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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Republic of Austria
Republik Österreich
Flag Coat of arms
AnthemLand der Berge, Land am Strome  (German)
Land of Mountains, Land by the River

Location of  Austria  (dark green)

– on the European continent  (light green & dark grey)
– in the European Union  (light green)  —  [Legend]

Capital
(and largest city)
Vienna
48°12′N 16°21′E / 48.2°N 16.35°E / 48.2; 16.35
Official language(s) German[1]
Recognised regional languages Slovene, Croatian, and Hungarian
Ethnic groups  82.5% Austrians[2]
Demonym Austrian
Government Federal Parliamentary republic
 -  President Heinz Fischer
 -  Chancellor Werner Faymann
Independence
 -  Austrian State Treaty in force July 27, 1955 (Duchy: 1156, Austrian Empire: 1804, First Austrian Republic: 1918–1938, Second Republic since 1945) 
EU accession January 1, 1995
Area
 -  Total 83,872 km2 (115th)
32,383 sq mi 
 -  Water (%) 1.7
Population
 -  2009 estimate 8,356,707[3] (92nd)
 -  2001 census 8,032,926 
 -  Density 99/km2 (99th)
257/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2008 estimate
 -  Total $330.669 billion[4] (34th)
 -  Per capita $39,887[4] (12th)
GDP (nominal) 2008 estimate
 -  Total $414.828 billion[4] (23rd)
 -  Per capita $50,039[4] (12th)
Gini (2000) 29.1 (low
HDI (2007) 0.955[5] (very high) (14th)
Currency Euro () ² (EUR)
Time zone CET (UTC+01)
 -  Summer (DST) CEST (UTC+02) (UTC{{{utc_offset_DST}}})
Internet TLD .at ³
Calling code 43
1 .Slovene, Croatian, Hungarian are officially recognised regional languages and Austrian Sign Language is a protected minority language throughout the country.^ Anyway language is key but not sufficient, it was also „to adopt Hungarian culture as their own, and to be loyal to the king” (or country).
  • Politics.Hu: Socialists, Jobbik tied in new poll; first dip below 10% for MSZP 1 October 2009 6:48 UTC www.politics.hu [Source type: Original source]

^ The Czechs demanded on the contrary that both their language and German should be placed on an equal footing throughout Bohemia, and be used for all official purposes in the same way.

^ Throughout most of the history of the Kingdom of Hungary, to be a Hungarian meant that you lived within the boundaries of the Kingdom, spoke the Hungarian language and adopted the Hungarian culture.
  • Politics.Hu: Socialists, Jobbik tied in new poll; first dip below 10% for MSZP 1 October 2009 6:48 UTC www.politics.hu [Source type: Original source]

2 Euro since 1 Jan 1999 virtual, since 1 Jan 2002 real currency; before: Austrian Schilling.
3 .The .eu domain is also used, as it is shared with other European Union member states.^ The European Court of Justice (has nothing to do with the EU, but all member states have ratified to follow it rulings).
  • Politics.Hu: Socialists, Jobbik tied in new poll; first dip below 10% for MSZP 1 October 2009 6:48 UTC www.politics.hu [Source type: Original source]

^ The EU is today just your "Union of States".
  • Politics.Hu: Socialists, Jobbik tied in new poll; first dip below 10% for MSZP 1 October 2009 6:48 UTC www.politics.hu [Source type: Original source]

^ The disturbed state of European politics and the great increase in the military establishments of other countries made it desirable for Austria also to strengthen her military resources.

.Austria en-us-Austria.ogg /ˈɔːstriə/ (German: About this sound Österreich ), officially the Republic of Austria (German: About this sound Republik Österreich; Austro-Bavarian: Repubblik Östareich), is a landlocked country of roughly 8.3 million people[3] in Central Europe.^ Under the terms of the Austro-German Alliance, Germany was obliged to support Austria in any conflict with Russia.
  • what started world war one? - Q&A 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

^ Government in Austria was carried on by cabinets of officials with the help of the emergency clause (paragraph 14) of the constitution.

