The Full Wiki

Aurangzeb: Wikis

Advertisements
  
  
  

Note: Many of our articles have direct quotes from sources you can cite, within the Wikipedia article! This article doesn't yet, but we're working on it! See more info or our list of citable articles.

Did you know ...


More interesting facts on Aurangzeb

Include this on your site/blog:

Encyclopedia

Advertisements

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Aurangzeb
Mughal Emperor
Aurangzeb as the young emperor
Reign 1658 - 1707
Full name Abul Muzaffar Muhiuddin Muhammad Aurangzeb Alamgir
Titles Al-Sultan al-Azam wal Khaqan al-Mukarram Abul Muzaffar Muhiuddin Muhammad Aurangzeb Bahadur Alamgir I, Padshah Ghazi
Born 4 November 1618(1618-11-04)
Birthplace Dahod
Died 3 March 1707 (aged 88)
Place of death Ahmednagar
Buried Khuldabad
Predecessor Shah Jahan
Successor Bahadur Shah I
Wives Nawab Raj Bai Begum
Dilras Bano Begam
Hira Bai Zainabadi Mahal
Aurangabadi Mahal
Udaipuri Mahal
Offspring (w. Dilras Bano Begam)
Zeb-un-Nissa, Zinat-un-Nissa, Muhammad Azam Shah, Mehr-un-Nissa, Muhammad Akbar,
(w. Nawab Raj Bai Begum)
Sultan Muhammad, Bahadur Shah I, Badr-un-Nissa,
(w. Aurangabadi Mahal)
Zabdat-un-Nissa,
(w. Udaipuri Mahal)
Muhammad Kam Baksh,
Dynasty Mughal
Father Shah Jahan
Mother Mumtaz Mahal
Religious beliefs Islam

Muhi Uddin Muhammad Aurangzeb Bahadur Alamgir I, more commonly known as Aurangzeb (Persian: اورنگ‌زیب (full title: Al-Sultan al-Azam wal Khaqan al-Mukarram Abul Muzaffar Muhi ud-din Muhammad Aurangzeb Bahadur Alamgir I, Badshah Ghazi) (4 November, 1618 – 3 March 1707), also known by his chosen imperial title Alamgir I (Conqueror of the World) (Persian: عالمگیر), was the 6th Mughal Emperor whose reign lasted from 1658 until his death in 1707. Aurangzeb's reign as the Mughal monarch was marked by many wars of expansion.[1][2]

Aurangzeb, having ruled most of the Indian subcontinent for nearly half a century, was the second longest reigning Mughal emperor after Akbar. In this period he successfully brought a larger area, notably in southern India, under Mughal rule than ever before.[3] A devout Muslim, Aurangzeb tried to force all his people to follow the doctrines of Islam. He destroyed many Hindu and Sikh scriptures and works of art because he feared that they might be worshipped as idols.[1]

After his death, the Mughal Empire gradually shrunk. Aurangzeb's successors, the "Later Mughals", lacked his strong hand and the great fortunes amassed by his predecessors.

Contents

Rise to throne

Early life

Aurangzeb was the third son of the fifth Mughal emperor Shah Jahan and Mumtaz Mahal (Arjumand Bānū Begum). After a rebellion by his father, part of Aurangzeb's childhood was spent as a virtual hostage at his grandfather Jahangir's court. Muhammad Saleh Kamboh Salafi had been one of his childhood teachers.

After Jahangir's death in 1627, Aurangzeb returned to live with his parents. Shah Jahan followed the Mughal practice of assigning authority to his sons, and in 1634 put Aurangzeb in charge of the Deccan campaign. Following his success in 1636, Aurangzeb became Subahdar (governor) of the Deccan.[4] At this time, he began building a new city near the former capital of Khirki which he named Aurangabad after himself. In 1637, he married Rabia Durrani. During this period the Deccan was relatively peaceful. In the Mughal court, however, Shah Jahan began to show greater and greater favoritism to his eldest son Dara Shikoh.

In 1644, Aurangzeb's sister Jahanara Begum was accidentally burned in Agra. This event precipitated a family crisis which had political consequences. Aurangzeb suffered his father's displeasure when he returned to Agra three weeks after the event, instead of immediately. Shah Jahan dismissed him as the governor of the Deccan. Aurangzeb later claimed (1654) that he had resigned in protest of his father favoring Dara.[citation needed]

In 1645, he was barred from the court for seven months. But later, Shah Jahan appointed him governor of Gujarat; he performed well and was rewarded. In 1647, Shah Jahan made him governor of Balkh and Badakhshan (in modern Afghanistan and Tajikistan), replacing Aurangzeb's ineffective brother Murad Baksh. These areas at the time were under attack from various forces and Aurangzeb's military skill proved successful.

He was appointed governor of Multan and Sindh, and began a protracted military struggle against the Safavid army in an effort to capture the city of Kandahar. He failed, and fell again into his father's disfavour.

