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Commonwealth of Australia
Australia
Flag Coat of arms
AnthemAdvance Australia FairN1
Capital Canberra
Largest city Sydney
Official language(s) NoneN2
National language English (de facto)N2
Demonym Australian,
Aussie[1][2] (colloquial)
Government Federal parliamentary democracy and constitutional monarchy, see Government of Australia
 -  Monarch Queen Elizabeth II
 -  Governor-General Quentin Bryce
 -  Prime Minister Kevin Rudd
Independence from the United Kingdom 
 -  Constitution 1 January 1901 
 -  Statute of Westminster 11 December 1931 
 -  Statute of Westminster Adoption Act 9 October 1942 (with effect from 3 September 1939) 
 -  Australia Act 3 March 1986 
Area
 -  Total 7,617,930 km2 (6th)
2,941,299 sq mi 
Population
 -  2010 estimate 22,191,295[3] (51st)
 -  2006 census 19,855,288[4] 
 -  Density 2.833/km2 (232nd)
7.3/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2008 estimate
 -  Total $799.054 billion[5] (18th)
 -  Per capita $36,918[5] (15th)
GDP (nominal) 2008 estimate
 -  Total $1.013 trillion[5] (14th)
 -  Per capita $46,824[5] (13th)
HDI (2007) 0.970[6] (very high) (2nd)
Currency Australian dollar (AUD)
Time zone variousN3 (UTC+8 to +10.5)
 -  Summer (DST) variousN3 (UTC+8 to +11.5)
Drives on the left
Internet TLD .au
Calling code +61
.Australia (pronounced /əˈstreɪljə/ ə-STRAYL-yə or /ɒˈstreɪljə/ o-STRAYL-yə,[7] or /ɔːˈstreɪliə/ aw-STRAY-lee-ə), officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a country in the Southern Hemisphere comprising the mainland of the Australian continent (the world's smallest),[8][9] the island of Tasmania, and numerous smaller islands in the Indian and Pacific Oceans.^ Australia, Asia, Africa, or the islands of the Pacific, or persons of the half blood shall be entitled to have his name placed on the electoral roll, unless so entitled under s.
  • The Parliament of the Commonwealth of Australia and Indigenous Peoples 1901-1967 (Research Paper 10 2000-01) 12 September 2009 5:13 UTC www.aph.gov.au [Source type: Original source]

^ At the end of World War Two there were secret discussions between the British and Australian Governments about building a facility in Australia for testing guided missiles.
  • The Parliament of the Commonwealth of Australia and Indigenous Peoples 1901-1967 (Research Paper 10 2000-01) 12 September 2009 5:13 UTC www.aph.gov.au [Source type: Original source]

^ As introduced, the Bill excluded 'Asiatics or aboriginal natives of Australia, Africa, the islands of the Pacific, or New Zealand.'
  • The Parliament of the Commonwealth of Australia and Indigenous Peoples 1901-1967 (Research Paper 10 2000-01) 12 September 2009 5:13 UTC www.aph.gov.au [Source type: Original source]

N4 .Neighbouring countries include Indonesia, East Timor, and Papua New Guinea to the north, the Solomon Islands, Vanuatu, and New Caledonia to the north-east, and New Zealand to the southeast.^ As introduced, the Bill excluded 'Asiatics or aboriginal natives of Australia, Africa, the islands of the Pacific, or New Zealand.'
  • The Parliament of the Commonwealth of Australia and Indigenous Peoples 1901-1967 (Research Paper 10 2000-01) 12 September 2009 5:13 UTC www.aph.gov.au [Source type: Original source]

.For some 40,000 years before European settlement commenced in the late 18th century, the Australian mainland and Tasmania were inhabited by around 250 individual nations[10] of indigenous Australians.^ Crown Lands in the Territory shall be sold or disposed of for any estate of freehold, except in pursuance of some contract entered into before the commencement of this Act.
  • The Parliament of the Commonwealth of Australia and Indigenous Peoples 1901-1967 (Research Paper 10 2000-01) 12 September 2009 5:13 UTC www.aph.gov.au [Source type: Original source]

[11] .After sporadic visits by fishermen from the immediate north, and European discovery by Dutch explorers in 1606,[12] the eastern half of Australia was claimed by the British in 1770 and initially settled through penal transportation to the colony of New South Wales, founded on 26 January 1788. The population grew steadily in the following years; the continent was explored, and during the 19th century another five largely self-governing Crown Colonies were established.^ New South Wales, northeast, Woodenbong.
  • Ethnologue report for Australia 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.ethnologue.com [Source type: General]

^ New South Wales, northwest, north, and west of White Cliffs.
  • Ethnologue report for Australia 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.ethnologue.com [Source type: General]

^ New South Wales, Grafton and north coast.
  • Ethnologue report for Australia 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.ethnologue.com [Source type: General]

.On 1 January 1901 the six colonies became a federation and the Commonwealth of Australia was formed.^ The Parliament of the Commonwealth of Australia and Indigenous Peoples 1901-1967 (Research Paper 10 2000-01) .
  • The Parliament of the Commonwealth of Australia and Indigenous Peoples 1901-1967 (Research Paper 10 2000-01) 12 September 2009 5:13 UTC www.aph.gov.au [Source type: Original source]

^ The Parliament of the Commonwealth of Australia and Indigenous Peoples 1901-1967 Research Paper No.
  • The Parliament of the Commonwealth of Australia and Indigenous Peoples 1901-1967 (Research Paper 10 2000-01) 12 September 2009 5:13 UTC www.aph.gov.au [Source type: Original source]

^ Parliament of the Commonwealth of Australia, 'Constitutional Change: Select Sources on Constitutional Change in Australia 1901-1997', House of Representatives Standing Committee on Legal and Constitutional Affairs , Canberra, 1997.
  • The Parliament of the Commonwealth of Australia and Indigenous Peoples 1901-1967 (Research Paper 10 2000-01) 12 September 2009 5:13 UTC www.aph.gov.au [Source type: Original source]

.Since Federation, Australia has maintained a stable liberal democratic political system and remains a Commonwealth realm.^ Commonwealth nor the States shall make or maintain any law which subjects any person who is born or naturalised within the Commonwealth of Australia to any discrimination or disability within the Commonwealth by reason of his racial origin.
  • The Parliament of the Commonwealth of Australia and Indigenous Peoples 1901-1967 (Research Paper 10 2000-01) 12 September 2009 5:13 UTC www.aph.gov.au [Source type: Original source]

^ The Commonwealth Franchise and Electoral Acts had been amended a number of times in the first four decades of the Parliament, but the exclusion of 'aboriginal natives of Australia' remained.
  • The Parliament of the Commonwealth of Australia and Indigenous Peoples 1901-1967 (Research Paper 10 2000-01) 12 September 2009 5:13 UTC www.aph.gov.au [Source type: Original source]

The population is 22 million, with approximately 60% concentrated in and around the mainland state capitals of Sydney, Melbourne, Brisbane, Perth and Adelaide. .The nation's capital city is Canberra, located in the Australian Capital Territory.^ Berndt, R. N. and C. H., End of an Era: Aboriginal Labour in the Northern Territory, Australian Institute of Aboriginal Studies, Canberra, 1987.
  • The Parliament of the Commonwealth of Australia and Indigenous Peoples 1901-1967 (Research Paper 10 2000-01) 12 September 2009 5:13 UTC www.aph.gov.au [Source type: Original source]

^ R. M. and C. H. Berndt, End of an Era: Aboriginal Labour in the Northern Territory , Australian Institute of Aboriginal Studies, Canberra, 1987, pp.
  • The Parliament of the Commonwealth of Australia and Indigenous Peoples 1901-1967 (Research Paper 10 2000-01) 12 September 2009 5:13 UTC www.aph.gov.au [Source type: Original source]

Australia is a prosperous developed country, with a multicultural society. .It ranks highly in many international comparisons of national performance such as human development, quality of life, health care, life expectancy, public education, economic freedom and the protection of civil liberties and political rights.^ The public reaction was such that subsequent Governments were careful to try and ensure that such incidents did not happen again.
  • The Parliament of the Commonwealth of Australia and Indigenous Peoples 1901-1967 (Research Paper 10 2000-01) 12 September 2009 5:13 UTC www.aph.gov.au [Source type: Original source]

^ Although the institution of Parliament did play a role in the Yirrkala claim, the new campaign for Indigenous rights was not taken up in the Parliament until the Aboriginal groups and their white supporters had made it a national and international political issue.
  • The Parliament of the Commonwealth of Australia and Indigenous Peoples 1901-1967 (Research Paper 10 2000-01) 12 September 2009 5:13 UTC www.aph.gov.au [Source type: Original source]

^ The political campaign for land rights which had grown out of the Wave Hill and Yirrkala disputes attracted national and international attention.
  • The Parliament of the Commonwealth of Australia and Indigenous Peoples 1901-1967 (Research Paper 10 2000-01) 12 September 2009 5:13 UTC www.aph.gov.au [Source type: Original source]

[13] Australian cities rank among the world's highest in terms of cultural offerings and quality of life. .It is a member of the United Nations, G20, Commonwealth of Nations, OECD, ANZUS, APEC, South Pacific Forum and the World Trade Organization.^ Because the problem was one for the whole community, and because the Commonwealth 'is the custodian of the national reputation in the world at large' there was a special obligation on the Commonwealth to take the lead: .
  • The Parliament of the Commonwealth of Australia and Indigenous Peoples 1901-1967 (Research Paper 10 2000-01) 12 September 2009 5:13 UTC www.aph.gov.au [Source type: Original source]

Contents

Etymology

.The name Australia is derived from the Latin australis, meaning "southern". Legends of an "unknown land of the south" (terra australis incognita) date back to Roman times and were commonplace in medieval geography but were not based on any documented knowledge of the continent.^ South Australia, Yalata, Musgrave, and Everard Ranges, and east Pitjantjatjara freehold lands and surrounding areas.
  • Ethnologue report for Australia 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.ethnologue.com [Source type: General]

^ Northwest South Australia, Pitjantjatjara Freehold lands, Yalata.
  • Ethnologue report for Australia 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.ethnologue.com [Source type: General]

The first recorded use of the word Australia in English was in 1625 in "A note of Australia del Espíritu Santo, written by Master Hakluyt" and published by Samuel Purchas in Hakluytus Posthumus.[14] .The Dutch adjectival form Australische was used by Dutch East India Company officials in Batavia to refer to the newly discovered land to the south in 1638. Australia was used in a 1693 translation of Les Aventures de Jacques Sadeur dans la Découverte et le Voyage de la Terre Australe, a 1676 French novel by Gabriel de Foigny under the pen-name Jacques Sadeur.^ Australia, Asia, Africa, or the islands of the Pacific, or persons of the half blood shall be entitled to have his name placed on the electoral roll, unless so entitled under s.
  • The Parliament of the Commonwealth of Australia and Indigenous Peoples 1901-1967 (Research Paper 10 2000-01) 12 September 2009 5:13 UTC www.aph.gov.au [Source type: Original source]

[15] Alexander Dalrymple then used it in An Historical Collection of Voyages and Discoveries in the South Pacific Ocean (1771), to refer to the entire South Pacific region. .In 1793, George Shaw and Sir James Smith published Zoology and Botany of New Holland, in which they wrote of "the vast island, or rather continent, of Australia, Australasia or New Holland".[16] It also appeared on a 1799 chart by James Wilson.^ As introduced, the Bill excluded 'Asiatics or aboriginal natives of Australia, Africa, the islands of the Pacific, or New Zealand.'
  • The Parliament of the Commonwealth of Australia and Indigenous Peoples 1901-1967 (Research Paper 10 2000-01) 12 September 2009 5:13 UTC www.aph.gov.au [Source type: Original source]

[17]
Artist's rendition of Port Jackson, the site where Sydney was established, viewed from the South Head. (From A Voyage to Terra Australis.)
The name Australia was popularised by Matthew Flinders who, as early as 1804, pushed for the name to be formally adopted. When preparing his manuscript and charts for his 1814 A Voyage to Terra Australis he was persuaded by his patron, Sir Joseph Banks, to use the term Terra Australis as this was the name most familiar to the public. Flinders did so, but allowed himself the footnote:
.
"Had I permitted myself any innovation on the original term, it would have been to convert it to Australia; as being more agreeable to the ear, and an assimilation to the names of the other great portions of the earth."^ In Western Australia and Queensland Aborigines were explicitly denied the right to vote on the same terms as other residents.
  • The Parliament of the Commonwealth of Australia and Indigenous Peoples 1901-1967 (Research Paper 10 2000-01) 12 September 2009 5:13 UTC www.aph.gov.au [Source type: Original source]

^ The term 'aboriginal', was taken to mean being of the 'race' of original inhabitants of a country, whereas 'native' meant being born in the country.
  • The Parliament of the Commonwealth of Australia and Indigenous Peoples 1901-1967 (Research Paper 10 2000-01) 12 September 2009 5:13 UTC www.aph.gov.au [Source type: Original source]

^ However, in outback Australia, where Aboriginal well-being was so threatened by the appropriation of their hunting ground and water springs and by mistreatment it would be desirable: .
  • The Parliament of the Commonwealth of Australia and Indigenous Peoples 1901-1967 (Research Paper 10 2000-01) 12 September 2009 5:13 UTC www.aph.gov.au [Source type: Original source]

[18]
This is the only occurrence of the word Australia in that text; but in Appendix III, Robert Brown's General remarks, geographical and systematical, on the botany of Terra Australis, Brown makes use of the adjectival form Australian throughout,[19] this being the first known use of that form.[20] Despite popular conception, the book was not instrumental in the adoption of the name: the name came gradually to be accepted over the following ten years.[21] .Lachlan Macquarie, a Governor of New South Wales, subsequently used the word in his dispatches to England, and on 12 December 1817 recommended to the Colonial Office that it be formally adopted.^ New South Wales, northeast, Woodenbong.
  • Ethnologue report for Australia 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.ethnologue.com [Source type: General]

^ Northwest New South Wales, southwest Queensland.
  • Ethnologue report for Australia 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.ethnologue.com [Source type: General]

^ New South Wales, between Hunter and Hastings rivers, from Port Macquarie to Hawkesbury River.
  • Ethnologue report for Australia 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.ethnologue.com [Source type: General]

[22] In 1824, the Admiralty agreed that the continent should be known officially as Australia.
The word Australia in Australian English is pronounced [əˈstɹæɪljə, -liə].[23] Since early in the 20th century, the country has been sometimes referred to locally and internationally as Oz.N5 Aussie is common colloquially as an adjective and also as a noun referring to an Australian.N6

History

Human habitation of Australia is estimated to have begun between 42,000 and 48,000 years ago[24] possibly with the migration of people by land bridges and short sea-crossings from what is now Southeast Asia. These first Australians may have been ancestors of modern Indigenous Australians. .At the time of European settlement in the 18th century, most Indigenous Australians were hunter-gatherers, with a complex oral culture and spiritual values based on reverence for the land and a belief in the Dreamtime.^ Many of the most notable events relating to Indigenous matters took place in the Parliament after this time.
  • The Parliament of the Commonwealth of Australia and Indigenous Peoples 1901-1967 (Research Paper 10 2000-01) 12 September 2009 5:13 UTC www.aph.gov.au [Source type: Original source]

.The Torres Strait Islanders, ethnically Melanesian, were originally horticulturalists and hunter-gatherers.^ It recommended that voting rights be extended to all Aborigines and Torres Strait Islanders.
  • The Parliament of the Commonwealth of Australia and Indigenous Peoples 1901-1967 (Research Paper 10 2000-01) 12 September 2009 5:13 UTC www.aph.gov.au [Source type: Original source]

^ One member noted a point which related to a question which was rarely, if ever, raised in this context; the applicability of the constitutional provisions on Aborigines to Torres Strait Islanders.
  • The Parliament of the Commonwealth of Australia and Indigenous Peoples 1901-1967 (Research Paper 10 2000-01) 12 September 2009 5:13 UTC www.aph.gov.au [Source type: Original source]

^ Bureau of Statistics in publishing census data excluded Aborigines but not Torres Strait Islanders.
  • The Parliament of the Commonwealth of Australia and Indigenous Peoples 1901-1967 (Research Paper 10 2000-01) 12 September 2009 5:13 UTC www.aph.gov.au [Source type: Original source]

A replica of Lieutenant Cook's ship HM Bark Endeavour in Cooktown Harbour
The first recorded European sighting of the Australian mainland and the first recorded European landfall on the Australian continent both belong to the Dutch navigator Willem Janszoon. He sighted the coast of Cape York Peninsula on an unknown date in early 1606. On 26 February 1606, he made landfall at the Pennefather River on the western shore of Cape York, near the modern town of Weipa. .During the 17th century the Dutch charted the whole of the western and northern coastlines of what they called New Holland but made no attempt at settlement.^ The Court also made damning observations about the whole system of justice as it related to Aborigines in the Northern Territory.
  • The Parliament of the Commonwealth of Australia and Indigenous Peoples 1901-1967 (Research Paper 10 2000-01) 12 September 2009 5:13 UTC www.aph.gov.au [Source type: Original source]

^ Also, had the couple been married before they entered the Northern Territory, the Director of Welfare would have had no powers over Gladys Namagu as the spouse of a non-ward.
  • The Parliament of the Commonwealth of Australia and Indigenous Peoples 1901-1967 (Research Paper 10 2000-01) 12 September 2009 5:13 UTC www.aph.gov.au [Source type: Original source]

^ In his report of the reconnaissance trip he said '[t]here was no attempt made to select a site that would interfere as little as possible with Aborigines occupying the Rawlinson Range'.
  • The Parliament of the Commonwealth of Australia and Indigenous Peoples 1901-1967 (Research Paper 10 2000-01) 12 September 2009 5:13 UTC www.aph.gov.au [Source type: Original source]

.In 1770 James Cook sailed along and mapped the east coast of Australia, which he named New South Wales and claimed for Great Britain.^ New South Wales, northeast, Woodenbong.
  • Ethnologue report for Australia 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.ethnologue.com [Source type: General]

