The Full Wiki

Australian Open: Wikis

  
  

Note: Many of our articles have direct quotes from sources you can cite, within the Wikipedia article! This article doesn't yet, but we're working on it! See more info or our list of citable articles.

Encyclopedia

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Australian Open
Australian Open.jpg
Official web
Location Melbourne
 Australia
Venue Melbourne Park
Surface Plexicushion Prestige
Men's draw 128S / 128Q / 64D
Women's draw 128S / 96Q / 64D
Prize money A$ 23,140,000 (2009)[1]
Grand Slam
Current
Current competition 2010 Australian Open

The Australian Open is the first of the four Grand Slam tennis tournaments held each year. The tournament is held each January at Melbourne Park. The tournament was held for the first time in 1905 and was contested on grass from then up to 1987. Since 1988, the tournament has been held on hard courts at Melbourne Park. Mats Wilander is the only male player to have won the tournament on both grass and hard courts.

Like all other Grand Slam tournaments, there are men's and women's singles competitions; men's, women's, and mixed doubles; and junior's and master's competitions.

The two main courts used in the tournament are Rod Laver Arena and Hisense Arena and feature retractable roofs, which can be shut in case of rain or extreme heat. The Australian Open and Wimbledon are the only Slams with indoor play.

Held in the middle of the Australian summer, the Australian Open is famous for its notoriously hot days. An extreme-heat policy is put into play when temperatures (and humidity) reach dangerous levels.

The Australian Open typically has very high attendance, with the 2009 Australian Open achieving the highest ever single-day day/night attendance record for any Grand Slam tournament of 66,018.[2] The event is worth around £38 million to the Australian economy.[3]

In 2008, the Rebound Ace surface, which had been in place for the past 20 years at Melbourne Park, was replaced by a cushioned, medium-paced,[4] acrylic surface known as Plexicushion Prestige. The main benefits of the new surface are better consistency and less retention of heat (because of a thinner top layer). This change was accompanied by changes in the surfaces of all lead-up tournaments to the Australian Open. The change was controversial, primarily because of the new surface's similarity to DecoTurf, the surface already being used by the US Open.

The singles winners in 2009 were Rafael Nadal and Serena Williams. In men's doubles, the winners were Bob and Mike Bryan, and in women's doubles, the winners were Serena and Venus Williams - the very first time in history that both doubles titles had been won by siblings. In mixed doubles, the winners were Sania Mirza and Mahesh Bhupathi.

Contents

History

Margaret Court Arena at the Australian Open with the old Rebound Ace surface. Rod Laver Arena, the centre court, in the background.
Rod Laver Arena, Melbourne Park, Melbourne. The main location of play.

The Australian Open is managed by Tennis Australia, formerly the Lawn Tennis Association of Australia (LTAA), and was first played at the Warehouseman's Cricket Ground in St Kilda Road, Melbourne in 1905. This facility is now known as Albert Reserve Tennis Centre.[5]

The tournament was first known as The Australasian Championships and then became the Australian Championships in 1927 and the Australian Open in 1969.[6] Since 1905, the Australian Open has been staged in five Australian and two New Zealand cities as follows: Melbourne (54 times), Sydney (17 times), Adelaide (14 times), Brisbane (7 times), Perth (3 times), Christchurch (in 1906), and Hastings (in 1912).[6] In 1972, when it was decided to stage the tournament in the same city each year, the Kooyong Lawn Tennis Club was selected because Melbourne attracted the biggest patronage.[5]

Melbourne Park (formerly Flinders Park) was constructed in time for the 1988 tournament to meet the demands of the evolving tournament that had outgrown Kooyong's capacity. The move to Melbourne Park was an immediate success, with a 90 percent increase in attendance in 1988 (266,436) on the previous year at Kooyong (140,000).[7]

Because of its geographic remoteness very few foreign players entered this tournament at the beginning. In the 1920s, the trip by ship from Europe to Australia took about 45 days. The first tennis players who came by aircraft were the U.S. Davis Cup players in November 1946.[7] Even inside the country, many players could not travel easily. When the tournament was held in Perth, no persons from Victoria or New South Wales crossed by train, a distance of approximately 3,000 kilometres between the east and west coasts. In Christchurch in 1906, of a small field of 10 players, only two Australians attended, and the tournament was won by a New Zealander.[8]