In 1652, Aurangzeb was re-appointed governor of the Deccan. In an effort to extend the empire, Aurangzeb attacked the border kingdoms of Golconda (1657), and Bijapur (1658). Both times, Shah Jahan called off the attacks near the moment of Aurangzeb's triumph. In each case Dara Shikoh interceded and arranged a peaceful end to the attacks.

War of succession

A painting from circa 1637 shows the brothers (left to right) Shuja, Aurangzeb and Murad Baksh in their younger years.

Shah Jahan fell ill in 1657. With this news, the struggle for the succession began. Aurangzeb's eldest brother, Dara Shikoh, was regarded as heir apparent, but the succession proved far from certain when Shah Jahan's second son Shah Shuja declared himself emperor in Bengal. Imperial armies sent by Dara and Shah Jahan soon restrained this effort, and Shuja retreated.

Soon after, Shuja's youngest brother Murad Baksh, with secret promises of support from Aurangzeb, declared himself emperor in Gujarat. Aurangzeb, ostensibly in support of Murad, marched north from Aurangabad, gathering support from nobles and generals. Following a series of victories, Aurangzeb declared that Dara had illegally usurped the throne. Shah Jahan, determined that Dara would succeed him, handed over control of his empire to Dara. A Rajput lord opposed to Aurangzeb and Murad, Maharaja Jaswant Singh, battled them both at Dharmatpur near Ujjain. Aurangzeb eventually defeated Singh and concentrated his forces on Dara. A series of bloody battles followed, with troops loyal to Aurangzeb battering Dara's armies at Samugarh. In a few months, Aurangzeb's forces surrounded Agra. Fearing for his life, Dara departed for Delhi, leaving Shah Jahan behind. The old emperor surrendered the Agra Fort to Aurangzeb's nobles, but Aurangzeb refused any meeting with his father, and declared that Dara was no longer a Muslim.

In a sudden reversal, Aurangzeb arrested his brother Murad, whose former supporters defected to Aurangzeb in return for rich gifts.[5] Meanwhile, Dara gathered his forces, and moved to the Punjab. The army sent against Shuja was trapped in the east, its generals Jai Singh and Diler Khan, submitted to Aurangzeb, but allowed Dara's son Suleman to escape. Aurangzeb offered Shuja the governorship of Bengal. This move had the effect of isolating Dara and causing more troops to defect to Aurangzeb. Shuja, however, uncertain of Aurangzeb's sincerity, continued to battle his brother, but his forces suffered a series of defeats at Aurangzeb's hands. Shuja fled to Arakan (in present-day Burma), where he was executed after leading a failed coup.[6] Murad was finally executed, ostensibly for the murder of his former divan Ali Naqi, in 1661.[7]

With Shuja and Murad disposed of, and with his father Shah Jahan confined in Agra, Aurangzeb pursued Dara, chasing him across the north-western bounds of the empire. After a series of battles, defeats and retreats, Dara was betrayed by one of his generals, who arrested and bound him. In 1659, Aurangzeb arranged his formal coronation in Delhi. He had Dara openly marched in chains back to Delhi; when Dara finally arrived, Aurangzeb had him executed on August 30, 1659. Having secured his position, Aurangzeb kept an already weakening Shah Jahan under house arrest at the Agra Fort. Shah Jahan died in 1666.

Aurangzeb's reign

Enforcement of Islamic law

A quran produced in the times of the Mughal empire.
François Bernier (1625–1688), a French physician and traveler, became for 12 years the personal physician of Aurangzeb. He described his experiences in Travels in the Mughal Empire.

Soon after his ascension, Aurangzeb purportedly abandoned the "liberal" religious viewpoints of his predecessors.[8] Though Akbar, Jahangir and Shah Jahan's approach to faith was more syncretic than the empire's founder, Aurangzeb's position is not so obvious. While his conservative interpretation of Islam and belief in the Sharia (Islamic law) is well documented, how this affected the empire remains unclear. Despite claims of sweeping edicts and policies, contradictory accounts exist.[9] Specifically, his compilation of the Fatawa-e-Alamgiri, a digest of Muslim law, was either intended for personal use, never enforced, or only poorly done. While some assert the lack of broad adoption was due to an inherent flaw[10], others insist they were only intended for his observance.[11] While it is possible the war of succession and a continued incursions combined with Shah Jahan's spending made cultural expenditures impossible[12], Aurangzeb's orthodoxy is also used to explain his infamous "burial" of music. The scene describing the "death of music"(and all other forms of performance) is paradoxically dramatic.