^ New South Wales, Grafton and north coast.
  • Ethnologue report for Australia 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.ethnologue.com [Source type: General]

^ Western Australia, coast south of Beagle Bay and inland.
  • Ethnologue report for Australia 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.ethnologue.com [Source type: General]

[25] Cook's discoveries prepared the way for establishment of a new penal colony. .The British Crown Colony of New South Wales began a settlement at Port Jackson by Captain Arthur Phillip on 26 January 1788. This date was later to become Australia's national day, Australia Day.^ New South Wales, northeast, Woodenbong.
  • Ethnologue report for Australia 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.ethnologue.com [Source type: General]

^ Western Australia, south of Port Hedland.
  • Ethnologue report for Australia 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.ethnologue.com [Source type: General]

^ On Australia Day 1938 the Aborigines Progressive Association organised a conference of Aborigines in Sydney as part of a Day of Mourning as a protest against the celebrations being conducted for the sesqui-centenary of British settlement in New South Wales.
  • The Parliament of the Commonwealth of Australia and Indigenous Peoples 1901-1967 (Research Paper 10 2000-01) 12 September 2009 5:13 UTC www.aph.gov.au [Source type: Original source]

Van Diemen's Land, now known as Tasmania, was settled in 1803 and became a separate colony in 1825. The United Kingdom formally claimed the western part of Australia in 1829.
.Separate colonies were created from parts of New South Wales: South Australia in 1836, Victoria in 1851, and Queensland in 1859. The Northern Territory was founded in 1911 when it was excised from South Australia.^ The Central Aboriginal Reserves were adjacent areas which had been reserved for Aborigines in three different jurisdictions, Northern Territory, South Australia, and Western Australia.
  • The Parliament of the Commonwealth of Australia and Indigenous Peoples 1901-1967 (Research Paper 10 2000-01) 12 September 2009 5:13 UTC www.aph.gov.au [Source type: Original source]

^ Thomson, Donald, 'Interim General Report of Preliminary Expedition to Arnhem Land, Northern Territory of Australia 1935-36', Processed, April 1936.
  • The Parliament of the Commonwealth of Australia and Indigenous Peoples 1901-1967 (Research Paper 10 2000-01) 12 September 2009 5:13 UTC www.aph.gov.au [Source type: Original source]

^ Senator GREENE (Nationalist, New South Wales).-I cannot understand why the Government should desire to sacrifice the remnants of the cattle industry in this way.
  • The Parliament of the Commonwealth of Australia and Indigenous Peoples 1901-1967 (Research Paper 10 2000-01) 12 September 2009 5:13 UTC www.aph.gov.au [Source type: Original source]

South Australia was founded as a "free province"—that is, it was never a penal colony. .Victoria and Western Australia were also founded "free" but later accepted transported convicts.^ Western Australia and Northern Territory, north coast from Wyndham to mouth of Victoria River and inland.
  • Ethnologue report for Australia 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.ethnologue.com [Source type: General]

^ These included the Australian Aboriginal Progressive Association and the Aborigines Progressive Association in New South Wales, the Native Union in Western Australia and the Australian Aborigines' League in Victoria.
  • The Parliament of the Commonwealth of Australia and Indigenous Peoples 1901-1967 (Research Paper 10 2000-01) 12 September 2009 5:13 UTC www.aph.gov.au [Source type: Original source]

[26] .The transportation of convicts to the colony of New South Wales ceased in 1848 after a campaign by the settlers.^ New South Wales, northeast, Woodenbong.
  • Ethnologue report for Australia 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.ethnologue.com [Source type: General]

^ New South Wales, between Hunter and Hastings rivers, from Port Macquarie to Hawkesbury River.
  • Ethnologue report for Australia 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.ethnologue.com [Source type: General]

^ New South Wales, northeast, between Inverell, Ashford, and Glen Innes.
  • Ethnologue report for Australia 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.ethnologue.com [Source type: General]

[27]
A calm body of water is in the foreground. The shoreline is about 200 metres away. To the left, close to the shore, are three tall gum trees; behind them on an incline are ruins, including walls and watchtowers of light-coloured stone and brick, what appear to be the foundations of walls, and grassed areas. To the right lie the outer walls of a large rectangular four-storey building dotted with regularly spaced windows. Forested land rises gently to a peak several kilometres back from the shore.
Port Arthur, Tasmania was Australia's largest gaol for transported convicts.
.The Indigenous Australian population, estimated at 350,000 at the time of European settlement,[28] declined steeply for 150 years following settlement, mainly because of infectious disease.^ Blind population: 28,000.
  • Ethnologue report for Australia 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.ethnologue.com [Source type: General]

^ Deaf population: Estimated to be 9,000 to 1,096,008 (1998).
  • Ethnologue report for Australia 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.ethnologue.com [Source type: General]

[29] .The "Stolen Generations" (removal of Aboriginal children from their families), which historians such as Henry Reynolds have argued could be considered genocide by some definitions,[30] may have contributed to the decline in the indigenous population.^ Nor are the important and controversial post-1967 discussions in the Parliament such as the debate on the 'stolen generation' following the publication in 1997 of Bringing Them Home, the Report of the Human Rights and Equal Opportunity Commission on its Enquiry into the Separation of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Children from their Families, (1) or the debate in the late 1990s on Aboriginal reconciliation.
  • The Parliament of the Commonwealth of Australia and Indigenous Peoples 1901-1967 (Research Paper 10 2000-01) 12 September 2009 5:13 UTC www.aph.gov.au [Source type: Original source]

^ The Committee also argued that 'satisfactory arrangements [could] be made to ensure the safety and welfare of the aborigines in the proposed range area'.
  • The Parliament of the Commonwealth of Australia and Indigenous Peoples 1901-1967 (Research Paper 10 2000-01) 12 September 2009 5:13 UTC www.aph.gov.au [Source type: Original source]

^ The Emigration Act 1910 could be seen as a protective measure for children and 'aboriginal natives'.
  • The Parliament of the Commonwealth of Australia and Indigenous Peoples 1901-1967 (Research Paper 10 2000-01) 12 September 2009 5:13 UTC www.aph.gov.au [Source type: Original source]

[31] .Such interpretations of Aboriginal history are disputed by some conservative commentators, such as former Prime Minister Howard, as being exaggerated or fabricated for political or ideological reasons.^ Opposition speakers, and Wentworth, agreed with the Prime Minister that it would be undesirable for Commonwealth laws to be used to make Aborigines a 'race apart'.
  • The Parliament of the Commonwealth of Australia and Indigenous Peoples 1901-1967 (Research Paper 10 2000-01) 12 September 2009 5:13 UTC www.aph.gov.au [Source type: Original source]

This debate is known within Australia as the History Wars. .Following the 1967 referendum, the Federal government gained the power to implement policies and make laws with respect to Aborigines.^ Commonwealth to make special laws for Aborigines.
  • The Parliament of the Commonwealth of Australia and Indigenous Peoples 1901-1967 (Research Paper 10 2000-01) 12 September 2009 5:13 UTC www.aph.gov.au [Source type: Original source]

^ Commonwealth Parliament to make laws with respect to aborigines.
  • The Parliament of the Commonwealth of Australia and Indigenous Peoples 1901-1967 (Research Paper 10 2000-01) 12 September 2009 5:13 UTC www.aph.gov.au [Source type: Original source]

^ The difference between the Government and the Opposition on this question was partly the result of different approaches to federalism but it also revealed some difference in the approach of the two parties to the implementation of the assimilation policy.
  • The Parliament of the Commonwealth of Australia and Indigenous Peoples 1901-1967 (Research Paper 10 2000-01) 12 September 2009 5:13 UTC www.aph.gov.au [Source type: Original source]

.Traditional ownership of land—native title—was not recognised until 1992, when the High Court case Mabo v Queensland (No 2) overturned the notion of Australia as terra nullius (literally "no one's land") at the time of European occupation.^ This reservation of Aboriginal rights had very important implications following the Mabo (75) decision in 1992 in which the High Court found that, contrary to previous legal decisions, native title to land had existed in Australia prior to European settlement, that it had survived the acquisition of sovereignty by the Crown and that although it was extinguished by deliberate acts of the Crown, such as the sale of a freehold title, where land had not been 'alienated' Indigenous peoples might still be able to claim some right to the land.
  • The Parliament of the Commonwealth of Australia and Indigenous Peoples 1901-1967 (Research Paper 10 2000-01) 12 September 2009 5:13 UTC www.aph.gov.au [Source type: Original source]

^ In a second case, Milirrpum v Nabalco Pty Ltd and the Commonwealth of Australia (1971) (201) the Yirrkala people took a more radical step, arguing that their traditional ownership of the land should be recognised by Australian law.
  • The Parliament of the Commonwealth of Australia and Indigenous Peoples 1901-1967 (Research Paper 10 2000-01) 12 September 2009 5:13 UTC www.aph.gov.au [Source type: Original source]

^ Mr Justice Blackburn in the Northern Territory Supreme Court found that Australian common law did not recognise native title to land.
  • The Parliament of the Commonwealth of Australia and Indigenous Peoples 1901-1967 (Research Paper 10 2000-01) 12 September 2009 5:13 UTC www.aph.gov.au [Source type: Original source]

The Last Post is played at an ANZAC Day ceremony in Port Melbourne, Victoria. Similar ceremonies are held in most suburbs and towns.
A gold rush began in Australia in the early 1850s, and the Eureka Stockade rebellion against mining licence fees in 1854 was an early expression of civil disobedience. .Between 1855 and 1890, the six colonies individually gained responsible government, managing most of their own affairs while remaining part of the British Empire.^ In his own account of his time as Minister, Hasluck makes much of the unity of purpose which existed, not only between the Government and Opposition but also between the Commonwealth and State Governments.
  • The Parliament of the Commonwealth of Australia and Indigenous Peoples 1901-1967 (Research Paper 10 2000-01) 12 September 2009 5:13 UTC www.aph.gov.au [Source type: Original source]

^ In response to the very few questions that were asked the Government assured the Parliament in the most vague and general terms that Aboriginal interests and safety were being protected.
  • The Parliament of the Commonwealth of Australia and Indigenous Peoples 1901-1967 (Research Paper 10 2000-01) 12 September 2009 5:13 UTC www.aph.gov.au [Source type: Original source]

^ As part of the new assimilation policy Hasluck announced to the Parliament in August 1952 that the Government was taking two steps in relation to Aboriginal Affairs in the Northern Territory.
  • The Parliament of the Commonwealth of Australia and Indigenous Peoples 1901-1967 (Research Paper 10 2000-01) 12 September 2009 5:13 UTC www.aph.gov.au [Source type: Original source]

.The Colonial Office in London retained control of some matters, notably foreign affairs, defence, and international shipping.^ The Colonial Office in London retained control of some matters, notably foreign affairs, defence and international shipping.
  • Australia Photos 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC travel.mongabay.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Colonial Office in London retained control of some matters, notably foreign affairs, defence, and international shipping.
  • Australia - Familypedia 3 February 2010 14:30 UTC familypedia.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The new federal government now controlled foreign affairs, defence, trade, and so on.
  • Australia - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 3 February 2010 14:30 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

On 1 January 1901, federation of the colonies was achieved after a decade of planning, consultation, and voting. .The Commonwealth of Australia was born and it became a dominion of the British Empire in 1907. The Federal Capital Territory (later renamed the Australian Capital Territory) was formed from a part of New South Wales in 1911 to provide a location for the proposed new federal capital of Canberra.^ New South Wales, northeast, Woodenbong.
  • Ethnologue report for Australia 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.ethnologue.com [Source type: General]

^ In the face of the public protests against the Woomera Rocket Range the Government had established an 'expert' committee, comprised of a British and an Australian representative of the project, a representative from South Australia, Western Australia and the Northern Territory, and importantly Professor Elkin, to examine the possible impact of the proposed Rocket Range on Aborigines.
  • The Parliament of the Commonwealth of Australia and Indigenous Peoples 1901-1967 (Research Paper 10 2000-01) 12 September 2009 5:13 UTC www.aph.gov.au [Source type: Original source]

^ Another area where the Commonwealth had direct dealings with Aborigines was through the establishment of the Woomera Rocket Range, as part of the Anglo-Australian Joint Project, in northern South Australia.
  • The Parliament of the Commonwealth of Australia and Indigenous Peoples 1901-1967 (Research Paper 10 2000-01) 12 September 2009 5:13 UTC www.aph.gov.au [Source type: Original source]

(Melbourne was the temporary seat of government from 1901 to 1927 while Canberra was being constructed.) .The Northern Territory was transferred from the control of the South Australian government to the Commonwealth in 1911.[32] In 1914 Australia joined Britain in fighting World War I, with support from both the outgoing Liberal Party and the incoming Labor Party.^ Before its transfer to the Commonwealth the Northern Territory had had representation in the South Australian Parliament.
  • The Parliament of the Commonwealth of Australia and Indigenous Peoples 1901-1967 (Research Paper 10 2000-01) 12 September 2009 5:13 UTC www.aph.gov.au [Source type: Original source]

^ Thus, in 1911 when the Northern Territory was transferred to the Commonwealth from South Australia, the Commonwealth Parliament obtained undivided law-making power over the Territory.
  • The Parliament of the Commonwealth of Australia and Indigenous Peoples 1901-1967 (Research Paper 10 2000-01) 12 September 2009 5:13 UTC www.aph.gov.au [Source type: Original source]

^ In the face of the public protests against the Woomera Rocket Range the Government had established an 'expert' committee, comprised of a British and an Australian representative of the project, a representative from South Australia, Western Australia and the Northern Territory, and importantly Professor Elkin, to examine the possible impact of the proposed Rocket Range on Aborigines.
  • The Parliament of the Commonwealth of Australia and Indigenous Peoples 1901-1967 (Research Paper 10 2000-01) 12 September 2009 5:13 UTC www.aph.gov.au [Source type: Original source]

[33] .The Australians took part in many of the major battles fought on the Western Front.^ In 1955 it was decided to establish a meteorological station at Giles in the Rawlinson Ranges, within the Western Australian part of the Central Reserves.
  • The Parliament of the Commonwealth of Australia and Indigenous Peoples 1901-1967 (Research Paper 10 2000-01) 12 September 2009 5:13 UTC www.aph.gov.au [Source type: Original source]

^ Aborigines are not a dying race; they are not being absorbed, or assimilated ..., and there are many educated and sophisticated aborigines who want to see their race preserved intact, who do not want to be absorbed by the majority of Australians.
  • The Parliament of the Commonwealth of Australia and Indigenous Peoples 1901-1967 (Research Paper 10 2000-01) 12 September 2009 5:13 UTC www.aph.gov.au [Source type: Original source]

[34] .Many Australians regard the defeat of the Australian and New Zealand Army Corps (ANZACs) at Gallipoli as the birth of the nation—its first major military action.^ For an account of the Select Committee see Jack Horner, Vote Ferguson for Aboriginal Freedom , Australian and New Zealand Book Company, Sydney, 1974, pp.
  • The Parliament of the Commonwealth of Australia and Indigenous Peoples 1901-1967 (Research Paper 10 2000-01) 12 September 2009 5:13 UTC www.aph.gov.au [Source type: Original source]

^ Aborigines are not a dying race; they are not being absorbed, or assimilated ..., and there are many educated and sophisticated aborigines who want to see their race preserved intact, who do not want to be absorbed by the majority of Australians.
  • The Parliament of the Commonwealth of Australia and Indigenous Peoples 1901-1967 (Research Paper 10 2000-01) 12 September 2009 5:13 UTC www.aph.gov.au [Source type: Original source]

^ Horner, J., Vote Ferguson for Aboriginal Freedom , Australian and New Zealand Book Company, Sydney, 1974.
  • The Parliament of the Commonwealth of Australia and Indigenous Peoples 1901-1967 (Research Paper 10 2000-01) 12 September 2009 5:13 UTC www.aph.gov.au [Source type: Original source]

[35] .The Kokoda Track campaign is regarded by many as an analogous nation-defining event during World War II.^ In the post-World War Two period the campaign for Constitutional change was pressed more vigorously inside and outside the Parliament.
  • The Parliament of the Commonwealth of Australia and Indigenous Peoples 1901-1967 (Research Paper 10 2000-01) 12 September 2009 5:13 UTC www.aph.gov.au [Source type: Original source]

[36]
Australian soldiers display Japanese flags they captured at Kaiapit, New Guinea in 1943.
.Britain's Statute of Westminster 1931 formally ended most of the constitutional links between Australia and the UK. Australia adopted it in 1942, but backdated it to the beginning of World War II to confirm the validity of legislation passed by the Australian Parliament during the war.^ At the end of World War Two there were secret discussions between the British and Australian Governments about building a facility in Australia for testing guided missiles.
  • The Parliament of the Commonwealth of Australia and Indigenous Peoples 1901-1967 (Research Paper 10 2000-01) 12 September 2009 5:13 UTC www.aph.gov.au [Source type: Original source]

^ A minimal concession was made to Aborigines in 1943 on account of a provision which gave the vote to all members of the defence forces during the war and for six months after the end of the war.
  • The Parliament of the Commonwealth of Australia and Indigenous Peoples 1901-1967 (Research Paper 10 2000-01) 12 September 2009 5:13 UTC www.aph.gov.au [Source type: Original source]

^ The legislation ratified an agreement which had been made between the Commonwealth and South Australia, which included commitment to complete the railway line from South Australia to Darwin.
  • The Parliament of the Commonwealth of Australia and Indigenous Peoples 1901-1967 (Research Paper 10 2000-01) 12 September 2009 5:13 UTC www.aph.gov.au [Source type: Original source]

