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Attila
Ruler of the Huns
Attila
Detail from Atilla and his Hordes Overrun Italy and the Arts by Eugène Delacroix
Reign 434–453
Born 406
Birthplace Place unknown
Died 453 (aged 47)
Place of death unknown, possibly in modern Hungary
Predecessor Bleda and Rugila
Successor Ellac
Father Mundzuk
Mother unknown
.Attila (pronounced /ˈætɨlə/ or /əˈtɪlə/; 406–453), widely known as Attila the Hun, was the Ruler of the Huns from 434 until his death in 453. He was leader of the Hunnic Empire which stretched from Germany to the Ural River and from the Danube River to the Baltic Sea.^ Baibars Attila (406 453), also known as Attila the Hun or the Scourge of God, was Khan of the Huns from 434 until his death.
  • Baibars vs Attila the Hun (Round One) - Armchair General and HistoryNet >> The Best Forums in History 10 February 2010 11:44 UTC www.armchairgeneral.com [Source type: General]

^ His empire stretched from the Netherlands to the Ural River and from the Danube River to the Baltic Sea (see map below).
  • MO Round 2: Ike vs Attila - Armchair General and HistoryNet >> The Best Forums in History 10 February 2010 11:44 UTC www.armchairgeneral.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Attila (406 – 453), also known as Attila the Hun or the Scourge of God was Khan of the Hun people from 434 until his death.
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.During his rule, he was one of the most fearsome of the Western and Eastern Roman Empires' enemies: he invaded the Balkans twice and marched through Gaul (modern France) as far as Orléans before being defeated at the Battle of Châlons.^ During his rule he was one of the most fearsome of the Western and Eastern Roman Empires' enemies: he invaded the Balkans twice, he marched through Gaul (modern day France ) as far as Orleans before being defeated at the Battle of Chalons; and he drove the western emperor Valentinian III from his capital at Ravenna in 452.
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^ Western Provinces of the Roman Empire ca.
  • UTP HigherEducation :: History & Medieval Studies :: From Roman to Merovingian Gaul: A Reader 10 February 2010 11:44 UTC www.utphighereducation.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ During his rule he was among the direst enemies of the Eastern and Western Roman Empires: he invaded the Balkans twice and encircled Constantinople in the second invasion.
  • MySpace - Attila The Hun - 40 - Male - Volga Bvlgaria, Messanbria - myspace.com/hun_stud89 10 February 2010 11:44 UTC www.myspace.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.He refrained from attacking either Constantinople or Rome.^ He reached Constantinople and Rome but refrained from attacking either city.
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^ He refrained from attacking either Constantinople or Rome.
  • Baibars vs Attila the Hun (Round One) - Armchair General and HistoryNet >> The Best Forums in History 10 February 2010 11:44 UTC www.armchairgeneral.com [Source type: General]
  • Attila the Hun 10 February 2010 11:44 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.His story, that the Sword of Attila had come to his hand by miraculous means, was reported by the Roman Priscus.^ Another story of his death, first recorded 80 years after the fact by the Roman chronicler Count Marcellinus, reports that "Attila, King of the Huns and ravager of the provinces of Europe, was pierced by the hand and blade of his wife."
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^ This Edeco, coming to the court, handed over the letters from Attila in which he held the Romans to blame in the matter of the fugitives.

^ P.fr .15 When it was announced to Attila that Marcian had come to the Roman throne in the East after the death of Theodosius, the Hun told him what had happened in the matter of Honoria.

.In much of Western Europe, he is remembered as the epitome of cruelty and rapacity.^ In much of Western Europe, he is remembered as the epitome of cruelty and rapacity.
  • Baibars vs Attila the Hun (Round One) - Armchair General and HistoryNet >> The Best Forums in History 10 February 2010 11:44 UTC www.armchairgeneral.com [Source type: General]
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  • Attila the Hun 10 February 2010 11:44 UTC pustakalaya.olenepal.org [Source type: Original source]
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^ Wanting to be much like the feared Huns, people in western Europe first secretly but soon openly prepared food the way they had seen the nomads do it.
  • Attila the Hun and Steak Tartar 10 February 2010 11:44 UTC www.schonwalder.org [Source type: Original source]

.However, in Hungary, Turkey, and other Turkic-speaking countries in Central Asia, he is regarded as a hero and his name is revered.^ Moreover, Vari points out "most people don't have a clue about Attila the Hun," an ancient ruler widely regarded in Western Europe as barbaric and cruel but who is still revered as a hero in Hungary.
  • Week 13 NFL picks: Thrilla with Attila | vari, attila, week - Home - The Orange County Register 10 February 2010 11:44 UTC www.ocregister.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Since the fifth century b.c.e., Jews settled in Central Asia and around the Caspian Sea established peaceful exchange with the Huns and the other peoples of the region.
  • Huns 10 February 2010 11:44 UTC www.imninalu.net [Source type: Original source]

^ I hate marketing myself, however—so I need a name for the business other than "Joy McCann: editing, writing."
  • Little Miss Attila: The Name-My-Business Contest! 10 February 2010 11:44 UTC littlemissattila.mu.nu [Source type: General]

.February 2010" style="white-space:nowrap;">[citation needed] Some histories and chronicles describe him as a great and noble king, and he plays major roles in three Old Norse works: Atlakviða[1], Völsungasaga[2], and Atlamál.^ In contrast, some histories and Chronicles lionize him as a great and noble king, and he plays major roles in three Norse sagas.
  • Baibars vs Attila the Hun (Round One) - Armchair General and HistoryNet >> The Best Forums in History 10 February 2010 11:44 UTC www.armchairgeneral.com [Source type: General]

^ In contrast, some histories lionize him as a great and noble king, and he plays major roles in three Norse sagas.
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  • Attila the Hun 10 February 2010 11:44 UTC pustakalaya.olenepal.org [Source type: Original source]
  • MySpace - Attila The Hun - 40 - Male - Volga Bvlgaria, Messanbria - myspace.com/hun_stud89 10 February 2010 11:44 UTC www.myspace.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Attila the Hun plays a primary role in several Norse sagas.
  • Attila the Hun 10 February 2010 11:44 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[3]

Contents

Background

.The Huns were a group of Eurasian nomads who, appearing from beyond the Volga, migrated into Europe c.^ The Huns were a group of nomadic pastoral people who, appearing from beyond the Volga, migrated into Europe c.AD 370 and built up an enormous empire in Europe.
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^ The origin of the European Huns has been the subject of debate for centuries; however, it can be said with general agreement that they were a confederation of Eurasian tribes, most likely of diverse origin with a Turkic-speaking aristocracy, who appeared in Europe in the 4th century.

^ As one leading authority has recently said, "When the Huns first appeared on the steppe north of the Black Sea, they were nomads and most of them may have been mounted warriors.
  • Historical Text Archive: Electronic History Resources, online since 1990 10 February 2010 11:44 UTC historicaltextarchive.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Austin Huns Rugby Football Club - 512-895-HUNS 10 February 2010 11:44 UTC www.hunsrugby.com [Source type: Original source]

370 and built up an enormous empire in Europe. .Their main military technique was mounted archery.^ Their main military technique was mounted archery.
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.They were possibly the descendants of the Xiongnu who had been northern neighbours of China three hundred years before[4] and may be the first expansion of Turkic people across Eurasia[5][6][7][8][9].^ They were possibly the descendants of the Xiongnu who had been northern neighbors of China three hundred years before and may be the first expansion of Turkic people across Eurasia.
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^ Orleans, destroyed by Julius Caesar four hundred years before, had been rebuilt into a strong, heavily fortified, and well-guarded city, governed by Bishop Aignan, who was loyal to Rome and didn't trust the Alans.
  • The baby Attila was snatched from his mother's arms only minutes after his birth 10 February 2010 11:44 UTC www.sbceo.org [Source type: Original source]

^ As one leading authority has recently said, "When the Huns first appeared on the steppe north of the Black Sea, they were nomads and most of them may have been mounted warriors.
  • Historical Text Archive: Electronic History Resources, online since 1990 10 February 2010 11:44 UTC historicaltextarchive.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Austin Huns Rugby Football Club - 512-895-HUNS 10 February 2010 11:44 UTC www.hunsrugby.com [Source type: Original source]

.The origin and language of the Huns has been the subject of debate for centuries.^ The origin and language of the Huns has been the subject of debate for centuries.
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^ Main article: Huns The origin of the European Huns has been the subject of debate for centuries; however it can be said with general agreement that they were a confederation of Central Asian and European tribes, many of them horse nomads.
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^ The origin of the European Huns has been the subject of debate for centuries; however, it can be said with general agreement that they were a confederation of Eurasian tribes, most likely of diverse origin with a Turkic-speaking aristocracy, who appeared in Europe in the 4th century.

One scholar suggests a relationship to Yeniseian.[10] .The leading current theory is that their leaders at least may have spoken a Turkic language, perhaps closest to the modern Chuvash language.^ Even though in modern Turkish the expression would be On Oguz, the form "ogur" is characteristic for a well defined minority group of Turkic languages, of which a surviving one is the Chuvash, spoken by the direct descendants of the Volga Bulgars.
  • Huns 10 February 2010 11:44 UTC www.imninalu.net [Source type: Original source]

[11]

Shared kingship

The Hunnic Empire stretched from the steppes of Central Asia into modern Germany, and from the River Danube to the Baltic Sea.
.The death of Rugila (also known as Rua or Ruga) in 434 left his nephews Attila and Bleda (also known as Buda), the sons of his brother Mundzuk (Hungarian: Bendegúz, Turkish: Boncuk), in control over all the united Hun tribes.^ His death in 434 left his nephews Attila and Bleda (the sons of his brother Mundzuk) in control over all the united Hun tribes.
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^ Rulership of the Hunnish confederation now passed to Attila and his elder brother Bleda , the sons of Rua's brother Mundzuk .
  • Hun@Everything2.com 10 February 2010 11:44 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ After the death of Attila (453) most of the Huns left Pannonia (Hungary).
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.At the time of their accession, the Huns were bargaining with Eastern Romen Emperor Theodosius II's envoys over the return of several renegades (possibly Hunnic nobles not in agreement with the brothers' leadership) who had taken refuge within the Eastern Roman Empire.^ Theodosius II - Eastern Emperor, 408-450.
  • SparkNotes: The Fall of Rome (150CE-475CE): Important Terms, People, and Events 10 February 2010 11:44 UTC www.sparknotes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ At the time of their accession, the Huns were bargaining with Byzantine emperor Theodosius II's envoys over the return of several renegade tribes who had taken refuge within the Byzantine Empire .
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^ Goths to seek refuge in the Roman Empire; later, the Huns .