The first tournaments of the Australasian Championships suffered from the competition of the other Australasian tournaments, and before 1905 all Australian states and New Zealand had their own championships, the first being organised in 1880 in Melbourne and called the Championship of the Colony of Victoria (later became the Championship of Victoria).[9]. In those years the best two players by far - the Australian Norman Brookes (whose name is now written on the men's singles cup) and the New Zealander Anthony Wilding - almost did not play this tournament. Brookes came once and won in 1911 and Wilding entered and won the competition twice (1906 and 1909). Their meetings in the Victorian Championships (or at Wimbledon) were the summits that helped to determine the best Australasian players. Even when the Australasian Championships were held in Hastings, New Zealand, in 1912, Wilding, though three times Wimbledon champion, did not come back to his home country. It was a recurring problem for all players of the era. Brookes went to Europe only three times, where he reached the Wimbledon Challenge Round once and then won Wimbledon twice. Thus, many players had never played the Austral(as)ian amateur or open championships: the Renshaws, the Dohertys, William Larned, Maurice McLoughlin, Beals Wright, Bill Johnston, Bill Tilden, René Lacoste, Henri Cochet, Bobby Riggs, Jack Kramer, Ted Schroeder, Pancho Gonzales, Budge Patty, Manuel Santana, Jan Kodes and others, while Brookes, Ellsworth Vines, Jaroslav Drobny, Manuel Orantes, Ilie Năstase at 35 years old, and Björn Borg came just once.

Beginning in 1969, when the first Australian Open was held on the Milton Courts at Brisbane, the tournament was open to all players, including professionals who were not allowed to play the traditional circuit.[10] Nevertheless, except for the 1969 and 1971 tournaments, many of the best players missed this championship until 1982, because of the remoteness, the inconvenient dates (around Christmas and New Year's Day), and the low prize money — in 1970 the National Tennis League (NTL), which employed Rod Laver, Ken Rosewall, Andres Gimeno, Pancho Gonzales, Roy Emerson and Fred Stolle, prevented its players from entering the tournament because the guarantees were insufficient, and the tournament was ultimately won by Arthur Ashe.[11]

In 1983, Ivan Lendl, John McEnroe, and Mats Wilander entered the tournament. Wilander won the singles title,[12] and subsequently both his Davis Cup singles rubbers in the Swedish loss to Australia at Kooyong shortly after.[13] Following the 1983 Australian Open, the International Tennis Federation prompted the Lawn Tennis Association of Australia to change the site of the tournament, because the Kooyong stadium was then inappropriate to serve such a big event, and in 1988 the tournament was first held at Flinders Park (later renamed Melbourne Park) on Rebound Ace.[14]

Before the Melbourne Park stadium era, tournament dates fluctuated as well, in particular in the early years because of the climate of each site or exceptional events. For example, just after World War I, the 1919 tournament was held in January 1920 (the 1920 tournament was played in March) and the 1923 tournament in Brisbane took place in August when the weather was not too hot and wet. After a first 1977 tournament was held in December 1976 – January 1977, the organisers chose to move the next tournament forward a few days, then a second 1977 tournament was played (ended on 31 December) but this failed to attract the best players. From 1982 to 1985, the tournament was played in mid-December, then it was decided to move the next tournament to mid-January (January 1987), thus there was no tournament in 1986. Since 1987, the Australian Open date has not changed. However, some top players, including Roger Federer and Rafael Nadal, have said that the tournament is held too soon after the Christmas and New Year holidays, thus preventing players from reaching their best form, and expressed a desire to shift it to February.[15]

Another change of venue was proposed in 2008, with New South Wales authorities making clear their desire to bid for hosting rights to the tournament once Melbourne's contract expires in 2016. The proposed relocation is to Glebe Island in Sydney. In response, Wayne Kayler-Thomson, the head of the Victorian Events Industry Council, was adamant that Melbourne should retain the event, and, in a scathing attack of the New South Wales authorities, said, "It is disappointing that NSW cannot be original and seek their own events instead of trying to cannibalise other Australian cities."[3] Since the proposal was made, a major redevelopment of Melbourne Park has been announced, which is expected to run into the hundreds of millions of dollars. Melbourne Park will include ugraded and increased seating in major venues, a roof over Margaret Court Arena, improved player facilities, a new headquarters for Tennis Australia, and a partly covered "town square" area featuring large televisions showing current tennis play.[16]

Panorama of Margaret Court Arena during the 2008 Australian Open.