The shock of the UK's defeat in Asia in 1942 and the threat of Japanese invasion caused Australia to turn to the United States as a new ally and protector. Since 1951, Australia has been a formal military ally of the US, under the ANZUS treaty. After World War II, Australia encouraged immigration from Europe; since the 1970s and the abolition of the White Australia policy, immigration from Asia and elsewhere was also encouraged. As a result, Australia's demography, culture, and self-image have been transformed. .The final constitutional ties between Australia and the UK were severed with the passing of the Australia Act 1986, ending any British role in the government of the Australian States, and ending judicial appeals to the UK Privy Council.^ At the end of World War Two there were secret discussions between the British and Australian Governments about building a facility in Australia for testing guided missiles.
  • The Parliament of the Commonwealth of Australia and Indigenous Peoples 1901-1967 (Research Paper 10 2000-01) 12 September 2009 5:13 UTC www.aph.gov.au [Source type: Original source]

^ The initial commitments on behalf of Australia were made on the basis of discussions between the British Government and the Australian Prime Minister, the Rt Hon.
  • The Parliament of the Commonwealth of Australia and Indigenous Peoples 1901-1967 (Research Paper 10 2000-01) 12 September 2009 5:13 UTC www.aph.gov.au [Source type: Original source]

^ In 1912 Parliament passed the Maternity Allowance Act to provide for the payment of an allowance to women living in Australia upon the birth of a child.
  • The Parliament of the Commonwealth of Australia and Indigenous Peoples 1901-1967 (Research Paper 10 2000-01) 12 September 2009 5:13 UTC www.aph.gov.au [Source type: Original source]

[37] .At the 1999 referendum, 54% of Australian voters rejected a proposal to become a republic with a president appointed by two-thirds vote of both houses of the Australian Parliament.^ House of the Parliament of a State shall, while the right continues, be prevented by any law of the Commonwealth from voting at elections for either House of the Parliament of the Commonwealth.
  • The Parliament of the Commonwealth of Australia and Indigenous Peoples 1901-1967 (Research Paper 10 2000-01) 12 September 2009 5:13 UTC www.aph.gov.au [Source type: Original source]

^ House of Representatives be 'as nearly as practicable, twice the number of the senators'-were both passed through the two Houses of the Parliament with the support of both sides but neither was submitted to referendum.
  • The Parliament of the Commonwealth of Australia and Indigenous Peoples 1901-1967 (Research Paper 10 2000-01) 12 September 2009 5:13 UTC www.aph.gov.au [Source type: Original source]

^ In August 1962 Kim Beazley snr moved an Urgency Motion in the House of Representatives urging the Parliament to legislate for a referendum to make those changes to the Constitution.
  • The Parliament of the Commonwealth of Australia and Indigenous Peoples 1901-1967 (Research Paper 10 2000-01) 12 September 2009 5:13 UTC www.aph.gov.au [Source type: Original source]

.Since the election of the Whitlam Government in 1972, there has been an increasing focus on the expansion of ties with other Pacific Rim nations while maintaining close ties with Australia's traditional allies and trading partners.^ At the end of World War Two there were secret discussions between the British and Australian Governments about building a facility in Australia for testing guided missiles.
  • The Parliament of the Commonwealth of Australia and Indigenous Peoples 1901-1967 (Research Paper 10 2000-01) 12 September 2009 5:13 UTC www.aph.gov.au [Source type: Original source]

^ There was no other debate on that section of the Bill and so it is not clear how the Government planned to use that power, or what any other Parliamentarians might have had in mind.
  • The Parliament of the Commonwealth of Australia and Indigenous Peoples 1901-1967 (Research Paper 10 2000-01) 12 September 2009 5:13 UTC www.aph.gov.au [Source type: Original source]

Politics

Parliament House, Canberra was opened in 1988, replacing the provisional Parliament House building opened in 1927.
.The Commonwealth of Australia is a constitutional democracy based on a federal division of powers.^ Thus, in 1911 when the Northern Territory was transferred to the Commonwealth from South Australia, the Commonwealth Parliament obtained undivided law-making power over the Territory.
  • The Parliament of the Commonwealth of Australia and Indigenous Peoples 1901-1967 (Research Paper 10 2000-01) 12 September 2009 5:13 UTC www.aph.gov.au [Source type: Original source]

^ The Constitution of the Commonwealth of Australia, as it existed, specifically excluded the Parliament from making special laws for Aborigines in the States.
  • The Parliament of the Commonwealth of Australia and Indigenous Peoples 1901-1967 (Research Paper 10 2000-01) 12 September 2009 5:13 UTC www.aph.gov.au [Source type: Original source]

^ Wentworth argued that the Constitution should be amended to give the Commonwealth power to make laws for the advancement of Aboriginals and to add a prohibition on discrimination on the grounds of 'race'.
  • The Parliament of the Commonwealth of Australia and Indigenous Peoples 1901-1967 (Research Paper 10 2000-01) 12 September 2009 5:13 UTC www.aph.gov.au [Source type: Original source]

The form of government used in Australia is a constitutional monarchy with a parliamentary system of government. Queen Elizabeth II is the Queen of Australia, a role that is distinct from her position as monarch of the other Commonwealth realms. The Queen is represented by the Governor-General at federal level and by the Governors at state level. .Although the Constitution gives extensive executive powers to the Governor-General, these are normally exercised only on the advice of the Prime Minister.^ The Act established the position of Administrator for the Territory, who was responsible to the Minister for External Affairs; the Commonwealth Parliament's legislative power in relation to the Territory were delegated to the executive branch.
  • The Parliament of the Commonwealth of Australia and Indigenous Peoples 1901-1967 (Research Paper 10 2000-01) 12 September 2009 5:13 UTC www.aph.gov.au [Source type: Original source]

^ Wentworth argued that the Constitution should be amended to give the Commonwealth power to make laws for the advancement of Aboriginals and to add a prohibition on discrimination on the grounds of 'race'.
  • The Parliament of the Commonwealth of Australia and Indigenous Peoples 1901-1967 (Research Paper 10 2000-01) 12 September 2009 5:13 UTC www.aph.gov.au [Source type: Original source]

.The most notable exercise of the Governor-General's reserve powers outside the Prime Minister's direction was the dismissal of the Whitlam Government in the constitutional crisis of 1975.^ Parliament makes other provision for the government of the Territory, the Governor General may make Ordinances having the force of law in the Territory.
  • The Parliament of the Commonwealth of Australia and Indigenous Peoples 1901-1967 (Research Paper 10 2000-01) 12 September 2009 5:13 UTC www.aph.gov.au [Source type: Original source]

^ Despite the great support for the changes to the Constitution, the Coalition Government was reluctant to exercise the new powers over Indigenous affairs.
  • The Parliament of the Commonwealth of Australia and Indigenous Peoples 1901-1967 (Research Paper 10 2000-01) 12 September 2009 5:13 UTC www.aph.gov.au [Source type: Original source]

^ Also, much of the most notable legislation of the Commonwealth Parliament directly related to Indigenous peoples was passed after 1967 when the Commonwealth Parliament's powers in this area had been greatly expanded.
  • The Parliament of the Commonwealth of Australia and Indigenous Peoples 1901-1967 (Research Paper 10 2000-01) 12 September 2009 5:13 UTC www.aph.gov.au [Source type: Original source]

[38]
  • The legislature: the Commonwealth Parliament, comprising the Queen, the Senate, and the House of Representatives; the Queen is represented by the Governor-General, who by convention acts on the advice of his or her Ministers.[39]
  • .
  • The executive: the Federal Executive Council (the Governor-General as advised by the Executive Councillors); in practice, the councillors are the Prime Minister and Ministers of State.^ The 1961 Conference of State and Federal Ministers of Aboriginal Affairs agreed that: .
    • The Parliament of the Commonwealth of Australia and Indigenous Peoples 1901-1967 (Research Paper 10 2000-01) 12 September 2009 5:13 UTC www.aph.gov.au [Source type: Original source]

    [citation needed]
  • The judiciary: the High Court of Australia and other federal courts. .Appeals from Australian courts to the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council in the United Kingdom ceased when the Australia Act of 1986 was passed.^ In 1912 Parliament passed the Maternity Allowance Act to provide for the payment of an allowance to women living in Australia upon the birth of a child.
    • The Parliament of the Commonwealth of Australia and Indigenous Peoples 1901-1967 (Research Paper 10 2000-01) 12 September 2009 5:13 UTC www.aph.gov.au [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Heatley, A., Almost Australians: The Politics of Northern Territory Self-Government , ANU North Australia Research Unit, Darwin, 1990.
    • The Parliament of the Commonwealth of Australia and Indigenous Peoples 1901-1967 (Research Paper 10 2000-01) 12 September 2009 5:13 UTC www.aph.gov.au [Source type: Original source]

    [40]
.The bicameral Commonwealth Parliament consists of the Queen, the Senate (the upper house) of 76 senators, and a House of Representatives (the lower house) of 150 members.^ Senate and House of Representatives, Debates , vol.
  • The Parliament of the Commonwealth of Australia and Indigenous Peoples 1901-1967 (Research Paper 10 2000-01) 12 September 2009 5:13 UTC www.aph.gov.au [Source type: Original source]

^ House of the Parliament of a State shall, while the right continues, be prevented by any law of the Commonwealth from voting at elections for either House of the Parliament of the Commonwealth.
  • The Parliament of the Commonwealth of Australia and Indigenous Peoples 1901-1967 (Research Paper 10 2000-01) 12 September 2009 5:13 UTC www.aph.gov.au [Source type: Original source]

^ In October 1951 Hasluck made a statement of policy to the House of Representatives and reported on the outcome of a Native Welfare Conference of Commonwealth and State officials which had met in September 1951.
  • The Parliament of the Commonwealth of Australia and Indigenous Peoples 1901-1967 (Research Paper 10 2000-01) 12 September 2009 5:13 UTC www.aph.gov.au [Source type: Original source]

.Members of the lower house are elected from single-member constituencies, commonly known as "electorates" or "seats", allocated to states on the basis of population, with each original state guaranteed a minimum of five seats.^ On the basis of this calculation the minimum distance between the explosion and any population was set at 160 kilometres.
  • The Parliament of the Commonwealth of Australia and Indigenous Peoples 1901-1967 (Research Paper 10 2000-01) 12 September 2009 5:13 UTC www.aph.gov.au [Source type: Original source]

^ Two matters for which the measure of the population of the States could be of consequence were the apportionment of revenue, or costs, between the States, and the distribution of House of Representatives seats among the States.
  • The Parliament of the Commonwealth of Australia and Indigenous Peoples 1901-1967 (Research Paper 10 2000-01) 12 September 2009 5:13 UTC www.aph.gov.au [Source type: Original source]

.In the Senate, each state is represented by twelve senators, and each of the territories (the Australian Capital Territory and the Northern Territory) by two.^ In 1974 the Northern Territory obtained representation in the Senate with the right to elect two Senators.
  • The Parliament of the Commonwealth of Australia and Indigenous Peoples 1901-1967 (Research Paper 10 2000-01) 12 September 2009 5:13 UTC www.aph.gov.au [Source type: Original source]

^ Mr Justice Blackburn in the Northern Territory Supreme Court found that Australian common law did not recognise native title to land.
  • The Parliament of the Commonwealth of Australia and Indigenous Peoples 1901-1967 (Research Paper 10 2000-01) 12 September 2009 5:13 UTC www.aph.gov.au [Source type: Original source]

^ The Bill was amended to include a prohibition against any person who was entitled to vote in the Northern Territory and House of Representatives elections being declared a ward.
  • The Parliament of the Commonwealth of Australia and Indigenous Peoples 1901-1967 (Research Paper 10 2000-01) 12 September 2009 5:13 UTC www.aph.gov.au [Source type: Original source]

.Elections for both chambers are normally held every three years, simultaneously; senators have overlapping six-year terms, since only half of places in the Senate are put to each election unless the cycle is interrupted by a double dissolution.^ Australia, Asia, Africa, or the islands of the Pacific, or persons of the half blood shall be entitled to have his name placed on the electoral roll, unless so entitled under s.
  • The Parliament of the Commonwealth of Australia and Indigenous Peoples 1901-1967 (Research Paper 10 2000-01) 12 September 2009 5:13 UTC www.aph.gov.au [Source type: Original source]

^ The Scullin Labor Government, which was elected on 12 October 1929, held only seven of the 36 places in the Senate.
  • The Parliament of the Commonwealth of Australia and Indigenous Peoples 1901-1967 (Research Paper 10 2000-01) 12 September 2009 5:13 UTC www.aph.gov.au [Source type: Original source]

Although the Prime Minister is appointed by the Governor-General, in practice the party with majority support in the House of Representatives forms government and its leader becomes Prime Minister.[41]
There are two major political groups that form government, federally and in the states: the Australian Labor Party, and the Coalition which is a formal grouping of two parties: the Liberal Party and its minor partner, the National Party. .Independent members and several minor parties—including the Greens and the Australian Democrats—have achieved representation in Australian parliaments, mostly in upper houses.^ In the Parliament there were several attempts by members from all sides to have the Government improve the welfare provisions for Aborigines but the pressure was never sustained.
  • The Parliament of the Commonwealth of Australia and Indigenous Peoples 1901-1967 (Research Paper 10 2000-01) 12 September 2009 5:13 UTC www.aph.gov.au [Source type: Original source]

^ There were no truly independent members representing outside organisations, and the Aborigines had no legal representation.
  • The Parliament of the Commonwealth of Australia and Indigenous Peoples 1901-1967 (Research Paper 10 2000-01) 12 September 2009 5:13 UTC www.aph.gov.au [Source type: Original source]

^ Section 122 of the Constitution allowed the Parliament to grant representation to the Territory in either house but it was not until 1922 that the Territory gained representation and then only on a limited basis.
  • The Parliament of the Commonwealth of Australia and Indigenous Peoples 1901-1967 (Research Paper 10 2000-01) 12 September 2009 5:13 UTC www.aph.gov.au [Source type: Original source]

The Labor Party came to office with Kevin Rudd as Prime Minister following the November 2007 election. .Every Australian parliament (federal, state, and territory) then had a Labor government until September 2008 when the Liberal Party formed a minority government in association with the National Party in Western Australia.^ In the face of the public protests against the Woomera Rocket Range the Government had established an 'expert' committee, comprised of a British and an Australian representative of the project, a representative from South Australia, Western Australia and the Northern Territory, and importantly Professor Elkin, to examine the possible impact of the proposed Rocket Range on Aborigines.
  • The Parliament of the Commonwealth of Australia and Indigenous Peoples 1901-1967 (Research Paper 10 2000-01) 12 September 2009 5:13 UTC www.aph.gov.au [Source type: Original source]

^ Western Australia in so far as the aboriginal inhabitants of that State are or have been affected thereby.
  • The Parliament of the Commonwealth of Australia and Indigenous Peoples 1901-1967 (Research Paper 10 2000-01) 12 September 2009 5:13 UTC www.aph.gov.au [Source type: Original source]

^ Normal Commonwealth laws operated in the Territory in the same way as elsewhere in Australia and Commonwealth Departments continued to operate directly in the Territory, but in relation to those matters which would otherwise be State matters, the Commonwealth governed through an Administrator.
  • The Parliament of the Commonwealth of Australia and Indigenous Peoples 1901-1967 (Research Paper 10 2000-01) 12 September 2009 5:13 UTC www.aph.gov.au [Source type: Original source]

In the 2004 election, the previous governing coalition led by John Howard won control of the Senate—the first time in more than 20 years that a party (or a coalition) has done so while in government. Voting is compulsory for all enrolled citizens 18 years and over, in each state and territory and at the federal level.[42] .Enrolment to vote is compulsory in all jurisdictions except South Australia.^ The Central Aboriginal Reserves were adjacent areas which had been reserved for Aborigines in three different jurisdictions, Northern Territory, South Australia, and Western Australia.
  • The Parliament of the Commonwealth of Australia and Indigenous Peoples 1901-1967 (Research Paper 10 2000-01) 12 September 2009 5:13 UTC www.aph.gov.au [Source type: Original source]

^ Only in South Australia were Aboriginal men and women entitled to vote.
  • The Parliament of the Commonwealth of Australia and Indigenous Peoples 1901-1967 (Research Paper 10 2000-01) 12 September 2009 5:13 UTC www.aph.gov.au [Source type: Original source]

^ Legislation was introduced to make all Indians who were British subjects in Australia eligible to vote.
  • The Parliament of the Commonwealth of Australia and Indigenous Peoples 1901-1967 (Research Paper 10 2000-01) 12 September 2009 5:13 UTC www.aph.gov.au [Source type: Original source]

[43]

States and territories

Perth Adelaide Melbourne Canberra Sydney Brisbane Darwin Hobart Tasmania Australian Capital Territory Australian Capital Territory Western Australia Northern Territory South Australia Queensland New South Wales Victoria Tasmania Great Australian Bight Tasman Sea Indian Ocean Coral Sea Indonesia Papua New Guinea Gulf of Carpentaria Arafura Sea East Timor Timor Sea Great Barrier Reef
A clickable map of Australia's states and mainland territories
.Australia has six statesNew South Wales, Queensland, South Australia, Tasmania, Victoria, and Western Australia—and two major mainland territories—the Northern Territory and the Australian Capital Territory (ACT).^ Northwest New South Wales, southwest Queensland.
  • Ethnologue report for Australia 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.ethnologue.com [Source type: General]

^ Western Australia, south of Port Hedland.
  • Ethnologue report for Australia 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.ethnologue.com [Source type: General]

^ New South Wales, northeast, Woodenbong.
  • Ethnologue report for Australia 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.ethnologue.com [Source type: General]

.In most respects these two territories function as states, but the Commonwealth Parliament can override any legislation of their parliaments.^ Once the Commonwealth Parliament had legislated, s.
  • The Parliament of the Commonwealth of Australia and Indigenous Peoples 1901-1967 (Research Paper 10 2000-01) 12 September 2009 5:13 UTC www.aph.gov.au [Source type: Original source]

^ Commonwealth Parliament legislated under s.
  • The Parliament of the Commonwealth of Australia and Indigenous Peoples 1901-1967 (Research Paper 10 2000-01) 12 September 2009 5:13 UTC www.aph.gov.au [Source type: Original source]

