Augustus Hill Garland: Wikis

Advertisements
  

Note: Many of our articles have direct quotes from sources you can cite, within the Wikipedia article! This article doesn't yet, but we're working on it! See more info or our list of citable articles.

Encyclopedia

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Augustus Hill Garland


In office
March 6, 1885 – March 4, 1889
President Grover Cleveland
Preceded by Benjamin H. Brewster
Succeeded by William H. H. Miller

In office
March 4, 1877 – March 6, 1885
Preceded by Powell Clayton
Succeeded by James H. Berry

In office
November 12, 1874 – January 11, 1877
Preceded by Elisha Baxter
Succeeded by William R. Miller

In office
November 8, 1864 – May 10, 1865
Preceded by Charles B. Mitchel
Succeeded by End of Confederacy

Born June 11, 1832(1832-06-11)
Covington, Tennessee, U.S.
Died January 26, 1899 (aged 66)
Washington, D.C., U.S.
Political party Whig, American, Constitutional Unionist, Democratic
Spouse(s) Sarah Virginia Sanders Garland
Alma mater St. Mary's College
St. Joseph's College
Profession Politician, lawyer, teacher, author

Augustus Hill Garland (June 11, 1832  – January 26, 1899) was an Arkansas lawyer and politician. He was a senator in both the United States and the Confederate States, served as 11th Governor of Arkansas and as Attorney General of the United States in first administration of Grover Cleveland.

Contents

Early life and law career

Garland was born in Covington, Tennessee, on June 11, 1832, to Rufus and Barbara Hill Garland. Along with his parents, his older brother, Rufus, and older sister, Elizabeth, the family moved to Lost Prairie in Arkansas in 1833 where his father owned a store. His father died when Garland was still a baby and his mother then wed Thomas Hubbard in 1836. Hubbard relocated the family to Washington, Arkansas, near the Hempstead County seat of Hope. Garland attended Spring Hill Male Academy from 1838 to 1843 before moving on to St. Mary's College in Lebanon, Kentucky, and later graduating from St. Joseph's College in Bardstown, Kentucky, in 1849.

Garland briefly taught school at Brounstown School in the Mine Creek Community in Sevier County before returning to Washington to study law with Hempstead County clerk Simon Sanders, later being admitted to the bar and starting a law practice with his stepfather in 1853. He married Sarah Virginia Sanders on June 14, 1853, with whom he would have nine children, four of whom survived to adulthood. They moved to Little Rock in June 1856 where Garland became a law partner to Ebenezer Cummins, a former legal associate of Albert Pike's. Garland became one of Arkansas's most prominent attorneys and was admitted to the bar of the Supreme Court of the United States in 1860.

Entrance into politics

Garland was a supporter of the Whig and American "Know Nothing" parties during the 1850s and was a presidential elector in the Arkansas Electoral College for the Constitutional Union Party in the election of 1860, voting for the party's nominees of John Bell and Edward Everett.

Civil War

With the election of Republican Abraham Lincoln to the Presidency of the United States, more and more southern states were pressured to secede from the Union. Garland opposed secession and consistently advocated Arkansas's continued allegiance to the United States. In 1861, he was elected to represent Pulaski County at the secession convention in Little Rock where he voiced his opposition to secede, but after President Lincoln called for 75,000 troops in response to the Battle of Fort Sumter, Garland reluctantly supported secession.

Advertisements

Confederate Congress

Garland served in the Provisional Confederate Congress and was later elected to the Confederate House of Representatives in the First Confederate Congress in 1861 where he was a member of the Committees on Public Lands, Commerce and Financial Independence, and the Judiciary. He was reelected in 1863 and in 1864 was appointed to the Confederate States Senate to fill the vacancy caused by the death of Charles B. Mitchel. In Congress, he made efforts to establish a Supreme Court of the Confederate States and supported the administration of President Jefferson Davis aside his opposition to the laws suspending the writ of habeas corpus. He returned to Arkansas in February 1865 to help facilitate the return of the state to the Union.

Ex parte Garland

At the end of the Civil War, Garland was pardoned by President Andrew Johnson on July 15, 1865. Despite this pardon, he was prohibited from practicing law due to a provision passed by the United States Congress on January 24, 1865, stripping the law licenses of all lawyers who worked with the Confederate government or military. Garland became the petitioner in the case of Ex parte Garland in which he made the argument that it was unconstitutional and a violation of ex post facto. On January 14, 1867, by a vote of five to four, the Court agreed. The ruling caused considerable uproar in the north, but gave hope that the judicial system could be used to prevent the implementation of the Reconstruction Act that had recently been passed by Congress. He then pushed the Supreme Court to hear the case of Mississippi v. Johnson which challenged the constitutionality of those acts, however the Court refused.

