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Auguste de Montferrand
Montferrand on St.Isaac cathedral.jpg
Personal information
Name Auguste de Montferrand
Nationality French
Birth date January 23, 1786(1786-01-23)
Birth place Chaillot
Date of death July 10, 1858 (aged 72)
Place of death Saint Petersburg
Work
Buildings Saint Isaac's Cathedral
Alexander Column
Monument to Nicholas I
Projects Nizhny Novgorod Fair
Awards Officier, Légion d'honneur

Auguste de Montferrand (January 23, 1786 – July 10, 1858[1]) was a French Neoclassical architect who worked primarily in Russia. His two best known works are the Saint Isaac's Cathedral and the Alexander Column in Saint Petersburg.

Contents

Early life

Family

Montferrand was born in paroisse of Chaillot, France (now, 16th arrondissement of Paris). He was styled at birth Henri Louis Auguste Leger Ricard dit de Montferrand; aristocratic de was, probably, his parents' invention. Decades later, Montferrand admitted in his will that, although his father owned Montferrand estate, the title is disputable "and if there is any doubt, I can accept other names, first of all Ricard, after my father". The father, Benois Ricard, was career a horse trainer, he died when Auguste was a child. Grandfather, Leger Ricard, was a bridge engineer. Mother, née Marie Francoise Louise Fistioni, remarried Antoine de Commarieux, who is credited with educating Auguste.[2]

Education and War

In 1806, Montferrand joined the former Académie d'architecture, class of Charles Percier and Pierre Fontaine. Soon, he was summoned to Napoleon's Army, and served a brief tour of duty in Italy. Montferrand married Julia Mornais in 1812. The next year, he was again drafted into the Army when the allied troops were closing in on Dresden. Montferrand served with distinction in Thuringia engagements, and was awarded Légion d'honneur[3] for valor in the Battle of Hanau.[4]

Career begins

When hostilities ended, new construction in defeated France was out of question. Montferrand worked on a few unimportant jobs, spending three years in basic draftsmanship and seeking opportunities overseas. In 1815,[5] he was awarded an audience to Alexander I of Russia and presented the Tsar with an album of his works. Post-war Russia seemed a wealth of opportunities.

In summer 1816, Montferrand landed in Saint Petersburg, carrying a recommendation letter from Abraham Louis Breguet. He rented a room near the house of Fyodor Wigel, the secretary of Construction Commission, and applied to Agustín de Betancourt, the chairman of this commission (and a partner of Breguet in 1790s). Betancourt, impressed by Breguet's letter and Montferrand's drawings, offered him the desk of Head of Draftsmen, but Montferrand preferred a lower rank of senior drafrsman. December 21, 1816 he officially joined the Russian service.[6]

Buildings

Montferrand's name is associated with Saint Petersburg. However, working with Betancourt, he designed buildings for Moscow, Odessa and Nizhny Novgorod. His first major project, the Odessa Lycaeum, did not materialize due to financing problems. His designs of Moscow Manege (1825) and Moscow fountains (1823) were abandoned, too (this projects were completed by Joseph Bové and Ivan Vitali).

Nizhny Novgorod Fair (1817-1825)

Chinese pavilions, Nizhny Novgorod Fair
Saviour (Old Fair) Cathedral, Nizhny Novgorod

In 1816, accidental fire destroyed the Makaryev Fair. Fairgrounds transferred to Nizhny Novgorod, equipped with temporary wooden trade rows. Betancourt visited the site in 1817 and proposed a six million rouble, four-year project to rebuild the Fair in stone. Alexander I approved it, at the expense of halting Winter Palace reconstruction.
Montferrand, as chief architect, reported to Betancourt, who personally managed the project. Montferrand started with the two-story main administration building. This traditional, neoclassical design was marked by custom column capitals with caduceus motif. The fair itself consisted of 8 two-story corner blocks and 48 standard trade row buildings (see plan of the fairground). The fairground terminated in a row of four "Chinese" pavilions, each with pagoda roofs, with the neoclassical Saviour's Cathedral, and was encircled with a wide Betancourt's Canal - a precaution against fire.
Despite shortages in manpower and material, the Fair opened in July, 1822. Rectification work proceeded to 1825 and consumed a further 3.5 million roubles. Fair operated until 1930; most of its building were torn down in Soviet age. Saviour's Cathedral survives to date.