Niccolao Manucci's Storia do Mogor and Khafi Khan's Muntakhab al-Lubab are the only documents which describe the aforementioned event. In Storia do Mogor, Manucci describes the ramifications of Aurangzeb's 1668 decree.[13] Here, Aurangzeb's instructions for the muhtasib seem particularly damning:

In Hindustan both Moguls and Hindus are very fond of listening to songs and instrumental music. He therefore ordered the same official to stop music. If in any house or elsewhere he heard the sound of singing and instruments, he should forthwith hasten there and arrest as many as he could, breaking the instruments. Thus was caused a great destruction of musical instruments. Finding themselves in this difficulty, their large earnings likely to cease, without there being any other mode of seeking a livelihood, the musicians took counsel together and tried to appease the king in the following way: About one thousand of them assembled on a Friday when Aurangzeb was going to the mosque. They came out with over twenty highly-ornamented biers, as is the custom of the country, crying aloud with great grief and many signs of feeling, as if they were escorting to the grave some distinguished defunct. From afar Aurangzeb saw this multitude and heard their great weeping and lamentation, and, wondering, sent to know the cause of so much sorrow. The musicians redoubled their outcry and their tears, fancying the king would take compassion upon them. Lamenting,they replied with sobs that the king's orders had killed Music, therefore they were bearing her to the grave. Report was made to the king, who quite calmly remarked that they should pray for the soul of Music, and see that she was thoroughly well buried. In spite of this, the nobles did not cease to listen to songs in secret. This strictness was enforced in the principal cities.[14][15]

This implies he not only placed a prohibition on music, but actively sought and crushed any resistance. Without music, and implicitly dance, many Hindu-inspired practices[16] would have been impossible. Lavish celebrations of the Emperor's birthday, commonplace since the time of Akbar, would certainly be forbidden under such conditions. Oddly, artistic work not only steadied during Aurangzeb's reign, it increased.[17] Amidst these and other contradictions, the validity and bias of Manucci and Khafi Khan's work is being questioned.

Another particularly heinous claim against Aurangzeb, was his policy of temple destruction. Though figures vary wildly from 80 to 60,000[18], it clearly took place to some extent. However, Aurangzeb's Firmans on behalf of the Balaji or Vishnu Temple[19] and his land grant for famous Hindu religious sites in Kasi[citation needed], Varanasi insist these events weren't universal. Noted Historian Richard Eaton believes the overall understanding of temples to be flawed. As early as the sixth century, temples became vital political landmarks as well as religious ones. In fact, not only was temple desecration widely practiced and accepted, it was a necessary part of political struggle.[20]

Alexander Hamilton, a British historian, toured India towards the end of Aurangzeb's fifty year reign and observed that every one was free to serve and worship God in his own way[citation needed]. Francois Bernier, traveled and chronicled Mughal India during the war of succession, notes both Shah Jahan and Aurangzeb's distaste for Christians. This led to the demolition of Christian settlements near the British/European Factories and enslavement of Christian converts by Shah Jahan. Furthermore, Aurangzeb stopped all aid to Christian Missionaries (Frankish Padres) initiated by Akbar and Jahangir.[21]

Aurangzeb's views on the Jizya (poll tax)

From Aurangzeb's Fatwa:

 "[Jizyah] refers to what is taken from the Dhimmis, according to [what is stated in] al-Nihayah. It is obligatory upon [1] the free, [2] adult members of [those] who are generally fought, [3] who are fully in possession of their mental faculties, and [4] gainfully employed, even if [their] profession is not noble, as is [stated in] al-Sarajiyyah. There are two types of [jizyah]. [The first is] the jizyah that is imposed by treaty or consent, such that it is established in accordance with mutual agreement, according to [what is stated in] al-Kafi. [The amount] does not go above or below [the stipulated] amount, as is stated in al-Nahr al-Fa’iq. [The second type] is the jizyah that the leader imposes when he conquers the unbelievers (kuffar), and [whose amount] he imposes upon the populace in accordance with the amount of property [they own], as in al-Kafi. This is an amount that is pre-established, regardless of whether they agree or disagree, consent to it or not.

 "The wealthy [are obligated to pay] each year forty-eight dirhams [of a specified weight], payable per month at the rate of 4 dirhams. The next, middle group (wast al-hal) [must pay] twenty-four dirhams, payable per month at the rate of 2 dirhams. The employed poor are obligated to pay twelve dirhams, in each month paying only one dirham, as stipulated in Fath al-Qadir, al-Hidayah, and al-Kafi. [The scholars] address the meaning of "gainfully employed", and the correct meaning is that it refers to one who has the capacity to work, even if his profession is not noble. The scholars also address the meaning of wealthy, poor, and the middle group. Al-Shaykh al-Imam Abu Ja‘far, may Allah the most high have mercy on him, considered the custom of each region decisive as to whom the people considered in their land to be poor, of the middle group, or rich. This is as such, and it is the most correct view, as stated in al-Muhit. Al-Karakhi says that the poor person is one who owns two hundred dirhams or less, while the middle group owns more than two hundred and up to ten thousand dirhams, and the wealthy [are those] who own more than ten thousand dirhams...The support for this, according to al-Karakhi is provided by the fatawa of Qadi Khan (d. 592/1196). It is necessary that in the case of the employed person, he must have good health for most of the year, as is stated in al-Hidayah. It is mentioned in al-Idah that if a dhimmi is ill for the entire year such that he cannot work and he is well off, he is not obligated to pay the jizyah, and likewise if he is sick for half of the year or more. If he quits his work while having the capacity [to work] he [is still liable] as one gainfully employed, as is [stated in] al-Nihayah. No jizyah is imposed upon their women, children, ill persons or the blind, or likewise on the paraplegic, the very old, or on the unemployed poor, as is stated in al-Hidayah."[citation needed]

Expansion of the empire

Emperor Aurangzeb seated on a golden throne holding a hawk in the Durbar. Such scenes would be rare in the latter part of his reign as he was permanently camped in the Deccan, fighting wars.