^ State elections before the Federal Parliament legislated for the Commonwealth franchise.
  • The Parliament of the Commonwealth of Australia and Indigenous Peoples 1901-1967 (Research Paper 10 2000-01) 12 September 2009 5:13 UTC www.aph.gov.au [Source type: Original source]

By contrast, federal legislation only overrides state legislation in certain areas that are set out in Section 51 of the Australian Constitution; state parliaments retain all residual legislative powers, including powers over education, police, the judiciary, roads, public transport, and local government as these do not fall under the provisions listed in Section 51.[44]
Each state and major mainland territory has its own legislature or parliament: unicameral in the Northern Territory, the ACT, and Queensland, and bicameral in the remaining states. .The states are sovereign, though subject to certain powers of the Commonwealth as defined by the Constitution.^ Commonwealth Parliament power to make laws with respect to 'the people of any race, other than the aboriginal race in any State, for whom it was deemed necessary to make special laws'.
  • The Parliament of the Commonwealth of Australia and Indigenous Peoples 1901-1967 (Research Paper 10 2000-01) 12 September 2009 5:13 UTC www.aph.gov.au [Source type: Original source]

^ Constitution, how it was that Aborigines who were entitled to vote at State elections could be denied the Commonwealth franchise.
  • The Parliament of the Commonwealth of Australia and Indigenous Peoples 1901-1967 (Research Paper 10 2000-01) 12 September 2009 5:13 UTC www.aph.gov.au [Source type: Original source]

^ Constitution made no other grant of power to the Commonwealth Parliament.
  • The Parliament of the Commonwealth of Australia and Indigenous Peoples 1901-1967 (Research Paper 10 2000-01) 12 September 2009 5:13 UTC www.aph.gov.au [Source type: Original source]

.The lower house is known as the Legislative Assembly (House of Assembly in South Australia and Tasmania) and the upper house is known as the Legislative Council.^ The legislation ratified an agreement which had been made between the Commonwealth and South Australia, which included commitment to complete the railway line from South Australia to Darwin.
  • The Parliament of the Commonwealth of Australia and Indigenous Peoples 1901-1967 (Research Paper 10 2000-01) 12 September 2009 5:13 UTC www.aph.gov.au [Source type: Original source]

^ The legislation transferring responsibility for the Northern Territory from South Australia, the Northern Territory Acceptance Bill 1910, was given much closer attention.
  • The Parliament of the Commonwealth of Australia and Indigenous Peoples 1901-1967 (Research Paper 10 2000-01) 12 September 2009 5:13 UTC www.aph.gov.au [Source type: Original source]

The head of the government in each state is the Premier, and in each territory the Chief Minister. .The Queen is represented in each state by a Governor; an Administrator in the Northern Territory, and the Australian Governor-General in the ACT, have analogous roles.^ Thomson, Donald, 'Interim General Report of Preliminary Expedition to Arnhem Land, Northern Territory of Australia 1935-36', Processed, April 1936.
  • The Parliament of the Commonwealth of Australia and Indigenous Peoples 1901-1967 (Research Paper 10 2000-01) 12 September 2009 5:13 UTC www.aph.gov.au [Source type: Original source]

^ Since the Act under which the Ordinance was made-the Northern Territory (Administration) Act 1910 -prohibited the disposal of Crown land as freehold title it was not possible for the Opposition to achieve its ultimate objective by having the Ordinance disallowed.
  • The Parliament of the Commonwealth of Australia and Indigenous Peoples 1901-1967 (Research Paper 10 2000-01) 12 September 2009 5:13 UTC www.aph.gov.au [Source type: Original source]

^ Mr Justice Blackburn in the Northern Territory Supreme Court found that Australian common law did not recognise native title to land.
  • The Parliament of the Commonwealth of Australia and Indigenous Peoples 1901-1967 (Research Paper 10 2000-01) 12 September 2009 5:13 UTC www.aph.gov.au [Source type: Original source]

[citation needed]
The federal government directly administers the following territories:
.Norfolk Island is also technically an external territory; however, under the Norfolk Island Act 1979 it has been granted more autonomy and is governed locally by its own legislative assembly.^ The Commonwealth Government and Parliament had overseen a system under which the Aborigines in the Northern Territory were largely pauperised and excluded, with their lives regulated by administrators.
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^ However, the Government was also under pressure from outside the Parliament.
  • The Parliament of the Commonwealth of Australia and Indigenous Peoples 1901-1967 (Research Paper 10 2000-01) 12 September 2009 5:13 UTC www.aph.gov.au [Source type: Original source]

^ The Act established the position of Administrator for the Territory, who was responsible to the Minister for External Affairs; the Commonwealth Parliament's legislative power in relation to the Territory were delegated to the executive branch.
  • The Parliament of the Commonwealth of Australia and Indigenous Peoples 1901-1967 (Research Paper 10 2000-01) 12 September 2009 5:13 UTC www.aph.gov.au [Source type: Original source]

The Queen is represented by an Administrator, currently Owen Walsh.[45]

Foreign relations and military

.Over recent decades, Australia's foreign relations have been driven by a close association with the United States through the ANZUS pact, and by a desire to develop relationships with Asia and the Pacific, particularly through ASEAN and the Pacific Islands Forum.^ Australia, Asia, Africa, or the islands of the Pacific, or persons of the half blood shall be entitled to have his name placed on the electoral roll, unless so entitled under s.
  • The Parliament of the Commonwealth of Australia and Indigenous Peoples 1901-1967 (Research Paper 10 2000-01) 12 September 2009 5:13 UTC www.aph.gov.au [Source type: Original source]

^ Normal Commonwealth laws operated in the Territory in the same way as elsewhere in Australia and Commonwealth Departments continued to operate directly in the Territory, but in relation to those matters which would otherwise be State matters, the Commonwealth governed through an Administrator.
  • The Parliament of the Commonwealth of Australia and Indigenous Peoples 1901-1967 (Research Paper 10 2000-01) 12 September 2009 5:13 UTC www.aph.gov.au [Source type: Original source]

^ As introduced, the Bill excluded 'Asiatics or aboriginal natives of Australia, Africa, the islands of the Pacific, or New Zealand.'
  • The Parliament of the Commonwealth of Australia and Indigenous Peoples 1901-1967 (Research Paper 10 2000-01) 12 September 2009 5:13 UTC www.aph.gov.au [Source type: Original source]

In 2005 Australia secured an inaugural seat at the East Asia Summit following its accession to the Treaty of Amity and Cooperation in Southeast Asia. .Australia is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations, in which the Commonwealth Heads of Government meetings provide the main forum for cooperation.^ The Parliament rejected Government legislation for a uniform franchise which would have included all Indigenous peoples, and after a lengthy debate legislated to exclude 'aboriginal natives of Australia' from the Commonwealth franchise.
  • The Parliament of the Commonwealth of Australia and Indigenous Peoples 1901-1967 (Research Paper 10 2000-01) 12 September 2009 5:13 UTC www.aph.gov.au [Source type: Original source]

^ Parliament of the Commonwealth of Australia, House of Representatives, Report of the Select Committee on Voting Rights of Aborigines: Part I-Report and Minutes of Proceedings , Government Printer, Canberra, 1961.
  • The Parliament of the Commonwealth of Australia and Indigenous Peoples 1901-1967 (Research Paper 10 2000-01) 12 September 2009 5:13 UTC www.aph.gov.au [Source type: Original source]

^ Commonwealth of Australia, Report from the Select Committee on Grievances of Yirrkala Aborigines, Arnhem Land Reserve, part I-Report and Minutes of Proceedings , Government Printer, Canberra, 1963, p.
  • The Parliament of the Commonwealth of Australia and Indigenous Peoples 1901-1967 (Research Paper 10 2000-01) 12 September 2009 5:13 UTC www.aph.gov.au [Source type: Original source]

Australia has energetically pursued the cause of international trade liberalisation. It led the formation of the Cairns Group and Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation. .Australia is a member of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and the World Trade Organization, and has pursued several major bilateral free trade agreements, most recently the Australia – United States Free Trade Agreement and Closer Economic Relations with New Zealand.^ Normal Commonwealth laws operated in the Territory in the same way as elsewhere in Australia and Commonwealth Departments continued to operate directly in the Territory, but in relation to those matters which would otherwise be State matters, the Commonwealth governed through an Administrator.
  • The Parliament of the Commonwealth of Australia and Indigenous Peoples 1901-1967 (Research Paper 10 2000-01) 12 September 2009 5:13 UTC www.aph.gov.au [Source type: Original source]

^ The Aboriginal question, which was supported by all political parties, was overwhelmingly passed with a majority in support in all States, and an overall majority of 90.8 per cent-the largest ever majority for any referendum proposal in Australia.
  • The Parliament of the Commonwealth of Australia and Indigenous Peoples 1901-1967 (Research Paper 10 2000-01) 12 September 2009 5:13 UTC www.aph.gov.au [Source type: Original source]

^ The activities of these humanitarian and church organisations were given impetus by the development of anthropological studies in Australia.
  • The Parliament of the Commonwealth of Australia and Indigenous Peoples 1901-1967 (Research Paper 10 2000-01) 12 September 2009 5:13 UTC www.aph.gov.au [Source type: Original source]

.Australia is also negotiating a free trade agreement with Japan, with whom Australia has close economic ties as a trusted partner in the Asia-Pacific region.^ Australia, Asia, Africa, or the islands of the Pacific, or persons of the half blood shall be entitled to have his name placed on the electoral roll, unless so entitled under s.
  • The Parliament of the Commonwealth of Australia and Indigenous Peoples 1901-1967 (Research Paper 10 2000-01) 12 September 2009 5:13 UTC www.aph.gov.au [Source type: Original source]

^ Following secret negotiations, which commenced in 1950, the British Government obtained agreement to test atomic weapons in Australia.
  • The Parliament of the Commonwealth of Australia and Indigenous Peoples 1901-1967 (Research Paper 10 2000-01) 12 September 2009 5:13 UTC www.aph.gov.au [Source type: Original source]

[46] .Australia, along with New Zealand, the United Kingdom, Malaysia, and Singapore are party to the Five Power Defence Arrangements, a regional defence agreement.^ The apparent reticence of the Liberal-Country Party Government to use the new power of the Parliament gave no indication of the true significance of the change.
  • The Parliament of the Commonwealth of Australia and Indigenous Peoples 1901-1967 (Research Paper 10 2000-01) 12 September 2009 5:13 UTC www.aph.gov.au [Source type: Original source]

^ Commonwealth Parliament be given power to make laws for 'the advancement of the Aboriginal natives of the Commonwealth of Australia', and secondly a new section be added-section 127A-as follows: .
  • The Parliament of the Commonwealth of Australia and Indigenous Peoples 1901-1967 (Research Paper 10 2000-01) 12 September 2009 5:13 UTC www.aph.gov.au [Source type: Original source]

^ As introduced, the Bill excluded 'Asiatics or aboriginal natives of Australia, Africa, the islands of the Pacific, or New Zealand.'
  • The Parliament of the Commonwealth of Australia and Indigenous Peoples 1901-1967 (Research Paper 10 2000-01) 12 September 2009 5:13 UTC www.aph.gov.au [Source type: Original source]

.A founding member country of the United Nations, Australia is strongly committed to multilateralism along with its middle power allies Canada and the Nordic countries, and maintains an international aid program under which some 60 countries receive assistance.^ Also, Australia was coming under increasing international pressure in relation to the treatment of Indigenous peoples.
  • The Parliament of the Commonwealth of Australia and Indigenous Peoples 1901-1967 (Research Paper 10 2000-01) 12 September 2009 5:13 UTC www.aph.gov.au [Source type: Original source]

.The 2005–06 budget provides A$2.5 billion for development assistance;[47] as a percentage of GDP, this contribution is less than that recommended in the UN Millennium Development Goals.^ The Committee recommended the adoption of measures to provide opportunities for the Yirrkala people to participate in the opportunities the development would offer.
  • The Parliament of the Commonwealth of Australia and Indigenous Peoples 1901-1967 (Research Paper 10 2000-01) 12 September 2009 5:13 UTC www.aph.gov.au [Source type: Original source]

Australia ranks 7th overall in the Center for Global Development's 2008 Commitment to Development Index.[48]
Australia's armed forces—the Australian Defence Force (ADF)—comprise the Royal Australian Navy (RAN), the Australian Army, and the Royal Australian Air Force (RAAF), in total numbering 73,000 personnel (including 53,000 regulars and 20,000 reservists).[49] .Australia's military is 68th largest in the world, but one of the world's smallest in per capita terms.^ The Aboriginal question, which was supported by all political parties, was overwhelmingly passed with a majority in support in all States, and an overall majority of 90.8 per cent-the largest ever majority for any referendum proposal in Australia.
  • The Parliament of the Commonwealth of Australia and Indigenous Peoples 1901-1967 (Research Paper 10 2000-01) 12 September 2009 5:13 UTC www.aph.gov.au [Source type: Original source]

All branches of the ADF have been involved in UN and regional peacekeeping (most recently in East Timor, the Solomon Islands, and Sudan), disaster relief, and armed conflict, including the 2003 invasion of Iraq. .The government appoints the Chief of the Defence Force from one of the armed services; the current Chief of the Defence Force is Air Chief Marshal Angus Houston.^ MacDougall had been appointed by the Commonwealth Government as Native Patrol Officer in 1947 following undertakings to the Parliament by the Minister of Defence.
  • The Parliament of the Commonwealth of Australia and Indigenous Peoples 1901-1967 (Research Paper 10 2000-01) 12 September 2009 5:13 UTC www.aph.gov.au [Source type: Original source]

In the 2006–07 budget, defence spending was A$22 billion,[50] accounting for less than 1% of global military spending. Australia was placed 27th on the 2008 Global Peace Index, primarily due to its presence in Afghanistan.[51] While the Governor-General is the Commander-in-Chief of the Australian Defence Force, he or she does not play an active part in the ADF's command structure as the elected Australian Government controls the ADF.[52]

Geography

Climatic zones in Australia, based on the Köppen climate classification
Australia's landmass of 7,617,930 square kilometres (2,941,300 sq mi)[53] is on the Indo-Australian Plate. .Surrounded by the IndianN4 and Pacific oceans, Australia is separated from Asia by the Arafura and Timor seas.^ Australia, Asia, Africa, or the islands of the Pacific, or persons of the half blood shall be entitled to have his name placed on the electoral roll, unless so entitled under s.
  • The Parliament of the Commonwealth of Australia and Indigenous Peoples 1901-1967 (Research Paper 10 2000-01) 12 September 2009 5:13 UTC www.aph.gov.au [Source type: Original source]

The world's smallest continent[9] and sixth largest country by total area,[8] Australia – owing to its size and isolation – is often dubbed the 'island continent'[54] and variably considered the world's largest island.[55] .Australia has 34,218 kilometres (21,262 mi) of coastline (excluding all offshore islands)[56] and claims an extensive Exclusive Economic Zone of 8,148,250 square kilometres (3,146,060 sq mi).^ As introduced, the Bill excluded 'Asiatics or aboriginal natives of Australia, Africa, the islands of the Pacific, or New Zealand.'
  • The Parliament of the Commonwealth of Australia and Indigenous Peoples 1901-1967 (Research Paper 10 2000-01) 12 September 2009 5:13 UTC www.aph.gov.au [Source type: Original source]

^ The Bill excluded 'aboriginal natives of Australia [and] the islands of the Pacific'.
  • The Parliament of the Commonwealth of Australia and Indigenous Peoples 1901-1967 (Research Paper 10 2000-01) 12 September 2009 5:13 UTC www.aph.gov.au [Source type: Original source]

.This exclusive economic zone does not include the Australian Antarctic Territory.^ Unless an issue in the Territory touched the broader Australian community, or affected important economic interests, it was unlikely to get much attention in the Commonwealth Parliament.
  • The Parliament of the Commonwealth of Australia and Indigenous Peoples 1901-1967 (Research Paper 10 2000-01) 12 September 2009 5:13 UTC www.aph.gov.au [Source type: Original source]

Australia seen from space
.The Great Barrier Reef, the world's largest coral reef,[57] lies a short distance off the north-east coast and extends for over 2,000 kilometres (1,240 mi).^ Between 1952 and 1957 a series of atomic tests were conducted at Monte Bello Islands, 80 kilometres off the coast of northern Western Australia, Emu in the Great Victoria Desert 400 kilometres north-west of Woomera, and Maralinga, north of Ooldea on the Transcontinental Railway 500 kilometres west of Woomera.
  • The Parliament of the Commonwealth of Australia and Indigenous Peoples 1901-1967 (Research Paper 10 2000-01) 12 September 2009 5:13 UTC www.aph.gov.au [Source type: Original source]

.Mount Augustus, claimed to be the world's largest monolith,[58] is located in Western Australia.^ Also, while Grayden's claims about the removal of people from the area of the atomic tests to Western Australia may have been false, it was the case that Aborigines had been removed from the Maralinga area.
  • The Parliament of the Commonwealth of Australia and Indigenous Peoples 1901-1967 (Research Paper 10 2000-01) 12 September 2009 5:13 UTC www.aph.gov.au [Source type: Original source]

^ Newspapers overseas, and in Australia, had carried stories of ill-treatment of indentured and assigned Aboriginal workers in Western Australia who it was claimed were in a position akin to slavery.
  • The Parliament of the Commonwealth of Australia and Indigenous Peoples 1901-1967 (Research Paper 10 2000-01) 12 September 2009 5:13 UTC www.aph.gov.au [Source type: Original source]