St.Isaac's Cathedral (1816-1858)

St.Isaac's
Dome structure, 1838

The previous St.Isaac's, laid down by Antonio Rinaldi in 1768, was partially completed in 1802 by Vincenzo Brenna. In 1816, Alexander I assigned Betancourt to find the architect who could rebuild the cathedral; Betancourt pointed at Montferrand. Four original concepts, using as much of the old structure as possible, failed; the fifth was approved in February 1818.[7] Rivalry between court architects temporarily halted the project in 1821-1825.[8]
Montferrand's first decision was to use a slab foundation, rather than a perimeter of piles. Foundation work took five years. Another major problem was supplying 48 granite columns for main porticos; this took more than a decade. Columns were roughly cut in Fredrikshamn, delivered by barge and finished on site one by one, using a gigantic lathe of Montferrand's own design.[9] Columns were raised in 1828-1830; polishing took four more years. In the same time, bricklayers completed main walls and vaulted ceilings.
Montferrand was nearly killed in November 1837, when the crews were lifting 64-ton dome columns to 24 sazhen height. Nearby workers managed to catch him falling from the scaffolds.[10]
Dome design was another Montferrand's novelty. Prior to St.Isaac's, stell frame exterior domed were coupled to masonry internal domes. Montferrand proposed an all-metal triple-dome system, where the middle conical dome carried the lightweight interior and exterior frames. This reduced dome weight from estimated 7,440 to 2,680 metric tons (1838 design), and a further saving of 600 metric tons was realized in the process. The dome, completed in 1841, cost 2 million roubles less than original estimates.[11]
Another 16 years passed decorating the cathedral. Montferrand managed artists like Karl Briullov and his brothers, Peter Clodt, Ivan Vitali, under close inspection of State and Academy bureaucracy. Cathedral opened May 30, 1858, Peter I's birthday.

Alexander's Column (1829-1834)

Alexander's Column
Raising the column, 1832

Montferrand designed the monument to the late Alexander I as a column, crowned with a cross; later, he changed the cross for an angel. Cost was estimated at 1.2 million roubles. The 600-tonne column had to be carved out of Finnish rocks in Fredrikshamn, more than 100 nautical miles (190 km) from Saint Petersburg, and transported by barge. Critics predicted that the column will fall apart on separation from the rock, but Montferrand's experience with St.Isaac's columns persuaded Nicholas I, who approved the project in December 1829.
Montferrand selected the quarry contractor in March, 1830 in a bidding war that knocked the column price down from 420 to 150 thousand roubles.[12] Carving took a year and a half, and in September, 1831 the column safely separated from the rock. By April, 1832 the carvers completed shaping it and started blasting the path from quarried to the loading bay. Loading nearly ended in a catastrophe. The column broke through the ramp and threatened to roll over the barge; 300 workers managed to set it back in place.[13]
At the same time, Saint Petersburg crews prepared foundation and scaffolding; cost estimate doubled to 2.36 million roubles. Montferrand summoned a total of 2090 soldiers, officers and professionals to erect the column,[14] and raised it safely on August 30, 1832. Precisely two years later,[15] the monument was inaugurated by Nicholas.
In 1836-1837, Montferrand completed the Palace Square with fence and gas lights. He prepared five different designs for the building terminating the eastern side of the square, but the Guards Corps was awarded to Alexander Brullov.[16]

Completion of Kazansky Cathedral and Square (1827-1837)

As the chief architect of Saint Petersburg's largest construction site, Montferrand supervised many other architectural jobs for the State, notably repairs of Kazan Cathedral. The Cathedral was built in 1801-1811 by Andrey Voronikhin with temporary fiitings. By 1827, plaster sculpture was falling apart, leaking roof threatened to destroy frescoes and floors.[17] Nicholas assigned Montferrand to fix the roof, replace floors and install permanent, durable sculptures and finishes. Montferrand also supervised new fresco paintings (The Four Evangelists). He lost the bid to design the new iconostasis to young Konstantin Thon.
Montferrand, as the Cathedral's architect, landscaped the adjacent square and designed the monuments to Kutuzov and Barclay de Tolly. The statues were made by Boris Orlovsky, bases by Vasily Stasov.[18]

Monument to Nicholas I (1856-1859)

Montferrand's Monument to Nicholas I is one of the few equestrian statues in the world with merely two support points.