.The following year Attila and Bleda met with the imperial legation at Margus (present-day Požarevac) and, all seated on horseback in the Hunnic manner,[12] negotiated a successful treaty: the Romans agreed not only to return the fugitives, but also to double their previous tribute of 350 Roman pounds (ca.^ The following year Attila and Bleda met with the imperial legation at Margus (present-day Požarevac) and, all seated on horseback in the Hunnic manner, negotiated a successful treaty: the Romans agreed not only to return the fugitive tribes (who had been a welcome aid against the Vandals), but also to double their previous tribute of 350 Roman pounds (ca.
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^ Roman pounds (ca.
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^ Theodosius admitted defeat and sent the court official Anatolius to negotiate peace terms, which were harsher than the previous treaty: the Emperor agreed to hand over 6,000 Roman pounds (ca.
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.115 kg) of gold, open their markets to Hunnish traders, and pay a ransom of eight solidi for each Roman taken prisoner by the Huns.^ Furthermore, any escaped Roman prisoners of the Huns were to be either returned or ransomed for eight gold solidi apiece.
  • Hun@Everything2.com 10 February 2010 11:44 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Hunnish traders, and pay a ransom of eight solidi for each Roman taken prisoner by the Huns.
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^ Roman prisoner rose to 12 solidi .
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.The Huns, satisfied with the treaty, decamped from the empire and returned to their home in the Hungarian Great Plain, perhaps to consolidate and strengthen their empire.^ The Huns, satisfied with the treaty, decamped from the empire and returned to their home, perhaps to consolidate and strengthen their empire.
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^ At the time of their accession, the Huns were bargaining with Byzantine emperor Theodosius II's envoys over the return of several renegade tribes who had taken refuge within the Byzantine Empire .
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^ Obviously, when the Huns first appeared on the edges of the Roman Empire, they made a strong impression, but after their initial threats they settled down along the Danube, particularly in the Great Hungarian Plain, and for almost fifty years they served the Romans as allies more often than they attacked them as enemies.
  • Historical Text Archive: Electronic History Resources, online since 1990 10 February 2010 11:44 UTC historicaltextarchive.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Austin Huns Rugby Football Club - 512-895-HUNS 10 February 2010 11:44 UTC www.hunsrugby.com [Source type: Original source]

.Theodosius used this opportunity to strengthen the walls of Constantinople, building the city's first sea wall, and to build up his border defenses along the Danube.^ Theodosius used this opportunity to strengthen the walls of Constantinople, building the city's first sea wall, and to build up his border defenses along the Danube.
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^ Theodosius II used this breathing space to expand and strengthen the walls of Constantinople against threatened Vandal incursions.
  • Hun@Everything2.com 10 February 2010 11:44 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Huns also raided Thrace and other parts of the Eastern empire, forcing the Emperor Theodosius II to reinforce and rebuild the walls of Constantinople in 422 .
  • Hun@Everything2.com 10 February 2010 11:44 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

.The Huns remained out of Roman sight for the next few years as a Hunnic force invaded the Sassanid Empire.^ Week after week the Romans remained in the Hun capitol.
  • The baby Attila was snatched from his mother's arms only minutes after his birth 10 February 2010 11:44 UTC www.sbceo.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Attila forces Eastern Roman Empire to recognize the superiority of Huns.
  • TurkicWorld - Huns Dateline - 337-439 AD 10 February 2010 11:44 UTC s155239215.onlinehome.us [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Huns for some years were alternately enemies or allies of the Roman empires.

.A defeat in Armenia by the Sassanids caused them to abandon this attempt and return their attentions to Europe.^ A defeat in Armenia by the Sassanid Persians caused them to abandon this attempt and return their attentions to Europe.
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.In 440 they reappeared in force on the borders of the Roman Empire, attacking the merchants at the market on the north bank of the Danube that had been established by the treaty.^ In 440 they reappeared on the borders of the Roman Empire, attacking the merchants at the market on the north bank of the Danube that had been established by the treaty.
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^ In 440 Udi attacks border and flees.
  • TurkicWorld - Huns Dateline - 337-439 AD 10 February 2010 11:44 UTC s155239215.onlinehome.us [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In A.D. 434, they found their leader in Attila, and the Huns steadily conquered by force and by strategic political agreements various regions of the Roman Empire.
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.Crossing the Danube, they laid waste to the cities of Illyricum and forts on the river, among them, according to Priscus, Viminacium, which was a city of Moesia.^ This is a city of the Illyrians lying on the Danube River.

^ They crossed the Danube and laid waste to Illyrian cities and forts on the river, among them, according to Priscus, Viminacium, which was a city of the Moesians in Illyria.
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^ They crossed the Danube and laid waste many cities and forts on the river.

.Their advance began at Margus, whose bishop they had demanded for retaining property which Attila regarded as his; when the Romans discussed handing over the offending bishop, he slipped away secretly to the Huns and betrayed the city to them.^ The bishop refused Attila's demand to open the city's gates.
  • The baby Attila was snatched from his mother's arms only minutes after his birth 10 February 2010 11:44 UTC www.sbceo.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Roman cities to the south, the Huns maintained the .

^ Their advance began at Margus, for when the Romans discussed handing over the offending bishop, he slipped away secretly to the Huns and betrayed the city to them.
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The Huns in battle with the Alans, Johann Nepomuk Geiger, 1873.
.As the Huns conquered the Danube defences, the Vandals, under the leadership of Geiseric, captured the Western Roman province of Africa with its capital of Carthage in 440 and the Sassanid Shah Yazdegerd II invaded Armenia in 441. Stripping the Balkan defenses of forces requested by the West Romans, in order to launch an attack on the Vandals in Africa (which was the richest province of the Western empire and a main source of the food supply of Rome) left Attila and Bleda a clear path through Illyricum into the Balkans, which they invaded in 441. The Hunnish army, having sacked Margus and Viminacium, took Singidunum (modern Belgrade) and Sirmium before halting.^ Young Attila is educated in Western Roman Empire .
  • TurkicWorld - Huns Dateline - 337-439 AD 10 February 2010 11:44 UTC s155239215.onlinehome.us [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Hunnish army, having sacked Margus and Viminacium, took Singidunum (modern Belgrade) and Sirmium before halting.
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^ Attila forces Eastern Roman Empire to recognize the superiority of Huns.
  • TurkicWorld - Huns Dateline - 337-439 AD 10 February 2010 11:44 UTC s155239215.onlinehome.us [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A lull followed in 442 and during this time Theodosius recalled his troops from Sicily and ordered a large new issue of coins to finance operations against the Huns.^ A lull followed in 442 and during this time Theodosius recalled his troops from North Africa and ordered a large new issue of coins to finance operations against the Huns.
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^ At the time of their accession, the Huns were bargaining with Byzantine emperor Theodosius II's envoys over the return of several renegade tribes who had taken refuge within the Byzantine Empire .
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^ Aetius had spent a brief exile among the Huns in 433, and the troops Attila provided against the Goths and Bagaudae had helped earn him the largely honorary title of magister militum in the west.
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.Having made these preparations, he thought it safe to refuse the Hunnish kings' demands.^ Having made these preparations, he thought it safe to refuse the Hunnish kings' demands.
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^ With his defenses now strengthened, he felt prepared to refuse the Huns' demands.
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^ Theodosius had made other preparations for the new Hunnish invasion.
  • Hun@Everything2.com 10 February 2010 11:44 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

.Attila responded with a campaign in 443.[13] Striking along the Danube, the Huns overran the military centres of Ratiara and successfully besieged Naissus (modern Niš) with battering rams and rolling siege towers—military sophistication that was new to the Hun repertoire.^ Striking along the Danube, they overran the military centers of Ratiara and successfully besieged Naissus (modern Niš) with battering rams and rolling towers—military sophistication that was new to the Hun repertory—then pushing along the Nisava they took Serdica (Sofia), Philippolis (Plovdiv), and Arcadiopolis.
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^ That is, until Attila the Hun came along.
  • Hun@Everything2.com 10 February 2010 11:44 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Attila responded by renewing their campaign in 443.
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.Then, pushing along the Nisava River, they took Serdica (Sofia), Philippopolis (Plovdiv), and Arcadiopolis.^ Striking along the Danube, they overran the military centers of Ratiara and successfully besieged Naissus (modern Niš) with battering rams and rolling towers—military sophistication that was new to the Hun repertory—then pushing along the Nisava they took Serdica (Sofia), Philippolis (Plovdiv), and Arcadiopolis.
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^ Moving from here along the Nischava river valley, Attila's hordes swept over Sardica ( Sofia ), Philippopolis , and Arcadiopolis ; Adrianople and Heraclea escaped untouched.
  • Hun@Everything2.com 10 February 2010 11:44 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Everywhere along the river bank they saw the destruction.
  • The baby Attila was snatched from his mother's arms only minutes after his birth 10 February 2010 11:44 UTC www.sbceo.org [Source type: Original source]

.They encountered and destroyed a Roman army outside Constantinople and were stopped by the double walls of the Eastern capital.^ They encountered and destroyed the Roman force outside Constantinople and were stopped by their lack of siege equipment.
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^ During his rule he was among the direst enemies of the Eastern and Western Roman Empires: he invaded the Balkans twice and encircled Constantinople in the second invasion.
  • MySpace - Attila The Hun - 40 - Male - Volga Bvlgaria, Messanbria - myspace.com/hun_stud89 10 February 2010 11:44 UTC www.myspace.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Huns so devastated the place that when Roman ambassadors passed through to meet with Attila several years later, they had to camp outside the city on the river.
  • Historical Text Archive: Electronic History Resources, online since 1990 10 February 2010 11:44 UTC historicaltextarchive.com [Source type: Original source]

.A second army was defeated near Callipolis (modern Gallipoli) and Theodosius, now without any armed forces to respond, admitting defeat, sent the Magister militum per Orientem Anatolius to negotiate peace terms.^ The same Anatolius who had negotiated peace after the previous Hun invasion eventually (in 450) induced Attila to retire from all lands south of the Danube.
  • Hun@Everything2.com 10 February 2010 11:44 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Now, as to the second, and most offensive part of your statement when you compare him to modern day terrorists, I have to say that's obscene.
  • Baibars vs Attila the Hun (Round One) - Armchair General and HistoryNet >> The Best Forums in History 10 February 2010 11:44 UTC www.armchairgeneral.com [Source type: General]

^ When Rugila died, Theodosius II in Constantinople sent two court officials to try for better peace terms from Attila and his brother.
  • The baby Attila was snatched from his mother's arms only minutes after his birth 10 February 2010 11:44 UTC www.sbceo.org [Source type: Original source]

.These were harsher than the previous treaty: the Emperor agreed to hand over 6,000 Roman pounds (ca.^ Adding to these orders of his, Attila commanded the Asimuntians to hand back whatever prisoners they happened to have whether Romans or barbarians.

