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Audie L. Murphy
June 20, 1925(1925-06-20) – May 28, 1971 (aged 45)
Audie Murphy uniform medals.jpg  Cmoh army.jpg
Audie Murphy, the most decorated soldier of World War II
Place of birth Kingston, Hunt County, Texas
Place of death Brush Mountain near Catawba or Roanoke, Virginia
Place of burial Arlington National Cemetery
Allegiance United States United States
Service/branch United States Department of the Army Seal.svg United States Army
Years of service 1942–1945 (US Army)
1950–1966 (Texas National Guard)
Rank First Lieutenant (USA), Major (TNG)
Unit 15 Infantry Regiment COA.jpg 15th Infantry Regiment,
3 Infantry Div Patch.svg 3rd Infantry Division (USA)
36th Infantry Division SSI.svg 36th Infantry Division (TNG)
Battles/wars World War II: Sicily (July 1943), Salerno, Anzio, Rome, France: Operation Anvil-Dragoon (August 1944), Holtzwihr (January 1945)[1]
Awards Medal of Honor ribbon.svg Medal of Honor
Distinguished Service Cross ribbon.svg Distinguished Service Cross
Silver Star ribbon.svg Silver Star (2)
Legion of Merit ribbon.svg Legion of Merit
Bronze Star ribbon.svg Bronze Star (2)
Purple Heart BAR.svg Purple Heart (3)
Legion Honneur Chevalier ribbon.svg French Legion of Honor[1]
Croix de guerre 1939-1945 with palm.jpg French Croix de guerre (+ Palm)[1]
CdGBel1944.gif Belgian Croix de guerre 1940 Palm[1]
Other work Actor, Songwriter, Horseracing, Oil

Audie Leon Murphy (June 20, 1925 – May 28, 1971)[2] was the most decorated American soldier of World War II and a celebrated movie star for many years in the post-war era, appearing in 44 films. He also found some success as a country music composer.

Murphy became the most decorated United States soldier of the war during his twenty-seven months in action in the European Theatre.[2][3]
He received the Medal of Honor, the U.S. military's highest award for valor, along with 32 additional U.S. and foreign medals and citations,[2][3][4] including five from France and one from Belgium.[1][2][5]

Murphy's successful movie career included To Hell and Back (1955), based on his book of the same title (1949).[3] He also starred in 39 Hollywood films.[3] He died in a plane crash in 1971 and was interred, with full military honors, in Arlington National Cemetery.[3] Audie Murphy's grave site is the second-most visited grave at Arlington, after that of President John F. Kennedy.[1][5]

Contents

Biography

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Early life

He was born in Texas,[2][6] to Emmett Berry and Josie Bell Murphy (née Killian) who was of Irish descent,[6][7] poor sharecroppers,[4][6] and grew up on farms between Farmersville and Greenville, as well as near Celeste, Texas (Hunt County).[2] Murphy was the sixth of twelve children,[6][7] nine of whom survived until the age of eighteen.[1][6] His brothers and sisters included Corinne, Charles Emmett (Buck), Vernon, June, Oneta, J.W., Richard, Eugene, Nadine, Billie, and Joseph Murphy. He went to school in Celeste until the eighth grade,[6] when he dropped out to help support his family (his father deserted them in 1936), working for a dollar a day, plowing and picking cotton on any farm that would hire him.[6] He became very skilled with a rifle, hunting small game to help feed the family.[1] One of his favorite hunting companions was neighbor Dial Henley. When he commented that Murphy never missed when he shot at squirrels, rabbits, and birds, Murphy replied, "Well, Dial, if I don't hit what I shoot at, my family won't eat today."[8] During the 1930s Murphy worked at a combination general store/garage and filling station in Greenville, Texas.[2][6] At fifteen he was working in a radio repair shop when his mother died on May 23, 1941.[2][6] Later that year, in agreement with his older sister, Corrinne, Murphy placed his three youngest siblings in an orphanage[6] to ensure their care (he reclaimed them after World War II).