Monument to Nicholas I was Montferrand's last work, commissioned by Alexander II in May, 1856. Foundation and base was started with leftovers from St.Isaac's site. Equestrian statue contract was awarded to Peter Clodt. Clodt completed the model in summer 1857. First bronze cast was lost when the mold cracked; second statue was cast in February, 1859 - after Montferrand's death.

Other buildings

  • Lobanova-Rostovskaya Building, Saint Petersburg, 1817-1821 (later rebuilt)
  • Kochubei House, Saint Petersburg, rebuilding and interiors, 1818
  • House Church inside Russian Admiralty building, 1821
  • Catherinehof landscaping and park pavilions, 1821-23 (demolished)
  • Count Litta House, Saint Petersburg, 1833 (demolished)
  • Own house, later Demidov House, Saint Petersburg, 1835 (demolished)
  • Demidov House, later Italian Embassy, Saint Petersburg, 1836-1840 (interiors destroyed)
  • Own house, Saint Petersburg, 1836-1846 (Moika Embankment, 86)
  • Lerch House, Saint Petersburg, 1838
  • Own house, Aptekarsky Island, Saint Petersburg, 1840
  • Winter Palace interiors, 1827-1828 and later years
  • Betancourt's tomb, 1824, Smolensloye cemetery, Saint Petersburg
  • Louise Fistioni (mother) tomb, 1823, Cimetière de Montmartre, Paris

Private life

Art collection

Montferrand's collection, inner courtyard of his own house, 1853 photograph. Madonna statue was a contemporary by Ivan Vitali

Monferrand divorced with his first wife soon after settling in St.Petersburg. Divorce and extravagant lifestyle caused him a lot of debts; in 1831 he refinanced it with a loan from the Tsar's Cabinet. In 1834 he was awarded a lifelong pension and a 100,000 lump sum, enabling him to settle all accounts and build his own house. As his finances improved, Montferrand became a compulsive collector of arts and amassed 110 Greek and Roman statues and hundreds of lesser items. Witness reported that "any Sunday he indulged in rearranging the statues, using 25 laborers from 9 a.m. to lunch time".[19] When Monferrand died, the Hermitage Museum failed to buy out the collection, and it dispersed.

Second marriage

In 1835, Montferrand married Elise Debonniere, an actress who arrived in Saint Petersburg nine years earlier. The relationship began in 1820s and lasted until his death. Montferrands adopted Henri, Elise'd nephew.

Death

Auguste de Montferrand died in Saint Petersburg in 1858, the year St. Isaac's Cathedral was completed. His will to be buried in the vault of that cathedral could not be executed, because he was not of Orthodox faith. His body returned to France and was buried in the Cimetière de Montmartre, Paris, France, next to his mother. The grave, once believed to be lost, was identified in 1986 in Chemin des Gardes row. It bears the name Louise Fistioni and AM, Montferrand's initials.[20]

See also

  • Russian bio: В.К.Шуйский, "Огюст де Монферран", М, Центрполиграф, 2005 (Shuysky, V.K., "Auguste Montferrand", 2005), ISBN 5-9524-1749-3

Footnotes

Unloading the columns, 1832
  1. ^ Date of death in July, 10 in Gregorian calendar, and June 28 in Julian calendar (old style)
  2. ^ Shuysky, p.10
  3. ^ He earned subsequent Legion awards in 1830 (Chevalier) and 1842 (Officier) - Shuysky, 382
  4. ^ Shuysky, p.12. Other authors assert that he earned the Legion for the Battle of Arno in Italy. This is incorrect.
  5. ^ Shuysky, p.13., admits that the date, 1814 or 1815, is not certain
  6. ^ Shuysky, p.17
  7. ^ Shuysky, p.86
  8. ^ Shuysky, p.95
  9. ^ Shuysky, p.102
  10. ^ Shuysky, p.122
  11. ^ Shuysky, p.127
  12. ^ Shuysky, p.191
  13. ^ Shuysky, p.193
  14. ^ Shuysky, pp.199-200
  15. ^ Shuysky, p.211. One year was lost for academic debate about the angel's statue. Finally, Nicholas intervened and decreed that the single angel must be six arshin tall.
  16. ^ Shuysky, p.228
  17. ^ Shuysky, p.177
  18. ^ Shuysky, p.185
  19. ^ Shuysky, p.345, quotes Adalbert Starchevsky, a witness of Montferrand's mature years and his first biographer
  20. ^ Shuysky, p.382