.2000 kg) of gold as punishment for having disobeyed the terms of the treaty during the invasion; the yearly tribute was tripled, rising to 2,100 Roman pounds (ca.^ Attila accepted payment of all tribute in arrears and a new annual tribute of 2,100 pounds of gold.
  • Historical Text Archive: Electronic History Resources, online since 1990 10 February 2010 11:44 UTC historicaltextarchive.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He ruled over many Germanic tribes and was now important enough to receive a yearly tribute (payment) of three hundred and fifty pounds of gold from the eastern emperor.
  • The baby Attila was snatched from his mother's arms only minutes after his birth 10 February 2010 11:44 UTC www.sbceo.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Attila agreed, but Theodosius was made to pay heavily for the peace: six thousand pounds of gold paid now, and yearly tribute from the Byzantine court must be tripled.
  • The baby Attila was snatched from his mother's arms only minutes after his birth 10 February 2010 11:44 UTC www.sbceo.org [Source type: Original source]

.700 kg) in gold; and the ransom for each Roman prisoner rose to 12 solidi.^ They sent letters to the Asimuntians ordering them either to give up the Roman prisoners who had fled to them or for each to pay over twelve pieces of gold, and to dismiss the Hun prisoners.

^ Furthermore, any escaped Roman prisoners of the Huns were to be either returned or ransomed for eight gold solidi apiece.
  • Hun@Everything2.com 10 February 2010 11:44 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ [It was agreed that in the future the Romans should not receive] those who fled from Scythia and also that those who had already fled along with the Roman prisoners who had escaped to their own lands without ransom should be surrendered unless for each fugitive eight gold pieces (solidi) should be given to those who had captured him in war.

.Their demands met for a time, the Hun kings withdrew into the interior of their empire.^ The Huns were a group of nomadic pastoral people who, appearing from beyond the Volga, migrated into Europe c.AD 370 and built up an enormous empire in Europe.
  • Attila the Hun 10 February 2010 11:44 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Hun infantry (foot soldiers) rushed into the hole left by Attila's horsemen and met the Alans in hand-to-hand combat.
  • The baby Attila was snatched from his mother's arms only minutes after his birth 10 February 2010 11:44 UTC www.sbceo.org [Source type: Original source]

^ This gave the Romans and their allies the advantage in morale as the Huns withdrew into the open country of the modern Champagne district of France.
  • Historical Text Archive: Electronic History Resources, online since 1990 10 February 2010 11:44 UTC historicaltextarchive.com [Source type: Original source]

.According to Jordanes (following Priscus), during the peace following the Huns' withdrawal from Byzantium (probably around 445), Bleda died (killed in a hunting accident arranged by his brother, according to the classical sources), Attila took the throne for himself, and became the sole ruler of the Huns.^ He murdered his brother Bleda and thenceforth ruled the Huns as an autocrat in 445.

^ Attila became king of the Huns.
  • The baby Attila was snatched from his mother's arms only minutes after his birth 10 February 2010 11:44 UTC www.sbceo.org [Source type: Original source]

^ He had been killed in a hunting accident.
  • The baby Attila was snatched from his mother's arms only minutes after his birth 10 February 2010 11:44 UTC www.sbceo.org [Source type: Original source]

[14]

Sole ruler

Mór Than's painting The Feast of Attila, based on a fragment of Priscus
.In 447 Attila again rode south into the Eastern Roman Empire through Moesia.^ He made his second great attack on the Eastern Roman Empire in 447.

^ During his rule he was among the direst enemies of the Eastern and Western Roman Empires: he invaded the Balkans twice and encircled Constantinople in the second invasion.
  • MySpace - Attila The Hun - 40 - Male - Volga Bvlgaria, Messanbria - myspace.com/hun_stud89 10 February 2010 11:44 UTC www.myspace.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ After imposing this harsh Treaty of Margus , Attila and Bleda turned away from Rome to consolidate and expand their jointly-ruled empire, which reached from central Germany to an unknown eastern frontier, and from the Baltic 15 south to the Danube.
  • Hun@Everything2.com 10 February 2010 11:44 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

.The Roman army under the Gothic magister militum Arnegisclus met him in the Battle of the Utus and was defeated, though not without inflicting heavy losses.^ Under the magister militum Arnegisclus (a Goth), the Byzantine army marched out of Marcianople to meet the Huns on the river Vid and was defeated utterly, though not without inflicting heavy losses on Attila's horde.
  • Hun@Everything2.com 10 February 2010 11:44 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He was defeated by a joint Roman-Germanic army at Battle of Catalaunian Plains, 451.
  • SparkNotes: The Fall of Rome (150CE-475CE): Important Terms, People, and Events 10 February 2010 11:44 UTC www.sparknotes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Somehow (we do not know exactly how) he succeeded, and to the Roman and Gothic armies were added some contingents of Alan s and Saxon s from northern Gaul.
  • Hun@Everything2.com 10 February 2010 11:44 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

.The Huns were left unopposed and rampaged through the Balkans as far as Thermopylae.^ When you're done, answer the following question: in what year did Attila the Hun's rampage through Europe finally come to an end?
  • onegoodmove: An Experiment 10 February 2010 11:44 UTC onegoodmove.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Theodosius had staked everything on this battle, and he had lost; the Huns ran rampant throughout the Balkans and Greece , reaching as far as Thermopylae .
  • Hun@Everything2.com 10 February 2010 11:44 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Thus, after the death of Attila (453), a part of the Huns left for the territory of Italy, another went to the Balkan peninsula, a third remained in Pannonia, on the left bank of Danube.
  • HUNMAGYAR.ORG - THE FIRST BULGARIAN STATE FORMATIONS 10 February 2010 11:44 UTC www.hunmagyar.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Constantinople itself was saved by the Isaurian troops of the magister militum per Orientem Zeno and protected by the intervention of the prefect Flavius Constantinus, who organized the reconstruction of the walls that had been previously damaged by earthquakes, and, in some places, to construct a new line of fortification in front of the old.^ Though it seemed that Constantinople would surely fall to the Huns, the Praetorian Prefect Flavius Constantinus organized the citizens to rebuild the defenses, so that within sixty days they had not only restored the damaged sections of wall but also built a new line of defense in front of the old.
  • Hun@Everything2.com 10 February 2010 11:44 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ On the bank of the Marne River, Attila placed himself at the front of his brave and loyal Huns, directly in the center of a long line of warriors.
  • The baby Attila was snatched from his mother's arms only minutes after his birth 10 February 2010 11:44 UTC www.sbceo.org [Source type: Original source]

^ And so in some places the wall was toppled by the rams, and elsewhere men on the battlements were overpowered by the multitude of siege engines.

An account of this invasion survives:
.The barbarian nation of the Huns, which was in Thrace, became so great that more than a hundred cities were captured and Constantinople almost came into danger and most men fled from it.^ It is more than mortal men we fight."
  • The Shadow of the Hun - Wikisource 10 February 2010 11:44 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

^ "The barbarian nation of the Huns, which was in Thrace, became so great that more than a hundred cities were captured and Constantinople almost came into danger and most men fled from it.
  • Hun@Everything2.com 10 February 2010 11:44 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ So the men came to Constantinople with these instructions.

.And there were so many murders and blood-lettings that the dead could not be numbered.^ And there were so many murders and blood-lettings that the dead could not be numbered.
  • Hun@Everything2.com 10 February 2010 11:44 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

Ay, for they took captive the churches and monasteries and slew the monks and maidens in great numbers. (Callinicus, in his Life of Saint Hypatius)

In the West

.In 450, Attila proclaimed his intent to attack the powerful Visigoth kingdom of Toulouse, making an alliance with Emperor Valentinian III in order to do so.^ The story of Valentinian 's sister is well-known; her affair with the palace steward Eugenius , her forced betrothal to the senator Herculanus , and her offer of marriage to Attila in the spring of 450.
  • Hun@Everything2.com 10 February 2010 11:44 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The alliance had been strained by the greed of Aetius ' servants, who had stolen plunder from under Attila's nose during the campaigns of 441, but seemed to be strong in 450, when Attila announced that he would attack the Visigoth kingdom of Toulouse as the ally of the Emperor Valentinian III .
  • Hun@Everything2.com 10 February 2010 11:44 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ At first Valentinian thought that Attila's attack might still be restricted to the Visigoth s of Toulouse , but Attila's continued and unreasonable demands—for Honoria's hand in marriage and her deserved share of the Western Empire —soon ended these hopes.
  • Hun@Everything2.com 10 February 2010 11:44 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

.He had previously been on good terms with the Western Roman Empire and its influential general Flavius Aëtius.^ Western Provinces of the Roman Empire ca.
  • UTP HigherEducation :: History & Medieval Studies :: From Roman to Merovingian Gaul: A Reader 10 February 2010 11:44 UTC www.utphighereducation.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ During his rule he was among the direst enemies of the Eastern and Western Roman Empires: he invaded the Balkans twice and encircled Constantinople in the second invasion.
  • MySpace - Attila The Hun - 40 - Male - Volga Bvlgaria, Messanbria - myspace.com/hun_stud89 10 February 2010 11:44 UTC www.myspace.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He pushed through to the Loire River, where he was finally stopped by an alliance of Visigoths, Burgunds, Franks, the Western Empire general Aetius at the Battle of the Catalunian Fields in 451.

.Aëtius had spent a brief exile among the Huns in 433, and the troops Attila provided against the Goths and Bagaudae had helped earn him the largely honorary title of magister militum in the west.^ Attila's single-minded skill in battle helps him amass an empire bigger than any other.
  • 2001 Attila - Movie reviews, trailers, clips and movie stills 10 February 2010 11:44 UTC www.celebritywonder.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Attila had also aided the Western armies against both the Goth s and the Bagaudae rebels in Gaul, until the latter had massacred a Hunnish force in 439; he had even been appointed magister militum 19 of the West around 445 .
  • Hun@Everything2.com 10 February 2010 11:44 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Large tribes of Huns were answering Attila's call to war.
  • The baby Attila was snatched from his mother's arms only minutes after his birth 10 February 2010 11:44 UTC www.sbceo.org [Source type: Original source]

.The gifts and diplomatic efforts of Geiseric, who opposed and feared the Visigoths, may also have influenced Attila's plans.^ May 1998 A Tribute to ATTILA ZOLLER from the great players who knew and loved him and his music tributes requested and compiled by Richard Boukas © 1998 .
  • Attila Zoller Tribute/Just Jazz Guitar 10 February 2010 11:44 UTC web.mac.com [Source type: General]

^ When the differences with Attila were thus resolved, Theodosius began to fear lest Zeno, who had not been appeased in his demands for Chrysaphius, should seize the sovereignty for himself.