From the start of his reign up until his death, Aurangzeb engaged in almost constant warfare. He built up a massive army, and began a program of military expansion along all the boundaries of his empire. Aurangzeb pushed north-west into the Punjab and what is now Afghanistan; he also drove south, conquering Bijapur and Golconda, his old enemies. He attempted to recover those portions of the Deccan territories where the Maratha king Shivaji was sparking rebellions.

This combination of military expansion and religious intolerance had deeper consequences. Though he succeeded in expanding Mughal control, it was at an enormous cost in lives and treasure. And, as the empire expanded in size, Aurangzeb's chain of command grew weaker. The Sikhs of the Punjab grew both in strength and numbers, and launched rebellions. The Marathas waged a war with Aurangzeb which lasted for 27 years. Even Aurangzeb's own armies grew restive — particularly the fierce Rajputs, who were his main source of strength. Aurangzeb gave a wide berth to the Rajputs, who were mostly Hindu. While they fought for Aurangzeb during his life, on his death they immediately revolted against his successors.

With much of his attention on military matters, Aurangzeb's political power waned, and his provincial governors and generals grew in authority.

Rebellions

Many subjects rebelled against Aurangzeb's policies, among them his own son, Prince Akbar.

  • In 1669, the Jat kings of Bharatpur around Mathura revolted and led to the formation of Bharatpur state after his death.
  • In 1670, Chhatrapati Shivaji had opened the war against the Mughals. He opposed Aurangzeb with full strength and had initially stopped him from entering the Deccan.Till Shivaji was alive, Aurangzeb did not invade the Deccan but soon after Shivaji's death, he attacked the Maratha kingdom. Shivaji's son, Sambhaji successfully defended his kingdom and did not let Aurangzeb win even a single significant victory. However by 1689 Auranzeb's armies had captured Sambhaji alive. Later Sambhaji was tortured and executed. But even after Sambhaji's death, Aurangzeb could never conquer the Maratha Kingdom completely ever in his 27 years of war in Deccan.[22]
  • In 1672, the Satnami, a sect concentrated in an area near Delhi, under the leadership of Bhirbhan and some Satnami, took over the administration of Narnaul, but they were eventually crushed upon Auranzeb's personal intervention with very few escaping alive.[23][24]

Soon afterwards the Afridi Pashtuns in the north-west also revolted, and Aurangzeb was forced to lead his army personally to Hasan Abdal to subdue them.

When Maharaja Jaswant Singh of Jodhpur died in 1679, a conflict ensued over who would be the next Raja. Aurangzeb's choice of a nephew of the former Maharaja was not accepted by other members of Jaswant Singh's family and they rebelled, but in vain. Aurangzeb seized control of Jodhpur. He also moved on Udaipur, which was the only other state of Rajputana to support the rebellion. There was never a clear resolution to this conflict, although it is noted that the other Rajputs, including the celebrated Kachhwaha Rajput clan of Raja Jai Singh, the Bhattis, and the Rathores, remained loyal. On the other hand, Aurangzeb's own third son, Prince Akbar, along with a few Muslim Mansabdar supporters, joined the rebels in the hope of dethroning his father and becoming emperor. The rebels were defeated and Akbar fled south to the shelter of the Maratha Chhatrapati Sambhaji, Chhatrapati Shivaji's successor.

The Ahoms (the people of Shan community of Thailand) were the kings who had established their kingdom in the basin of river Bramhaputra and made it impossible for the Mughals to conquer that area.

The Deccan wars and the Rise of the Marathas

Shivaji, the founder of the Maratha Empire was a key nemesis of Aurangzeb.

In the time of Shah Jahan, the Deccan had been controlled by three Muslim kingdoms: Ahmednagar (Nizams), Bijapur (Adilshahi) and Golconda (Qutbshahi). Following a series of battles, Ahmendnagar was effectively divided, with large portions of the kingdom ceded to the Mughals and the balance to Bijapur. One of Ahmednagar's generals, a Hindu Maratha named Shahaji, joined the Bijapur court. Shahaji sent his wife Jijabai and young son Shivaji in Pune to look after his Jagir.[25]