At 2,228 metres (7,310 ft), Mount Kosciuszko on the Great Dividing Range is the highest mountain on the Australian mainland, although Mawson Peak on the remote Australian territory of Heard Island is taller at 2,745 metres (9,006 ft).
.By far the largest part of Australia is desert or semi-arid land commonly known as the outback.^ Commonwealth of Australia, Report from the Select Committee on Grievances of Yirrkala Aborigines, Arnhem Land Reserve, part I-Report and Minutes of Proceedings , Government Printer, Canberra, 1963, p.
  • The Parliament of the Commonwealth of Australia and Indigenous Peoples 1901-1967 (Research Paper 10 2000-01) 12 September 2009 5:13 UTC www.aph.gov.au [Source type: Original source]

^ Commonwealth of Australia, Report from the Select Committee on Grievances of Yirrkala Aborigines, Arnhem Land Reserve Part I-Report and Minutes of Proceedings , Government Printer, Canberra, 1963.
  • The Parliament of the Commonwealth of Australia and Indigenous Peoples 1901-1967 (Research Paper 10 2000-01) 12 September 2009 5:13 UTC www.aph.gov.au [Source type: Original source]

Australia is the flattest continent, with the oldest and least fertile soils, and is the driest inhabited continent. Only the south-east and south-west corners of the continent have a temperate climate. .The population density, 2.8 inhabitants per square kilometre, is among the lowest in the world, although a great proportion of the population lives along the temperate south-eastern coastline.^ Prior to the tests at Emu in October 1953 Aboriginal people who had lived at Ooldea, and in the surrounding country, were moved over 100 kilometres to the South to Yalata Mission near the Great Australian Bight.
  • The Parliament of the Commonwealth of Australia and Indigenous Peoples 1901-1967 (Research Paper 10 2000-01) 12 September 2009 5:13 UTC www.aph.gov.au [Source type: Original source]

The landscapes of the northern part of the country, with a tropical climate, consist of rainforest, woodland, grassland, mangrove swamps, and desert. The climate is significantly influenced by ocean currents, including the Indian Ocean Dipole and the El Niño-Southern Oscillation, which is correlated with periodic drought, and the seasonal tropical low pressure system that produces cyclones in northern Australia.[59]

Environment

The koala and the eucalyptus form an iconic Australian pair
Although most of Australia is semi-arid or desert, it includes a diverse range of habitats from alpine heaths to tropical rainforests, and is recognised as a megadiverse country. .Because of the continent's great age, its extremely variable weather patterns, and its long-term geographic isolation, much of Australia's biota is unique and diverse.^ This was rejected by the Parliament in favour of a number of exclusions from the Commonwealth franchise which were expressed in terms which became the pattern for much legislation which was to come.
  • The Parliament of the Commonwealth of Australia and Indigenous Peoples 1901-1967 (Research Paper 10 2000-01) 12 September 2009 5:13 UTC www.aph.gov.au [Source type: Original source]

.About 85% of flowering plants, 84% of mammals, more than 45% of birds, and 89% of in-shore, temperate-zone fish are endemic.^ The Government's reasons for a change of mind had more to do with its perception of public opinion, and concern about Australia's international image than with any conviction that the change was desirable.
  • The Parliament of the Commonwealth of Australia and Indigenous Peoples 1901-1967 (Research Paper 10 2000-01) 12 September 2009 5:13 UTC www.aph.gov.au [Source type: Original source]

^ The Menzies Liberal-Country Party Government which came to office in December 1949 was no more enthusiastic about reform in Aboriginal welfare than its predecessor.
  • The Parliament of the Commonwealth of Australia and Indigenous Peoples 1901-1967 (Research Paper 10 2000-01) 12 September 2009 5:13 UTC www.aph.gov.au [Source type: Original source]

[60] Australia has the greatest number of reptiles of any country, with 755 species.[61]
Many of Australia's ecoregions, and the species within those regions, are threatened by human activities and introduced plant and animal species. The federal Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 is a legal framework for the protection of threatened species. Numerous protected areas have been created under the national Biodiversity Action Plan to protect and preserve unique ecosystems; 64 wetlands are registered under the Ramsar Convention, and 15 natural World Heritage Sites have been established.[62] Australia was ranked 46th of 149 countries in the world on the 2008 Environmental Performance Index.[63] Australian forests often contain a wide variety of eucalyptus trees and are mostly located in higher rainfall regions.
Most Australian woody plant species are evergreen and many are adapted to fire and drought, including many eucalypts and acacias. Australia has a rich variety of endemic legume species that thrive in nutrient-poor soils because of their symbiosis with rhizobia bacteria and mycorrhizal fungi. Among well-known Australian fauna are the monotremes (the platypus and the echidna); a host of marsupials, including the kangaroo, the koala, and the wombat; the saltwater and freshwater crocodiles; and birds such as the emu and the kookaburra. .Australia is home to many dangerous animals including some of the most venomous snakes in the world.^ The definition of 'Aborigine' included 'aboriginal natives of Australia and of the adjacent islands', and depending on their circumstances and gender, some 'half-castes'.
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[64] The dingo was introduced by Austronesian people who traded with Indigenous Australians around 3000 BCE.[65] Many plant and animal species became extinct soon after first human settlement,[66] including the Australian megafauna; others have become extinct since European settlement, among them the thylacine.[67]
.Climate change has become an increasing concern in Australia in recent years,[68] with many Australians considering protection of the environment to be the most important issue facing the country.^ The question of the use of delegated legislative power did become an important issue when, in later years, Regulations were used to set conditions for the employment of Aborigines.
  • The Parliament of the Commonwealth of Australia and Indigenous Peoples 1901-1967 (Research Paper 10 2000-01) 12 September 2009 5:13 UTC www.aph.gov.au [Source type: Original source]

^ Unless an issue in the Territory touched the broader Australian community, or affected important economic interests, it was unlikely to get much attention in the Commonwealth Parliament.
  • The Parliament of the Commonwealth of Australia and Indigenous Peoples 1901-1967 (Research Paper 10 2000-01) 12 September 2009 5:13 UTC www.aph.gov.au [Source type: Original source]

^ The Government's reasons for a change of mind had more to do with its perception of public opinion, and concern about Australia's international image than with any conviction that the change was desirable.
  • The Parliament of the Commonwealth of Australia and Indigenous Peoples 1901-1967 (Research Paper 10 2000-01) 12 September 2009 5:13 UTC www.aph.gov.au [Source type: Original source]

[69] The first Rudd Ministry has initiated several emission reduction activities;[70] Rudd's first official act, on his first day in office, was to sign the instrument of ratification of the Kyoto Protocol. .Nevertheless, Australia's carbon dioxide emissions per capita are one of the highest in the world, lower than those of only a few other industrialised nations including the United States and Canada.^ Special provisions in those laws which disadvantaged, or advantaged, Aborigines were not made invalid on account of the qualification 'other than the aboriginal race in any State' in s.
  • The Parliament of the Commonwealth of Australia and Indigenous Peoples 1901-1967 (Research Paper 10 2000-01) 12 September 2009 5:13 UTC www.aph.gov.au [Source type: Original source]

^ The Government, however, did not want to concede ground and the only concession made was to remove the exclusion of those 'Asiatics' born in Australia.
  • The Parliament of the Commonwealth of Australia and Indigenous Peoples 1901-1967 (Research Paper 10 2000-01) 12 September 2009 5:13 UTC www.aph.gov.au [Source type: Original source]

^ Because the problem was one for the whole community, and because the Commonwealth 'is the custodian of the national reputation in the world at large' there was a special obligation on the Commonwealth to take the lead: .
  • The Parliament of the Commonwealth of Australia and Indigenous Peoples 1901-1967 (Research Paper 10 2000-01) 12 September 2009 5:13 UTC www.aph.gov.au [Source type: Original source]

[citation needed] Rainfall in Australia has slightly increased over the past century, both nationwide and for two quadrants of the nation,[71] while annual mean temperatures increased significantly over the past decades.[72] Water restrictions are currently in place in many regions and cities of Australia in response to chronic shortages due to urban population increases and localised drought.[73]

Economy

The Super Pit in Kalgoorlie, Australia's largest open cut gold mine
.The Australian dollar is the currency of the Commonwealth of Australia, including Christmas Island, Cocos (Keeling) Islands, and Norfolk Island, as well as the independent Pacific Island states of Kiribati, Nauru, and Tuvalu.^ Australia, Asia, Africa, or the islands of the Pacific, or persons of the half blood shall be entitled to have his name placed on the electoral roll, unless so entitled under s.
  • The Parliament of the Commonwealth of Australia and Indigenous Peoples 1901-1967 (Research Paper 10 2000-01) 12 September 2009 5:13 UTC www.aph.gov.au [Source type: Original source]

^ The Parliament rejected Government legislation for a uniform franchise which would have included all Indigenous peoples, and after a lengthy debate legislated to exclude 'aboriginal natives of Australia' from the Commonwealth franchise.
  • The Parliament of the Commonwealth of Australia and Indigenous Peoples 1901-1967 (Research Paper 10 2000-01) 12 September 2009 5:13 UTC www.aph.gov.au [Source type: Original source]

^ The legislation ratified an agreement which had been made between the Commonwealth and South Australia, which included commitment to complete the railway line from South Australia to Darwin.
  • The Parliament of the Commonwealth of Australia and Indigenous Peoples 1901-1967 (Research Paper 10 2000-01) 12 September 2009 5:13 UTC www.aph.gov.au [Source type: Original source]

After the 2006 merger of the Australian Stock Exchange and the Sydney Futures Exchange, the Australian Securities Exchange is now the 9th largest in the World.[74]
Australia is one of the most laissez-faire free market economies, according to the Index of Economic Freedom. .Australia's per capita GDP is slightly higher than that of the United States, UK, Germany, and France.^ The Aboriginal question, which was supported by all political parties, was overwhelmingly passed with a majority in support in all States, and an overall majority of 90.8 per cent-the largest ever majority for any referendum proposal in Australia.
  • The Parliament of the Commonwealth of Australia and Indigenous Peoples 1901-1967 (Research Paper 10 2000-01) 12 September 2009 5:13 UTC www.aph.gov.au [Source type: Original source]

.The country was ranked second in the United Nations 2009 Human Development Index, first in Legatum's 2008 Prosperity Index, and sixth in The Economist worldwide Quality-of-Life Index for 2005. All of Australia's major cities fare well in global comparative liveability surveys;[75] Melbourne reached 2nd place on The Economist's 2008 World's Most Livable Cities list, followed by Perth at 4th, Adelaide at 7th, and Sydney at 9th.^ The Aboriginal question, which was supported by all political parties, was overwhelmingly passed with a majority in support in all States, and an overall majority of 90.8 per cent-the largest ever majority for any referendum proposal in Australia.
  • The Parliament of the Commonwealth of Australia and Indigenous Peoples 1901-1967 (Research Paper 10 2000-01) 12 September 2009 5:13 UTC www.aph.gov.au [Source type: Original source]

^ If the experiments are not to be conducted in Australia, with all our natural advantages for this purpose, we are contracting out of the common defence of the free world.
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^ Commonwealth of Australia, Bringing them Home: Report of the National Enquiry into the Separation of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Children from Their Families , Human Rights and Equal Opportunity Commission, Sydney, 1997.
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[76]
An emphasis on exporting commodities rather than manufactures has underpinned a significant increase in Australia's terms of trade during the rise in commodity prices since the start of the century. Australia has a balance of payments that is more than 7% of GDP negative, and has had persistently large current account deficits for more than 50 years.[77] Australia has grown at an average annual rate of 3.6% for over 15 years, a period in which the OECD annual average was 2.5%.[77] Australia did not fall into a technical recession during the late 2000s recession that affected most other Western countries [78]
Destination and value of Australian exports in 2006
.The Hawke Government floated the Australian dollar in 1983 and partially deregulated the financial system.^ It was not until 1983, with the passage of the South Australian Bannon Labor Government's Maralinga Land Rights Act , that the Maralinga People were given the opportunity to return to their land.
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[79] .The Howard Government followed with a partial deregulation of the labour market and the further privatisation of state-owned businesses, most notably in the telecommunications industry.^ The shift in the stated objectives of Government was taken further in February 1939 by the Minister for the Interior, the Hon.
  • The Parliament of the Commonwealth of Australia and Indigenous Peoples 1901-1967 (Research Paper 10 2000-01) 12 September 2009 5:13 UTC www.aph.gov.au [Source type: Original source]

^ In his own account of his time as Minister, Hasluck makes much of the unity of purpose which existed, not only between the Government and Opposition but also between the Commonwealth and State Governments.
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[80] .The indirect tax system was substantially changed in July 2000 with the introduction of a 10% Goods and Services Tax (GST), which has slightly reduced the reliance on personal and company income tax that characterises Australia's tax system.^ The Parliament of the Commonwealth of Australia and Indigenous Peoples 1901-1967 (Research Paper 10 2000-01) .
  • The Parliament of the Commonwealth of Australia and Indigenous Peoples 1901-1967 (Research Paper 10 2000-01) 12 September 2009 5:13 UTC www.aph.gov.au [Source type: Original source]

In January 2007, there were 10,033,480 people employed, with an unemployment rate of 4.6%.[81] Over the past decade, inflation has typically been 2–3% and the base interest rate 5–6%. The service sector of the economy, including tourism, education, and financial services, accounts for 69% of GDP.[82] Although agriculture and natural resources account for only 3% and 5% of GDP respectively, they contribute substantially to export performance. .Australia's largest export markets are Japan, China, the US, South Korea, and New Zealand.^ As introduced, the Bill excluded 'Asiatics or aboriginal natives of Australia, Africa, the islands of the Pacific, or New Zealand.'
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^ Black Versus White , Australia and New Zealand Book Company, Sydney, 1972, pp. 117-21.
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^ These included the Australian Aboriginal Progressive Association and the Aborigines Progressive Association in New South Wales, the Native Union in Western Australia and the Australian Aborigines' League in Victoria.
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[83]

Demography

Historic population[84]
Year Indigenous population
pre 1788 350,000 approximate
Year Non Indigenous population Increase
1788 900  —
1800 5,200 477.8%
1850 405,400 7,696.2%
Year Total population Increase
1900 3,765,300  —
1910 4,525,100 20.2%
1920 5,411,000 19.6%
1930 6,501,000 20.1%
1940 7,078,000 8.9%
1950 8,307,000 17.4%
1960 10,392,000 25.1%
1970 12,663,000 21.9%
1980 14,726,000 16.3%
1990 17,169,000 16.6%
2000 19,169,100 11.6%
2009 21,828,704 13.6%
The Barossa Valley one of Australia's wine-producing regions in South Australia. Fewer than 15% of Australians live in rural areas.
Most of the estimated 22 million Australians are descended from colonial-era settlers and post-Federation immigrants from Europe, with almost 90% of the population being of European descent. For generations, the vast majority of immigrants came from the British Isles, and the people of Australia are still mainly of British or Irish ethnic origin. In the 2006 Australian census, the most commonly nominated ancestry was Australian (37.13%),[85] followed by English (31.65%), Irish (9.08%), Scottish (7.56%), Italian (4.29%), German (4.09%), Chinese (3.37%), and Greek (1.84%).[86]
.Australia's population has quadrupled since the end of World War I,[87] spurred by an ambitious immigration program.^ At the end of World War Two there were secret discussions between the British and Australian Governments about building a facility in Australia for testing guided missiles.
  • The Parliament of the Commonwealth of Australia and Indigenous Peoples 1901-1967 (Research Paper 10 2000-01) 12 September 2009 5:13 UTC www.aph.gov.au [Source type: Original source]

^ Hall, R. 'Aborigines and Torres Strait Islanders in the Second World War', in D. Ball, ed., Aborigines in the Defence of Australia, ANU Press, Sydney, 1991.
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^ R. A. Hall, 'Aborigines and Torres Strait Islanders in the Second World War' in D. Ball, ed., Aborigines in the Defence of Australia , ANU Press, Botany, NSW, 1991, p.
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.Following World War II and through to 2000, almost 5.9 million of the total population settled in the country as new immigrants, meaning that nearly two out of every seven Australians were born overseas.^ At the end of World War Two there were secret discussions between the British and Australian Governments about building a facility in Australia for testing guided missiles.
  • The Parliament of the Commonwealth of Australia and Indigenous Peoples 1901-1967 (Research Paper 10 2000-01) 12 September 2009 5:13 UTC www.aph.gov.au [Source type: Original source]

^ In the post-World War Two period the campaign for Constitutional change was pressed more vigorously inside and outside the Parliament.
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^ House of Representatives be 'as nearly as practicable, twice the number of the senators'-were both passed through the two Houses of the Parliament with the support of both sides but neither was submitted to referendum.
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[88] Most immigrants are skilled,[89] but the immigration quota includes categories for family members and refugees.[89]
.In 2001, 23.1% of Australians were born overseas; the five largest immigrant groups were those from the United Kingdom, New Zealand, Italy, Vietnam, and China.^ For an account of the Select Committee see Jack Horner, Vote Ferguson for Aboriginal Freedom , Australian and New Zealand Book Company, Sydney, 1974, pp.
  • The Parliament of the Commonwealth of Australia and Indigenous Peoples 1901-1967 (Research Paper 10 2000-01) 12 September 2009 5:13 UTC www.aph.gov.au [Source type: Original source]