^ One does not regret the discomfiture of Attila's plans, but one's sympathy may be with Honoria, not with Valentinian.
  • Justa Grata Honoria — JRS 9:1‑13 (1919) 10 February 2010 11:44 UTC penelope.uchicago.edu [Source type: Original source]

.However, Valentinian's sister was Honoria, who, in order to escape her forced betrothal to a Roman senator, had sent the Hunnish king a plea for help – and her engagement ring – in the spring of 450. Though Honoria may not have intended a proposal of marriage, Attila chose to interpret her message as such.^ But the ring was only intended to assure him that the message was authentic ( πιστουμένη τὸν βάρβαρον ); it was he who interpreted it as a proposal of marriage.
  • Justa Grata Honoria — JRS 9:1‑13 (1919) 10 February 2010 11:44 UTC penelope.uchicago.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The story of Valentinian 's sister is well-known; her affair with the palace steward Eugenius , her forced betrothal to the senator Herculanus , and her offer of marriage to Attila in the spring of 450.
  • Hun@Everything2.com 10 February 2010 11:44 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Attila interpreted the ring as an offer of marriage.
  • The baby Attila was snatched from his mother's arms only minutes after his birth 10 February 2010 11:44 UTC www.sbceo.org [Source type: Original source]

.He accepted, asking for half of the western Empire as dowry.^ To get just another wife meant nothing to him: but a wife who would bring him half of the Western Roman Empire was certainly worthy of being added to his harem.
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^ He took this as a marriage proposal and came west, asking for half of the Empire as a dowry.
  • SparkNotes: The Fall of Rome (150CE-475CE): Important Terms, People, and Events 10 February 2010 11:44 UTC www.sparknotes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.When Valentinian discovered the plan, only the influence of his mother Galla Placidia convinced him to exile, rather than kill, Honoria.^ Valentinian, as soon as had he discovered his sister's plot, took steps to negate it; Honoria was handed over to the custody of her mother and letters were sent to Attila denying the legitimacy of the marriage proposal: Honoria, being already promised to another man, had no right to marry Attila or to promise him half of the Western Empire, since succession to the Imperium was through the male line only.
  • Hun@Everything2.com 10 February 2010 11:44 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ (In June 450 a messenger arrived at Constantinople from the West) announcing that Attila was involved with the royal family at Rome, since Honoria, the daughter of Placidia and sister of Valentinian III, the ruler of the West, had summoned him to her help.

^ Justa Grata Honoria was the daughter of Galla Placidia and Constantius III, and in conjecturing her character we must take into account the qualities she might have inherited from her parents.
  • Justa Grata Honoria — JRS 9:1‑13 (1919) 10 February 2010 11:44 UTC penelope.uchicago.edu [Source type: Original source]

.He also wrote to Attila strenuously denying the legitimacy of the supposed marriage proposal.^ In the letter, Attila stated that he was now ready to accept the hand of Valentinian's sister, offered to him by Honoria herself in her proposal of marriage.
  • The baby Attila was snatched from his mother's arms only minutes after his birth 10 February 2010 11:44 UTC www.sbceo.org [Source type: Original source]

.Attila sent an emissary to Ravenna to proclaim that Honoria was innocent, that the proposal had been legitimate, and that he would come to claim what was rightfully his.^ When Theodosius learned of these things, he sent to Valentinian to surrender Honoria to Attila.

^ In Gaul then she would reign as empress with Attila; there would be no question of banishment to his trans-Danubian huts, for his authority and prestige in Gaul would depend on her, a legitimate empress of the Theodosian house.
  • Justa Grata Honoria — JRS 9:1‑13 (1919) 10 February 2010 11:44 UTC penelope.uchicago.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ For these reasons Attila was making his expedition, and again he sent certain men of his court to Italy that the Romans might surrender Honoria.

The general path of the Hun forces in the invasion of Gaul.
.Attila interfered in a succession struggle after the death of a Frankish ruler.^ Finally, Aetius and Attila came down on opposite sides in a succession struggle between the sons of the Frankish king—Attila had supported one son, while Aetius had gone so far as to adopt the other as his successor.
  • Hun@Everything2.com 10 February 2010 11:44 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Attila was considered fearsome to such a degree by the empires that supernatural signs showed his death to rulers by way of a boon.

.Attila supported the elder son, while Aëtius supported the younger.^ Her name was Kreka, and by her Attila had three sons, the elder being ruler of the Akatiri and of the other peoples dwelling along the Black Sea in Scythia.

^ Rulership of the Hunnish confederation now passed to Attila and his elder brother Bleda , the sons of Rua's brother Mundzuk .
  • Hun@Everything2.com 10 February 2010 11:44 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The subject allies, especially the Gepids and Ostrogoths, broke free, and in the battle of Nedao in 454 the quarreling sons of Attila were decisively defeated, and Ellac, the elder, killed.

[15] .Attila gathered his vassalsGepids, Ostrogoths, Rugians, Scirians, Heruls, Thuringians, Alans, Burgundians, among others and began his march west.^ For eight years after his accession to power Attila was in occupied in building his empire in the northern lands, in reducing the Ostrogoths and Gepids to positions of subservience or alliance, and in attacking the Persian Empire.

^ The onslaught of Huns was so powerful and furious, that the Alans broke and began to retreat to the west in a panic.
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^ The subject allies, especially the Gepids and Ostrogoths, broke free, and in the battle of Nedao in 454 the quarreling sons of Attila were decisively defeated, and Ellac, the elder, killed.

.In 451 he arrived in Belgica with an army exaggerated by Jordanes to half a million strong.^ The city had less than fifty thousand people , and it was surrounded by a fierce army of well over half a million, but the Huns' attacks were thrown back time and time again.
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^ Early in May, A.D.451, five months after his army had left of the Hun capital on the Danube, Atilla arrived outside the walls of Orleans.
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^ In the second half of June 451 at the Catalaunian Plains (modern province of Champagne in France) the two most powerful armies of Europe clashed.
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J.B. Bury believes that Attila's intent, by the time he marched west, was to extend his kingdom – already the strongest on the continent – across Gaul to the Atlantic Ocean.[16]
On April 7, he captured Metz. .Other cities attacked can be determined by the hagiographic vitae written to commemorate their bishops: Nicasius was slaughtered before the altar of his church in Rheims; Servatus is alleged to have saved Tongeren with his prayers, as Saint Genevieve is to have saved Paris.^ He was probably no worse than any other to the people's who surrendered to him *before* he attacked.
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^ The Huns attacked the walled city with greater fury than before.
  • The baby Attila was snatched from his mother's arms only minutes after his birth 10 February 2010 11:44 UTC www.sbceo.org [Source type: Original source]

[17] .Lupus, bishop of Troyes, is also credited with saving his city by meeting Attila in person.^ Attila rested his troops for a few days, preparing to move against the Lutetians--but their city was saved by a sudden change in Attila's plans.
  • The baby Attila was snatched from his mother's arms only minutes after his birth 10 February 2010 11:44 UTC www.sbceo.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The bishop refused Attila's demand to open the city's gates.
  • The baby Attila was snatched from his mother's arms only minutes after his birth 10 February 2010 11:44 UTC www.sbceo.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Suspecting that he would be sacrificed to appease the Huns' wrath, the bishop defected and betrayed Margus to Attila's horde, which burned the city to the ground.
  • Hun@Everything2.com 10 February 2010 11:44 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

[18]
Aëtius moved to oppose Attila, gathering troops from among the Franks, the Burgundians, and the Celts. .A mission by Avitus, and Attila's continued westward advance, convinced the Visigoth king Theodoric I (Theodorid) to ally with the Romans.^ Theodoric I, King of the Visigoths, rode by his side.
  • The baby Attila was snatched from his mother's arms only minutes after his birth 10 February 2010 11:44 UTC www.sbceo.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Theodoric, King of the Visigoths, had been killed.
  • The baby Attila was snatched from his mother's arms only minutes after his birth 10 February 2010 11:44 UTC www.sbceo.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Visigoths immediately announced Prince Torismond their new king to succeed his father Theodoric.
  • The baby Attila was snatched from his mother's arms only minutes after his birth 10 February 2010 11:44 UTC www.sbceo.org [Source type: Original source]

.The combined armies reached Orléans ahead of Attila,[19] thus checking and turning back the Hunnish advance.^ They turned back toward the enemy and charged the Ostrogoths and Attila's supporting cavalry.
  • The baby Attila was snatched from his mother's arms only minutes after his birth 10 February 2010 11:44 UTC www.sbceo.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Attila had also aided the Western armies against both the Goth s and the Bagaudae rebels in Gaul, until the latter had massacred a Hunnish force in 439; he had even been appointed magister militum 19 of the West around 445 .
  • Hun@Everything2.com 10 February 2010 11:44 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ As a skilled general, Attila knew well the danger of leaving a strong, undefeated enemy in his rear, so he sent his scouts back to check.
  • The baby Attila was snatched from his mother's arms only minutes after his birth 10 February 2010 11:44 UTC www.sbceo.org [Source type: Original source]

.Aëtius gave chase and caught the Huns at a place usually assumed to be near Catalaunum (modern Châlons-en-Champagne).^ In the second half of June 451 on Catalaunian Plains (modern province Champagne in France) took place the most famous battle of the early Middle Ages.
  • HUNMAGYAR.ORG - THE FIRST BULGARIAN STATE FORMATIONS 10 February 2010 11:44 UTC www.hunmagyar.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The majority of the modern historians place the Huns of Claudius Ptolemy on Dnieper.
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.The two armies clashed in the Battle of Châlons, whose outcome is commonly considered to be a strategic victory for the Visigothic-Roman alliance.^ In this army, besides Visigoths and Romans, were Alans.
  • HUNMAGYAR.ORG - THE FIRST BULGARIAN STATE FORMATIONS 10 February 2010 11:44 UTC www.hunmagyar.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the army, besides Visigoths and Romans, were Alans.
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^ He pushed through to the Loire River, where he was finally stopped by an alliance of Visigoths, Burgunds, Franks, the Western Empire general Aetius at the Battle of the Catalunian Fields in 451.