In 1657, while Aurangzeb attacked Golconda and Bijapur, Shivaji, using guerrilla tactics, took control of three Adilshahi forts formerly controlled by his father. With these victories, Shivaji assumed de facto leadership of many independent Maratha clans. The Marathas harried the flanks of the warring Adilshahi and Mughals, gaining weapons, forts, and territories.[26] Shivaji's small and ill-equipped army survived an all out Adilshahi attack, and Shivaji personally killed the Adilshahi general, Afzal Khan.[27] With this event, the Marathas transformed into a powerful military force, capturing more and more Adilshahi and Mughal territories.[28]

Just before Shivaji Raje's his coronation in 1659, Aurangzeb sent his trusted general and maternal uncle Shaista Khan to the Deccan to recover his lost forts. Shaista Khan drove into Maratha territory and took up residence in Pune. In a daring raid, Shivaji attacked the governor's residence in Pune, killed Shaista Khan's son, even hacking off Shaista Khan's thumb as he fled.This is the first known commando operation in the history, Shivaji and his band of mavla's dressed up as commoners and joined a wedding party and were successful in sneaking into Lal Mahal, where the governor was residing and drove him out from there by attacking him in his sleep.

Aurangzeb ignored the rise of the Marathas for the next few years. Shivaji continued to capture forts belonging to both Mughals and Bijapur. At last Aurangzeb sent his powerful general Raja Jai Singh of Amber, a Hindu Rajput, to attack the Marathas. Jai Singh's blistering attacks were so successful that he defeated Shivaji and had him arrested Shivaji agreed becoming a Mughal vassal.[29] Jai Singh also promised the Maratha hero his safety, placing him under the care of his own son, the future Raja Ram Singh I. However, circumstances at the Mughal court were beyond the control of the Raja, and when Shivaji and his son Sambhaji went to Agra to meet Aurangzeb, they were placed under house arrest, from which they managed to effect a daring escape.[30]

Shivaji returned to the Deccan, successfully drove out the Mughal armies, and was crowned Chhatrapati or Emperor of the Maratha Empire in 1674.[31] While Aurangzeb continued to send troops against him, Shivaji expanded Maratha control throughout the Deccan until his death in 1680. Shivaji was succeeded by his son Sambhaji. Militarily and politically, Mughal efforts to control the Deccan continued to fail. Aurangzeb's son Akbar left the Mughal court and joined with Sambhaji, inspiring some Mughal forces to join the Marathas. Aurangzeb in response moved his court to Aurangabad and took over command of the Deccan campaign. More battles ensued, and Akbar fled to Persia.[32]

In 1689 Aurangzeb captured and had Sambhaji killed. Sambhaji's successor chhatrapati Rajaram and his, Maratha Sardars (commanders) fought individual battles against the Mughals, and territory changed hands again and again during years of endless warfare. As there was no central authority among the Marathas, Aurangzeb was forced to contest every inch of territory, at great cost in lives and treasure. Even as Aurangzeb drove west, deep into Maratha territory — notably conquering Satara — the Marathas expanded their attacks further into Mughal lands, including Mughal-held Malwa, Hyderabad, Jinji in TamilNadu. Aurangzeb waged continuous war in the Deccan for more than two decades with no resolution.[33] Aurangzeb lost about a fifth of his army fighting rebellions led by the Marathas in Deccan India. He came down thousands of miles to the Deccan to conquer the Marathas but finally was unable to crush the Maratha kingdom. He never returned and died a natural death while fighting the Marathas.[34]

The Pashtun rebellion

The Pashtun tribesmen of the Empire were considered the bedrock of the Mughal Empire Army. They were crucial defenders of the Empire from the threat of invasion from the North-West as well as the main fighting force against the Sikh and Maratha forces. The Pashtun revolt in 1672 under the leadership of the warrior poet Khushal Khan Khattak[35] was triggered when soldiers under the orders of the Mughal Governor Amir Khan allegedly attempted to molest women of the Safi tribe in modern day Kunar. The Safi tribes attacked the soldiers. This attack provoked a reprisal, which triggered a general revolt of most of the tribes. Attempting to reassert his authority, Amir Khan led a large Mughal Army to the Khyber pass. There the army was surrounded by tribesmen and routed, with only four men, including the Governor, managing to escape.

After that the revolt spread, with the Mughals suffering a near total collapse of their authority along the Pashtun belt. The closure of the important Attock-Kabul trade route along the Grand Trunk road was particularly critical. By 1674, the situation had deteriorated to a point where Aurangzeb himself camped at Attock to personally take charge. Switching to diplomacy and bribery along with force of arms, the Mughals eventually split the rebellion and while they never managed to wield effective authority outside the main trade route, the revolt was partially suppressed. However the long term anarchy on the Empire's North-Western frontier that prevailed as a consequence ensured that the Persian Nadir Shah's forces half a century later faced little resistance on the road to Delhi, being one of the causes for Mughal decline and eventual European dominance.