Recent attendances

Trophies and prize money

Names of the winners are inscribed on the perpetual trophy Cups.

  • The Women's Singles winner is presented with the Daphne Akhurst Memorial Cup.
  • The Men's Singles winner is presented with the Norman Brookes Challenge Cup.

In 2009, the prize money awarded in the men's and women's singles tournaments was equal and distributed as follows:[20]

  • 1st Round: A$19,400
  • 2nd Round: A$31,000
  • 3rd Round: A$51,000
  • 4th Round: A$88,000
  • Quarterfinalists: A$182,250
  • Semifinalists: A$365,000
  • Runners-up: A$1,000,000
  • Winners: A$2,000,000 (approx GBP£981,700; approx EUR€1,134,200; approx US$1,607,000)

Champions

Main articles listed by event:

Current champions

Event Champion Runner-up Score
2009 Men's Singles Spain Rafael Nadal Switzerland Roger Federer 7–5, 3–6, 7–6(3), 3–6, 6–2
2009 Women's Singles United States Serena Williams Russia Dinara Safina 6–0, 6–3
2009 Men's Doubles United States Bob Bryan
United States Mike Bryan
India Mahesh Bhupathi
The Bahamas Mark Knowles
2–6, 7–5, 6–0
2009 Women's Doubles United States Serena Williams
United States Venus Williams
Slovakia Daniela Hantuchová
Japan Ai Sugiyama
6–3, 6–3
2009 Mixed Doubles India Sania Mirza
India Mahesh Bhupathi
France Nathalie Dechy
Israel Andy Ram
6–3, 6–1

Records

Unlike the other three Grand Slam tournaments, which became open in 1968, the Australian tournament opened to professionals in 1969. Thus, the records here break at the 1969 tournament. Citations for these records.[21]

