroom: The Independent Institute 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.independent.org [Source type: Original source]

    Using maps, photos, unique illustrations, and an animated CD, this book provides a detailed overview of the surprise attack that brought the United States into World War II.
  • Walter Lord, Day of Infamy (Henry Holt, 1957) is a very readable, and entirely anecdotal, re-telling of the day's events.
  • W. J. Holmes, Double-Edged Secrets: U.S. Naval Intelligence Operations in the Pacific During World War II (Naval Institute, 1979) contains some important material, such as Holmes' argument that, had the U.S. Navy been warned of the attack and put to sea, it would have likely resulted in an even greater disaster.
  • Michael V. Gannon, Pearl Harbor Betrayed (Henry Holt, 2001) is a recent examination of the issues surrounding the surprise of the attack.
  • Frederick D. Parker, Pearl Harbor Revisited: United States Navy Communications Intelligence 1924–1941 (Center for Cryptologic History, 1994) contains a detailed description of what the Navy knew from intercepted and decrypted Japan's communications prior to Pearl.
  • Henry C. Clausen and Bruce Lee, Pearl Harbor: Final Judgment, (HarperCollins, 2001), an account of the secret "Clausen Inquiry" undertaken late in the war by order of Congress to Secretary of War Henry L. Stimson.
  • Robert A. Theobald, Final Secret of Pearl Harbor (Devin-Adair Pub, 1954) ISBN 0-8159-5503-0 ISBN 0-317-65928-6 Foreword by Fleet Admiral William .F. Halsey, Jr.
  • Albert C. Wedemeyer, Wedemeyer Reports! (Henry Holt Co, 1958) ISBN 0-89275-011-1 ISBN 0-8159-7216-4
  • Hamilton Fish, Tragic Deception: FDR and America's Involvement in World War II (Devin-Adair Pub, 1983) ISBN 0-8159-6917-1
  • John Toland, Infamy: Pearl Harbor and Its Aftermath (Berkley Reissue edition, 1986 ISBN 0-425-09040-X).
  • Robert Stinnett, Day of Deceit: The Truth About FDR and Pearl Harbor (Free Press, 1999) A study of the Freedom of Information Act documents that led Congress to direct clearance of Kimmel and Short.^ Robert Stinnett, Day of Deceit: The Truth About FDR and Pearl Harbor (Free Press, 1999) A study of the Freedom of Information Act documents that led Congress to direct clearance of Kimmel and Short.
    • Attack on Pearl Harbor: Aviation History: Wings Over Kansas 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.wingsoverkansas.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Think also of FDR's foreknowledge of Pearl Harbor as exposed by Robert Stinnett in his book Day of Deceit.
    • THE PEARL HARBOR DECEPTION 18 September 2009 4:39 UTC www.apfn.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Truth we owe the men of Pearl Harbor.
    • Pearl Harbor - Mother of All Conspiracies 20 September 2009 11:011 UTC www.geocities.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • Pearl Harbor - Mother of All Conspiracies 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC whatreallyhappened.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ISBN 0-7432-0129-9
  • Edward L. Beach, Jr., Scapegoats: A Defense of Kimmel and Short at Pearl HarborISBN 1-55750-059-2
  • Andrew Krepinevich, [2]PDF (186 KB) (Center for Strategic and Budgetary Assessments) contains a passage regarding the Yarnell attack, as well as reference citations.
  • Roberta Wohlstetter, Pearl Harbor: Warning and Decision, (Stanford University Press: 1962). .Regarded by many as the most important work in the attempt to understand the intelligence failure at Pearl Harbor.^ He worked closely with Kimmel in Pearl Harbor.
    • Do Freedom of Information Act Files Prove FDR Had Foreknowledge of Pearl Harbor?: Newsroom: The Independent Institute 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.independent.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Regarded by many as the most important work in the attempt to understand the intelligence failure at Pearl Harbor.
    • Attack on Pearl Harbor: Aviation History: Wings Over Kansas 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.wingsoverkansas.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Naval intelligence, the FBI, and Roosevelt knew this man was spying on the fleet in Pearl Harbor, and they let the espionage go on.
    • Do Freedom of Information Act Files Prove FDR Had Foreknowledge of Pearl Harbor?: Newsroom: The Independent Institute 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.independent.org [Source type: Original source]