Legacy

17th Century Badshahi Masjid built by Mughal emperor Aurangzeb in Lahore
One of the thirteen gates at the Lahore Fort, this one built by Mughal emperor Aurangzeb and named Alamgiri Gate

Aurangzeb's influence continues through the centuries. He was the first ruler to attempt to impose Sharia law on a non-Muslim country. His critics decry this as intolerance[36], while his mostly Muslim supporters applaud him, some calling him a just ruler. Today, in Afghanistan and South Asia, Aurangzeb is considered the most powerful king ever to have ruled the subcontinent, an example of Islamic might. He engaged in nearly perpetual war, justifying the ensuing death and destruction on moral and religious grounds. He arguably eventually succeeded in the imposition of Islamic Sharia in his realm, but alienated many constituencies, not only non-Muslims, but also Shi'ite Muslims. This led to increasing Power of the Marathas, and militant tactics of the Sikhs, the Pashtuns, and the Rajputs, who along with other territories broke from the empire after his death; it also led to disputes among Indian Muslims.

Unlike his predecessors, Aurangzeb considered the royal treasury as a trust of the citizens of his empire and did not use it for personal expenses or extravagant building projects except, perhaps, for one project: he built the famous Badshahi Mosque in Lahore, which, for 313 years remained the world's largest mosque and still remains to this day the 5th largest mosque in the world. He also added a small marble mosque known as the Moti Masjid (Pearl Mosque) to the Red Fort complex in Delhi. His constant warfare especially with Marathas, however, drove his empire to the brink of bankruptcy just as much as the wasteful personal spending and opulence of his predecessors.

Aurangzeb reading the Quran.

Stanley Wolpert writes in his New History of India that

the conquest of the Deccan, to which [Aurangzeb] devoted the last 26 years of his life, was in many ways a Pyrrhic victory, costing an estimated hundred thousand lives a year during its last decade of futile chess game warfare...The expense in gold and rupees can hardly be accurately estimated. [Aurangzeb]'s moving capital alone- a city of tents 30 miles in circumference, some 250 bazaars, with a 12 million camp followers, 50,000 camels and 30,000 elephants, all of whom had to be fed, stripped peninsular India of any and all of its surplus grain and wealth... Not only famine but bubonic plague arose...Even [Aurangzeb] had ceased to understand the purpose of it all by the time he..was nearing 90... "I came alone and I go as a stranger. I do not know who I am, nor what I have been doing," the dying old man confessed to his son in February 1707. "I have sinned terribly, and I do not know what punishment awaits me."[37]

He alienated many of his children and wives, driving some into exile and imprisoning others. He died in Ahmednagar on Friday, February 20, 1707 at the age of 88, having outlived many of his children. His modest open-air grave in Khuldabad expresses his deep devotion to his Islamic beliefs.

Aurangzeb's legacy to India was factionalism, sectarianism, decentralization, and vulnerability to European encroachment.[38]

After Aurangzeb's death, his son Bahadur Shah I took the throne. The Mughal Empire, due both to Aurangzeb's over-extension and to Bahadur Shah's weak military and leadership qualities, entered a period of long decline. Immediately after Bahadur Shah occupied the throne, the Maratha Empire — which Aurangzeb had held at bay, inflicting high human and monetary costs — consolidated and launched effective invasions of Mughal territory, seizing power from the weak emperor. Within 100 years of Aurangzeb's death, the Mughal Emperor had little power beyond Delhi.