Enlistment

After the attack on Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941, Murphy tried to enlist in the military, but the services rejected him for being under age.[5] In June 1942, shortly after his 17th birthday, his sister Corrine adjusted his birth date so he appeared to be 18 and legally allowed to enlist, and his war memoirs, To Hell and Back, maintained this misinformation, leading to later confusion and contradictory statements as to his year of birth.[citation needed] Murphy was accepted into the United States Army,[5] at Greenville,[7] after being turned down by the Marines and the paratroopers for being too short (5 feet 5.5 inches (166.4 cm))[2] and of slight build. He was also turned down by the Navy for being slight of build.[4][5] He was sent to Camp Wolters, Texas, for basic training[1][7] and during a session of close order drill, passed out. His company commander tried to have him transferred to a cook and bakers' school[6] because of his baby-faced youthfulness,[citation needed] but Murphy insisted on becoming a combat soldier. His wish was granted: after 13 weeks of basic training,[6] he was sent to Fort Meade, Maryland for advanced infantry training.[1][7]

Battles

Murphy still had to "fight the system" to get overseas and into action. His persistence paid off, and in early 1943 he was shipped out to Casablanca, Morocco as a replacement in Company B, 1st Battalion, 15th Infantry Regiment, 3rd Infantry Division.[5] Murphy saw no action in Africa, but instead participated in extensive training maneuvers along with the rest of the 3rd Division. His combat initiation finally came when he took part in the invasion of Sicily on July 10, 1943.[1][5] Shortly after arriving, Murphy was promoted to corporal[1] after killing two Italian officers as they tried to escape on horseback. He contracted malaria[2][6] while in Sicily, an illness which put him in the hospital several times during his Army years.[6]

After Sicily was secured from Axis forces, the 3rd Division invaded the Italian mainland, landing near Salerno[1] in September 1943.[5] While leading a night patrol, Murphy and his men ran into German soldiers but fought their way out of an ambush, taking cover in a rock quarry.[1] The German command sent a squad of soldiers in, but they were stopped by intense machine-gun and rifle fire.[1] Three German soldiers were killed and several others captured.[1] As a result of his actions at Salerno, Murphy was promoted to sergeant.[1]

Murphy distinguished himself in action on many occasions while in Italy, fighting at the Volturno River,[5] at the Anzio beachhead,[5] and in the cold, wet Italian mountains. While in Italy, his skills as a combat infantryman earned him promotions and decorations for valor.[5]

Following its participation in the Italian campaign, the 3rd Division landed in Southern France[5] on August 15, 1944 as part of Operation Anvil-Dragoon.[5] Shortly thereafter, Murphy's best friend, Lattie Tipton (referred to as "Brandon" in Murphy's book To Hell and Back), was killed by a German soldier in a machine gun nest who was feigning surrender.[1] Murphy went into a rage,[1] and single-handedly wiped out the German machine gun crew which had just killed his friend.[1] He then used the German machine gun and grenades to destroy several other nearby enemy positions.[1] For this act, Murphy received the Distinguished Service Cross[1] (second only to the Medal of Honor). During seven weeks of fighting in that campaign in France, Murphy's division suffered 4,500 casualties.[5]

Just weeks later, he received two Silver Stars for further heroic actions.[1] Murphy, by now a staff sergeant and holding the position of Platoon Sergeant, was eventually awarded a battlefield commission to second lieutenant, which elevated him to the Platoon Leader position.[1] He was wounded in the hip by a sniper's ricocheting bullet 12 days after the promotion[1] and spent ten weeks recuperating.[1] Within days of returning to his unit, and still bandaged, he became company commander (January 25, 1945), and suffered further wounds from a mortar round which killed two others nearby.