.Theodoric was killed in the fighting and Aëtius failed to press his advantage, according to Edward Gibbon and Edward Creasy, because he feared the consequences of an overwhelming Visigothic triumph as much as he did a defeat.^ Theodoric, King of the Visigoths, had been killed.
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^ He was succeeded by Gratian in the West and Valens in the East Gratian - Emperor in the West at time of the Battle of Adrianopole, where his Eastern colleague Valens was killed while fighting Visigoths.
  • SparkNotes: The Fall of Rome (150CE-475CE): Important Terms, People, and Events 10 February 2010 11:44 UTC www.sparknotes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Theodoric feared the Huns would overrun Toulouse and march into Spain (where the Visigoths ruled).
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.From Aëtius' point of view, the best outcome was what occurred: Theodoric died, Attila was in retreat and disarray, and the Romans had the benefit of appearing victorious.^ Roua having died and the kingdom of the Huns having devolved on Attila (and Bleda) the Roman senate decided that Plinthas should make his embassy to them.

^ Attila was determined to unify his people and take away the best fighting men from the Roman Empire.
  • The baby Attila was snatched from his mother's arms only minutes after his birth 10 February 2010 11:44 UTC www.sbceo.org [Source type: Original source]

Invasion of Italy and death

Raphael's The Meeting between Leo the Great and Attila
.Attila returned in 452 to claim his marriage to Honoria anew, invading and ravaging Italy along the way.^ Edeco and Orestes were to return to Attila along with members of the Roman court.
  • The baby Attila was snatched from his mother's arms only minutes after his birth 10 February 2010 11:44 UTC www.sbceo.org [Source type: Original source]

^ First, however, Attila wished to settle matters in the West, and he set out again in the summer of 452 , invading northern Italy .
  • Hun@Everything2.com 10 February 2010 11:44 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ They returned to their own people, told them what had happened, and persuaded them to follow along the way which the deer, as their guide, had shown them.
  • Hun@Everything2.com 10 February 2010 11:44 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

The city of Venice was founded as a result of these attacks when the residents fled to small islands in the Venetian Lagoon. .His army sacked numerous cities and razed Aquileia completely, leaving no trace of it behind.^ The destruction was so thorough that the city disappeared completely ; visitors to the site some hundred years later were unable to find any trace of it.
  • Hun@Everything2.com 10 February 2010 11:44 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ No trace was left of these cities; the buildings were burned to the foundations, and the inhabitants were carried off into slavery.
  • Hun@Everything2.com 10 February 2010 11:44 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He quickly moved north, leaving 6k behind laying siege to the city, and after a bloody battle took Naples late 1432.
  • Tales of Heroes II: The Hungarian Clan - Paradox Interactive Forums 10 February 2010 11:44 UTC forum.paradoxplaza.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Tales of Heroes II: The Hungarian Clan - Paradox Interactive Forums 10 February 2010 11:44 UTC www.europa-universalis.com [Source type: Original source]

Legend has it he built a castle on top of a hill north of Aquileia to watch the city burn, thus founding the town of Udine, where the castle can still be found. .Aëtius, who lacked the strength to offer battle, managed to harass and slow Attila's advance with only a shadow force.^ It was a hard service the Gael offered the men who came to him from chains or the shadow of the gallows.
  • The Shadow of the Hun - Wikisource 10 February 2010 11:44 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Not far from the enclosure there was a large bath which Onegesius, who had power second only to Attila among the Scythians, had built, fetching the stones from the land of Pannonia.

Attila finally halted at the River Po. .By this point disease and starvation may have broken out in Attila's camp, thus helping to stop his invasion.^ In the thought of asking Attila to help her, we may divine that she was inspired by the example of her mother.
  • Justa Grata Honoria — JRS 9:1‑13 (1919) 10 February 2010 11:44 UTC penelope.uchicago.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ In 452 he had Italy at his mercy, and if disease had not broken out in his camp (for that certainly was the cause of his retreat), he could have compelled Valentinian to surrender Honoria.
  • Justa Grata Honoria — JRS 9:1‑13 (1919) 10 February 2010 11:44 UTC penelope.uchicago.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Emperor Valentinian III sent three envoys, the high civilian officers Gennadius Avienus and Trigetius, as well as the Bishop of Rome Leo I, who met Attila at Mincio in the vicinity of Mantua, and obtained from him the promise that he would withdraw from Italy and negotiate peace with the emperor.^ Leo) met Attila the Hun in 452 and mysteriously persuaded him not to march on Rome, the ancient world held its breath, and history was made.

^ Orleans, destroyed by Julius Caesar four hundred years before, had been rebuilt into a strong, heavily fortified, and well-guarded city, governed by Bishop Aignan, who was loyal to Rome and didn't trust the Alans.
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^ They said that they would treat him well in every way if he should bring his promise to fulfillment.

[20] Prosper of Aquitaine gives a short, reliable description of the historic meeting, but gives all the credit of the successful negotiation to Leo. .The later anonymous account,[21] a pious "fable which has been represented by the pencil of Raphael and the chisel of Algardi" (as Gibbon called it) says that the Pope, aided by Saint Peter and Saint Paul, convinced him to turn away from the city.^ Attila turned away from the city.
  • The baby Attila was snatched from his mother's arms only minutes after his birth 10 February 2010 11:44 UTC www.sbceo.org [Source type: Original source]

^ BIRK: What exactly did Pope Leo say to you, that caused you to turn back.
  • The Wise Buddha-hahahaha: Strictly Off The Record 10 February 2010 11:44 UTC birkblog.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Gibbon calls him "the wise and eloquent Maximin," and he certainly seems to have been one of the abler soldiers and diplomats of his day.

.According to a later mediaeval Hungarian chronicle, the Pope promised Attila that if he left Rome in peace, one of his successors would receive a holy crown.^ The prophecy that Attila's son Ernach would one day restore the Hun Empire to its full power and glory never came true.
  • The baby Attila was snatched from his mother's arms only minutes after his birth 10 February 2010 11:44 UTC www.sbceo.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Attila soon laid aside his violent temper and returned whence he had come from beyond the Danube with the promise of peace.

^ These men were sent to divert Attila from his anger, to persuade him to keep the peace according to the contract, and to say that a wife would be betrothed to Constantius in no way inferior to the daughter of Saturninus either in birth or wealth.

[22] .Priscus reports that superstitious fear of the fate of Alaric—who died shortly after sacking Rome in 410—gave him pause.^ According to reports, he and a party of Senators convinced the Huns to spare Rome a sacking.
  • SparkNotes: The Fall of Rome (150CE-475CE): Important Terms, People, and Events 10 February 2010 11:44 UTC www.sparknotes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Held the throne during first sack of Rome in 410.
  • SparkNotes: The Fall of Rome (150CE-475CE): Important Terms, People, and Events 10 February 2010 11:44 UTC www.sparknotes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He gave orders for the gold to be brought for those who would be involved with him in this business and left.

Illustration of the meeting from the Chronicon Pictum, ca. 1360
.In reality, Italy had suffered from a terrible famine in 451 and her crops were faring little better in 452; Attila's devastating invasion of the plains of northern Italy this year did not improve the harvest.^ Called in the northern languages Atli, and in middle-german as Etzel, Attila is gothic for "Vaterchen" or "Little Father."

^ In the next year, 452, he attacked Italy itself and laid siege to the rich and strong city of Aquileia on the northern Adriatic coast.

^ Battle of Catalaunian Plains - A 451 battle in central Gaul, in which Barbarian troops, with a small Roman contingent, defeated the forces of Attila the Hun.
  • SparkNotes: The Fall of Rome (150CE-475CE): Important Terms, People, and Events 10 February 2010 11:44 UTC www.sparknotes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[23] .To advance on Rome would have required supplies which were not available in Italy, and taking the city would not have improved Attila's supply situation.^ When Aetius received the news that Attila had entered Italy, he gave up ; taking the Emperor Valentinian with him, he abandoned Rome to her fate.
  • Hun@Everything2.com 10 February 2010 11:44 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Suspecting that he would be sacrificed to appease the Huns' wrath, the bishop defected and betrayed Margus to Attila's horde, which burned the city to the ground.
  • Hun@Everything2.com 10 February 2010 11:44 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It might be thought that the most natural arrangement would have been for the imperial party to take the sea journey and abide in loyal Rome for the issue of the struggle.
  • Justa Grata Honoria — JRS 9:1‑13 (1919) 10 February 2010 11:44 UTC penelope.uchicago.edu [Source type: Original source]

Therefore, it was more profitable for Attila to conclude peace and retreat back to his homeland.[24] .Secondly, an East Roman force had crossed the Danube under the command of another officer also named Aetius—who had participated in the Council of Chalcedon the previous year—and proceeded to defeat the Huns who had been left behind by Attila to safeguard their home territories.^ Aetius had another reason for not wanting of Attila and the Huns destroyed.
  • The baby Attila was snatched from his mother's arms only minutes after his birth 10 February 2010 11:44 UTC www.sbceo.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Budapest but i don't the acient names In the 5th century, Aquincum, upon which modern Budapest is built, came under the control of the Huns who ousted the Romans from the colony and chased them further back in to Italy.
  • Research Thread: The Huns - Total War Center Forums 10 February 2010 11:44 UTC www.twcenter.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 435, at the time of the Margus peace talks, Bleda and Attila travelled from the Temes region to meet with the Eastern Roman negotiators; in 440, Bleda crossed the Danube at Viminacium (Kosztolc) to attack Eastern Roman towns.
  • Research Thread: The Huns - Total War Center Forums 10 February 2010 11:44 UTC www.twcenter.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[25] Attila, hence, faced heavy human and natural pressures to retire "from Italy without ever setting foot south of the Po."[25] As Hydatius writes:
.The Huns, who had been plundering Italy and who had also stormed a number of cities, were victims of divine punishment, being visited with heaven-sent disasters: famine and some kind of disaster.^ The early Huns used traditional tactics of mounted archer s and must have seemed like some kind of monster from the dark when compared to their more civilized contemporaries.
  • Hun@Everything2.com 10 February 2010 11:44 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He aided Aetius (who had been a hostage amongst the Huns some years earlier) in the wars with the Burgundian s on the Rhine and in his struggles with Sebastian and the empress Gallia Placidia .
  • Hun@Everything2.com 10 February 2010 11:44 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Furthermore, the prisoners captured at Asemus (the one city which had successfully resisted the Huns, slaughtering a large number thereof) were to be returned immediately.
  • Hun@Everything2.com 10 February 2010 11:44 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

.In addition, they were slaughtered by auxiliaries sent by the Emperor Marcian and led by Aetius, at the same time, they were crushed in their [home] settlements....Thus crushed, they made peace with the Romans and all retired to their homes
.^ Naissus was the birthplace of Constantine, one of the greatest of all Roman emperors.
  • The baby Attila was snatched from his mother's arms only minutes after his birth 10 February 2010 11:44 UTC www.sbceo.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The conquests of the Huns, the total destruction of all that they conquered, and their fierceness came to the attention of the powerful Roman Empire about A.D 375.
  • The baby Attila was snatched from his mother's arms only minutes after his birth 10 February 2010 11:44 UTC www.sbceo.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Thus, he made it clear that the gifts would be given if they received him as an ambassador and would be as spoils only if they killed him and carried them off.