^ Germans invaded Belgium then they helped and encouraged Austria-Hungary in Murdering Ferdinand and her wife.
  • How did World war one start? - Q&A 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

.It borders Germany and the Czech Republic to the north, Slovakia and Hungary to the east, Slovenia and Italy to the south, and Switzerland and Liechtenstein to the west.^ February 2004 um 1:57 germany, netherlands, belgium durchreise, luxemburg eine nacht, france, portugal, spain, italy, croatia, czech republic, slovakia eine nacht im häfn, hungary, poland .
  • das weblog von tschörda 1 October 2009 6:48 UTC www.backlab.at [Source type: General]

^ Oh, and Italy was not in a triple alliance with Austria- Hungary and Germany because they didn't want to be part of a war.
  • what started world war one? - Q&A 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

^ The Triple Alliance Two years after Germany and Austria-Hungary concluded their agreement; Italy was brought into the fold with the signing of the Triple Alliance in 1881.
  • How did World war one start? - Q&A 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

The territory of Austria covers 83,872 square kilometres (32,383 sq mi), and has a temperate and alpine climate. Austria's terrain is highly mountainous due to the presence of the Alps; only 32% of the country is below 500 metres (1,640 ft), and its highest point is 3,797 metres (12,457 ft).[6] .The majority of the population speaks German,[7] which is also the country's official language.^ The bureaucracy and the law courts had therefore become a network of German-speaking officialism extending over the whole country; no one had any share in the government.

^ Very different was it in the other territories where the majority of the population was not German - and where there was a lively recollection of the time when they were not Austrian.

^ In 1861 the Germans had a majority in this town; in 1880 they were not a quarter of the population.

[1] .Other local official languages are Croatian, Hungarian and Slovene.^ This is one reason why Latin was used up until the 18th century as the language of county assemblies and other official gatherings.
  • Politics.Hu: Socialists, Jobbik tied in new poll; first dip below 10% for MSZP 1 October 2009 6:48 UTC www.politics.hu [Source type: Original source]

^ Therefore, if a family that was originally from Croatia and spoke Croatian decided to use Hungarian as their first language, they would become Hungarian, at least as far as official census figures are concerned.
  • Politics.Hu: Socialists, Jobbik tied in new poll; first dip below 10% for MSZP 1 October 2009 6:48 UTC www.politics.hu [Source type: Original source]

[6]
.The origins of Austria date back to the time of the Roman Empire when a Celtic kingdom was conquered by the Romans in approximately 15 BC, and later became Noricum, a Roman province, in the mid 1st century AD[8]—an area which mostly encloses today's Austria.^ For example, France and Russia had agreement to back each other much like Germany and Austria-Hungarian Empire.
  • what started world war one? - Q&A 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

^ Their land was afterwards included in the provinces of Pannonia and Noricum , and under Roman rule, Vindobona, the modern Vienna, became a place of some importance.

^ Two years later, when the defeat Roman of Austerlitz had led to the treaty of Pressburg Empire.

In 788 AD, the Frankish king Charlemagne conquered the area, and introduced Christianity. .Under the native Habsburg dynasty, Austria became one of the great powers of Europe.^ As for great powers your definition is tautological "A great power is one that isn't owned by another great power".
  • Politics.Hu: Socialists, Jobbik tied in new poll; first dip below 10% for MSZP 1 October 2009 6:48 UTC www.politics.hu [Source type: Original source]

^ Europe at that time was divided into two rival alliance systems: Triple Entente that included Great Britain, France, and Russia and the Triple Alliance, which included the Central Powers of Austria-Hungary, Germany, and eventually the Ottoman Turkish Empire.
  • what started world war one? - Q&A 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

^ Austria-Hungary dominated much of Central and Southern Europe including Italy and had great influence in Russia and Spain and just as importantly *no other power dictated to Austria-Hungary* not even the British Empire.
  • Politics.Hu: Socialists, Jobbik tied in new poll; first dip below 10% for MSZP 1 October 2009 6:48 UTC www.politics.hu [Source type: Original source]

.In 1867, the Austrian Empire was reformed into Austria-Hungary.^ Anna Kolcun, born 09 May 1847 in Rusk Vol'a, Saris, Hungary, Austrian Empire; died Unknown.
  • Stories, Trees & Photos 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.tccweb.org [Source type: General]