^ Horner, J., Vote Ferguson for Aboriginal Freedom , Australian and New Zealand Book Company, Sydney, 1974.
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[83][90] .Following the abolition of the White Australia policy in 1973, numerous government initiatives have been established to encourage and promote racial harmony based on a policy of multiculturalism.^ In a wide ranging Parliamentary debate on Aboriginal policy which followed the Ministerial statement, speakers from both sides expressed general approval of the Government's proposal.
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^ As with the Apartheid laws in South Africa and the White Australia Policy, administrators were always confronted with problems of interpretation in relation to people who did not fit neatly in the racial categories established by the law.
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^ Following secret negotiations, which commenced in 1950, the British Government obtained agreement to test atomic weapons in Australia.
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[91] .In 2005–06, more than 131,000 people emigrated to Australia, mainly from Asia and Oceania.^ As employers on pastoral holdings have claimed that many more natives have to be fed than are employed by them, the payment of wages has not been insisted upon, at any rate in North Australia.
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^ The Government's reasons for a change of mind had more to do with its perception of public opinion, and concern about Australia's international image than with any conviction that the change was desirable.
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[92] The migration target for 2006–07 was 144,000.[93] The total immigration quota for 2008–09 is around 300,000—its highest level since the Immigration Department was created after World War II.[94][95]
Nearly three quarters of Australians live in metropolitan cities and coastal areas. The beach is an integral part of the Australian identity.[96]
.The Indigenous population—mainland Aborigines and Torres Strait Islanders—was counted at 410,003 (2.2% of the total population) in 2001, a significant increase from the 1976 census, which counted an indigenous population of 115,953.[97] A large number of Indigenous people are not identified in the Census due to undercount and cases where their Indigenous status is not recorded on the form; after adjusting for these factors, the ABS estimated the true figure for 2001 to be approximately 460,140 (2.4% of the total population).^ Bureau of Statistics in publishing census data excluded Aborigines but not Torres Strait Islanders.
  • The Parliament of the Commonwealth of Australia and Indigenous Peoples 1901-1967 (Research Paper 10 2000-01) 12 September 2009 5:13 UTC www.aph.gov.au [Source type: Original source]

^ In the North of Australia segregated Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander units were formed.
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^ It recommended that voting rights be extended to all Aborigines and Torres Strait Islanders.
  • The Parliament of the Commonwealth of Australia and Indigenous Peoples 1901-1967 (Research Paper 10 2000-01) 12 September 2009 5:13 UTC www.aph.gov.au [Source type: Original source]

[98]
.Indigenous Australians experience higher than average rates of imprisonment and unemployment, lower levels of education, and life expectancies for males and females that are 11–17 years lower than those of non-indigenous Australians.^ Those accused of killing the Japanese were found guilty at a trial in the Northern Territory Supreme Court conducted by Judge Wells and sentenced to 20 years imprisonment.
  • The Parliament of the Commonwealth of Australia and Indigenous Peoples 1901-1967 (Research Paper 10 2000-01) 12 September 2009 5:13 UTC www.aph.gov.au [Source type: Original source]

[83][99][100] .Some remote Indigenous communities have been described as having "failed state"-like conditions.^ The Aborigines Protection League urges that an area be set aside for our aboriginals, and that a model State should be created and governed by an administrator, the aboriginal himself having some voice in its government.
  • The Parliament of the Commonwealth of Australia and Indigenous Peoples 1901-1967 (Research Paper 10 2000-01) 12 September 2009 5:13 UTC www.aph.gov.au [Source type: Original source]

[101][citation needed]
.In common with many other developed countries, Australia is experiencing a demographic shift towards an older population, with more retirees and fewer people of working age.^ In common with many other developed countries, Australia is experiencing a demographic shift towards an older population, with more retirees and fewer people of working age.
  • Australia - Familypedia 3 February 2010 14:30 UTC familypedia.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ AVP/VP Business Development Location : Brisbane (Australia) Age : around 45 years Qualification : BE - Mining / Engineering Profile : Development of Mining Business , acquisition...
  • Jobs in Australia,Employment Opportunities,Job Search Abroad for Americans,Australia Jobs 6 February 2010 10:22 UTC www.learn4good.com [Source type: News]

^ But Australia is also a country of cosmopolitan cities made all the more appealing by immigration from Asia and southern Europe over the last several decades.

In 2004, the average age of the civilian population was 38.8 years.[102] A large number of Australians (759,849 for the period 2002–03)[103] live outside their home country.

Language

English is the national language.[104] Australian English is a major variety of the language. It has a unique accent and a small number of peculiar terms, some of which have found their way into other varieties of English. Australian English has less internal dialectal variation than either British English or American English. Grammar and spelling are largely based on those of British English..March 2010" style="white-space:nowrap;">[citation needed] According to the 2001 census, English is the only language spoken in the home for around 80% of the population.^ Of the total 'full-blood' population of the Northern Territory only about 80 were intentionally omitted from the Register.
  • The Parliament of the Commonwealth of Australia and Indigenous Peoples 1901-1967 (Research Paper 10 2000-01) 12 September 2009 5:13 UTC www.aph.gov.au [Source type: Original source]

The next most common languages spoken at home are Chinese (2.1%), Italian (1.9%), and Greek (1.4%).[citation needed]
A considerable proportion of first- and second-generation migrants are bilingual. .It is believed that there were between 200 and 300 Indigenous Australian languages at the time of first European contact.^ At the end of World War Two there were secret discussions between the British and Australian Governments about building a facility in Australia for testing guided missiles.
  • The Parliament of the Commonwealth of Australia and Indigenous Peoples 1901-1967 (Research Paper 10 2000-01) 12 September 2009 5:13 UTC www.aph.gov.au [Source type: Original source]

^ In the first instance the Range would only extend 300 miles from Woomera, but it would be lengthened in stages through the Central Aboriginal Reserves and on to the Western Australian coast between Port Hedland and Broome.
  • The Parliament of the Commonwealth of Australia and Indigenous Peoples 1901-1967 (Research Paper 10 2000-01) 12 September 2009 5:13 UTC www.aph.gov.au [Source type: Original source]

^ Aborigines were the majority population in the Territory and many still lived in a frontier situation on cattle stations or in more remote areas beyond the frontier where there had been very little contact between Aborigines and Europeans.
  • The Parliament of the Commonwealth of Australia and Indigenous Peoples 1901-1967 (Research Paper 10 2000-01) 12 September 2009 5:13 UTC www.aph.gov.au [Source type: Original source]

.Only about 70 of these languages have survived, and many are only spoken by older people; only 18 Indigenous languages are still spoken by all age groups.^ The Parliament rejected Government legislation for a uniform franchise which would have included all Indigenous peoples, and after a lengthy debate legislated to exclude 'aboriginal natives of Australia' from the Commonwealth franchise.
  • The Parliament of the Commonwealth of Australia and Indigenous Peoples 1901-1967 (Research Paper 10 2000-01) 12 September 2009 5:13 UTC www.aph.gov.au [Source type: Original source]

^ The only provisions in the original Constitution relating to Indigenous peoples were expressed in negative terms.
  • The Parliament of the Commonwealth of Australia and Indigenous Peoples 1901-1967 (Research Paper 10 2000-01) 12 September 2009 5:13 UTC www.aph.gov.au [Source type: Original source]

^ However, for many of those supporting the change, the concern was simply the removal of provisions which were discriminatory and insulting to Indigenous peoples.
  • The Parliament of the Commonwealth of Australia and Indigenous Peoples 1901-1967 (Research Paper 10 2000-01) 12 September 2009 5:13 UTC www.aph.gov.au [Source type: Original source]

[105] An indigenous language remains the main language for about 50,000 (0.25%) people. .Australia has a sign language known as Auslan, which is the main language of about 6,500 deaf people.^ Also, while Grayden's claims about the removal of people from the area of the atomic tests to Western Australia may have been false, it was the case that Aborigines had been removed from the Maralinga area.
  • The Parliament of the Commonwealth of Australia and Indigenous Peoples 1901-1967 (Research Paper 10 2000-01) 12 September 2009 5:13 UTC www.aph.gov.au [Source type: Original source]

Religion

.Australia has no state religion.^ Had Gladys Namagu been able to return to her home State of Western Australia there would have been no legal obstacle to the marriage (provided she was 21 years of age).
  • The Parliament of the Commonwealth of Australia and Indigenous Peoples 1901-1967 (Research Paper 10 2000-01) 12 September 2009 5:13 UTC www.aph.gov.au [Source type: Original source]

In the 2006 census, 64% of Australians listed themselves as Christian, including 26% as Roman Catholic and 19% as Anglican. .About 19% of the population cited "No religion" (which includes humanism, atheism, agnosticism, and rationalism), which was the fastest-growing group (refer difference in census 2006 versus census 2001 results) and a further 12% did not answer (the question is optional) or did not give a response adequate for interpretation.^ G. Sawer argues that there is no clear answer to the question.
  • The Parliament of the Commonwealth of Australia and Indigenous Peoples 1901-1967 (Research Paper 10 2000-01) 12 September 2009 5:13 UTC www.aph.gov.au [Source type: Original source]

^ The parliamentary debate on Mrs Blackburn's motion did raise questions about the direction of the Commonwealth's Aboriginal policy.
  • The Parliament of the Commonwealth of Australia and Indigenous Peoples 1901-1967 (Research Paper 10 2000-01) 12 September 2009 5:13 UTC www.aph.gov.au [Source type: Original source]

The second largest religion in Australia is Buddhism (2.1%), followed by Islam (1.7%), Hinduism (0.8%) and Judaism (0.5%). Overall, fewer than 6% of Australians identify with non-Christian religions.[106] Weekly attendance at church services in 2004 was about 1.5 million: about 7.5% of the population.[107] Religion does not play a central role in the lives of much of the population, although young adults are somewhat more religious than their elders.[108]

Education

School attendance is compulsory throughout Australia. In most Australian States at 5–6 years of age all children receive 11 years of compulsory education, then can move on to complete two more years (Years 11 and 12), contributing to an adult literacy rate that is assumed to be 99%. In the Programme for International Student Assessment, Australia regularly scores among the top five of thirty major developed countries (member countries of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development). Government grants have supported the establishment of Australia's 38 universities the majority of universities receive government funding. There is a state-based system of vocational training, higher than colleges, known as TAFE Institutes, and many trades conduct apprenticeships for training new tradespeople. Approximately 58% of Australians aged from 25 to 64 have vocational or tertiary qualifications,[83] and the tertiary graduation rate of 49% is the highest among OECD countries. The ratio of international to local students in tertiary education in Australia is the highest in the OECD countries.[109]

Culture

The Royal Exhibition Building in Melbourne was the first building in Australia to be listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 2004
Since 1788, the primary basis of Australian culture has been Anglo-Celtic Western culture. Distinctive Australian cultural features have also arisen from the country's natural environment and Indigenous cultures. Since the middle of the 20th century, Australian culture has been strongly influenced by American popular culture, particularly through television and cinema. Other cultural influences are from neighbouring Asian countries, and through large-scale immigration from non-English-speaking countries.
Australian visual arts are thought to have begun with the cave and bark paintings of its Indigenous peoples.[111] The traditions of Indigenous Australians are largely transmitted orally and are tied to ceremony and the telling of the stories of the Dreamtime. .From the time of European settlement, a theme in Australian art has been the Australian landscape, seen for example in the works of Albert Namatjira, Arthur Streeton and others associated with the Heidelberg School, and Arthur Boyd.^ See for example C. D. Rowley, 'Aborigines and other Australians' Oceania , vol.
  • The Parliament of the Commonwealth of Australia and Indigenous Peoples 1901-1967 (Research Paper 10 2000-01) 12 September 2009 5:13 UTC www.aph.gov.au [Source type: Original source]

The country's landscape remains sources of inspiration for Australian modernist artists; it has been depicted in acclaimed works by artists such as Sidney Nolan, Grace Cossington Smith, Fred Williams, Sydney Long, and Clifton Pugh. Australian artists influenced by the modern American and European art include cubist Grace Crowley, surrealist James Gleeson, abstract expressionist Brett Whiteley, and pop artist Martin Sharp. The National Gallery of Australia and the various state galleries maintain Australian and overseas collections, from early in the 20th century until the present,
Sunlight Sweet by Australian landscape artist Arthur Streeton
.Many of Australia's performing arts companies (see Theatre of Australia and Dance in Australia) receive funding through the federal government's Australia Council.^ See J. Summers, 'Aborigines and Government in the Twentieth Century' in Eric Richards, ed., The Flinders History of Australia: Social History , Wakefield Press, Adelaide, 1986, pp.
  • The Parliament of the Commonwealth of Australia and Indigenous Peoples 1901-1967 (Research Paper 10 2000-01) 12 September 2009 5:13 UTC www.aph.gov.au [Source type: Original source]

^ See A. P. Elkin, Citizenship for the Aborigines: A National Aboriginal Policy , Australian Book Company, Sydney, Markus, Governing Savages , op.
  • The Parliament of the Commonwealth of Australia and Indigenous Peoples 1901-1967 (Research Paper 10 2000-01) 12 September 2009 5:13 UTC www.aph.gov.au [Source type: Original source]

.There is a symphony orchestra in each of the states' capital cities, and a national opera company, Opera Australia, which became prominent through the singer Joan Sutherland.^ Had Gladys Namagu been able to return to her home State of Western Australia there would have been no legal obstacle to the marriage (provided she was 21 years of age).
  • The Parliament of the Commonwealth of Australia and Indigenous Peoples 1901-1967 (Research Paper 10 2000-01) 12 September 2009 5:13 UTC www.aph.gov.au [Source type: Original source]

Nellie Melba was her famous predecessor. Ballet and dance are represented by The Australian Ballet and various state dance companies. Each state has a publicly funded theatre company.
Performance of Aboriginal song and dance in the Australian National Maritime Museum in Sydney
.The Australian cinema industry began with the 1906 release of the The Story of the Kelly Gang, which is regarded as being the world's first feature-length film[112], but both Australian feature film production and the distribution of British-made features declined dramatically after World War I as American studios and distributors monopolised the industry[113] and by the 1930s around 95% of the feature films screened in Australia were produced in Hollywood.^ The initial commitments on behalf of Australia were made on the basis of discussions between the British Government and the Australian Prime Minister, the Rt Hon.
  • The Parliament of the Commonwealth of Australia and Indigenous Peoples 1901-1967 (Research Paper 10 2000-01) 12 September 2009 5:13 UTC www.aph.gov.au [Source type: Original source]

^ At the end of World War Two there were secret discussions between the British and Australian Governments about building a facility in Australia for testing guided missiles.
  • The Parliament of the Commonwealth of Australia and Indigenous Peoples 1901-1967 (Research Paper 10 2000-01) 12 September 2009 5:13 UTC www.aph.gov.au [Source type: Original source]

^ The Act did not prevent Aborigines enlisting and in the First World War a number served with distinction in non-segregated units.
  • The Parliament of the Commonwealth of Australia and Indigenous Peoples 1901-1967 (Research Paper 10 2000-01) 12 September 2009 5:13 UTC www.aph.gov.au [Source type: Original source]

.By the late 1950s feature film production in Australia had effectively ceased and there were no all-Australian feature films made in the decade between 1959 and 1969[114].^ Paul Hasluck observed that in almost all the popular literature written during the war about post-war reconstruction there is almost no mention of Aboriginal welfare.
  • The Parliament of the Commonwealth of Australia and Indigenous Peoples 1901-1967 (Research Paper 10 2000-01) 12 September 2009 5:13 UTC www.aph.gov.au [Source type: Original source]

^ But no restrictions will be imposed that are not common, under similar circumstances, to all sections of the Australian community.
  • The Parliament of the Commonwealth of Australia and Indigenous Peoples 1901-1967 (Research Paper 10 2000-01) 12 September 2009 5:13 UTC www.aph.gov.au [Source type: Original source]

^ At the end of World War Two there were secret discussions between the British and Australian Governments about building a facility in Australia for testing guided missiles.
  • The Parliament of the Commonwealth of Australia and Indigenous Peoples 1901-1967 (Research Paper 10 2000-01) 12 September 2009 5:13 UTC www.aph.gov.au [Source type: Original source]

Thanks to initiatives by the Gorton and Whitlam federal governments, the New Wave of Australian cinema of the 1970s brought provocative and successful films, some exploring the nation's colonial past, such as Picnic at Hanging Rock and Breaker Morant, while the so-called "Ocker" genre produced several highly successful urban-based comedy features including The Adventures of Barry MacKenzie and Alvin Purple. Later hits included Mad Max and Gallipoli. More recent successes included Shine, Rabbit-Proof Fence, and Happy Feet. Australia's diverse landscapes and cities have served as primary locations for many other films, such as The Matrix, Peter Pan, Superman Returns, and Finding Nemo. .Recent well-known Australian actors include Judith Anderson, Errol Flynn, Nicole Kidman, Hugh Jackman, Heath Ledger, Geoffrey Rush, Toni Collette, Naomi Watts, and current joint director of the Sydney Theatre Company, Cate Blanchett.^ For an account of the Select Committee see Jack Horner, Vote Ferguson for Aboriginal Freedom , Australian and New Zealand Book Company, Sydney, 1974, pp.
  • The Parliament of the Commonwealth of Australia and Indigenous Peoples 1901-1967 (Research Paper 10 2000-01) 12 September 2009 5:13 UTC www.aph.gov.au [Source type: Original source]

^ A. P. Elkin, Citizenship for the Aborigine , Australian Book Company, Sydney, 1944.
  • The Parliament of the Commonwealth of Australia and Indigenous Peoples 1901-1967 (Research Paper 10 2000-01) 12 September 2009 5:13 UTC www.aph.gov.au [Source type: Original source]

^ Elkin, A. P., Citizenship for the Aborigine , Australian Book Company, Sydney, 1944.
  • The Parliament of the Commonwealth of Australia and Indigenous Peoples 1901-1967 (Research Paper 10 2000-01) 12 September 2009 5:13 UTC www.aph.gov.au [Source type: Original source]

Australian literature has also been influenced by the landscape; the works of writers such as Banjo Paterson, Henry Lawson, and Dorothea Mackellar captured the experience of the Australian bush. The character of colonial Australia, as represented in early literature, is popular with modern Australians. In 1973, Patrick White was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature, the only Australian to have achieved this. Colleen McCullough, Thomas Keneally, David Williamson, and David Malouf are also renowned writers.
.Australia has two public broadcasters (the Australian Broadcasting Corporation and the multicultural Special Broadcasting Service), three commercial television networks, several pay-TV services, and numerous public, non-profit television and radio stations (see Television in Australia and Media of Australia).^ At the end of World War Two there were secret discussions between the British and Australian Governments about building a facility in Australia for testing guided missiles.
  • The Parliament of the Commonwealth of Australia and Indigenous Peoples 1901-1967 (Research Paper 10 2000-01) 12 September 2009 5:13 UTC www.aph.gov.au [Source type: Original source]