References

  1. ^ a b The World Book Encyclopedia Volume:A1 (1989) pg 894-895
  2. ^ Mughal Rule in India - By Stephen Meredyth Edwardes, Herbert Leonard Offley Garrett
  3. ^ Gascoigne, Bamber (1971). The Great Mughals. New York:Harper&Row. pp. 233
  4. ^ Khafi Khan, Muntakhab ul-Lubab, p.129
  5. ^ The Cambridge History of India (1922), vol. IV, p. 215.
  6. ^ The Cambridge History of India (1922), vol. IV, p. 481.
  7. ^ The Cambridge History of India (1922), vol. IV, p. 228.
  8. ^ John Keay,India: A History(2001) p.336
  9. ^ Katherine Butler Brown, Did Aurangzeb Ban Music? (2007), p.91
  10. ^ Hanafi law was sought to be codified under Aurangzeb but the work of several hundred jurists, called Fatawa-e-Alamgiri, seems too inclined to favour the Mughal elite to be useful for today's egalitarian society
  11. ^ Katherine Butler Brown, Did Aurangzeb Ban Music?(2007), p.114
  12. ^ Taymiya R. Zaman Inscribing Empire: Sovereignty and Subjectivity in Mughal Memoirs(2007) p. 153
  13. ^ It should be noted; this date is never specified by Manucci. However, events surrounding the statement, the chronology of which is not under dispute, are used to extrapolate a general timeframe.
  14. ^ Niccolao Manucci, Storia do Mogor (1907), vol. 11 p.8
  15. ^ Pdf of Storia do Mogor vol. ii
  16. ^ Pdf which Details: Balcony Appearances and Other Such Hindu Inspired Mughal Activities
  17. ^ Allison Busch, Brajbhasha Poets at the Mughal Court(2009), p.29
  18. ^ Richard M. Eaton Temple Desecration and Indo-Muslim States(2000) p.297
  19. ^ Aurangzeb and the Balaji
  20. ^ Richard M. Eaton Temple Desecration and Indo-Muslim States(2000) p.295
  21. ^ Francois Bernier; Travels Through the Mogul Empire ISBN 978-1931641227
  22. ^ An atlas and survey of South Asian history By Karl J. Schmidt http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=FzmkFXSgxqgC&pg=RA1-PA52&lpg=RA1-PA52&dq=aurangzeb+in+deccan&source=bl&ots=ndtGz0s1mw&sig=GUaMJ0So6bhGdFk4z1J6-9eIT24&hl=en&ei=dx5zSr70OKShjAfk6-2nBg&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=8#v=onepage&q=&f=false
  23. ^ Mughal rule in India By Stephen Meredyth Edwardes, Herbert Leonard Offley Garrett http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=4aqU9Zu7mFoC&pg=PA119&lpg=PA119&dq=satnami+aurangzeb&source=bl&ots=2UuovD_HlV&sig=eqoNlOz8jV1dP7swTknYpXWCfRU&hl=en&ei=4SBzStO0DaHbjQes7einBg&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=3#v=onepage&q=satnami%20aurangzeb&f=false
  24. ^ Students' Britannica India By Dale Hoiberg, Indu Ramchandani http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=ISFBJarYX7YC&pg=PA355&lpg=PA355&dq=satnami+aurangzeb&source=bl&ots=1wULoJ-qsv&sig=nmJn36Pf-XJ99oDWw_iRonT5ajU&hl=en&ei=4SBzStO0DaHbjQes7einBg&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=10#v=onepage&q=satnami%20aurangzeb&f=false
  25. ^ Kincaid, Dennis (1937). The Grand Rebel. London:Collins Press. pp. 50,51.
  26. ^ Kincaid 1937:72-78
  27. ^ Kincaid 1937:121-125
  28. ^ Kincaid 1937:130-138
  29. ^ Kincaid 1937:189-193
  30. ^ Kincaid 1937:197
  31. ^ Kincaid 1937:283
  32. ^ Gascoine 1971:228-229
  33. ^ Gascoine 1971:239-246
  34. ^ The Story of the World - By S. Wise Bauer, Sarah Park, James
  35. ^ "Biography: Khushal Khan Khattak" Afghan-Web
  36. ^ The truth about Aurangzeb
  37. ^ Wolpert, Stanley (2003). New History of India (7th ed.). Oxford University Press. ISBN 0195166779. 
  38. ^ http://www.oxfordislamicstudies.com/article/opr/t125/e239?_hi=1&_pos=1

Additional references

  • Essays on Islam and Indian History, Richard M. Eaton. Reprint. New Delhi, Oxford University Press, 2002 (ISBN 0-19-566265-2). -- Eaton's essay "Temple Desecration and Indo-Muslim States", which attempts to comprehend Aurangzeb's motivation in destroying temples, has generated much recent debate
  • The Peacock Throne, Waldemar Hansen (Holt, Rinehart, Winston, 1972). -- a very British accounting of Aurangzeb's reign, but filled with excellent references and source material
  • A Short History of Pakistan, Dr. Ishtiaque Hussain Qureshi, University of Karachi Press.
  • Delhi, Khushwant Singh, Penguin USA, Open Market Ed edition, February 5, 2000. (ISBN 0-14-012619-8)
  • Mcleod, H. (1989) Who is a Sikh. Oxford. Claredon.
  • Muḥammad Bakhtāvar Khān. Mir’at al-‘Alam: History of Emperor Awangzeb Alamgir. Trans. Sajida Alvi. Lahore: Idārah-ʾi Taḥqīqāt-i Pākistan, 1979.

External links

Aurangzeb
Born: 4 November 1618 Died: 3 March 1707
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Shah Jahan
Mughal Emperor
1658-1707
Succeeded by
Bahadur Shah I

1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

AURANGZEB (1618-1707), one of the greatest of the Mogul emperors of Hindustan, was the third son of Shah Jahan, and was born in November 1618. His original name, Mahommed, was changed by his father, with whom he was a favourite, into Aurangzeb, meaning ornament of the throne, and at a later time he assumed the additional titles of Mohi-eddin, reviver of religion, and Alam-gir, conqueror of the world. At a very early age, and throughout his whole life, he manifested profound religious feeling, perhaps instilled into him in the course of his education under some of the strictest Mahommedan doctors.