^ Marriage: 23 February 1824, ages 23, 21, with dispensation, Circ, Saris, Hungary, Austrian Empire .
  • Stories, Trees & Photos 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.tccweb.org [Source type: General]

^ Helena Kolcun, born 09 February 1932 in Circ, Saris, Hungary, Austrian Empire.
  • Stories, Trees & Photos 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.tccweb.org [Source type: General]

.The Austro-Hungarian Empire collapsed in 1918 with the end of World War I.^ The war was lead by two groups, they were: Central Powers (bad guys) : Austria-Hungarian Empire, Germany and Turkey.
  • what started world war one? - Q&A 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

^ Franz Ferdinand, Crown Prince of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, is assassinated by a Serbian nationalist.
  • what started world war one? - Q&A 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

^ There were sharp passages of arms with the 1 Baron H. de Worms , The Austro-Hungarian Empire (London, 1876), and Beust's Memoirs.

.After establishing the First Austrian Republic in 1919 Austria was de facto annexed into Greater Germany by the Nazi regime in the so-called Anschluss in 1938.[9] This lasted until the end of World War II in 1945, after which Austria was occupied by the Allies.^ The First World War is also known as a war of attrition.
  • what started world war one? - Q&A 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

^ World War II. gosh..
  • How did World war one start? - Q&A 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

^ How did world war 1 end?
  • what started world war one? - Q&A 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

.In 1955, the Austrian State Treaty re-established Austria as a sovereign state, ending the occupation.^ The treaties of Utrecht , Rastadt and Baden had also re-established and strengthened the position of the Austrian monarchy in western Europe.

^ At the end of 1902 the Hungarian premier, Szell, concluded with the Austrian premier, Kdrber, a new customs and trade alliance comprising a joint Austro-Hungarian tariff as a basis for the negotiation of new commercial treaties with Germany, Italy and other states.

^ The Hungarian government replied that any new arrangement with Austria must be concluded in the form of a commercial treaty as between two foreign states and not in the form of a " customs and trade alliance."

.In the same year, the Austrian Parliament created the Declaration of Neutrality which declared that the country would become permanently neutral.^ They hoped by a common parliament to create the German feeling of a common Austrian nationality, by German constituschools to spread the use of the German language .

^ He would have exchanged this for an active co-operation with Turkey, could Frederick the Great have been persuaded to promise at least neutrality in the event of a Russo-Austrian War.

^ For these, however, no common institutions were created; they must be arranged by agreement; the ministers must confer and then introduce identical acts in the Hungarian and the Austrian parliaments.

.Today, Austria is a parliamentary representative democracy comprising nine federal states.^ The Jacobinism of the Vienna democracy was not really representative of any widespread opinion even in the German parts of Austria, while its loud-voiced Germanism excited the lively opposition of the other races.

[6][10] The capital—and with a population exceeding 1.6 million, Austria's largest city—is Vienna.[6][11] .Austria is one of the richest countries in the world, with a nominal per capita GDP of $43,570. The country has developed a high standard of living, and in 2008 was ranked 14th in the world for its Human Development Index.^ World war one started because the arch duke of austria-hungary was shot for revenge by the black hands because austria-hungary owened the land that the black hands lived in and the black hands wanted to be free.
  • what started world war one? - Q&A 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

^ On the one hand, a reluctance to confess that Hungary is no longer in any sense a part of Austria; on the other hand, the refusal of the Czechs to recognize that their country is part of Austria.

^ The inventions that were supposed to improve the standards of living for humanity in fact made the war more tragic.
  • what started world war one? - Q&A 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

.Austria has been a member of the United Nations since 1955,[12] joined the European Union in 1995,[6] and is a founder of the OECD.^ In 1867 Austria-Hungary had taken part in the monetary conference which led to the formation of the Latin Union; it was intended to join the Union, but this was not done.

[13] Austria also signed the Schengen Agreement in 1995,[14] and adopted the European currency, the euro, in 1999.

Contents

Etymology

Document in which "ostarrichi" was first mentioned 996 (red circle).
.The German name of Austria, Österreich, derives from the Old High German word Ostarrîchi "eastern realm", and refers to Austria's position relative to other German-speaking lands.^ The Hungarians and the German party in Austria have expressed their desire that the word Austria should be used, but it has not been gratified.