[26]
.After Attila left Italy and returned to his palace across the Danube, he planned to strike at Constantinople again and reclaim the tribute which Marcian had stopped.^ Attila sat on his wooden throne in his wooden palace on the Danube and eagerly heard the news brought to him daily by his spies.
  • The baby Attila was snatched from his mother's arms only minutes after his birth 10 February 2010 11:44 UTC www.sbceo.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The long journey from Constantinople to Attila's capital on the Danube took several weeks.
  • The baby Attila was snatched from his mother's arms only minutes after his birth 10 February 2010 11:44 UTC www.sbceo.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Attila soon laid aside his violent temper and returned whence he had come from beyond the Danube with the promise of peace.

.(Marcian was the successor of Theodosius and had ceased paying tribute in late 450 while Attila was occupied in the west; multiple invasions by the Huns and others had left the Balkans with little to plunder.^ Attila - Hun leader, 450-454.
  • SparkNotes: The Fall of Rome (150CE-475CE): Important Terms, People, and Events 10 February 2010 11:44 UTC www.sparknotes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Matters were further snarled by Theodosius' death after a fall from his horse (in the summer of 450) and his successor Marcian 's refusal to continue paying tribute to the Huns.
  • Hun@Everything2.com 10 February 2010 11:44 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This raid could not have been very dangerous, as Marcian himself rode out to repulse it and met with success, but it was only a taste of the Hun's planned invasions.
  • Hun@Everything2.com 10 February 2010 11:44 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

) .However Attila died in the early months of 453. The conventional account, from Priscus, says that at a feast celebrating his latest marriage to the beautiful and young Ildico (if uncorrupted, the name suggests a Gothic origin)[27] he suffered a severe nosebleed and choked to death in a stupor.^ Attila had died a natural death.
  • The baby Attila was snatched from his mother's arms only minutes after his birth 10 February 2010 11:44 UTC www.sbceo.org [Source type: Original source]

^ During the early months of the year, the Hun king had taken another wife, a Goth named Ildico , and after their wedding feast, he died in her bridal chamber; passed out drunk , he suffered a severe nosebleed and choked on his own blood.
  • Hun@Everything2.com 10 February 2010 11:44 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In 453, a few weeks or months later), at the time of his death, as the historian Priscus reports, Attila took in marriage a very beautiful girl, Ildico by name—after numerous other wives according to the custom of his race.

An alternative theory is that he succumbed to internal bleeding after heavy drinking or a condition called esophageal varices, where dilated veins in the lower part of the esophagus rupture leading to death by haemorrhage.[28]
Another account of his death, first recorded 80 years after the events by the Roman chronicler Count Marcellinus, reports that "Attila, King of the Huns and ravager of the provinces of Europe, was pierced by the hand and blade of his wife."[29] The Volsunga saga and the Poetic Edda also claim that King Atli (Attila) died at the hands of his wife, Gudrun.[30] .Most scholars reject these accounts as no more than hearsay, preferring instead the account given by Attila's contemporary Priscus.^ They are commonly regarded as more sophisticated lyrically and ideologically than most satanic black metal bands.

^ So far as the substance of this notice goes, it tells us the two leading facts which we know more fully from the contemporary historian Priscus.
  • Justa Grata Honoria — JRS 9:1‑13 (1919) 10 February 2010 11:44 UTC penelope.uchicago.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ We crossed certain rivers and came to a very large village in which the dwelling of Attila was said to be more notable than those elsewhere.

Priscus' version, however, has recently come under renewed scrutiny by Michael A. Babcock.[31] .Based on detailed philological analysis, Babcock concludes that the account of natural death, given by Priscus, was an ecclesiastical "cover story" and that Emperor Marcian (who ruled the Eastern Roman Empire from 450-457) was the political force behind Attila's death.^ Attila had died a natural death.
  • The baby Attila was snatched from his mother's arms only minutes after his birth 10 February 2010 11:44 UTC www.sbceo.org [Source type: Original source]

^ After imposing this harsh Treaty of Margus , Attila and Bleda turned away from Rome to consolidate and expand their jointly-ruled empire, which reached from central Germany to an unknown eastern frontier, and from the Baltic 15 south to the Danube.
  • Hun@Everything2.com 10 February 2010 11:44 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ During his rule he was one of the most fearsome of the Western and Eastern Roman Empires' enemies: he invaded the Balkans twice, he marched through Gaul (modern France) as far as Orleans before being defeated at the Battle of Chalons.
  • Baibars vs Attila the Hun (Round One) - Armchair General and HistoryNet >> The Best Forums in History 10 February 2010 11:44 UTC www.armchairgeneral.com [Source type: General]

.Jordanes says: "The greatest of all warriors should be mourned with no feminine lamentations and with no tears, but with the blood of men."^ His men, upon discovering his unmarked corpse, mourned him in proper Hunnish fashion, cutting themselves with their swords so "the greatest of all warriors should be mourned with no feminine lamentation s and with no tears, but with the blood of men."
  • Hun@Everything2.com 10 February 2010 11:44 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ We made no answer and prepared for the journey, although Bigilas argued obstinately that we should say that there were other things to tell them.

^ By the Huns custom men plucked out the hair of their heads and made their faces hideous with deep wounds, so that the renowned warrior might be mourned, not by effeminate wailings and tears, but by the blood of men (4; 117).
  • HUNMAGYAR.ORG - THE FIRST BULGARIAN STATE FORMATIONS 10 February 2010 11:44 UTC www.hunmagyar.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

His horsemen galloped in circles around the silken tent where Attila lay in state, singing in his dirge, according to Cassiodorus and Jordanes: "Who can rate this as death, when none believes it calls for vengeance?"
.Then they celebrated a strava (lamentation) over his burial place with great feasting.^ After he had been mourned with such lamentations they celebrated a "Strava," as they call it, over his tomb with great revelry, coupling opposite extremes of feeling in turn among themselves.

^ Huns built a memorial kurgan (tumulus), celebrated a memorial feast and buried the body of the powerful leader in the earth.
  • HUNMAGYAR.ORG - THE FIRST BULGARIAN STATE FORMATIONS 10 February 2010 11:44 UTC www.hunmagyar.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Legend says that he was laid to rest in a triple coffin made of gold, silver, and iron, along with some of the spoils of his conquests.^ They bound his coffins the first with gold, the second with silver, and the third with the strength of iron, showing by such a device that these suited a most mighty king—iron, because with it he subdued nations, gold and silver because he received the honors of both empires.

^ The triple casket of gold, silver, and iron was lowered into the grave and covered.
  • The baby Attila was snatched from his mother's arms only minutes after his birth 10 February 2010 11:44 UTC www.sbceo.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Gold and the silver coffins symbolized the rout of two empires -Gothic and Roman, and iron a conquest of the other peoples.
  • HUNMAGYAR.ORG - THE FIRST BULGARIAN STATE FORMATIONS 10 February 2010 11:44 UTC www.hunmagyar.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.His men diverted a section of the river, buried the coffin under the riverbed, and then were killed to keep the exact location a secret.^ The gravediggers were killed so that enemies would never know the exact location of Attila's final resting-place.
  • The baby Attila was snatched from his mother's arms only minutes after his birth 10 February 2010 11:44 UTC www.sbceo.org [Source type: Original source]

.His sons Ellac (his appointed successor), Dengizich, and Ernakh fought over the division of his legacy, specifically which vassal kings would belong to which brother.^ Wishing to appoint his elder son king of this nation Attila sent Onegesius for this purpose.

.As a consequence they were divided, defeated and scattered the following year in the Battle of Nedao by the Ostrogoths and the Gepids under Ardaric who had been Attila's most prized chieftain.^ Attila drank heavily with the princess and chieftains who toasted his great success and his newest marriage.
  • The baby Attila was snatched from his mother's arms only minutes after his birth 10 February 2010 11:44 UTC www.sbceo.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Attila will be remembered for his giant heart exemplified by his music, by his courageous and always positive battle with this illness, and in the love that was felt unanimously by everyone who knew him.
  • Attila Zoller Tribute/Just Jazz Guitar 10 February 2010 11:44 UTC web.mac.com [Source type: General]

^ This decision caused the indignation of king Ardaric, an ally and adviser of Attila for many years.
  • HUNMAGYAR.ORG - THE FIRST BULGARIAN STATE FORMATIONS 10 February 2010 11:44 UTC www.hunmagyar.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Attila's many children and relatives are known by name and some even by deeds, but soon valid genealogical sources all but dry up and there seems to be no verifiable way to trace Attila's descendants.^ Attila soon began living, eating, and even sleeping, while riding his horse.
  • The baby Attila was snatched from his mother's arms only minutes after his birth 10 February 2010 11:44 UTC www.sbceo.org [Source type: Original source]

^ After all had partaken of this and had stood up in the same way and again drunk wine we sat down.

^ In Gaul then she would reign as empress with Attila; there would be no question of banishment to his trans-Danubian huts, for his authority and prestige in Gaul would depend on her, a legitimate empress of the Theodosian house.
  • Justa Grata Honoria — JRS 9:1‑13 (1919) 10 February 2010 11:44 UTC penelope.uchicago.edu [Source type: Original source]

This has not stopped many genealogists from attempting to reconstruct a valid line of descent for various medieval rulers. .One of the most credible claims has been that of the khans of Bulgaria (see Nominalia of the Bulgarian khans).^ The third group is the one which came to settle in present-day Bulgaria, and is known as the Balkan (or Slavic) Bulgarians.
  • HUNMAGYAR.ORG - THE FIRST BULGARIAN STATE FORMATIONS 10 February 2010 11:44 UTC www.hunmagyar.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

A popular, but ultimately unconfirmed, attempt tries to relate Attila to Charlemagne.