The next day, January 26 (the temperature was 14 °F (−10 °C) with 24 inches (61 cm) of snow on the ground), the battle at Holtzwihr (France) began[1][5] with Murphy's unit at an effective strength of 19 out of 128. Murphy sent all of his men to the rear[5] while he took pot-shots at the Germans until out of ammunition. He then proceeded to use an abandoned, burning tank destroyer's .50 caliber machine gun[1] to cut into the German infantry at a distance,[5] including one full squad of German infantry that had crawled in a ditch to within 100 feet of his position. Wounded in the leg during heavy fire,[1][5] he continued this nearly single-handed battle for almost an hour.[1][5] His focus on the battle before him stopped only when his telephone line to the artillery fire direction center was cut by either U.S. or German artillery. As his remaining men came forward, he quickly organized them to conduct a counter attack,[1][5] which ultimately drove the enemy away from Holtzwihr.[5] For these actions Murphy was awarded the Medal of Honor.[1][5]

Murphy was then removed from the front lines and made a liaison officer; he was promoted to 1st lieutenant on February 22, 1945. On June 2, 1945, Lt. Gen. Alexander Patch, commander of the US Seventh Army, presented him with the Medal of Honor and Legion of Merit. The Legion of Merit was awarded for meritorious service with the 3rd Infantry Division during January 22, 1944 to February 18, 1945. On June 10, Murphy left Paris by plane, arriving in San Antonio, Texas four days later.

Audie Murphy received 33 US medals, plus five medals from France and one from Belgium.[1][5] It has been said that he received every US medal available at the time; 5 of them awarded more than once.

His height and weight at his enlistment were 5 feet 5.5 inches (166.4 cm) and 110 pounds (50 kg); after his three year enlistment, he was 5 feet 7 inches (170 cm) and 145 pounds (66 kg).

Medal of Honor citation

The official U.S. Army citation for Audie Murphy's Medal of Honor reads:[1][9]

Rank and organization: Second Lieutenant, U.S. Army, Company B 15th Infantry, 3rd Infantry Division.
Place and date: Near Holtzwihr France, January 26, 1945.
Entered service at: Dallas, Texas. Birth: Hunt County, near Kingston, Texas, G.O. No. 65, August 9, 1944.
Citation: Second Lt. Murphy commanded Company B, which was attacked by six tanks and waves of infantry. 2d Lt. Murphy ordered his men to withdraw to a prepared position in a woods, while he remained forward at his command post and continued to give fire directions to the artillery by telephone. Behind him, to his right, one of our tank destroyers received a direct hit and began to burn. Its crew withdrew to the woods. 2d Lt. Murphy continued to direct artillery fire, which killed large numbers of the advancing enemy infantry. With the enemy tanks abreast of his position, 2d Lt. Murphy climbed on the burning tank destroyer, which was in danger of blowing up at any moment, and employed its .50 caliber machine gun against the enemy. He was alone and exposed to German fire from three sides, but his deadly fire killed dozens of Germans and caused their infantry attack to waver. The enemy tanks, losing infantry support, began to fall back. For an hour the Germans tried every available weapon to eliminate 2d Lt. Murphy, but he continued to hold his position and wiped out a squad that was trying to creep up unnoticed on his right flank. Germans reached as close as 10 yards, only to be mowed down by his fire. He received a leg wound, but ignored it and continued his single-handed fight until his ammunition was exhausted. He then made his way back to his company, refused medical attention, and organized the company in a counterattack, which forced the Germans to withdraw. His directing of artillery fire wiped out many of the enemy; he killed or wounded about 50. 2d Lt. Murphy's indomitable courage and his refusal to give an inch of ground saved his company from possible encirclement and destruction, and enabled it to hold the woods which had been the enemy's objective.[1][9]

Awards and honors

Audie Murphy on the cover of Life for July 16, 1945, got him seen in Hollywood.

Audie Murphy was credited with destroying six tanks in addition to killing over 240 German soldiers and wounding and capturing many others.[5] His principal U.S. decorations included the Medal of Honor, Distinguished Service Cross, two Silver Stars, the Legion of Merit, two Bronze Stars with Valor device, and three Purple Hearts (all for genuine combat wounds). Murphy participated in campaigns in North Africa, Sicily, Italy, France and Germany, as denoted by his European-African-Middle Eastern Campaign Medal with one silver battle star (denoting five campaigns), four bronze battle stars, plus a bronze arrowhead representing his two amphibious assault landings at Sicily and southern France. During the French Campaign, Murphy was awarded two Presidential Citations, one from the 3rd Inf, Division, and one from the 15th Inf. Regiment during the Holtzwihr action.