Record Open Era* Player(s) Count Years
Men since 1905
Winner of most
Men's Singles titles
Before 1969: Australia Roy Emerson 6 1961, 1963, 1964, 1965, 1966, 1967
After 1968: United States Andre Agassi 4 1995, 2000, 2001, 2003
Winner of most
consecutive
Men's Singles titles
Before 1969: Australia Roy Emerson 5 1963, 1964, 1965, 1966, 1967
After 1968: Australia Ken Rosewall
Argentina Guillermo Vilas
South Africa Johan Kriek
Sweden Mats Wilander
Sweden Stefan Edberg
Czechoslovakia Ivan Lendl
United States Jim Courier
United States Andre Agassi
Switzerland Roger Federer
2 1971, 1972
1978, 1979
1981, 1982
1983, 1984
1985, 1987[22]
1989, 1990
1992, 1993
2000, 2001
2004, 2006, 2007
Winner of most
Men's Doubles titles
Before 1969: Australia Adrian Quist 10 1936, 1937, 1938, 1939, 1940, 1946, 1947, 1948, 1949, 1950
After 1968: Australia Mark Edmondson 4 1980, 1981, 1983, 1984
Winner of most
consecutive
Men's Doubles titles
Before 1969: Australia Adrian Quist 10 1936, 1937, 1938, 1939, 1940, 1946, 1947, 1948, 1949, 1950[23]
After 1968: Australia Mark Edmondson
Australia Kim Warwick
Australia Mark Edmondson
United States Rick Leach
United States Jim Pugh
France Fabrice Santoro
France Michael Llodra
United States Bob Bryan
United States Mike Bryan
2 1980, 1981
1980, 1981
1983, 1984
1988, 1989
1988, 1989
2003, 2004
2003, 2004
2006, 2007
2006, 2007
Winner of most
Mixed Doubles titles -
Men
Before 1969: Australia Harry Hopman
Australia Colin Long
4 1930, 1936, 1937, 1939
1940, 1946, 1947, 1948
After 1968: United States Jim Pugh 3 1988, 1989, 1990
Winner of most
Championships (total:
singles, men's doubles,
mixed doubles) - Men
Before 1969: Australia Adrian Quist 13 1936-1950 (3 singles, 10 men's doubles, 0 mixed doubles)
After 1968: Australia Mark Edmondson
United States Jim Pugh
United States Rick Leach
5 1976-1984 (1 singles, 4 men's doubles)
1988-1990 (2 men's doubles, 3 mixed doubles)
1988-2000 (3 men's doubles, 2 mixed doubles)
Women since 1922
Winner of most
Women's Singles titles
Before 1969: Australia Margaret Court 7 1960, 1961, 1962, 1963, 1964, 1965, 1966
After 1968: Australia Margaret Court
Australia Evonne Goolagong Cawley
Germany Steffi Graf
Yugoslavia/Yugoslavia/United States Monica Seles
United States Serena Williams
4 1969, 1970, 1971, 1973
1974, 1975, 1976, 1977
1988, 1989, 1990, 1994
1991, 1992, 1993, 1996
2003, 2005, 2007, 2009
Winner of most
consecutive
Women's Singles titles
Before 1969: Australia Margaret Court 7 1960, 1961, 1962, 1963, 1964, 1965, 1966
After 1968: Australia Margaret Court
Australia Evonne Goolagong Cawley
Germany Steffi Graf
Yugoslavia/Yugoslavia/United States Monica Seles
Switzerland Martina Hingis
3 1969, 1970, 1971
1974, 1975, 1976
1988, 1989, 1990
1991, 1992, 1993
1997, 1998, 1999
Winner of most
Women's Doubles titles
Before 1969: Australia Thelma Coyne Long 12 1936, 1937, 1938, 1939, 1940, 1947, 1948, 1949, 1951, 1952, 1956, 1958
After 1968: Czechoslovakia/United States Martina Navrátilová 8 1980, 1982, 1983, 1984, 1985, 1987, 1988, 1989
Winner of most consecutive
Women's Doubles titles
Before 1969: Australia Thelma Coyne Long
Australia Nancye Wynne Bolton
5 1936, 1937, 1938, 1939, 1940
1936, 1937, 1938, 1939, 1940
After 1968: Czechoslovakia/United States Martina Navrátilová
United States Pam Shriver
7 1982, 1983, 1984, 1985, 1987, 1988, 1989
1982, 1983, 1984, 1985, 1987, 1988, 1989
Winner of most
Mixed Doubles titles -
Women
Before 1969: Australia Daphne Akhurst Cozens
Australia Nell Hall Hopman
Australia Nancye Wynne Bolton
Australia Thelma Coyne Long
4 1924, 1925, 1928, 1929
1930, 1936, 1937, 1939
1940, 1946, 1947, 1948
1951, 1952, 1954, 1955
After 1968: Czechoslovakia Jana Novotná
Latvia Larisa Savchenko Neiland
2 1988, 1989
1994, 1996
Winner of most
Championships (total:
singles, women's doubles,
mixed doubles) - Women
Before 1969: Australia Nancye Wynne Bolton 20 1936-1952 (6 singles, 10 women's doubles, 4 mixed doubles)
After 1968: Czechoslovakia/United States Martina Navrátilová 12 1980-2003 (3 singles, 8 women's doubles, 1 mixed doubles)
Miscellaneous
Youngest winner Men's singles: Australia Ken Rosewall 18 years and 2 months (1953)
Men's doubles: Australia Lew Hoad 18 years and 2 months (1953)
Women's doubles: Croatia Mirjana Lucic 15 years and 10 months (1998)
Women's singles: Switzerland Martina Hingis 16 years and 4 months (1997)
Oldest winner Men's singles: Australia Ken Rosewall 37 years and 8 months (1972)
Men's doubles: Australia Norman Brookes 46 years and 2 months (1924)
Women's doubles: Australia Thelma Coyne Long 37 years and 7 months (1956)
Women's singles: Australia Thelma Coyne Long 35 years and 8 months (1954)
Mixed doubles (men): Australia Horace Rice 52 years (1923)
Mixed doubles (women): United States Martina Navratilova 46 years and 3 months (2003)

References

[24] [25]