Appearance, character

.There is no surviving first-person account of Attila's appearance.^ In Europe, there was now no force capable to resist Attila.
  • HUNMAGYAR.ORG - THE FIRST BULGARIAN STATE FORMATIONS 10 February 2010 11:44 UTC www.hunmagyar.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ At first Attila's friends thought that their king had been assassinated, but the body showed no wounds of any kind.
  • The baby Attila was snatched from his mother's arms only minutes after his birth 10 February 2010 11:44 UTC www.sbceo.org [Source type: Original source]

^ We considered that there was no advantage for our embassy in answering unless we had access to Attila himself.

There is, however, a possible second-hand source, provided by Jordanes, who claimed Priscus described Attila as:
.
Short of stature, with a broad chest and a large head; his eyes were small, his beard thin and sprinkled with grey; and he had a flat nose and tanned skin, showing evidence of his origin.^ His beard was thin and sprinkled with grey, his nose flat, and his complexion swarthy, showing thus the signs of his origins."

^ In appearance Attila was short of stature, with a broad chest and alarge head; his eyes were small, his beard thin and sprinkled with gray; and he had a flat nose and a swarthy complexion.
  • HUNMAGYAR.ORG - THE FIRST BULGARIAN STATE FORMATIONS 10 February 2010 11:44 UTC www.hunmagyar.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He was short of stature with a broad chest, massive head, and small eyes.

[32]
.Attila has been portrayed in various ways, sometimes as a noble ruler, sometimes as a cruel barbarian.^ Attila was considered fearsome to such a degree by the empires that supernatural signs showed his death to rulers by way of a boon.

.Attila is known in Western history and tradition as the grim flagellum dei (Latin: "Scourge of God"), and his name has become a byword for cruelty and barbarism.^ And Attila the Hun, the scourge of God, isn't?
  • Baibars vs Attila the Hun (Round One) - Armchair General and HistoryNet >> The Best Forums in History 10 February 2010 11:44 UTC www.armchairgeneral.com [Source type: General]

^ Baibars Attila (406 453), also known as Attila the Hun or the Scourge of God, was Khan of the Huns from 434 until his death.
  • Baibars vs Attila the Hun (Round One) - Armchair General and HistoryNet >> The Best Forums in History 10 February 2010 11:44 UTC www.armchairgeneral.com [Source type: General]

^ Attila, King of the Huns, the Scourge of God, had been defeated.
  • The baby Attila was snatched from his mother's arms only minutes after his birth 10 February 2010 11:44 UTC www.sbceo.org [Source type: Original source]

.Some of this may have arisen from confusion between him and later steppe warlords such as Genghis Khan (Timuchin) and Timur (Tamerlane).^ A number of Hsiung-nu customs do suggest Turkish affinity, which has led some historians to suggest that the western Hsiung-nu may have been the ancestors of the European Turks of later centuries.

^ Baibars may have some of these same qualities, and as i have said, I know little of him except what you have put forward in many posts in this forum.
  • Baibars vs Attila the Hun (Round One) - Armchair General and HistoryNet >> The Best Forums in History 10 February 2010 11:44 UTC www.armchairgeneral.com [Source type: General]

All have been regarded as cruel, clever, and blood-thirsty lovers of battle and pillage; all have been recorded mainly by their enemies. The reality of his character is probably more complex. .Priscus also recounts his meeting with an eastern Roman captive who admired Hunnic governance over Roman, so that he had no desire to return to his former country, and the Byzantine historian's description of Attila's humility and simplicity is unambiguous in its admiration.^ Attila had no desire to meet his enemies inside the city.
  • The baby Attila was snatched from his mother's arms only minutes after his birth 10 February 2010 11:44 UTC www.sbceo.org [Source type: Original source]

^ He never hid his anger or dislike of the Romans, who added to Attila's hatred by making fun of the ugly, ill-mannered youth.
  • The baby Attila was snatched from his mother's arms only minutes after his birth 10 February 2010 11:44 UTC www.sbceo.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Edeco and Orestes were to return to Attila along with members of the Roman court.
  • The baby Attila was snatched from his mother's arms only minutes after his birth 10 February 2010 11:44 UTC www.sbceo.org [Source type: Original source]

Attila from an illustration to the Poetic Edda
The origin of Attila's name is not known with confidence. Most suggestions assume Turkish roots. The etymology "oceanic (universal) [ruler]" has been proposed, supposing that the Hunnic language was Danube-Bulgarian.[11] .Alternatively the word might originate from Turkic Atyl/Atal/Atil/Itil meaning water, river (also, ancient name of Volga river), with adjective suffix -ly.^ From the beginning of the first century of our era (between 15 and 47 AD) in the Middle Volga basin, on the territory of modern Samara province, on the banks of the river Kinel was a princedom, Bulyar (initial name Atil).
  • HUNMAGYAR.ORG - THE FIRST BULGARIAN STATE FORMATIONS 10 February 2010 11:44 UTC www.hunmagyar.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

(Compare also Turkic medieval notable title atalyk – "senior as father").[33][34][35] .Old-Turkic might have used the word atta ("father") (as in Atatürk) then added the diminutive suffix -ila, which means ("little father") from Attaila [36] 'Attila' has many variants: Atli and Atle in Norse, Ætla, Attle and Atlee in English, Attila/Atilla/Etele in Hungarian (all the three name variants are used in Hungary; Attila is the most popular variant), Etzel in the German Nibelungenlied, or Attila, Atila or Atilla in modern Turkish.^ Called in the northern languages Atli, and in middle-german as Etzel, Attila is gothic for "Vaterchen" or "Little Father."

^ Information about Attila (variation of his name: Atilla).
  • HUNMAGYAR.ORG - THE FIRST BULGARIAN STATE FORMATIONS 10 February 2010 11:44 UTC www.hunmagyar.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "King" is a Western title, most definitely not used by the Huns (although the Goths, as Germanic people, might have had "konungs" of some sort, I don't know about them).
  • Research Thread: The Huns - Total War Center Forums 10 February 2010 11:44 UTC www.twcenter.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In Hungary and in Turkey "Attila" is commonly used as a male first name.^ Howie Collins I first knew Attila around 1957 when he escaped from Hungary after the revolution.
  • Attila Zoller Tribute/Just Jazz Guitar 10 February 2010 11:44 UTC web.mac.com [Source type: General]

.In Turkey sometimes the name is spelled with double ll rather than double tt (Atilla).^ There is a pause in the middle of each line and so, in English, a sijo is sometimes printed in six lines rather than three.
  • fancasty.com Information about Poetry 10 February 2010 11:44 UTC fancasty.com [Source type: Reference]

.The Polish Chronicle represents Attila's name as Aquila supposedly (by some authors of the article) derived from the Latin aqua, however it can simply be the Latin aquila (eagle).^ The choriamb is derived from some ancient Greek and Latin poetry .
  • fancasty.com Information about Poetry 10 February 2010 11:44 UTC fancasty.com [Source type: Reference]

.Others believe that the name may have a connection to Hungarian ítélet meaning judgement.^ Probably, it was a primitive form of association of the people, some of which believed, that their ancestor came from the spirit of the moon in the form of a wolf, and others believed, that their ancestor was born from the spirit of a huge bull with a name Trk.
  • HUNMAGYAR.ORG - THE FIRST BULGARIAN STATE FORMATIONS 10 February 2010 11:44 UTC www.hunmagyar.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Honours

.In Hungary, several public places are named after Attila; for instance, in Budapest there are 10 Attila Streets and an Attila Lane, one of which is an important street behind the Buda Castle.^ Anno Domini Classic Fritigil of the Marcomanni Attila the Hun Alfred the Great Note that there's been a slight change in name to Rob (R8XFT) .
  • Boudicca of the Iceni : 3D animated, era specific leaderhead. - Civilization Fanatics' Forums 10 February 2010 11:44 UTC forums.civfanatics.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Aetius took a quick count of those killed, It could not be an accurate one, but there was no doubt that the greater losses had been suffered by Attila's armies.
  • The baby Attila was snatched from his mother's arms only minutes after his birth 10 February 2010 11:44 UTC www.sbceo.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Attila the Hun Isten Ostora Join Date: Aug 2001 Location: Back in Budapest, Hungary Posts: 858 .
  • Tales of Heroes II: The Hungarian Clan - Paradox Interactive Forums 10 February 2010 11:44 UTC forum.paradoxplaza.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Tales of Heroes II: The Hungarian Clan - Paradox Interactive Forums 10 February 2010 11:44 UTC www.europa-universalis.com [Source type: Original source]

See: Public place names of Budapest
In Turkey many military operations were named after Attila. .When the Turkish army intervened or invaded in Cyprus in 1974 the operation was nicknamed Attila as well.^ (Attila with his vast host of Mongols and subject Germans invaded central Gaul, where his cavalry could operate better and the chances for plunder were enormous.

Turks also named hundreds of streets and regions after his name in different cities and towns across Turkey.

