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This article is about the Roman poet Ausonius. For John Ausonius, the Swedish murderer, see John Ausonius.
Monument to Ausonius in Milan.

Decimius Magnus Ausonius (ca. 310–395) was a Latin poet and rhetorician, born at Burdigala (Bordeaux).

Contents

Biography

Decimius Magnus Ausonius was born in Bordeaux in ca. 310. His father was a noted physician of Greek ancestry [1][2] and his mother was descended on both sides from long-established aristocratic Gallo-Roman families of southwestern Gaul [2]. Ausonius was given a strict upbringing by his aunt and grandmother, both named Aemilia. He received an excellent education, especially in grammar and rhetoric, but professed that his progress in Greek was unsatisfactory. Having completed his studies, he trained for some time as an advocate, but he preferred teaching. In 334, he established a school of rhetoric in Bordeaux, which was very popular. His most famous pupil was St. Paulinus of Nola, who later became Bishop of Nola.

After thirty years of this work, he was summoned by Valentinian to the imperial court to teach Gratian, the heir-apparent. The prince greatly respected his tutor, and after his accession bestowed on him the highest titles and honours that any Roman (besides from the royal family) could attain, culminating in the consulate in 379. Ausonius also took part in a military campaign against the Alamanni, in 375, and then later he received the Suebian slave girl Bissula as his part of the booty; he later addressed a poem to her.

After the murder of Gratian in 383, Ausonius retired to his estates near Burdigala (now Bordeaux) in Gaul. These supposedly included the land now owned by Château Ausone, which takes its name from him. He appears to have been a late and perhaps not very enthusiastic convert to Christianity. He died about 395.

Works

  • Epigramata de diversis rebus. About 120 epigrams on various topics.
  • Ephemeris. A description of the occupations of the day from morning till evening, in various meters, composed before 367. Only the beginning and end are preserved.
  • Parentalia. 30 poems of various lengths, mostly in elegiac meter, on deceased relations, composed after his consulate, when he had already been a widower for 36 years.
  • Commemoratio professorum Burdigalensium or Professores. A continuation of the Parentalia, dealing with the famous teachers of his native Bourdeaux whom he had known.
  • Epitaphia. 26 epitaphs of heroes from the Trojan war, translated from Greek
  • Caesares. On the 12 emperors described by Suetonius.
  • Ordo urbium nobilium. 14 pieces, dealing with 17 towns (Rome to Burdigala), in hexameters, and composed after the downfall of Maximus in 388.
  • Ludus VII Sapientium.[3] A kind of puppet play in which the seven wise men appear successively and have their say.
  • The so-called Idyllia. 20 pieces are grouped under this arbitrary title, the most famous of which is the
    • Mosella.[4] It also includes
    • Griphus ternarii numeri
    • De aetatibus Hesiodon
    • Monosticha de aerumnis Herculis
    • De ambiguitate eligendae vitae
    • De viro bono
    • EST et NON
    • De rosis nascentibus (dubious)
    • Versus paschales
    • Epicedion in patrem
    • Technopaegnion
    • Cento nuptialis, composed of lines and half-lines of Vergil.
    • Bissula
    • Protrepticus
    • Genethliacon
  • Eglogarum liber. A collection of all kinds of astronomical and astrological versifications in epic and elegiac meter.
  • Epistolarum liber. 25 verse letters in various meters.
  • Ad Gratianum gratiarum actio pro consulatu. Speech of thanks to the emperor Gratian on the occasion of attaining the consulship, delivered at Treves in 379.
  • Periochae Homeri Iliadis et Odyssiae. A prose summary of Homer's Iliad and Odyssey, attributed to but probably not written by Ausonius.
  • Praefatiunculae. Prefaces by the poet to various collections of his poems, including a response to the emperor Theodosius I's request for his poems.