Auguste de Montferrand
File:Montferrand on St.Isaac
Personal information
Nationality French
Born January 23, 1786(1786-01-23)
Chaillot
Died July 10, 1858 (aged 72)
Saint Petersburg
Work
Buildings Saint Isaac's Cathedral
Alexander Column
Monument to Nicholas I
Projects Nizhny Novgorod Fair
Awards Officier, Légion d'honneur

Auguste de Montferrand (January 23, 1786 – July 10, 1858[1]) was a French Neoclassical architect who worked primarily in Russia. His two best known works are the Saint Isaac's Cathedral and the Alexander Column in Saint Petersburg.

Contents

Early life

Family

Montferrand was born in paroisse of Chaillot, France (now, 16th arrondissement of Paris). He was styled at birth Henri Louis Auguste Leger Ricard dit de Montferrand; aristocratic de was, probably, his parents' invention. Decades later, Montferrand admitted in his will that, although his father owned Montferrand estate, the title is disputable "and if there is any doubt, I can accept other names, first of all Ricard, after my father". The father, Benois Ricard, was career a horse trainer, he died when Auguste was a child. Grandfather, Leger Ricard, was a bridge engineer. Mother, née Marie Francoise Louise Fistioni, remarried Antoine de Commarieux, who is credited with educating Auguste.[2]

Education and War

In 1806, Montferrand joined the former Académie d'architecture, class of Charles Percier and Pierre Fontaine. Soon, he was summoned to Napoleon's Army, and served a brief tour of duty in Italy. Montferrand married Julia Mornais in 1812. The next year, he was again drafted into the Army when the allied troops were closing in on Dresden. Montferrand served with distinction in Thuringia engagements, and was awarded Légion d'honneur[3] for valor in the Battle of Hanau.[4]

Career begins

When hostilities ended, new construction in defeated France was out of the question. Montferrand worked on a few unimportant jobs, spending three years in basic draftsmanship and seeking opportunities overseas. In 1815,[5] he was awarded an audience to Alexander I of Russia and presented the Tsar with an album of his works. Post-war Russia seemed a wealth of opportunities.

In summer 1816, Montferrand landed in Saint Petersburg, carrying a recommendation letter from Abraham-Louis Breguet. He rented a room near the house of Fyodor Wigel, the secretary of the Construction Commission, and applied to Agustín de Betancourt, the chairman of this commission (and a partner of Breguet in 1790s). Betancourt, impressed by Breguet's letter and Montferrand's drawings, offered him the desk of Head of Draftsmen, but Montferrand preferred a lower rank of senior draftsman. December 21, 1816 he officially joined the Russian service.[6]

Buildings

Montferrand's name is associated with Saint Petersburg. However, working with Betancourt, he designed buildings for Moscow, Odessa and Nizhny Novgorod. His first major project, the Odessa Lycaeum, did not materialize due to financing problems. His designs of Moscow Manege (1825) and Moscow fountains (1823) were abandoned, too (this projects were completed by Joseph Bové and Ivan Vitali).

Nizhny Novgorod Fair (1817-1825)

In 1816, accidental fire destroyed the Makaryev Fair. Fairgrounds transferred to Nizhny Novgorod, equipped with temporary wooden trade rows. Betancourt visited the site in 1817 and proposed a six million rouble, four-year project to rebuild the Fair in stone. Alexander I approved it, at the expense of halting Winter Palace reconstruction.
Montferrand, as chief architect, reported to Betancourt, who personally managed the project. Montferrand started with the two-story main administration building. This traditional, neoclassical design was marked by custom column capitals with caduceus motif. The fair itself consisted of 8 two-story corner blocks and 48 standard trade row buildings (see [[:Image:|plan of the fairground]]). The fairground terminated in a row of four "Chinese" pavilions, each with pagoda roofs, with the neoclassical Saviour's Cathedral, and was encircled with a wide Betancourt's Canal - a precaution against fire.
Despite shortages in manpower and material, the Fair opened in July, 1822. Rectification work proceeded to 1825 and consumed a further 3.5 million roubles. Fair operated until 1930; most of its building were torn down in Soviet age. Saviour's Cathedral survives to date.