See also

References

  1. ^ Atlakvitha en grönlenzka Henry Adams Bellows' translation and commentary
  2. ^ R. G. Finch (ed. and trans.), The Saga of the Volsungs (London: Nelson, 1965), available at [1]
  3. ^ Atlamol en grönlenzku Translation and commentary by Henry A. Bellows
  4. ^ De Guignes, Joseph (1756-1758). Histoire générale des Huns, des Turcs, des Mongols et des autres Tartares. 
  5. ^ Transylvania through the age of migrations
  6. ^ Calise, J.M.P. (2002). 'Pictish Sourcebook: Documents of Medieval Legend and Dark Age History'. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press. p279, ISBN 0313322953
  7. ^ Peckham, D. Paulston, C. B. (1998). Linguistic Minorities in Central and Eastern Europe. Clevedon, UK : Multilingual Matters. p100, ISBN 1853594164
  8. ^ Canfield, R.L. (1991). Turko-Persia in Historical Perspective. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p49, ISBN 0521522919
  9. ^ Frazee, C.A. (2002). Two Thousand Years Ago: The World at the Time of Jesus. Wm. B. Eerdmans
  10. ^ Vovin 2000
  11. ^ a b Omeljan Pritsak (1982). "Hunnic names of the Attila clan". Harvard Ukrainian Studies VI: 444. http://140.247.132.248/huri/pdf/hus_volumes/vVI_n4_dec1982.pdf. 
  12. ^ Howarth, Patrick (1995). Attila, King of the Huns. New York: Barnes & Noble Publishing. pp. 191–92. http://books.google.com/books?id=0vt_4oJLGzAC&pg=PA19&dq=horses%2Bhuns&ei=NcYUSsLGCILszATqs_iXAg#PPA20,M1. 
  13. ^ Cawthorne, Nigel (2004). Military Commanders. Enchanted Lion Books. p. 41. http://books.google.com/books?id=F-QawgVmYn8C&pg=PA41&dq=attila%2B443+campaign&lr=&ei=6MkUSuC6Ep7CzQTGq-D7Dw. 
  14. ^ Priscus of Panium: fragments from the Embassy to Attila
  15. ^ The location and identity of these kings is not known and subject to conjecture.
  16. ^ J.B. Bury, The Invasion of Europe by the Barbarians, lecture IX (e-text)
  17. ^ The vitae are summarized in Thomas Hodgkin, Italy and Her Invaders (New York: Russell & Russell, 1967 reprint of the original 1880–89 edition), volume II pp. 128ff.
  18. ^ St. Lupus – Saints & Angels – Catholic Online
  19. ^ Later accounts of the battle site the Huns either already within the city or in the midst of storming it when the Roman-Visigoth army arrived; Jordanes mentions no such thing. See Bury, ibid.
  20. ^ Wikisource-logo.svg "Pope St. Leo I (the Great)" in the 1913 Catholic Encyclopedia.
  21. ^ Medieval Sourcebook, Leo I and Attila
  22. ^ Chronicon Pictum, this is the first occasion when an artist presented an angel graphically
  23. ^ E.A. Thompson, The Huns, revised with an afterword by Peter Heather, Blackwell Publishers, 1996. p.161
  24. ^ Thompson-Heather, pp.160-161
  25. ^ a b Thompson-Heather, p.163
  26. ^ Hydatius, Chron Min. ii pp.26ff
  27. ^ Thompson, The Huns, p. 164.
  28. ^ Man, Nigel (2006). Attila. Thomas Dunne Books. p. 264. http://books.google.com/books?id=hF5mpUTy1z0C&pg=PA264&lpg=PA264&dq=esophageal+varices%2Battila&source=bl&ots=bzcg7hdqWw&sig=PP7SyVZ7bFw4pL72tO8q8MvhjLA&hl=en&ei=j9IUSrz7HIWEtwfs7_nmDA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=10. 
  29. ^ Marcellinus Comes, Chronicon (e-text), quoted in Hector Munro Chadwick: The Heroic Age (London, Cambridge University Press, 1926), p. 39 n. 1.
  30. ^ Volsunga Saga, Chapter 39; Poetic Edda, Atlamol En Grönlenzku, The Greenland Ballad of Atli
  31. ^ Babcock, Michael A. The Night Attila Died: Solving the Murder of Attila the Hun, Berkley Books, 2005 ISBN 0-425-20272-0
  32. ^ The Goths by Jordanes. Translated by Charles Christopher Mierow. Chapter 35: Attila the Hun. http://www.romansonline.com/Src_Frame.asp?DocID=Gth_Goth_35
  33. ^ The History Files: The Origins of the Huns, based on conversations with Kemal Cemal, Turkey, 2002
  34. ^ The World of the Huns. Chapter IX. Language – O. Maenchen-Helfen
  35. ^ Gene Expression
  36. ^ Maenchen-Helfen, Otto (1973). "Chapter 9.4". The World of the Huns. University of California Press. ISBN 978-0520015968. http://www.kroraina.com/huns/mh/mh_4.html. 

Primary sources

Historiography

.
  • Babcock, Michael A. (2005) The Night Attila Died: Solving the Murder of Attila the Hun (Berkley Publishing Group, ISBN 0-425-20272-0)
  • Blockley, R.C. (1983) The Fragmentary Classicising Historians of the Later Roman Empire, vol.^ (By strange circumstances, Orestes was the father of Augustulus, "Little Augustus," who later became the last emperor of the Roman Empire of the West) .
    • The baby Attila was snatched from his mother's arms only minutes after his birth 10 February 2010 11:44 UTC www.sbceo.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ For all these reasons, Attila felt certain that the Roman Empire in the West would not try to stop him.
    • The baby Attila was snatched from his mother's arms only minutes after his birth 10 February 2010 11:44 UTC www.sbceo.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The prophecy that Attila's son Ernach would one day restore the Hun Empire to its full power and glory never came true.
    • The baby Attila was snatched from his mother's arms only minutes after his birth 10 February 2010 11:44 UTC www.sbceo.org [Source type: Original source]

    II (ISBN 0-905205-15-4). .This is a collection of fragments from Priscus, Olympiodorus, and others, with original text and translation.
  • Gordon, C. D. (1960) The Age of Attila: Fifth-century Byzantium and the Barbarians (Ann Arbor, University of Michigan Press, ISBN 0472061119).^ Scrapbook of daily cartoon panels, with brief text about Michigan history, published in the Grand Rapids Press.
    • Index to Comic Art Collection: "Attempt" to "Atzori" 10 February 2010 11:44 UTC comics.lib.msu.edu [Source type: General]

    ^ Thompson, E.A; A History of Attila and the Huns (London, Oxford University Press, 1948) was most helpful in compiling other sources.
    • Hun@Everything2.com 10 February 2010 11:44 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Priscus was surprised that Attila paid no attention to his other sons, only to Ernach.
    • The baby Attila was snatched from his mother's arms only minutes after his birth 10 February 2010 11:44 UTC www.sbceo.org [Source type: Original source]

    .This is a translated collection, with commentary and annotation, of ancient writings on the subject, including Priscus.
  • Heather, Peter (2005) The Fall of the Roman Empire—A New History of Rome and the Barbarians (Oxford University Press, ISBN 0195159543)
  • Howarth, Patrick (1994) Attila, King of the Huns: The Man and the Myth (ISBN 0786709308).
  • Maenchen-Helfen, J. Otto (1973) The World of the Huns: Studies in Their History and Culture (Berkeley, University of California Press, ISBN 0520015967)
  • Man, John (2005) Attila: The Barbarian King Who Challenged Rome (Bantam Press, ISBN 0-593-05291-9)
  • Thompson, E. A. (1948) A History of Attila and the Huns (London, Oxford University Press, ISBN 0837176409).^ Legend has it that the barbarian conqueror was so impressed with the piety and holiness of Pope Leo I —who (it is said) went out barefoot through the snow to meet the Hun army and plead for mercy—that he halted and turned back, while Priscus tells us that Attila feared he would meet the fate of Alaric , who had died shortly after sacking Rome in 410 .
    • Hun@Everything2.com 10 February 2010 11:44 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ You’re falling out of love with your child — “fake it ‘til you make it.” — “The Leadership Secrets of Attila the Hun” (1999) .

    ^ When Aetius received the news that Attila had entered Italy, he gave up ; taking the Emperor Valentinian with him, he abandoned Rome to her fate.
    • Hun@Everything2.com 10 February 2010 11:44 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

    This is the authoritative English work on the subject. It was reprinted in 1999 as The Huns in the Peoples of Europe series (ISBN 0-631-21443-7). Thompson did not enter controversies over Hunnic origins and considers that Attila's victories were achieved only when there was no concerted opposition.

External links

Preceded by
Rugila
Hunnic rulers
jointly with Bleda
434 – 453
Succeeded by
Ellac

Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

English

Proper noun

Singular
Attila the Hun
Plural
-
.
  1. A king of the tribes of Huns.
  2. A tyrant; a person characterized by ruthless aggressiveness.^ Attila the Hun The king of the Huns united warring tribes in an attempt to create one of history's largest empires.
    • Attila DVD Rental, Rent Attila Today at Netflix 10 February 2010 11:44 UTC www.netflix.com [Source type: General]

    ^ I just finished the book, The Leadership Secrets of Attila the Hun , by Wess Roberts, Ph.D. Depending on who you ask or what source you read, Attila the Hun is portrayed as a ruthless tyrant or as a noble king.
    • tomorrowsreflection.com » Blog Archive » Attila the Hun 10 February 2010 11:44 UTC tomorrowsreflection.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Concerning the latter tribes, Procopius said that one of the Hun kings had two sons, Utihur and Kuturhur.
    • Huns 10 February 2010 11:44 UTC www.imninalu.net [Source type: Original source]

    • Ken Wells, Travels with Barley: A Journey Through Beer Culture in America (2004) p. 172:
      He also told me that while Rehr, in person, could be “a gracious and friendly guy,” he was clearly “the Attila the Hun of the alcoholic beverage industry.
    • Gina F. Wilkins, The Family Plan (2003) p. 9:
      He didn't know then that he had hired the Attila the Hun of ambitious young lawyers.
    • Jake Tapper, Down and Dirty: The Plot to Steal the Presidency (2001) p. 315:
      They don't have a Jim Baker, they don't have a warrior, an Attila the Hun.
      .
    • Ole Ingstrup, Paul Stanley Crookall, The Three Pillars of Public Management: Secrets of Sustained Success (1998) p.^ There have been a number of historical novels about the period, at least three Attila movies, and even a management-fad book titled Leadership Secrets of Attila the Hun .
      • Column on history, religion or philosophy 10 February 2010 11:44 UTC www.johnderbyshire.com [Source type: Original source]

      9:
      The organizations don't tolerate an Attila the Hun in one office and a Mother Teresa next door.
    • Edward Klein, Just Jackie: Her Private Years (1998) p. 270:
      What better way for them to get started, Grastos said, than for Onassis to call Roy M. Cohn, the Attila the Hun of divorce attorneys.
    • Paul L. Brown, Managing Behavior on the Job (1982) p. 84:
      The workers were being supervised by an Attila the Hun.

External links

.
  • Wikipedia-logo.png Attila the Hun on Wikipedia.^ The “ true story ” of Attila the Hun, from Wikipedia.
    • Background for Chorus pro Musica's performance of June 4, 2006 10 February 2010 11:44 UTC www.choruspromusica.org [Source type: General]

    ^ Attila the Hun - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia .
    • Attila the Hun - Kosmix : Reference, Videos, Images, News, Shopping and more... 10 February 2010 11:44 UTC history.kosmix.com [Source type: General]
    • Dan Moore's Public Library | Diigo 10 February 2010 11:44 UTC www.diigo.com [Source type: Original source]

    Wikipedia

Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 28, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Attila the Hun, which are similar to those in the above article.








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