The French government awarded Murphy its highest award, the Legion of Honor (Grade of Chevalier).[10] He also received two Croix de guerre medals from France[10] and the Croix de guerre 1940 Palm from Belgium.[10] In addition, Murphy was awarded the Combat Infantryman Badge. (A complete list of his awards and decorations appears later in this article.) He spent 29 months overseas and just under two years in combat with the 3rd Infantry Division, all before he turned 21.[5]

In early June 1945, one month after Germany's surrender, he returned from Europe to a hero's welcome in his home state of Texas,[5] where he was feted with parades, banquets, and speeches. Murphy was discharged from active duty with the U.S. Army as a First Lieutenant, at Fort Sam Houston in San Antonio, Texas on August 17, 1945,[7] and discharged from the U.S. Army on September 21, 1945.[1][5]

Murphy garnered nationwide recognition, appearing on the cover of Life magazine for July 16, 1945 (see image above). After the Korean War broke out in June 1950, Murphy joined the 36th Infantry Division (United States) of the Texas National Guard; however, that division was not called up for combat duty. By the time he left the Guard in 1966, Murphy had attained the rank of major.

List of Decorations

Medal of Honor
Distinguished Service Cross
Bronze oak leaf cluster
Silver Star (with oak leaf cluster)
Legion of Merit
V
Bronze oak leaf cluster
Bronze Star (with oak leaf cluster and Valor device)
Bronze oak leaf cluster
Bronze oak leaf cluster
Purple Heart (with two oak leaf clusters)
U.S. Army Outstanding Civilian Service Medal
U.S. Army Good Conduct Medal
Bronze oak leaf cluster
Presidential Unit Citation (with First Oak Leaf Cluster)
American Campaign Medal
Bronze oak leaf cluster
Bronze oak leaf cluster
Bronze oak leaf cluster
Bronze oak leaf cluster
European-African-Middle Eastern Campaign Medal (with One Silver Star, Four Bronze Service Stars (representing nine campaigns) and one Bronze Arrowhead (representing assault landing at Sicily and Southern France)),
World War II Victory Medal
Army of Occupation Medal (with Germany Clasp)
Armed Forces Reserve Medal
French Fourragère in Colors of the Croix de guerre
French Legion of Honor - Grade of Chevalier
French Croix de guerre (with Silver Star),
French Croix de guerre (with Palm)
Medal of Liberated France
Belgian Croix de guerre (with 1940 Palm)

Additionally, Murphy was awarded:

Post war illness

Murphy suffered from post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after his return from the war.[2][4] He was reportedly plagued by insomnia, bouts of depression, and nightmares related to his numerous battles.[2] His first wife, Wanda Hendrix, often talked of his struggle with this condition, even claiming that he had held her at gunpoint once. For a time during the mid-1960s, he became dependent on doctor-prescribed sleeping pills called Placidyl.[2] When he recognized that he had become addicted to the drug, he locked himself in a motel room where he took himself off the pills, going through withdrawal for a week.[2]

Always an advocate of the needs of America's military veterans, Murphy eventually broke the taboo about publicly discussing war-related mental conditions. In an effort to draw attention to the problems of returning Korean and Vietnam War veterans, Murphy spoke out candidly about his own problems with PTSD, known then and during World War II as "battle fatigue"[2] and also commonly known by the World War I term "shell shock". He called on the United States government to give increased consideration and study to the emotional impact that combat experiences have on veterans, and to extend health care benefits to address PTSD and other mental-health problems suffered by returning war veterans.[2]

Personal life

Murphy married actress Wanda Hendrix in 1949;[2] they were divorced in 1951. He then married former airline stewardess Pamela Archer, who was an army nurse, by whom he had two children: Terrance Michael "Terry" Murphy (born 1952) and James Shannon "Skipper" Murphy (born 1954). They were named for two of his most respected friends, Terry Hunt and James "Skipper" Cherry, respectively. Audie became a successful actor, rancher, and businessman,[5] breeding and raising quarter horses. He owned ranches in Texas, Tucson, Arizona and Menifee, California.[4][11]