^ For an account of the public debate see P. Morton, Fire Across the Desert: Woomera and the Anglo-Australian Joint Project.
  • The Parliament of the Commonwealth of Australia and Indigenous Peoples 1901-1967 (Research Paper 10 2000-01) 12 September 2009 5:13 UTC www.aph.gov.au [Source type: Original source]

^ See Michael Coper, Encounters with the Australian Constitution , CCH Australia Ltd, Sydney, 1987, pp.
  • The Parliament of the Commonwealth of Australia and Indigenous Peoples 1901-1967 (Research Paper 10 2000-01) 12 September 2009 5:13 UTC www.aph.gov.au [Source type: Original source]

.Each major city has daily newspapers, and there are two national daily newspapers, The Australian and The Australian Financial Review.^ At the end of World War Two there were secret discussions between the British and Australian Governments about building a facility in Australia for testing guided missiles.
  • The Parliament of the Commonwealth of Australia and Indigenous Peoples 1901-1967 (Research Paper 10 2000-01) 12 September 2009 5:13 UTC www.aph.gov.au [Source type: Original source]

^ Aborigines are not a dying race; they are not being absorbed, or assimilated ..., and there are many educated and sophisticated aborigines who want to see their race preserved intact, who do not want to be absorbed by the majority of Australians.
  • The Parliament of the Commonwealth of Australia and Indigenous Peoples 1901-1967 (Research Paper 10 2000-01) 12 September 2009 5:13 UTC www.aph.gov.au [Source type: Original source]

.According to Reporters Without Borders in 2008, Australia was in 25th position on a list of 173 countries ranked by press freedom, behind New Zealand (7th) and the United Kingdom (23rd) but ahead of the United States (48th).^ Walmalla tribe on a marauding expedition from the border of Western Australia into the Coniston country-the tribe had intentioned to wipe out the settlers and working boys, as the evidence shows, .
  • The Parliament of the Commonwealth of Australia and Indigenous Peoples 1901-1967 (Research Paper 10 2000-01) 12 September 2009 5:13 UTC www.aph.gov.au [Source type: Original source]

^ As introduced, the Bill excluded 'Asiatics or aboriginal natives of Australia, Africa, the islands of the Pacific, or New Zealand.'
  • The Parliament of the Commonwealth of Australia and Indigenous Peoples 1901-1967 (Research Paper 10 2000-01) 12 September 2009 5:13 UTC www.aph.gov.au [Source type: Original source]

^ For an account of the Select Committee see Jack Horner, Vote Ferguson for Aboriginal Freedom , Australian and New Zealand Book Company, Sydney, 1974, pp.
  • The Parliament of the Commonwealth of Australia and Indigenous Peoples 1901-1967 (Research Paper 10 2000-01) 12 September 2009 5:13 UTC www.aph.gov.au [Source type: Original source]

.This low ranking is primarily because of the limited diversity of commercial media ownership in Australia;[115] in particular, most Australian print media are under the control of News Corporation and Fairfax Media.^ Markus, A., 'Under The Act', in B. Gammage and P. Spearritt, eds, Australians 1938 , Fairfax, Syme and Weldon Associates, Sydney, 1987, pp.
  • The Parliament of the Commonwealth of Australia and Indigenous Peoples 1901-1967 (Research Paper 10 2000-01) 12 September 2009 5:13 UTC www.aph.gov.au [Source type: Original source]

Australian food traditions have largely been shaped by those that have settled in Australia. Throughout the majority of Australian history, Australian cuisine was based on traditional Indiginous bushfood using native berries, fruit, fish, kangaroo and even insects such as the Witchetty grub. Later, British food was introduced, brought to the country by the first British settlers, with the Sunday roast an enduring tradition in many Australian families. .In the 19th and especially 20th century, food began to reflect the influences of Mediterranean and Asian cultures, introduced by many immigrants who arrived in Australia during this period.^ Legislation was introduced to make all Indians who were British subjects in Australia eligible to vote.
  • The Parliament of the Commonwealth of Australia and Indigenous Peoples 1901-1967 (Research Paper 10 2000-01) 12 September 2009 5:13 UTC www.aph.gov.au [Source type: Original source]

.Today, food from all over the world is popular in Australia, with Chinese, Thai, Indian, Italian and Mexican cuisine standing out.^ If the experiments are not to be conducted in Australia, with all our natural advantages for this purpose, we are contracting out of the common defence of the free world.
  • The Parliament of the Commonwealth of Australia and Indigenous Peoples 1901-1967 (Research Paper 10 2000-01) 12 September 2009 5:13 UTC www.aph.gov.au [Source type: Original source]

^ Legislation was introduced to make all Indians who were British subjects in Australia eligible to vote.
  • The Parliament of the Commonwealth of Australia and Indigenous Peoples 1901-1967 (Research Paper 10 2000-01) 12 September 2009 5:13 UTC www.aph.gov.au [Source type: Original source]

Cricket has been an important part of Australia's sporting culture since the 19th Century
.Approximately 24% Australians over the age of 15 regularly participate in organised sporting activities in Australia.^ The activities of these humanitarian and church organisations were given impetus by the development of anthropological studies in Australia.
  • The Parliament of the Commonwealth of Australia and Indigenous Peoples 1901-1967 (Research Paper 10 2000-01) 12 September 2009 5:13 UTC www.aph.gov.au [Source type: Original source]

^ The participants included departmental officials, representatives of the cattle industry, mission and church societies from around Australia, Aboriginal rights protection societies, women's organisations, and anthropological societies.
  • The Parliament of the Commonwealth of Australia and Indigenous Peoples 1901-1967 (Research Paper 10 2000-01) 12 September 2009 5:13 UTC www.aph.gov.au [Source type: Original source]

[83] .Australia has strong international teams in cricket, soccer / football, field hockey, netball, rugby league, rugby union, and performs well in cycling, rowing, and swimming.^ These included the Australian Aboriginal Progressive Association and the Aborigines Progressive Association in New South Wales, the Native Union in Western Australia and the Australian Aborigines' League in Victoria.
  • The Parliament of the Commonwealth of Australia and Indigenous Peoples 1901-1967 (Research Paper 10 2000-01) 12 September 2009 5:13 UTC www.aph.gov.au [Source type: Original source]

Some of Australia's most successful sportspersons are swimmers Dawn Fraser, Murray Rose, and Ian Thorpe, sprinter Betty Cuthbert, tennis players Rod Laver and Margaret Court, and cricketer Donald Bradman. Nationally, other popular sports include Australian rules football, horse racing, surfing, football (soccer), and motor racing. Australia has participated in every summer Olympic Games of the modern era, and every Commonwealth Games. .Australia hosted the 1956 Summer Olympics in Melbourne and the 2000 Summer Olympics in Sydney, and has ranked among the top six medal-takers since 2000.[116] Australia has also hosted the 1938, 1962, 1982, and 2006 Commonwealth Games.^ The Parliament of the Commonwealth of Australia and Indigenous Peoples 1901-1967 (Research Paper 10 2000-01) .
  • The Parliament of the Commonwealth of Australia and Indigenous Peoples 1901-1967 (Research Paper 10 2000-01) 12 September 2009 5:13 UTC www.aph.gov.au [Source type: Original source]

^ Parliament of the Commonwealth of Australia, Recommendations of Policy in Native Affairs in the Northern Territory by Donald Thomson, Government Printer, Canberra, 1938.
  • The Parliament of the Commonwealth of Australia and Indigenous Peoples 1901-1967 (Research Paper 10 2000-01) 12 September 2009 5:13 UTC www.aph.gov.au [Source type: Original source]

Other major international events held in Australia include the Grand Slam Australian Open tennis tournament, international cricket matches, and the Formula One Australian Grand Prix. The highest-rating television programs include sports coverage such as the summer Olympic Games, State of Origin, and the grand finals of the National Rugby League and Australian Football League.[117]

International rankings

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Australia also has a royal anthem, "God Save the Queen (or King)", which is played in the presence of a member of the Royal family when they are in Australia. In all other appropriate contexts, the national anthem of Australia, "Advance Australia Fair", is played.[118]
  2. ^ English does not have de jure status.[104]
  3. ^ There are minor variations from these three time zones, see Time in Australia.
  4. ^ Australia describes the body of water south of its mainland as the Southern Ocean, rather than the Indian Ocean as defined by the International Hydrographic Organization (IHO). In 2000, a vote of IHO member nations defined the term "Southern Ocean" as applying only to the waters between Antarctica and 60 degrees south latitude.
  5. ^ The Oxford English Dictionary records a first occurrence in 1908, in the form Oss.
  6. ^ Oz is often taken as an oblique reference to the fictional Land of Oz in the film The Wizard of Oz (1939), based on L. Frank Baum's novel The Wonderful Wizard of Oz (1900).[119] Australians' "image of Australia as a 'Land of Oz' is not new, and dedication to it runs deep".[120] The spelling Oz is likely to have been influenced by the 1939 film, though the pronunciation was probably always with a /z/, as it is also for Aussie, sometimes spelt Ozzie.[121] The Baz Luhrmann film Australia (2008) makes repeated reference to The Wizard of Oz, which appeared just before the wartime action of Australia. One reviewer writes: "You even nod with approval at Luhrmann's audacity for cribbing from 'The Wizard of Oz' in his depiction of his Land of Oz, Australia, as a magical place over the rainbow."[122] Some critics have even speculated that Baum was inspired by Australia, in naming the Land of Oz: "In Ozma of Oz (1907) Dorothy gets back to Oz as the result of a storm at sea while she and Uncle Henry are traveling by ship to Australia. So, like Australia, Oz is somewhere to the west of California. Like Australia, Oz is an island continent. Like Australia, Oz has inhabited regions bordering on a great desert. One might almost imagine that Baum intended Oz to be Australia, or perhaps a magical land in the center of the great Australian desert."[123]

References

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  2. ^ "Demonyms, or what do you call a person from ...". The Geography Site. http://www.geography-site.co.uk/pages/countries/demonyms.html. Retrieved 2008-07-25. 
  3. ^ "Population clock". Australian Bureau of Statistics. http://www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/abs@.nsf/94713ad445ff1425ca25682000192af2/1647509ef7e25faaca2568a900154b63?OpenDocument. Retrieved 3 January 2010.  The population estimate shown is automatically calculated daily at 00:00 UTC and is based on data obtained from the population clock on the date shown in the citation.
  4. ^ Australian Bureau of Statistics (25 October 2007). "Australia". 2006 Census QuickStats. http://www.censusdata.abs.gov.au/ABSNavigation/prenav/LocationSearch?collection=Census&period=2006&areacode=0&producttype=QuickStats&breadcrumb=PL&action=401. Retrieved 2008-10-14. 
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  6. ^ Human Development Report 2009. The United Nations. Retrieved 5 October 2009.
  7. ^ Macquarie ABC Dictionary. The Macquarie Library Pty Ltd. 2003. p. 56. ISBN 0 876429 37 2. 
  8. ^ a b "Australia". Encyclopædia Britannica. http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/43654/Australia. Retrieved 2009-08-22.  "Smallest continent and sixth largest country (in area) on Earth, lying between the Pacific and Indian oceans."
  9. ^ a b "Continents: What is a Continent?". National Geographic Society. http://travel.nationalgeographic.com/places/continents/index.html. Retrieved 2009-08-22.  "Most people recognize seven continents—Asia, Africa, North America, South America, Antarctica, Europe, and Australia, from largest to smallest—although sometimes Europe and Asia are considered a single continent, Eurasia."
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  11. ^ Both Australian Aborigines and Europeans Rooted in Africa – 50,000 years ago.
  12. ^ MacKnight, CC (1976). The Voyage to Marege: Macassan Trepangers in Northern Australia. Melbourne University Press.
  13. ^ "Australia: World Audit Democracy Profile". WorldAudit.org. http://www.worldaudit.org/countries/australia.htm. Retrieved 2008-01-05. 
  14. ^ Purchas, vol. iv, pp. 1422–32, 1625. This appears to be variation of the original Spanish "Austrialia" [sic].[1] A copy at the Library of Congress can be read online [2].
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  17. ^ Estensen, Miriam (2002). The Life of Matthew Flinders. Allen & Unwin. p. 354. ISBN 1-74114 152 4. 
  18. ^ Flinder, Matthew (1814). A Voyage to Terra Australis. 
  19. ^ J. J. Bennett, ed (1866–68). "General remarks, geographical and systematical, on the botany of Terra Australis". The Miscellaneous Botanical Works of Robert Brown, Esq., D.C.L., F.R.S.. 2. pp. 1–89. 
  20. ^ Mabberley, David (1985). Jupiter botanicus: Robert Brown of the British Museum. British Museum (Natural History). ISBN 3-7682-1408-7. 
  21. ^ Estensen p. 450.
  22. ^ Weekend Australian, 30–31 December 2000, p. 16
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  24. ^ Gillespie, R. (2002). .Dating the first Australians.^ Dating the first Australians.
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    Radiocarbon 44:455–72; "Dating the First Australians". Ingenta. http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/arizona/rdc/2002/00000044/00000002/art00004. Retrieved 2008-03-18. 
  25. ^ RJW (2004-03-29). "The Birth of the Commonwealth of Nations". Know-britain.com. http://www.know-britain.com/general/commonwealth.html. Retrieved 2009-10-07. 
  26. ^ Convict Records Public Record office of Victoria; State Records Office of Western Australia.
  27. ^ Australian Bureau of Statistics 1998 Special Article—The State of New South Wales.
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  29. ^ "Smallpox Through History". Smallpox Through History. http://encarta.msn.com/media_701508643/Smallpox_Through_History.html. 
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  59. ^ No more drought: it's a "permanent dry"; Australia's epic drought: The situation is grim.
  60. ^ "About Biodiversity". Department of the Environment and Heritage. Archived from the original on 2007-02-05. http://web.archive.org/web/20070205015628/www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/about-biodiversity.html. Retrieved 2007-09-18. 
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  62. ^ "Australia – UNESCO World Heritage Centre". UNESCO World Heritage Centre. Whc.unesco.org. http://whc.unesco.org/en/statesparties/au. Retrieved 2009-09-05. 
  63. ^ "2008 Environmental Performance Index". Yale University. http://epi.yale.edu/Australia. Retrieved 2009-09-05. 
  64. ^ "Snake Bite", The Australian Venom Compendium.
  65. ^ Savolainen, P. et al. 2004. A detailed picture of the origin of the Australian dingo, obtained from the study of mitochondrial DNA. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 101:12387–12390 PMID.
  66. ^ Humans to blame for extinction of Australia's megafauna. The University of Melbourne.
  67. ^ "Additional Thylacine Topics: Persecution". The Thylacine Museum. 2006. http://www.naturalworlds.org/thylacine/additional/persecution/image_6.htm. Retrieved 27 November 2006. ; "National Threatened Species Day". Department of the Environment and Heritage, Australian Government. 2006. http://www.deh.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/ts-day/index.html. Retrieved 21 November 2006. 
  68. ^ Atmosphere: Major issue: climate change, Australian State of the Environment Committee, 2006.
  69. ^ ANU poll finds ‘it’s the environment, stupid’, www.anu.edu.au. Retrieved on 8 January 2008.
  70. ^ Australia Sets Target of 15% Carbon Reduction by 2020, Announces 2010 Carbon Market, www.greencarcongress.com. Retrieved on 8 January 2008.
  71. ^ "Regional Rainfall Trends". Bom.gov.au. http://www.bom.gov.au/climate/change/rerain.shtml. Retrieved 2009-07-08. 
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  75. ^ Melbourne 'world's top city' (2004), The Age. Retrieved on 31 January 2009.
  76. ^ "Liveability ranking: Urban idylls.
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  78. ^ Australia able to avoid recession, BBC News, Wednesday, 3 June 2009.
  79. ^ Macfarlane, I. J. (1998). Australian Monetary Policy in the Last Quarter of the Twentieth Century. Reserve Bank of Australia Bulletin, October.
  80. ^ Parham, D. (2002). Microeconomic reforms and the revival in Australia’s growth in productivity and living standards. Conference of Economists, Adelaide, 1 October.
  81. ^ Australian Bureau of Statistics. .Labour Force Australia.^ Labour Force, Australia .
    • 03_spending_growth 12 September 2009 5:13 UTC www.treasury.gov.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ When the Australia Force was formed, prisons were easily built with slave labour from trained crocodiles (affectionately known to the locals as "salties").
    • Australia - Uncyclopedia, the content-free encyclopedia 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC uncyclopedia.wikia.com [Source type: Original source]