Augustus H. Garland (c. 1870).

Post-war political career

Garland was elected to the United States Senate for a term beginning in 1867, but was not allowed to take the seat as Arkansas had not yet been readmitted to the Union. He continued practicing law and observing the political scene from a distance. In 1872, with the Republican Party split into three factions, Arkansas Democrats sought Garland to help elect Democrats into the state legislator and had been considered for the Democratic nomination for the U.S. Senate. During the conflict known as the Brooks-Baxter War, he sided with Governor Elisha Baxter and was a primary strategists for him. He was an advisor and constitutional scholar at the next state constitutional convention and, with strong support from the Democratic Party, was elected Governor of Arkansas.

Governor of Arkansas

Garland was faced with a number of problems after taking office as Governor including turmoil in the state over threatening groups like the Ku Klux Klan, an ongoing congressional investigation over the Brooks-Baxter confect and the state debt of $17,000,000. With help from the finance board, the debt was significantly lowered in two years time. Garland was a strong supporter of better education. He urged the legislator to establish schools for the blind and deaf, successfully advocated in appointing a new president for the Arkansas Industrial University, today the University of Arkansas, and helped founded the Branch Normal College, today the University of Arkansas at Pine Bluff, which made education more accessible for African-Americans. Under his administration, he also oversaw the creation of the Arkansas bureau of statistics and bureau of agriculture, mining and manufacturing.

United States Senate

Garland ran successfully for the United States Senate in 1876 and was reelected in 1883. In the Senate, he served as a member of the Committees on Public Lands, the Territories and the Judiciary, serving as chairman of the Territories Committee in the 46th Congress. As a Senator, he made efforts to bring about tariff reform, internal improvements such as the regulation of interstate commerce and a federal prison system, federal aid to education and civil service reform.

Attorney General

Garland resigned from the Senate in 1885 after accepting the appointment of Attorney General of the United States by newly elected President Grover Cleveland, becoming the first Arkansan to receive a cabinet post. Not long after taking office, he became embroiled in a political scandal. While serving in the Senate, Garland became a shareholder in and attorney for the Pan-Electric Telephone Company which was organized to form regional telephone companies using equipment developed by J. Harris Rogers. The Bell Telephone Company brought suit against Pan-Electric for patent infringement after it was discovered that their equipment was similar to that of Bell's. Garland was ordered to bring a suit in the name of the United States to invalidate the Bell patent, breaking their monopoly of telephone technology, but refused to do so. However, while Garland was on vacation in the summer, Solicitor General John Goode authorized the suit. A year long congressional investigation and constant public attention effected his work as Attorney General, however, despite having to serve under a cloud of suspicion, he was supported from President Cleveland. Garland was also the first, and to date only, United States cabinet secretary to be censured by Congress when, in 1886, Garland failed to provide documents about the firing of a United States Attorney.

Later life and death

President Cleveland lost reelection to Benjamin Harrison in the 1888 election and Garland left office at the end of Cleveland's term in 1889. He resumed practicing law in Washington, D.C. and published a number of books, including The Constitution As It Is (1880), Experience in the Supreme Court of the United States, with Some Reflections and Suggestions as to that Tribunal (1883), Third-Term Presidential (1896), Experience in the Supreme Court of the United States (1898) and Treatise on the Constitution and Jurisdiction of the United States Courts (1898). On January 26, 1899, while arguing a case before the Supreme Court, Garland suffered a stroke and died a few hours later in the Capitol. He was interned Mount Holly Cemetery in Little Rock, Arkansas.

Honors

References

External links

Confederate States House of Representatives
Preceded by
(none)
Member of the Confederate States House of Representatives
from Arkansas

February 18, 1862  – November 8, 1864
Succeeded by
David W. Carroll
Preceded by
(none)
Representative to the Provisional Confederate Congress from Arkansas
1861 – 1862
Succeeded by
(none)
Political offices
Preceded by
Elisha Baxter
Governor of Arkansas
November 12, 1874  – January 11, 1877
Succeeded by
William R. Miller
United States Senate
Preceded by
Powell Clayton
United States Senator (Class 2) from Arkansas
March 4, 1877  – March 6, 1885
Served alongside: Stephen W. Dorsey, James D. Walker and James K. Jones
Succeeded by
James H. Berry
Confederate States Senate
Preceded by
Charles B. Mitchel
Confederate States Senator from Arkansas
November 8, 1864  – May 10, 1865
Served alongside: Robert W. Johnson
Defeat of the Confederacy
Legal offices
Preceded by
Benjamin H. Brewster
United States Attorney General
March 6, 1885  – March 4, 1889
Succeeded by
William H. H. Miller

Advertisements






Got something to say? Make a comment.
Your name
Your email address
Message