Movie career

After seeing the young hero's photo on the cover of the July 16 edition of Life Magazine and sensing star potential,[2] actor James Cagney invited Murphy to Hollywood in September 1945. Despite Cagney's expectations, the next few years in California were difficult for Murphy. He became disillusioned by the lack of work, was frequently broke, and slept on the floor of a gymnasium owned by his friend Terry Hunt. He eventually received token acting parts in the 1948 films Beyond Glory and Texas, Brooklyn and Heaven.[2][5] His third movie, Bad Boy, gave him his first leading role.[4]

He also starred in the 1951 adaptation of Stephen Crane's Civil War novel, The Red Badge of Courage, which earned critical success.[5] Murphy expressed great discomfort in playing himself in To Hell and Back. In 1959, he starred in the western No Name on the Bullet, in which his performance was well-received despite being cast as the villain, a professional killer who managed to stay within the law.[2]

First starring role

After returning home from World War II, Murphy bought a house in Farmersville, Texas for his oldest sister Corinne, her husband Poland Burns, and their three children. The idea was that Audie's three youngest siblings, Nadine, Billie, and Joe, who had been living in an orphanage since Murphy's mother's death, would also be able to live with Corinne and Poland and would become part of a family again. Unfortunately, six children under one roof created too much stress on everyone, particularly Nadine and Joe, so Murphy picked them up.

Joe and Nadine wanted to stay with him, but despite a lot of post-war publicity, his acting career had gone nowhere and he was finding it difficult to survive financially. The oldest Murphy brother, Buck, and his wife agreed to take Nadine, but Murphy didn't know what to do with Joe. He approached James "Skipper" Cherry, a Dallas theater owner who was involved with the Variety Clubs International Boy's Ranch, a 4,800 acre (19 km²) ranch near Copperas Cove, Texas who arranged for the Boy's Ranch to take Joe in. He loved it there and Murphy was able to visit him, as well as Cherry, frequently. In a 1973 interview, Cherry recalled, "He was discouraged and somewhat despondent concerning his movie career."

Variety Clubs was financing a film to be called Bad Boy to help promote the organization's work with troubled children and Cherry called Texas theater executive Paul Short, who was producing the film, to suggest that they considered giving Murphy a significant role in the movie. He looked good in the screen test, but the president of Allied Artists did not want to cast someone with so little acting experience in a major role.

By this time, Cherry, Short, and the other Texas theater owners had decided that Audie Murphy was going to play the lead or they weren't financing the film. Their money talked and he was cast, turning in such a fine performance that the Hollywood powers that be finally recognized his talent. As a direct result of the film, Universal Studios signed Murphy to his first seven-year studio contract. After a few box-office hits there, the studio bosses gave Audie latitude in choosing his roles, as long as plenty of action was included in the scenarios.

Autobiography

Murphy's 1949 autobiography To Hell and Back became a national bestseller. In the book, actually ghostwritten by his friend David "Spec" McClure, already a professional writer[12] Murphy modestly described some of his most heroic actions — without portraying himself as a hero. Not once does he mention any of the many decorations he received for his incredible combat exploits. Instead, he chose to praise the skills, bravery, and dedication of the other soldiers in his platoon. Murphy even attributed a song he had written to "Kerrigan".[13]

Murphy played himself in the 1955 film version of his book with the same title, To Hell and Back.[2] The film is remarkable among war films for the realistic way the lives of the characters are treated. Typically in a war film, the same characters engage in all of the action of the film. Among numerous examples are such films as, The Big Red One and Saving Private Ryan. This pattern contradicts reality.[citation needed]

In an actual war, while a unit may participate in numerous battles, the actual personnel changes, as men are killed, injured, or rotated out of the line. In "To Hell and Back" the Hollywood pattern is broken and the characters suffer death and injury as they did in real life, until by the end of the film only Murphy is left of the original members of his unit. In the climactic scene, Murphy stands at attention while the ghostly images of his dead friends pass before his mind. This insistence on reality has often been attributed to Murphy and his desire to honor his fallen friends.[citation needed]

The film grossed almost ten million dollars during its initial theatrical release, and at the time became Universal's biggest hit of the studio's 43-year history. This movie held the record as the company's highest-grossing motion picture until 1975, when it was surpassed by Steven Spielberg's Jaws.[2] Terry Murphy, who played younger brother Joe Preston Murphy (at age four), is in fact Murphy's older son.[citation needed] Audie was reluctant to star in To Hell and Back, fearing it would appear he was cashing in on his war experience, so he suggested his role be played by Tony Curtis. The film was introduced by General Walter Bedell Smith, United States Army, Retired. During World War II, Smith had served as Chief of Staff to General Dwight D. Eisenhower.