St.Isaac's Cathedral (1816-1858)

The previous St.Isaac's, laid down by Antonio Rinaldi in 1768, was partially completed in 1802 by Vincenzo Brenna. In 1816, Alexander I assigned Betancourt to find the architect who could rebuild the cathedral; Betancourt pointed at Montferrand. Four original concepts, using as much of the old structure as possible, failed; the fifth was approved in February 1818.[7] Rivalry between court architects temporarily halted the project in 1821-1825.[8]
Montferrand's first decision was to use a slab foundation, rather than a perimeter of piles. Foundation work took five years. Another major problem was supplying 48 granite columns for main porticos; this took more than a decade. Columns were roughly cut in Fredrikshamn, delivered by barge and finished on site one by one, using a gigantic lathe of Montferrand's own design.[9] Columns were raised in 1828-1830; polishing took four more years. In the same time, bricklayers completed main walls and vaulted ceilings.
Montferrand was nearly killed in November 1837, when the crews were lifting 64-ton dome columns to 24 sazhen height. Nearby workers managed to catch him falling from the scaffolds.[10]
Dome design was another Montferrand's novelty. Prior to St.Isaac's, stell frame exterior domed were coupled to masonry internal domes. Montferrand proposed an all-metal triple-dome system, where the middle conical dome carried the lightweight interior and exterior frames. This reduced dome weight from estimated 7,440 to 2,680 metric tons (1838 design), and a further saving of 600 metric tons was realized in the process. The dome, completed in 1841, cost 2 million roubles less than original estimates.[11]
Another 16 years passed decorating the cathedral. Montferrand managed artists like Karl Briullov and his brothers, Peter Clodt, Ivan Vitali, under close inspection of State and Academy bureaucracy. Cathedral opened May 30, 1858, Peter I's birthday.

Alexander's Column (1829-1834)

Montferrand designed the monument to the late Alexander I as a column, crowned with a cross; later, he changed the cross for an angel. Cost was estimated at 1.2 million roubles. The 600-tonne column had to be carved out of Finnish rocks in Fredrikshamn, more than 100 nautical miles (190 km) from Saint Petersburg, and transported by barge. Critics predicted that the column will fall apart on separation from the rock, but Montferrand's experience with St.Isaac's columns persuaded Nicholas I, who approved the project in December 1829.
Montferrand selected the quarry contractor in March, 1830 in a bidding war that knocked the column price down from 420 to 150 thousand roubles.[12] Carving took a year and a half, and in September, 1831 the column safely separated from the rock. By April, 1832 the carvers completed shaping it and started blasting the path from quarried to the loading bay. Loading nearly ended in a catastrophe. The column broke through the ramp and threatened to roll over the barge; 300 workers managed to set it back in place.[13]
At the same time, Saint Petersburg crews prepared foundation and scaffolding; cost estimate doubled to 2.36 million roubles. Montferrand summoned a total of 2090 soldiers, officers and professionals to erect the column,[14] and raised it safely on August 30, 1832. Precisely two years later,[15] the monument was inaugurated by Nicholas.
In 1836-1837, Montferrand completed the Palace Square with fence and gas lights. He prepared five different designs for the building terminating the eastern side of the square, but the Guards Corps was awarded to Alexander Brullov.[16]

Completion of Kazansky Cathedral and Square (1827-1837)

As the chief architect of Saint Petersburg's largest construction site, Montferrand supervised many other architectural jobs for the State, notably repairs of Kazan Cathedral. The Cathedral was built in 1801-1811 by Andrey Voronikhin with temporary fiitings. By 1827, plaster sculpture was falling apart, leaking roof threatened to destroy frescoes and floors.[17] Nicholas assigned Montferrand to fix the roof, replace floors and install permanent, durable sculptures and finishes. Montferrand also supervised new fresco paintings (The Four Evangelists). He lost the bid to design the new iconostasis to young Konstantin Thon.
Montferrand, as the Cathedral's architect, landscaped the adjacent square and designed the monuments to Kutuzov and Barclay de Tolly. The statues were made by Boris Orlovsky, bases by Vasily Stasov.[18]

Monument to Nicholas I (1856-1859)

is one of the few equestrian statues in the world with merely two support points.]]