    .Her introduction and analysis of the concept of "noise" persists in understanding intelligence failures.
  • John Hughes-Wilson, Military Intelligence Blunders and Cover-Ups.^ Her introduction and analysis of the concept of "noise" persists in understanding intelligence failures.
    • Attack on Pearl Harbor: Aviation History: Wings Over Kansas 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.wingsoverkansas.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ President Roosevelt (FDR) provoked the attack, knew about it in advance and covered up his failure to warn the Hawaiian commanders.
    • Pearl Harbor - Mother of All Conspiracies 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC whatreallyhappened.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Regarded by many as the most important work in the attempt to understand the intelligence failure at Pearl Harbor.
    • Attack on Pearl Harbor: Aviation History: Wings Over Kansas 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.wingsoverkansas.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Robinson, 1999 (revised 2004).^ Robinson, 1999 (revised 2004).
    • Attack on Pearl Harbor: Aviation History: Wings Over Kansas 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.wingsoverkansas.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Contains a brief but insightful chapter on the particular intelligence failures, and broader overview of what causes them.
  • Horn, Steve (2005).^ Contains a brief but insightful chapter on the particular intelligence failures, and broader overview of what causes them.
    • Attack on Pearl Harbor: Aviation History: Wings Over Kansas 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.wingsoverkansas.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Horn, Steve (2005).
    • Attack on Pearl Harbor: Aviation History: Wings Over Kansas 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.wingsoverkansas.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .The Second Attack on Pearl Harbor: Operation K And Other Japanese Attempts to Bomb America in World War II.^ Which was the exact time that Pearl Harbor was bombed.
    • Do Freedom of Information Act Files Prove FDR Had Foreknowledge of Pearl Harbor?: Newsroom: The Independent Institute 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.independent.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ In that last intercept Japan gave the deadline for when it was breaking off relations with the U.S.—the deadline was the exact hour when Pearl Harbor was attacked.
    • Do Freedom of Information Act Files Prove FDR Had Foreknowledge of Pearl Harbor?: Newsroom: The Independent Institute 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.independent.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ So, according to Stinnett, Roosevelt provoked Japan to attack us, let it happen at Pearl Harbor, and thus galvanized the country to war.
    • Do Freedom of Information Act Files Prove FDR Had Foreknowledge of Pearl Harbor?: Newsroom: The Independent Institute 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.independent.org [Source type: Original source]

    .Naval Institute Press.^ U.S. Naval Institute Press.
    • Attack on Pearl Harbor: Aviation History: Wings Over Kansas 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.wingsoverkansas.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Willmott, H. P. Barrier and the Javelin (Annapolis, MD: United States Naval Institute Press, 1983), p.14.
    • Attack on Pearl Harbor: Aviation History: Wings Over Kansas 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.wingsoverkansas.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Naval Institute Press.
    • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .ISBN 1-59114-388-8. 
  • Seki, Eiji.^ ISBN 1-59114-388-8.
    • Attack on Pearl Harbor: Aviation History: Wings Over Kansas 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.wingsoverkansas.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    (2006). Mrs. Ferguson's Tea-Set, Japan and the Second World War: The Global Consequences Following Germany's Sinking of the SS Automedon in 1940. London: Global Oriental. .ISBN 1-905-24628-5; ISBN 978-1-905-24628-1 (cloth) Reprinted by University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu, 2007. Previously announced as Sinking of the SS Automedon and the Role of the Japanese Navy: A New Interpretation.
  • Daniel Madsen, Resurrection-Salvaging the Battle Fleet at Pearl Harbor.^ Route followed by the Japanese fleet to Pearl Harbor and back .
    • Attack on Pearl Harbor: Aviation History: Wings Over Kansas 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.wingsoverkansas.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor.
    • Attack on Pearl Harbor: Aviation History: Wings Over Kansas 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.wingsoverkansas.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Jenny, why don't you make a sinking replica of the Titanic or a bombed battleship depicting the battle of Pearl Harbor...
    • Soft 9/11 sculpture by Jenny Ryan - Boing Boing 15 September 2009 5:25 UTC www.boingboing.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .U.S. Naval Institute Press.^ U.S. Naval Institute Press.
    • Attack on Pearl Harbor: Aviation History: Wings Over Kansas 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.wingsoverkansas.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Willmott, H. P. Barrier and the Javelin (Annapolis, MD: United States Naval Institute Press, 1983), p.14.
    • Attack on Pearl Harbor: Aviation History: Wings Over Kansas 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.wingsoverkansas.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Naval Institute Press.
    • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    2003. Highly readable and thoroughly researched account of the aftermath of the attack and the salvage efforts from December 8, 1941 through early 1944.

