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1972 Australia 1975
Australian federal election, 1974
All 127 seats of the Australian House of Representatives
and all 60 seats of the Australian Senate
18 May 1974
First party Second party
Whitlam1955.jpg BillySnedden.jpg
Leader Gough Whitlam Billy Snedden
Party Labor Liberal/National coalition
Leader since 8 February 1967 5 December 1972
Leader's seat Werriwa Bruce
Last election 67 seats 58 seats
Seats won 66 61
Seat change -1 +3
Percentage 51.70% 48.30%
Swing -1.00 +1.00

Federal elections were held in Australia on 18 May 1974. All 127 seats in the House of Representatives, and all 60 seats in the Senate were up for election, due to a double dissolution. The incumbent Australian Labor Party led by Prime Minister of Australia Gough Whitlam defeated the opposition Liberal Party of Australia led by Billy Snedden and Coalition partner the Country Party led by Doug Anthony.

House of Reps (IRV) — 1974-75 — Turnout 95.42% (CV) — Informal 1.92%
  Party Votes % Swing Seats Change
  Australian Labor Party 3,644,110 49.30 -0.29 66 -1
  Liberal Party of Australia 2,582,968 34.95 +2.91 40 +2
  Country Party 736,252 9.96 +0.53 21 +1
  Australia Party 172,176 2.33 -0.09 0 0
  Democratic Labor Party 104,974 1.42 -3.83 0 0
  Other 150,526 2.04 0
  Total 7,391,006     127 +2
  Australian Labor Party WIN 51.70 -1.00 66 -1
  Liberal/Country coalition   48.30 +1.00 61 +3
Senate (STV) — 1974-75 — Turnout 95.50% (CV) — Informal 10.77%
  Party Votes % Swing Seats Won Seats Held
  Australian Labor Party 3,127,197 47.29 +5.08 29 29
  Liberal/Country (Joint Ticket) 2,298,816 34.77 +15.26 16
  Liberal Party of Australia 516,919 7.82 -9.80 12 23
  Democratic Labor Party 235,343 3.56 -7.55 0 0
  Australia Party 92,107 1.39 -1.51 0 0
  Country Party* 85,719 1.30 +0.24 1 6
  Liberal Movement 63,032 0.95 * 1 1
  Independents 121,396 1.84 +0.13 1 1
  Other 71,856 1.09 0 0
  Total 6,612,385     60 60

Independents: Michael Townley (Liberal Party from Feb 1975)

  • The Country Party (CP) contested the elections in Western Australia as the National Alliance (NA), which was a merger of the CP and the Democratic Labor Party (DLP) in that state. The NA won a single Senate seat in WA, its elected representative being Thomas Drake-Brockman, who represented the CP, on election to parliament.


Contents

Background and Issues

Gough Whitlam had been an active prime minister since his party's victory in the 1972 election, and his government had pursued many socially progressive reforms and policies over its first term. However, it received a hostile reception from the coalition/DLP-controlled Senate, with the last Senate election held in 1970. Following an attempt by Whitlam to create an extra Senate vacancy in Queensland by appointing former Democratic Labor Party (DLP) Leader, Senator Vince Gair, as Ambassador to the Republic of Ireland, Snedden announced that the opposition would block the Government's supply bills in the Senate. Justified by the failure of six (non-supply) bills to pass the Senate, Whitlam requested and was granted by Governor-General Sir Paul Hasluck a double dissolution under section 57 of the Constitution. The election focused on Whitlam's first one-and-a-half years in office and whether the Australian public was willing to continue with his reform agenda.

The re-elected Whitlam government's failure again to gain a majority in the Senate led to Australia's only joint sitting pursuant to section 57 of the Constitution. It was approved by the new governor-general Sir John Kerr after the bills were presented to the new parliament and were rejected a third time. It was held three months after the election, on 6-7 August, and it enabled the six bills that had been thrice rejected by the Senate to be passed. The Health Insurance bills were both passed on party lines, 95 to 92, the Petroleum and Minerals Authority legislation also passed on party lines, though with one Liberal Party member absent. Liberal Movement Senator Steele Hall supported the three Electoral bills, citing his experience as Liberal Premier of South Australia, where he had fought his own party in an effort to improve unequal electoral arrangements dubbed the Playmander. Northern Territory Country Party MP, Sam Calder, supported the Territory Senators legislation, though he opposed the ACT being given added representation.[1]

Senate Numbers

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Election Result

The Whitlam Government had been re-elected with a decreased majority in the lower house but an increase in the upper house. The ALP and the coalition each won 29 seats in the 60 member Senate, with the balance of power held by Steele Hall of the Liberal Movement, and Michael Townley, a conservative independent.

The Democratic Labor Party lost all five of its Senate seats.

Subsequent Changes

In February 1975, Townley joined the Liberal party.

Later in 1975, Coalition premiers would break longstanding convention in the replacement of two ALP senators. Lionel Murphy, who had resigned to take up an appointment to the High Court, was replaced by independent Cleaver Bunton; and Bertie Milliner, who had died, was replaced by Albert Field, an ALP member who was opposed to Whitlam. Bunton (along with Hall) refused to vote against supply, but Field was prepared to. This gave the Coalition effectively a majority of 31 seats out of 60 (30 Coalition members plus Field). This allowed them to block supply in the Senate to pave the way for the Australian constitutional crisis of 1975.

See also

References

Bibliography

  • AustralianPolitics.com 1974 election details
  • University of WA election results in Australia since 1890
  • AEC 2PP vote
  • Prior to 1984 the AEC did not undertake a full distribution of preferences for statistical purposes. The stored ballot papers for the 1983 election were put through this process prior to their destruction. Therefore the figures from 1983 onwards show the actual result based on full distribution of preferences.

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