He was employed, while very young, in some of his father's expeditions into the country beyond the Indus, gave promise of considerable military talents, and was appointed to the command of an army directed against the Uzbegs. In this campaign he was not completely successful, and soon after was transferred to the army engaged in the Deccan. Here he gained several victories, and in conjunction with the famous general, Mir Jumla, who had deserted from the king of Golconda, he seized and plundered the town of Hyderabad, which belonged to that monarch. His father's express orders prevented Aurangzeb from following up this success, and, not long after, the sudden and alarming illness of Shah Jahan turned his thoughts in another direction. Of Shah Jahan's four sons, the eldest, Dara, a brave and honourable prince, but disliked by the Mussulmans on account of his liberality of thought, had a natural right to the throne. Accordingly, on the illness of his father, he at once seized the reins of government and established himself at Delhi. The second son, Shuja, governor of Bengal, a dissolute and sensual prince, was dissatisfied, and raised an army to dispute the throne with Dara. The keen eye of Aurangzeb saw in this conjuncture of events a favourable opportunity for realising his own ambitious schemes. His religious exercises and temperate habits gave him, in popular estimation, a great superiority over his brothers, but he was too politic to put forward his claims openly. He made overtures to his younger brother Murad, governor of Gujarat, representing that neither of their elder brothers was worthy of the kingdom, that he himself had no temporal ambition, and desired only to place a fit monarch on the throne, and then to devote himself to religious exercises and make the pilgrimage to Mecca. He therefore proposed to unite his forces to those of Murad, who would thus have no difficulty in making himself master of the empire while the two elder brothers were divided by their own strife. Murad was completely deceived by these crafty representations, and at once accepted the offer. Their united armies then moved northward. Meanwhile Shah Jahan had recovered, and though Dara resigned the crown he had seized, the other brothers professed not to believe in their father's recovery, and still pressed on. Shuja was defeated by Dara's son, but the imperial forces under Jaswant Singh were completely routed by the united armies of Aurangzeb and Murad. Dara in person took the field against his brothers, but was defeated and compelled to fly. Aurangzeb then, by a clever stroke of policy, seized the person of his father, and threw him into confinement, in which he was kept for the remaining eight years of his life. Murad was soon removed by assassination, and the way being thus cleared, Aurangzeb, with affected reluctance, ascended the throne in August 1658. He quickly freed himself from all other competitors for the imperial power. Dara, who again invaded Gujarat, was defeated and closely pursued, and was given up by the native chief with whom he had taken refuge. He was brought up to Delhi, exhibited to the people, and assassinated. Shuja, who had been a second time defeated near Allahabad, was attacked by the imperial forces under Mir Jumla and Mahommed, Aurangzeb's eldest son, who, however, deserted and joined his uncle. Shuja was defeated and fled to Arakan, where he perished; Mahommed was captured, thrown into the fortress of Gwalior, and died after seven years' confinement. No similar contest disturbed Aurangzeb's long reign of forty-six years, which has been celebrated, though with doubtful justice, as the most brilliant period of the history of Hindustan. The empire certainly was wealthy and of enormous extent, for there were successively added to it the rich kingdoms of Bijapur and Golconda, but it was internally decaying and ready to crumble away before the first vigorous assault. Two causes principally had tended to weaken the Mogul power. The one was the intense bigotry and intolerant policy of Aurangzeb, which had alienated the Hindus and roused the fierce animosity of the haughty Rajputs. The other was the rise and rapid growth of the Mahratta power. Under their able leader, Sivaji, these daring freebooters plundered in every direction, nor could all Aurangzeb's efforts avail to subdue them. For the last twenty-six years of his life Aurangzeb was engaged in wars in the Deccan, and never set foot in his own capital. At the close of the long contest the Mogul power was weaker, the Mahratta stronger than at first. Still the personal ability and influence of the emperor were sufficient to keep his realms intact during his own life. His last years were embittered by remorse, by gloomy forebodings, and by constant suspicion, for he had always been in the habit of employing a system of espionage, and only then experienced its evil effects. He died on the 3rd of March 1707 at Ahmadnagar, while engaged on an extensive but unfortunate expedition against the Mahrattas.

See Lane-Poole, Aurangzib, " Rulers of India" series (1893).


<< Aurangabad

Auray >>


Genealogy

Up to date as of February 01, 2010

From Familypedia

Contents

Full Name

Abul Muzaffar Muhiyuddin Muhammad Aurangzeb Alamgir, Ghazi, Badshah.

Name Variations

The name is spelt Aurangzaib, Awrranzaib, etc. He is often referred to as "Aurangzeb Alamgir" or even just Alamgir or Alamgir I (the first).

Biography

See Wikipedia article on Wikipedia:Aurangzeb

Pedigree

Aurangzeb son of Shah Jahan, son of Jahangir, son of Akbar, son of Humayun, son of Babur son of Unknown great grandson(?) of Taimur (Tamerlane).

Siblings

  • Dara Shikoh
  • Shah Shuja
  • Murad Baksh
  • Jahan Aara
  • Roshan Aara

Spouse(s)

Offspring

Descendants

Related Entries

External Links

Contributors

  • iFaqeer (Talk to me!)

Sources

References

  • Qureshi, Ishtiaq Hussain, A Short History of Pakistan
Facts about AurangzebRDF feed

This article uses material from the "Aurangzeb" article on the Genealogy wiki at Wikia and is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike License.

Advertisements






Got something to say? Make a comment.
Your name
Your email address
Message