Monument to Nicholas I was Montferrand's last work, commissioned by Alexander II in May, 1856. Foundation and base was started with leftovers from St.Isaac's site. Equestrian statue contract was awarded to Peter Clodt. Clodt completed the model in summer 1857. First bronze cast was lost when the mold cracked; second statue was cast in February, 1859 - after Montferrand's death.

Other buildings

  • Lobanova-Rostovskaya Building, Saint Petersburg, 1817-1821 (later rebuilt)
  • Kochubei House, Saint Petersburg, rebuilding and interiors, 1818
  • House Church inside Russian Admiralty building, 1821
  • Catherinehof landscaping and park pavilions, 1821-23 (demolished)
  • Count Litta House, Saint Petersburg, 1833 (demolished)
  • Own house, later Demidov House, Saint Petersburg, 1835 (demolished)
  • Demidov House, later Italian Embassy, Saint Petersburg, 1836-1840 (interiors destroyed)
  • Own house, Saint Petersburg, 1836-1846 (Moika Embankment, 86)
  • Lerch House, Saint Petersburg, 1838
  • Own house, Aptekarsky Island, Saint Petersburg, 1840
  • Winter Palace interiors, 1827-1828 and later years
  • Betancourt's tomb, 1824, Smolensloye cemetery, Saint Petersburg
  • Louise Fistioni (mother) tomb, 1823, Cimetière de Montmartre, Paris

Private life

Art collection

Monferrand divorced with his first wife soon after settling in St.Petersburg. Divorce and extravagant lifestyle caused him a lot of debts; in 1831 he refinanced it with a loan from the Tsar's Cabinet. In 1834 he was awarded a lifelong pension and a 100,000 lump sum, enabling him to settle all accounts and build his own house. As his finances improved, Montferrand became a compulsive collector of arts and amassed 110 Greek and Roman statues and hundreds of lesser items. Witness reported that "any Sunday he indulged in rearranging the statues, using 25 laborers from 9 a.m. to lunch time".[19] When Monferrand died, the Hermitage Museum failed to buy out the collection, and it dispersed.

Second marriage

In 1835, Montferrand married Elise Debonniere, an actress who arrived in Saint Petersburg nine years earlier. The relationship began in 1820s and lasted until his death. Montferrands adopted Henri, Elise'd nephew.

Death

Auguste de Montferrand died in Saint Petersburg in 1858, the year St. Isaac's Cathedral was completed. His will to be buried in the vault of that cathedral could not be executed, because he was not of Orthodox faith. His body returned to France and was buried in the Cimetière de Montmartre, Paris, France, next to his mother. The grave, once believed to be lost, was identified in 1986 in Chemin des Gardes row. It bears the name Louise Fistioni and AM, Montferrand's initials.[20]

See also

  • Russian bio: В.К.Шуйский, "Огюст де Монферран", М, Центрполиграф, 2005 (Shuysky, V.K., "Auguste Montferrand", 2005), ISBN 5-9524-1749-3

Footnotes

  1. ^ Date of death in July, 10 in Gregorian calendar, and June 28 in Julian calendar (old style)
  2. ^ Shuysky, p.10
  3. ^ He earned subsequent Legion awards in 1830 (Chevalier) and 1842 (Officier) - Shuysky, 382
  4. ^ Shuysky, p.12. Other authors assert that he earned the Legion for the Battle of Arno in Italy. This is incorrect.
  5. ^ Shuysky, p.13., admits that the date, 1814 or 1815, is not certain
  6. ^ Shuysky, p.17
  7. ^ Shuysky, p.86
  8. ^ Shuysky, p.95
  9. ^ Shuysky, p.102
  10. ^ Shuysky, p.122
  11. ^ Shuysky, p.127
  12. ^ Shuysky, p.191
  13. ^ Shuysky, p.193
  14. ^ Shuysky, pp.199-200
  15. ^ Shuysky, p.211. One year was lost for academic debate about the angel's statue. Finally, Nicholas intervened and decreed that the single angel must be six arshin tall.
  16. ^ Shuysky, p.228
  17. ^ Shuysky, p.177
  18. ^ Shuysky, p.185
  19. ^ Shuysky, p.345, quotes Adalbert Starchevsky, a witness of Montferrand's mature years and his first biographer
  20. ^ Shuysky, p.382








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