  1. ^ "Pay increase for AO winners". Australian Open. 11 January 2009. http://www.australianopen.com/en_AU/news/articles/2009-01-11/200901111231620819062.html. Retrieved 2009-01-17.  
  2. ^ a b Australian Open 2009 - the final word
  3. ^ a b "Sydney plans Australian Open bid". BBC News. 2008-10-11. http://news.bbc.co.uk/sport1/hi/tennis/7665088.stm. Retrieved 2008-10-11.  
  4. ^ List of Classified Court Surfaces
  5. ^ a b "Australian Tennis Open History". Jazzsports. http://www.jazzsports.com/tennis-odds-grand-slam-events/australian-open-tennis-odds/australian-open-tennis-history.php. Retrieved 2008-01-22.  
  6. ^ a b Tristan Foenander. "History of the Australian Open – the Grand Slam of Asia/Pacific". Australian Open. http://www.australianopen.com/en_AU/event_guide/history.html. Retrieved 2008-01-22.  
  7. ^ a b Frank Cook (14 February 2008). "Open began as Aussie closed shop". The Daily Telegraph. news.com.au. http://www.news.com.au/dailytelegraph/story/0,22049,23049738-5015682,00.html. Retrieved 2008-01-22.  
  8. ^ "Anthony Frederick Wilding "Tony"". International Tennis Hall of Fame. http://www.tennisfame.com/famer.aspx?pgID=867&hof_id=100. Retrieved 2008-02-01.  
  9. ^ "History of Tennis - From humble beginnings". Tennis Australia. http://www.tennis.com.au/pages/default.aspx?id=21&pageId=878. Retrieved 2008-01-25.  
  10. ^ "Milton Tennis Centre". Australian Stadiums. http://www.austadiums.com/stadiums/special/milton.php. Retrieved 2008-01-25.  
  11. ^ Nikki Tugwell (14 January 2008). "Hewitt chases amazing slam win". The Daily Telegraph. news.com.au. http://www.news.com.au/dailytelegraph/story/0,22049,23047855-5001023,00.html. Retrieved 2008-01-25.  
  12. ^ Alan Trengove. "Australian Open 1983". wilandertribute.com. http://www.wilandertribute.com/22.html. Retrieved 2008-02-19.  
  13. ^ "World Group 1983 Final". Davis Cup. http://www.daviscup.com/results/tieresult.asp?tie=10000700. Retrieved 2008-02-19.  
  14. ^ "Rebound Ace under review". The Daily Telegraph. news.com.au. 29 January 2007. http://www.news.com.au/dailytelegraph/story/0,22049,21131668-5001023,00.html. Retrieved 2008-02-19.  
  15. ^ "Rafael Nadal keen to call time on early slam". Herald Sun. 2009-01-17. http://www.news.com.au/heraldsun/story/0,21985,24922806-3162,00.html. Retrieved 2009-09-18.  
  16. ^ "Brumby Government announces Melbourne Park redevelopment". Herald Sun. 2009-01-26. http://www.news.com.au/heraldsun/story/0,21985,24964166-661,00.html. Retrieved 2009-04-22.  
  17. ^ "The Australian Open - History of Attendance" (PDF). Australian Open. http://www.australianopen.com/en_AU/event_guide/attendance_history.pdf. Retrieved 2008-01-30.  
  18. ^ "AO 2007: The Final Word". Tennis Australia. http://www.tennisaustralia.com.au/pages/News.aspx?id=4&pageId=11478&HandlerId=2&archive=false&newsid=2696. Retrieved 2008-01-25.  
  19. ^ "Safin credits Lundgren for resurgence". Sports Illustrated. CNN. 30 January 2005. http://sportsillustrated.cnn.com/2005/tennis/specials/australian_open/2005/01/30/notebook.sunday.ap/. Retrieved 2008-01-25.  
  20. ^ Prize Money
  21. ^ "Australian History and Records". TennisTours.com. http://www.tennistours.com/event_pages/australian/history.asp. Retrieved 2009-01-17.  
  22. ^ In 1986 there was no Australian Open held
  23. ^ From 1941 through 1945, no Australian Championships were held because of World War II
  24. ^ ATP Official Site
  25. ^ History of the Australian Open