Harold B. Simpson's 1975 comprehensive biography, Audie Murphy, American Soldier, covers the breadth of Murphy's life. The book emphasizes his military exploits, and includes photos, maps, and battle-maneuver diagrams. Murphy's post-war career is also well-documented.

Filmography

In the 25 years he spent in Hollywood, Audie Murphy made 44 feature films, 33 of them Westerns.[2] His highest grossing film was the autobiographical To Hell and Back, which was the highest grossing film for Universal Pictures, until Jaws in 1975.[2][4] His films earned him close to $3 million in his 23 years as an actor.[4] He also appeared in several television shows, including the lead in the short-lived 1961 NBC western detective series Whispering Smith, set in Denver, Colorado.[2] For his contribution to the motion picture industry, Audie Murphy has a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame at 1601 Vine Street.

Music career

In addition to acting, Murphy also became successful as a country music songwriter.[2] teaming up with such talented musicians and composers as Guy Mitchell, Jimmy Bryant, Scott Turner, Coy Ziegler, and Terri Eddleman. Murphy's songs were recorded and released by such performers as Dean Martin,[2] Eddy Arnold,[2] Charley Pride,[2] Jimmy Bryant, Porter Waggoner, Jerry Wallace, Roy Clark, and Harry Nilsson. His two biggest hits were "Shutters and Boards" and "When the Wind Blows in Chicago". Eddy Arnold recorded the latter for his 1983 RCA album, Last of the Love Song Singers.[citation needed]

Death

Murphy's headstone, with controversial 1924 birth year

Just after noon on May 28, 1971,[2][5] during Memorial Day weekend, Murphy was killed when his private plane crashed into Brush Mountain, near Catawba, Virginia, 20 miles west of Roanoke.[5] The pilot and four other passengers were also killed.[2] In 1974, a large granite memorial marker was erected near the crash site. A close friend, Captain Carl Swickerath (who is now buried directly in front of Murphy), represented the Murphy family at the dedication.

A monument recognizing the site of the plane crash in which Audie Murphy died

On June 7, 1971, Murphy was buried at Arlington National Cemetery with a full-honors ceremony.[2][5] The official U.S. representative at the ceremony was the decorated World War II veteran and future President George H. W. Bush. Murphy's gravesite is in Section 46, located across Memorial Drive from the Amphitheater.[5] A special flagstone walkway was later constructed to accommodate the large number of people who visit to pay their respects.[5] It is the second most-visited gravesite, after that of President John F. Kennedy.[5]

The headstones of Arlington's Medal of Honor recipients are normally decorated in gold leaf, but Murphy had requested that his stone remain plain and inconspicuous,[5] as would be the case with an ordinary soldier. An unknown person maintains a small American flag next to his engraved Government-issue headstone, which reads as follows:

Audie L. Murphy, Texas. Major, Infantry, World War II. June 20, 1924 to May 28, 1971. Medal of Honor, DSC, SS & OLC, LM, BSM & OLC, PH & two OLC.

(Key to abbreviations: DSC = Distinguished Service Cross; SS = Silver Star; LM = Legion of Merit; BSM = Bronze Star Medal; PH = Purple Heart; OLC = Oak Leaf Cluster.)

An Oak Leaf Cluster signifies a subsequent award of the same decoration. First Lieutenant Audie Murphy was one of very few company-grade officers ever to be awarded the Legion of Merit. That decoration is usually awarded only to officers of the rank of lieutenant colonel and above.