Although much admired by his contemporaries, the writings of Ausonius have not since been ranked among Latin literature's finest. His style is easy and fluent, and his Mosella is still widely appreciated for its description of life and scenery along the River Moselle. Overall, however, he is generally considered derivative and unoriginal. Edward Gibbon observed in the third volume of his Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire that "the poetical fame of Ausonius condemns the taste of his age." However, he is frequently cited by historians of winemaking, as his works give early evidence of large-scale viniculture in the now-famous wine country around his native Bordeaux.

His contribution to the carpe diem topic is also widely known and acclaimed:

Collige, virgo, rosas dum flos novas et nova pubes et memor esto aevumsic properare tuum[5]

Pick, girl, the flowers while they are still fresh and the youth is new, remembering that the time goes by.

An interesting little work of his is the Cento Nuptialis, translated as A Nuptial Cento by H.G. Evelyn-White for Loeb Classical Library. Composed entirely of quotations from Virgil, the poem celebrates a wedding culminating in a defloration of great virtuosity and obscenity:

Back and forth he plies his path and, the cavity reverberating, thrusts between the bones, and strikes with ivory quill. And now, their journey covered, wearily they neared their very goal: then rapid breathing shakes his limbs and parched mouth, his sweat in rivers flows; down he slumps bloodless; the fluid drips from his groin.

Saw mill

His writings are also remarkable for mentioning, in passing, the working of a water mill sawing marble on a tributary of the Moselle:

....renowned is Celbis for glorious fish, and that other, as he turns his mill-stones in furious revolutions and drives the shrieking saws through smooth blocks of marble, hears from either bank a ceaseless din...

Modern reconstruction of Sutter's Mill.

The excerpt sheds new light on the development of Roman technology for using water power for different applications. It is one of the rare mentions in Roman literature of water mills used to cut stone, but is a logical consequence of the application of water power to mechanical sawing of stone (and presumably wood also). Earlier references to the widespread use of mills occur in Vitruvius in his De Architectura of circa 25 BC, and the Naturalis Historia of Pliny the Elder published in 77 AD. Such applications of mills were to multiply again after the fall of the Empire through the Dark ages into the modern era. The mills at Barbegal in southern France are famous for their application of water power to grinding grain to make flour and were built in the first century AD and consisted of 16 mills in a parallel sequence on a hill.

The construction of a saw mill is even simpler than a flour or grinding mill, since no gearing is needed, and the rotary saw blade can be driven direct from the water wheel axle, as the example of Sutter's Mill in California shows.

Further reading

  • Altay Coskun: Die gens Ausoniana an der Macht. Untersuchungen zu Decimius Magnus Ausonius und seiner Familie. Prosopographica et Genealogica 8. Oxford 2002, ISBN 1-900934-07-8.
  • John R. Martindale: Decimius Magnus Ausonius. In: The Prosopography of the Later Roman Empire. Vol I, Cambridge 1971, S. 140f.
  • Hagith Sivan: Ausonius of Bordeaux: Genesis of a Gallic Aristocracy,Routledge,1993

See also

External links

References

Notes

  1. ^ Harvard Magazine, Harvard Alumni Association, University of Michigan, p.2
  2. ^ a b The Cambridge History of Classical Literature, Edward John Kenney, Cambridge University Press, p.16
  3. ^ [1]
  4. ^ [2]
  5. ^ Epigrammata: «Rosae» 2:49
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Quotes

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikiquote

Decimus Magnus Ausonius (c. 310 – c. 395) was a Gallo-Roman poet, rhetorician and consul.