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Simple English

Attack on Pearl Harbour
Part of the Pacific Theater of World War II
Date December 7, 1941
Location Primarily Pearl Harbor, Hawaii Territory, United States
Result Japanese major tactical victory
  • United States declares war on the Empire of Japan
  • Nazi Germany and Fascist Italy declare war on the United States.
Casus
belli
Oil and trade embargo by the United States; diplomatic stalemate between Japan and the US.
Combatants
United States of America File:Merchant flag of Japan (1870).svg Empire of Japan
Commanders
Husband Kimmel
Walter Short
Chuichi Nagumo
Isoroku Yamamoto
Strength
8 battleships,
8 cruisers,
30 destroyers,
4 submarines,
49 other ships,[1]
~390 aircraft
Mobile Unit:
6 aircraft carriers,
2 battleships,
2 heavy cruisers,
1 light cruiser,
9 destroyers,
8 tankers,
23 fleet submarines,
5 midget submarines,
414 aircraft
Casualties
4 battleships sunk,
4 battleships damaged including 1 run aground
2 destroyers sunk, 1 damaged
1 other ship sunk, 3 damaged
3 cruisers damaged[nb 1]

188 aircraft destroyed
155 aircraft damaged,
2,402 military killed
1,247 military wounded
57 civilians killed
35 civilians wounded[3][4]
4 midget submarines sunk,
1 midget submarine run aground,
29 aircraft destroyed,
55 airmen killed
9 submariners killed
1 submariner captured[5]

The Attack on Pearl Harbor was a surprise attack by Japan against the United States naval base at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii on the morning of December 7, 1941. It is what led the United States into World War II. Japan carried out the attack so that the U.S. Pacific Fleet, which was a collection of ships that the United States could use in a war, would not enter the war that the Empire of Japan was planning in Southeast Asia, against Britain and the Netherlands, as well as the U.S. in the Philippines. The attack was made up of two aerial attack waves totaling 353 aircraft, launched from six Japanese aircraft carriers. 2,390 people died in the attack.[6] Japan declared war on the United States the same day.

Contents

After the attack

The next day, United States president Franklin D. Roosevelt gave a speech to Congress. In his speech, President Roosevelt said that December 7 was "a day which which will live in infamy". Most Americans listened to the speech on the radio. [7] A few minutes after the speech ended, Congress voted to declare war on Japan. Only one member of Congress, Jeanette Rankin, voted "no". Three days later, Germany also declared war on the United States.

Rumors started blaming Japanese Americans for knowing about the attacks ahead of time and even helping.[8] Many American citizens became afraid of Japanese Americans. As a result, many Japanese Americans were sent to internment camps in 1942. The government apologized for doing this in 1988.

Other pages

Other websites

References

  1. Ships present at Pearl Harbor 0800 December 7, 1941 US Navy Historical Center
  2. CinCP report of damage to ships in Pearl Harbor from www.ibiblio.org/hyperwar.
  3. Cite error: Invalid tag; no text was provided for refs named ArmyChapter7pg194
  4. Cite error: Invalid tag; no text was provided for refs named Pearl_Harbor_Congress_Report_Pg64
  5. Gilbert 2009, p. 272.
  6. "USS ARIZONA MEMORIAL: Remembrance". U.S. National Park Service. http://www.nps.gov/archive/usar/phcas.html. Retrieved March 28, 2010. 
  7. Cagle, Jess. "The Big Broadcast". Entertainment Weekly's EW.com. http://www.ew.com/ew/article/0,,318763,00.html. Retrieved March 28, 2010. 
  8. "Pearl Harbor > World War II & Roundup". asianamericanmedia.org. http://www.asianamericanmedia.org/jainternment/ww2/pearl.html. Retrieved April 3, 2010. 


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