Other honors

  • The Audie Murphy Patriotism Award is named in honor of Murphy. The award is presented annually to an "outstanding American patriot" or "an outstanding group of individuals who most exemplify the true ‘Spirit of America.’"
  • On November 17, 1973, the Audie L. Murphy Memorial Veterans Hospital in San Antonio, Texas was dedicated. There is a one-ton bronze, eight-foot-tall statue of Murphy, created by sculptress Jimilu Mason. He is dressed in battle fatigues holding a rifle with bayonet; inside the hospital, a museum depicts his life and contains items including his uniform, other clothing, books and pictures.
  • In early 1986, the U.S. Army established the Sergeant Audie Murphy Club at Fort Hood, Texas. This elite membership group recognizes noncommissioned officers (sergeants) who have displayed the integrity, professionalism, commitment to mentoring subordinate soldiers, leadership abilities and personal ethics exemplified by Audie L. Murphy. In 1994, the Sergeant Audie Murphy Club spread Army-wide, to all commands with installations retaining the selection process for their own NCOs.[14]
  • In 1999, then-Governor George W. Bush also issued a proclamation declaring June 20 to officially be "Audie Murphy Day" in the State of Texas.
  • From the mid-1990s through the present, an annual celebration of Audie and other veterans in all branches of service has been held on the weekend closest to Murphy's birthday at the American Cotton Museum (recently renamed the Audie Murphy/American Cotton Museum) in Greenville and in Farmersville. The museum houses a large collection of Audie Murphy memorabilia and personal items.

See also

Notes

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj "Sergeant Audie Murphy Club - SMA/Autreve Chapter" (bio), U.S. Army Medical Department Center & School Portal, Fort Sam Houston, San Antonio, Texas, webpage: USArmy-SAMC
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af "Biography for Audie Murphy" at IMDb indicates he was born in 1924.
  3. ^ a b c d e Taffin, John.(2003) "Don't You Ever Forget Audie Murphy". Guns Magazine.40(2).February 2003
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h "Biographical Sketch of AUDIE LEON MURPHY, June 20, 1926? - May 28, 1971". Audie Murphy Memorial Website. 2006-08-20. http://www.audiemurphy.com/biograph.htm. 
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak "Historical Information - Audie Murphy" (bio), Arlington National Cemetery, webpage: ANC-AMurphy.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n "Audie Murphy" (bio), E. J. Addington, WhenMagazine, webpage: WhenMag-3c
  7. ^ a b c d e f "Handbook of Texas Online" (about Audie Murphy), webpage
  8. ^ Stephen L. Henley, Sr., J.D.
  9. ^ a b "Audie Murphy's Medal of Honor" (letter/photo), Audie Murphy Memorial Web Site, webpage: AMurphy-MedalHonor
  10. ^ a b c "Audie Murphy's Military Award List" (list of all medals), Audie Murphy Memorial Web Site, webpage: AMurphy-awards
  11. ^ NC Times February 19, 2009 (http://www.nctimes.com/articles/2009/02/18/news/californian/menifee/zcd444e20ece9603c8825755c00804b77.txt)
  12. ^ "Audie Murphy: Great American Hero", Biography, Greystone Communications, Inc. for A&E Television Networks, 1996 (TV documentary).
  13. ^ Gossett, Sue, The Films and Career of Audie Murphy, Empire Publishing, N.C., 1996, p. 183 (Gossett incorrectly says "Johnson", but it is Kerrigan, per pp. 123-124 of the 1983 Bantam Books edition).
  14. ^ "US Army - Sergeant Audie Murphy Club". http://www.knox.army.mil/samc/history.asp. Retrieved 2009-01-07. 
  15. ^ "Eminent U.S. Warriors Will Grace New Stamps". LA Times. April 20, 2000. http://articles.latimes.com/2000/apr/20/news/cl-21397. Retrieved 2009-01-07. 

References

  • Gossett, Sue. The Films and Career of Audie Murphy, N.C., Empire Publishing, 1996.
  • Graham, Don. No Name on the Bullet, N.Y.: Viking, 1989.
  • Murphy, Audie. To Hell and Back, N.Y.: Holt, 1949.
  • Editors, Super GI, Life Magazine-World War II-Special Issue,Vol 8, number 6, Spring-Summer 1985, 28.
  • Whiting, Charles. American Hero Eskdale Publishing, 2000 ISBN 0-7505-1908-8

External links


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