    Cat#6202.0.
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  83. ^ a b c d e Australian Bureau of Statistics. Year Book Australia 2005.
  84. ^ "AUSTRALIA: population growth of the whole country". populstat.info. http://populstat.info/Oceania/australc.htm. Retrieved 2008-07-22.  19th century figures do not include the indigenous population.
  85. ^ The Australian Bureau of Statistics has stated that most who list "Australian" as their ancestry are part of the Anglo-Celtic group. [3]
  86. ^ "20680-Ancestry by Country of Birth of Parents – Time Series Statistics (2001, 2006 Census Years) – Australia". Australian Bureau of Statistics. 27 June 2007. http://www.censusdata.abs.gov.au/ABSNavigation/prenav/ViewData?action=404&documentproductno=0&documenttype=Details&order=1&tabname=Details&areacode=0&issue=2006&producttype=Census%20Tables&javascript=true&textversion=false&navmapdisplayed=true&breadcrumb=LPTD&&collection=Census&period=2006&productlabel=Ancestry%20by%20Country%20of%20Birth%20of%20Parents%20-%20Time%20Series%20Statistics%20(2001,%202006%20Census%20Years)&producttype=Census%20Tables&method=Place%20of%20Usual%20Residence&topic=Ancestry&. Retrieved 2008-12-30. 
  87. ^ "3105.0.65.001—Australian Historical Population Statistics, 2006" (XLS). Australian Bureau of Statistics. 23 May 2006. http://www.abs.gov.au/AUSSTATS/abs@.nsf/DetailsPage/3105.0.65.0012006?OpenDocument. Retrieved 2007-09-18. "Australian population: (1919) 5,080,912; (2006) 20,209,993" 
  88. ^ "Background note: Australia". US Department of State. http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/2698.htm. Retrieved 2007-05-19. 
  89. ^ a b Australian Immigration Fact Sheet.
  90. ^ Australian Population: Ethnic Origins.
  91. ^ "The Evolution of Australia's Multicultural Policy". Department of Immigration and Multicultural and Indigenous Affairs. 2005. Archived from the original on 2006-02-19. http://web.archive.org/web/20060219130703/http://www.immi.gov.au/facts/06evolution.htm. Retrieved 2007-09-18. 
  92. ^ Settler numbers on the rise.
  93. ^ Inflow of foreign-born population by country of birth, by year; Australian Immigration Fact Sheet 20. Migration Programme Planning Levels.
  94. ^ Immigration intake to rise to 300,000, 11/06/2008.
  95. ^ 300,000 skilled workers needed – Evans.
  96. ^ The Beach, www.cultureandrecreation.gov.au. Retrieved on 31 January 2009.
  97. ^ "1301.0 – Year Book Australia, 2004". Australian Bureau of Statistics. 27 February 2004. http://www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/abs@.nsf/Previousproducts/1301.0Feature%20Article52004?opendocument&tabname=Summary&prodno=1301.0&issue=2004&num=&view=. Retrieved 24 April 2009. 
  98. ^ "4705.0 – Population Distribution, Indigenous Australians, 2001". Australian Bureau of Statistics. 26 June 2002. http://www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/abs@.nsf/ProductsbyReleaseDate/2315409AD11513DFCA2573370013F824?OpenDocument. Retrieved 24 April 2009. 
  99. ^ Stephen Lunn (26 November 2008). "Life gap figures not black and white". The Australian. http://www.theaustralian.news.com.au/story/0,25197,24708205-601,00.html. Retrieved 24 April 2009. 
  100. ^ Joel Gibson (10 April 2009). "Indigenous health gap closes by five years". The Sydney Morning Herald. http://www.smh.com.au/text/articles/2009/04/09/1239222992443.html. Retrieved 24 April 2009. 
  101. ^ Michelle Grattan (8 December 2006). "Australia hides a 'failed state'". The Age. http://www.theage.com.au/news/national/australia-hides-a-failed-state/2006/12/07/1165081088385.html. Retrieved 17 October 2008. 
    "Extract: Dear Mr Rudd". Safecom. http://www.safecom.org.au/dear-mr-rudd.htm. Retrieved 2008-10-17.  (3rd last paragraph).
  102. ^ Parliament of Australia, Parliamentary Library (2005). Australia’s aging workforce.
  103. ^ Parliament of Australia, Senate (2005). Inquiry into Australian Expatriates.
  104. ^ a b "Pluralist Nations: Pluralist Language Policies?". 1995 Global Cultural Diversity Conference Proceedings, Sydney. Department of Immigration and Citizenship. http://www.immi.gov.au/media/publications/multicultural/confer/04/speech18b.htm. Retrieved 2009-01-11.  "English has no de jure status but it is so entrenched as the common language that it is de facto the official language as well as the national language."
  105. ^ "National Indigenous Languages Survey Report 2005". Department of Communications, Information Technology and the Arts. http://www.arts.gov.au/indigenous/national_indigenous_languages_survey_report_2005. Retrieved 2009-09-05. 
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  107. ^ NCLS releases latest estimates of church attendance, National Church Life Survey, Media release, 28 February 2004.
  108. ^ Morris, Lindy. God's OK, it's just the religion bit we don't like (2008), Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved on 5 January 2008.
  109. ^ Education at Glance 2005 by OECD: Percentage of foreign students in tertiary education.
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  112. ^ Jo Chichester (2007). "Return of the Kelly Gang". The UNESCO Courier. UNESCO. http://portal.unesco.org/en/ev.php-URL_ID=37899&URL_DO=DO_TOPIC&URL_SECTION=201.html. Retrieved 2009-02-01. 
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  122. ^ " 'Australia' too big to be controlled", The Salt Lake Tribune.
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Bibliography

  • Denoon, Donald, et al. (2000). A History of Australia, New Zealand, and the Pacific. Oxford: Blackwell. ISBN 0631179623.
  • Hughes, Robert (1986). The Fatal Shore: The Epic of Australia's Founding. Knopf. ISBN 0394506685.
  • Macintyre, Stuart (2000). A Concise History of Australia. Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521623596.
  • Powell JM (1988). An Historical Geography of Modern Australia: The Restive Fringe. Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521256194.
  • Robinson GM, Loughran RJ, and Tranter PJ (2000) Australia and New Zealand: economy, society and environment. London: Arnold; NY: OUP; 0-340-72033-6 paper 0-340-72032-8 hard).

External links

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From Wikiquote

The Commonwealth of Australia is a country in the southern hemisphere comprising the mainland of the world's smallest continent, the major island of Tasmania and a number of other islands in the Indian and Pacific Oceans.

Contents

Sourced

In joyful strains then let us sing,
"Advance Australia fair!"
  • Earth is here so kind, that just tickle her with a hoe and she laughs with a harvest.
  • Do you come from a land down under?
    Where women glow and men plunder?
    Can't you hear, can't you hear the thunder?
    You better run, you better take cover.
  • I'd move to Los Angeles if New Zealand and Australia were swallowed up by a tidal wave, if there was a bubonic plague in England and if the continent of Africa disappeared from some Martian attack.
  • So without an original or helpful thought in my head, I just sat for some minutes and watched these poor disconnected people shuffle past. Then I did what most white Australians do. I read my newspaper and drank my coffee and didn't see them anymore.
    • Bill Bryson, In a Sunburned Country (US) / Down Under (UK) (2000), on the topic of Aboriginals.
  • Well, I didn't ever think about Australia much. To me Australia had never been very interesting, it was just something that happened in the background. It was Neighbours and Crocodile Dundee movies and things that never really registered with me and I didn't pay any attention to it at all. I went out there in 1992, as I was invited to the Melbourne Writers Festival, and I got there and realised almost immediately that this was a really really interesting country and I knew absolutely nothing about it. As I say in the book, the thing that really struck me was that they had this prime minister who disappeared in 1967, Harold Holt and I had never heard about this. I should perhaps tell you because a lot of other people haven't either. In 1967 Harold Holt was prime minister and he was walking along a beach in Victoria just before Christmas and decided impulsively to go for a swim and dove into the water and swam about 100 feet out and vanished underneath the waves, presumably pulled under by the ferocious undertow or rips as they are called, that are a feature of so much of the Australian coastline. In any case, his body was never found. Two things about that amazed me. The first is that a country could just lose a prime minister — that struck me as a really quite special thing to do — and the second was that I had never heard of this. I could not recall ever having heard of this. I was sixteen years old in 1967. I should have known about it and I just realised that there were all these things about Australia that I had never heard about that were actually very very interesting. The more I looked into it, the more I realised that it is a fascinating place. The thing that really endeared Australia to me about Harold Holt's disappearance was not his tragic drowning, but when I learned that about a year after he disappeared the City of Melbourne, his home town, decided to commemorate him in some appropriate way and named a municipal swimming pool after him. I just thought: this is a great country.
  • AUSTRALIA, n. A country lying in the South Sea, whose industrial and commercial development has been unspeakably retarded by an unfortunate dispute among geographers as to whether it is a continent or an island.
  • Traditionally, most of Australia's imports come from overseas.
    • Keppel Enderbery.

Dialogue

Man in Black: You've made your decision then?
Vizzini: Not remotely. Because iocane comes from Australia, as everyone knows. And Australia is entirely peopled with criminals. And criminals are used to having people not trust them, as you are not trusted by me. So I can clearly not choose the wine in front of you.
Man in Black: Truly you have a dizzying intellect.
Vizzini: Wait 'til I get going... where was I?
Man in Black: Australia.
Vizzini: Yes, Australia, and you must have suspected I would have known the powder's origin, so I can clearly not choose the wine in front of me.

Television Commercials

Paul Hogan: America, you look like you need a holiday, a fair dinkum holiday. You'll have to learn to say g'day. 'Cause every day's a good day in Australia.
Woman: G'day, Paul.
Paul Hogan: G'day, love. You'll have to get used to the local customs like getting a sun tan in a restaurant, playing football without a helmet, and calling everyone 'mate'. Thanks, mate.
Barman: She's right, mate.
Paul Hogan: Apart from that, no worries. You'll have the time of your life in Australia. Come on, come and say g'day. I'll slip an extra shrimp on the barbie for you.

Attributed

  • Don't worry about the world coming to an end today. It is already tomorrow in Australia.”
  • God bless America. God save the Queen. God defend New Zealand and thank Christ for Australia.

External links

Wikipedia
Wikipedia has an article about:

Travel guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikitravel

Oceania : Australia
Contents
Location
Flag
Image:As-flag.png
Quick Facts
Capital Canberra, ACT
Government Parliamentary democracy (federal constitutional monarchy)
Currency Australian Dollar (AUD$)
Area 7,686,850 km2
Population 21,234,176 (July 2007 est.)
Language English
Electricity 230V/50Hz (Plug Type I)
Calling Code +61
Internet TLD .au
Time Zone UTC +8 to +10
Australia [1] is the only country that has a whole continent itself. World famous for its natural wonders and wide open spaces, its beaches, deserts, "the bush", and "the Outback", Australia is actually one of the world's most highly urbanised countries. It is also well known for the cosmopolitan attractions of its large cities such as Sydney, Melbourne, Brisbane and Perth.

Understand

Geography

Australia is the world's smallest continent but sixth-largest country; it's slightly smaller than the 48 contiguous United States. The highly urbanised population is heavily concentrated along the eastern and south-eastern coasts. Australia is bordered on the northwest, west, and southwest by the Indian Ocean, and on the east by the South Pacific Ocean. The Tasman Sea lies to the southeast, separating it from New Zealand, while the Great Barrier Reef lies to the northeast. Papua New Guinea, East Timor and Indonesia are Australia's northern neighbours, separated from Australia by the Arafura Sea and the Timor Sea.
Australia has an area of 7,682,300 square kilometres (2,966,152 sq mi). Many travellers underestimate the distances between cities and towns.
Australia has large areas that have been deforested for agricultural purposes: forest areas survive in extensive national parks and some other areas.

Climate

As a large continent a wide variation of climates are found across Australia. The north is hot and tropical, while south tends to sub-tropical and temperate. Most rainfall is around the coast, and much of the centre is arid and semi-arid. The daytime maximum temperatures in Darwin rarely drop below 30°C (86°F), even in winter, while night temperatures in winter usually hover around 15-20°C. Temperatures in some southern regions can drop below freezing in winter and the Snowy Mountains in the South East experiences metres of winter snow. Parts of Tasmania have a temperature range very similar to England.
As Australia is in the southern hemisphere, the timing of the seasons is reversed with respect to Europe and North America. June-August is winter in Australia while December-February is summer. The winter is the dry season in the tropics, and the summer is the wet. On the other hand, in the southern parts of the country, the summer tends to be hot and dry with temperatures sometimes climbing as high as 45°C, while winters tend to be much cooler (5-20°C) and is when most of the rain falls. The seasons start at the beginning of the months rather than on the solstices. Christmas falls in the summer in Australia.
Summer tends to be the peak travel season through much of the south, with the winter (dry) season the peak travel season in the tropics, although most attractions remain open year-round.
Much of Australia is prone to severe drought, especially during the summer months.

History

The continent of Australia was first settled more than 40,000 years ago with successive waves of immigration of Aboriginal peoples from south and south-east Asia. With rising sea levels after the last Ice Age, Australia became largely isolated from the rest of the world and the Aboriginal tribes developed a variety of cultures, based on a close (spiritual) relationship with the land and nature, and extended kinship. Australian aboriginal people maintained a hunter-gatherer culture for thousands of years in association with a complex artistic and cultural life - including a very rich 'story-telling' tradition. While the 'modern impression' of Australian Aboriginal people is largely built around an image of the 'desert people' who have adapted to some of the harshest conditions on the planet (equivalent to the bushmen of the Kalahari), Australia provided a 'comfortable living' for the bulk of the Aboriginal people amongst the bountiful flora and fauna on the Australian coast - until the arrival of Europeans.
Although a lucrative Chinese market for shells and beche de mere had encouraged Indonesian fishermen to visit Northern Australia for centuries it was unknown to Europeans until the 1600's, when Dutch traders to Asia began to 'bump' into the Western Coast. Early Dutch impressions of this extremely harsh, dry country were unfavourable, and Australia remained for them something simply a road sign pointing north to the much richer (and lucrative) East Indies (modern Indonesia). Deliberate exploration of the Australian coast was then largely taken over by the French and the British. Consequently place names of bays, headlands and rivers around the coastline reflect a range of Dutch, French, British, and Aboriginal languages.
In 1770, the expedition of the Endeavour under the command of Captain James Cook navigated and charted the east coast of Australia, making first landfall at Botany Bay on 29 Apr 1770. Cook continued northwards, and before leaving put ashore on Possession Island in the Torres Strait off Cape York on 22 Aug 1770. Here he formally claimed the eastern coastline he had discovered for the British Crown, naming it New South Wales. Given that Cook's discoveries would lead to the first European settlement of Australia, he is often popularly conceived as its European discoverer, although he had been preceded by more than 160 years.
Following the exploration period, the first wave of British settlers came to Australia in 1788, starting a process of colonisation that almost entirely displaced the Aboriginal people who inhabited the land. This reduced indigenous populations drastically and marginalised them to the fringes of society.
While Australia began its modern history as a British penal colony, the vast majority of people who came to Australia after 1788 were free settlers, mainly from Britain and Ireland, but also from other European countries. Convict settlements were along the east coast, Adelaide (settled in 1836) and Perth being settled by free settlers. Many Asian and Eastern European people also came to Australia in the 1850s, during the Gold Rush that started Australia's first resource boom. Although such diverse immigration diminished greatly during the xenophobic years of the White Australia policy, Australia welcomed a successive series of immigration from Europe, the Mediterranean and later Asia to formulate a highly diverse and multicultural society by the late 20th century.
The system of separate colonies federated to form the self-governing British dominion of Australia in 1901, each colony now becoming a state of Australia, with New Zealand opting out of the federation. The new country was able to take advantage of its natural resources to rapidly develop its agricultural and manufacturing industries and made a proportionally huge contribution (considering its small size of population) to the Allied war effort in World Wars I and II. Australian troops also made a valuable, if sometimes controversial, contribution to the wars in Korea, Vietnam and Iraq. Australian Diggers retain a reputation as some of the hardest fighting troops along with a great social spirit. Australia ended all constitutional links with the United Kingdom in 1986, with both the British and Australian parliaments passing the Australia Act, though the British queen retained her position as the head of state, with an appointed Governor-General as her representative in Australia.
Government in Australia is based on a federal system (with States and a National Governments) similar to the USA, but these Governments follow a British model, with two elected houses (similar to the US House and Senate) with an unelected representative of the Queen of The United Kingdom in the (notionally powerless) executive position 'above' the parliament. A referendum to change Australia's status to a republic was narrowly defeated in 1999.
Long-term Australian concerns include salinity, pollution, loss of biodiversity, and management and conservation of coastal areas, especially the Great Barrier Reef.
Most of the population is concentrated in the south-east of the country, to the east of the Great Dividing Range. Most of the inland and western areas of the country are at best semi-habitable desert, known as the Outback. The most-inhabited states are Victoria and New South Wales, but by far the largest in land area is Western Australia.

Culture

Broadly speaking, Australian culture closely resembles that of the United Kingdom. Contrary to popular mythology, descendants from convicts are in a small minority, and even during the years of transportation free settlers outnumbered convict migrants by at least five to one.
Australia also has a large multicultural population from various nations and practicing almost every religion and lifestyle. Over one-fifth of Australians were born to immigrant parents. The most multicultural cities are Melbourne and Sydney. Both cities are renowned for the variety and quality of global foods available in their many restaurants, and Melbourne especially promotes itself as a centre for the arts. Smaller rural settlements generally still reflect a majority Anglo-Celtic monoculture (often with a small Aboriginal population), however virtually every large Australian city and town reflects the immigration from Europe, Asia, the Middle East and the Pacific that occurred after World War II and continued into the 1970s; in the half century after the war when Australia's population boomed from roughly 7 million to just over 20 million people.
There are approximately half a million Australians who identify as being of Aboriginal descent. Many fewer maintain elements of traditional Aboriginal culture.
Australian English was once known for its colour and colloquialisms but has lost a great deal of this to outside influence, although people in rural areas still tend to speak in a broader accent, using many of the slang words that have become outmoded in metropolitan areas. There is very little provincialism in Australia and although accents tend to be broader and slower outside of the large cities.
Australians can be socially conservative compared to some European cultures, and most resemble Canadians or New Zealanders in their political outlook. They tend to be relaxed in their religious observance. While the mythic Australian sense egalitarianism has declined in economic terms, modes of address still tend to be casual and familiar compared to some other cultures. Most Australians irrespective of socioeconomic status will tend to address you by your first name and will expect that you do the same to them.

Holidays

The national holidays in Australia are:
  • January 1: New Years' Day
  • January 26: Australia Day, marking the anniversary of the First Fleet's landing in Sydney Cove in 1788.
  • Easter weekend ("Good Friday", "Easter Saturday", "Easter Sunday" and "Easter Monday"): a four day long weekend in March or April set according to the Western Christian dates.
  • April 25: ANZAC Day, honouring military veterans
  • Second Monday in June: Queen's birthday holiday (celebrated in Western Australia in September)(WA observes Foundation Day a week earlier)
  • December 25: Christmas Day
  • December 26: Boxing Day
Many states observe Labour Day, but on completely separate days. Most states have one or two addition