External links

Preceded by
US Open
Grand Slam Tournament
January
Succeeded by
French Open

Coordinates: 37°49′18″S 144°58′42″E / 37.82167°S 144.97833°E / -37.82167; 144.97833


Simple English

File:Ausopen margaret court arena
Two players on an outdoor court

The Australian Open is one of the four Grand Slam tennis tournaments. It is the first one of the year. It is played in Melbourne, Australia. The Australian Open has been played on three different surfaces:

  • Grass (1905-1987)
  • Rebound Ace (a type of hard court, 1988-2007)
  • Plexicushion (a faster type of hard court, (2008-present)

Before 1983, many of the best tennis players did not play at the tournament. This was because the Australian Open was far away and was not considered as important.

Contents

Heat policy

The tournament is played in January, during the Australian summer. In 1998 an extreme heat rule was brought in.[1] It is the only major tournament that has a heat policy.[2] If the temperature gets higher than 35 degrees (C) matches may have to be stopped for a short time, because players feel dehydrated. Matches on the outside courts are stopped. The roof over the main stadium courts can be closed, and cooling systems turned on.[2] In 2007 the temperature on the courts reached 50 degrees.[1]

Winners

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 "Australian Open Weather / Extreme Heat Policy | Australian Open". australian.open-tennis.com. 2011 [last update]. http://australian.open-tennis.com/weather.php. Retrieved 31 January 2011. 
  2. 2.0 2.1 "Extreme heat policy likely at Australian Open - ABC News (Australian Broadcasting Corporation)". abc.net.au. Jan 28, 2009. http://www.abc.net.au/news/stories/2009/01/28/2475899.htm. Retrieved 31 January 2011. 
  3. Ramsay, Alix (2011 [last update]). "Australian Open 2011 - Official Site presented by IBM - Beaten Murray simply second best". australianopen.com. http://www.australianopen.com/en_AU/news/articles/2011-01-31/201101311296392866515.html. Retrieved 31 January 2011. "Novak Djokovic" 
  4. "Australian Open 2011 - Official Site presented by IBM - Kim Clijsters". australianopen.com. 2011 [last update]. http://www.australianopen.com/en_AU/players/overview/wta030458.html. Retrieved 31 January 2011. "Kim Clijsters" 
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 "Australian Open 2011 - Official Site presented by IBM - Roger Federer". australianopen.com. 2011 [last update]. http://www.australianopen.com/en_AU/event_guide/history/players/7824.html. Retrieved 31 January 2011. 
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 6.3 "Australian Open 2011 - Official Site presented by IBM - Serena Williams". australianopen.com. 2011 [last update]. http://www.australianopen.com/en_AU/event_guide/history/players/23510.html. Retrieved 31 January 2011. 
  7. "Australian Open 2011 - Official Site presented by IBM - Rafael Nadal". australianopen.com. 2011 [last update]. http://www.australianopen.com/en_AU/event_guide/history/players/15756.html. Retrieved 31 January 2011. 
  8. "Australian Open 2011 - Official Site presented by IBM - Novak Djokovic". australianopen.com. 2011 [last update]. http://www.australianopen.com/en_AU/event_guide/history/players/1130643.html. Retrieved 31 January 2011. "Novak Djokovic" 
  9. "Australian Open 2011 - Official Site presented by IBM - Maria Sharapova". australianopen.com. 2011 [last update]. http://www.australianopen.com/en_AU/event_guide/history/players/19812.html. Retrieved 31 January 2011. 
  10. "Australian Open 2011 - Official Site presented by IBM - Amelie Mauresmo". australianopen.com. 2011 [last update]. http://www.australianopen.com/en_AU/event_guide/history/players/14410.html. Retrieved 31 January 2011. 
  11. "Australian Open 2011 - Official Site presented by IBM - Marat Safin". australianopen.com. 2011 [last update]. http://www.australianopen.com/en_AU/event_guide/history/players/19014.html. Retrieved 31 January 2011. 
  12. "Australian Open 2011 - Official Site presented by IBM - Justine Henin". australianopen.com. 2011 [last update]. http://www.australianopen.com/en_AU/event_guide/history/players/10381.html. Retrieved 31 January 2011. 

Other websites








Got something to say? Make a comment.
Your name
Your email address
Message