Sourced

  • Jejunis nil scribo: meum post pocula si quis
    legerit, hic sapiet.
    Sed magis hic sapiet, si dormiet: et putet ista
    somnia missa sibi.
    • I've never written for a fasting man;
      A taste of wine is good before my verse.
      But sleep is better than a little wine,
      For when sleeping one thinks my songs are dreams.
    • "De Bissula", line 13; translation from Harold Isbell (trans.) The Last Poets of Imperial Rome (1971) p. 48.
  • Quis color ille vadis, seras cum propulit umbras
    Hesperus et viridi perfudit monte Mosellam!
    tota natant crispis iuga motibus et tremit absens
    pampinus et vitreis vindemia turget in undis.
    • What colour are they now, thy quiet waters?
      The evening star has brought the evening light,
      And filled the river with the green hillside;
      The hill-tops waver in the rippling water,
      Trembles the absent vine and swells the grape
      In thy clear crystal.
    • "Mosella", line 192; translation from Helen Waddell Mediaeval Latin Lyrics ([1929] 1943) p. 31.
  • Errantes silva in magna et sub luce maligna
    inter harundineasque comas gravidumque papaver
    et tacitos sine labe lacus, sine murmure rivos,
    quorum per ripas nebuloso lumine marcent
    fleti, olim regum et puerorum nomina, flores.
    • They wander in deep woods, in mournful light,
      Amid long reeds and drowsy headed poppies
      And lakes where no wave laps, and voiceless streams,
      Upon whose banks in the dim light grow old
      Flowers that were once bewailèd names of kings.
    • "Cupido Cruciator", line 5; translation from Helen Waddell Mediaeval Latin Lyrics ([1929] 1943) p. 31.
  • Tot species, tantosque ortus variosque novatus
    una dies aperit, conficit ipsa dies.
    • So many lovely things, so rare, so young,
      A day begat them, and a day will end.
    • "De Rosis Nascentibus", line 39; translation from Helen Waddell Mediaeval Latin Lyrics ([1929] 1943) p. 29.
    • This poem used to be misattributed to Virgil, but is now usually ascribed to Ausonius.
  • Collige, virgo, rosas, dum flos novus et nova pubes,
    et memor esto aevum sic properare tuum.
    • O maid, while youth is with the rose and thee,
      Pluck thou the rose: life is as swift for thee.
    • "De Rosis Nascentibus", line 49; translation from Helen Waddell Mediaeval Latin Lyrics ([1929] 1943) p. 29.
  • Monumenta fatiscunt:
    mors etiam saxis nominibusque venit.
    • His monuments decay, and death comes even to his marbles and his names.
    • "Epitaphia" 31: De Nomine Cuiusdam Lucii Sculpto in Marmore, line 10; translation from Hugh Gerard Evelyn White Ausonius ([1919-21] 1951) vol. 1, p. 159.
  • Omne aevum curae; cunctis sua displicet aetas.
    • Every stage of life has its troubles, and no man is content with his own age.
    • Eclogae 2, line 10; translation from Hugh Gerard Evelyn White Ausonius ([1919-21] 1951) vol. 1, p. 165.
  • Multis terribilis timeto multos.
    • If many dread you, then beware of many.
    • "Septem Sapientium Sententiae" 4: Periander Corinthius, line 5; translation from Hugh Gerard Evelyn White Ausonius ([1919-21] 1951) vol. 2, p. 275.
  • Iniurium est de poeta male sobrio lectorem abstemium iudicare.
    • It is outrageous that a strictly abstemious reader should sit in judgement on a poet a little drunk.
    • Griphus Ternarii Numeri, "Ausonio Symmacho"; translation from Helen Waddell The Wandering Scholars ([1927] 1954) p. 37.

Criticism

  • In the history of versification did anyone ever juggle so wildly well with iambics, sapphics, dactylics, anapestics, and all the rest? He fabricated verses most ingeniously, most enthusiastically. His virtuosity is amazing. Almost every line he wrote was a tour de force. And in spite of all this highly self-conscious technical facility he managed occasionally to write poetry.
    • Edward Townsend Booth God Made the Country (1946) p. 37.
  • Ausonius must be read to be believed! As poet, no subject is too trivial for him; as courtier, no flattery too excessive.
  • It is the things which Ausonius reveals unconsciously that win him liking, not those which he sets out to celebrate with a kind of innocent pomp: not the chair of rhetoric at twenty-five, nor the imperial tutorship in his fifties, nor the consulship at sixty-nine, but that he loved and taught rhetoric all his life, and kept his simplicity.
    • Helen Waddell Mediaeval Latin Lyrics ([1929] 1943) p. 291.

External links

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