^ As already explained, the name Austria is used for convenience to designate those portions of the possessions of the house of Habsburg, which were not included by the settlement of 1867 among the lands of the Hungarian crown.

^ Austria gave up all hope of regaining her position in Germany; Germany disclaimed all intention of acquiring the German provinces of Austria.

It is unrelated to the Latin word auster "south", e.g. in the name of Australia.
.The name is first attested in the famous "Ostarrîchi document" of AD 996, where the term refers to the Margraviate ruled by the Babenberg Count Henry I located mostly in what is today Lower Austria and part of Upper Austria.^ The kernel of the empire was the purely German district, including Upper and Lower Austria, Salzburg, Tirol (except the south) and Vorarlberg,.

^ Ottakar IV., duke of Styria , an arrangement which brought Styria and upper Austria to the Babenbergs in 1192, and in 1229 Duke Leopold II .

[15] .The name Austria is a latinisation of the same Germanic word for "east", *austrō also found in Austrasia, the eastern part of Merovingian Francia.^ They play the same part in Austria as does the " pan-Germanic Union " in Germany.

^ The Hungarians and the German party in Austria have expressed their desire that the word Austria should be used, but it has not been gratified.

^ The younger Rudolph took no part in the government of Austria and Styria, which was undertaken by Albert, until his election as German king in 1298.

.German Österreich is readily analysable as connected to östlich "eastern" and Reich "realm, dominion, empire". The term probably originates in a vernacular translation of the Medieval Latin name for the region: Marchia orientalis, which translates as "eastern marches" or "eastern borderland", as it was situated at the eastern edge of the Holy Roman Empire.^ Bonapartes, in the event of the final collapse of the Holy Roman Empire, or of the possible election of Napoleon as his own successor on the throne of Charlemagne .

^ But the shadow of the Holy Empire, immemorially associated with the house of Habsburg, still darkened the counsels of German statesmen.

^ November 1868, replacing the name of the Austrian Empire under which the dominions under his sceptre were formerly known.

[16]
.However, Friedrich Heer, one of the most important Austrian historians in the 20th century, stated in his book Der Kampf um die österreichische Identität (The Struggle Over Austrian Identity), that the Germanic form Ostarrîchi was not a translation of the Latin word, but both resulted from a much older term originating in the Celtic languages of ancient Austria: More than 2,500 years ago, the major part of the actual country was called Norig by the Celtic population (Hallstatt culture); No- or Nor- meant "east" or "eastern",[citation needed] whereas -rig is related to the modern German Reich; meaning "realm". Accordingly, Norig would essentially mean Ostarrîchi and Österreich, thus Austria.^ The first world war is the most important event of the 20th century.
  • what started world war one? - Q&A 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

^ From the first, however, it was no more than a title, which represented but ill the actual relation of the Habsburg sovereigns to their several states.

^ It's much more complex than that.
  • what started world war one? - Q&A 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

The Celtic name was eventually Latinised to Noricum after the Romans conquered the area that encloses most of modern day Austria, in approximately 15 BC. Noricum later became a Roman province in the mid 1st century AD.[8]

History

.Settled in ancient times,[10] the Central European land that is now Austria was occupied in pre-Roman times by various Celtic tribes.^ The southern part of the country now called Austria was inhabited before the opening of the Christian era by the Taurisci, a Celtic tribe, who were subsequently called the Norici, Early in- and who were conquered by the Romans about 14 B.C. habitants.

^ Soon after his election as king of the Romans in 1486, Maximilian attacked the Hungarians, and in 1490 he had driven them from Austria, and recovered his hereditary lands.

.The Celtic kingdom of Noricum was later claimed by the Roman Empire and made a province.^ Their land was afterwards included in the provinces of Pannonia and Noricum , and under Roman rule, Vindobona, the modern Vienna, became a place of some importance.

^ Two years later, when the defeat Roman of Austerlitz had led to the treaty of Pressburg Empire.

.Present day Petronell-Carnuntum in Eastern Austria was an important army camp turned capital city in what became known as the Upper Pannonia province.^ Their land was afterwards included in the provinces of Pannonia and Noricum , and under Roman rule, Vindobona, the modern Vienna, became a place of some importance.

Fifty thousand people called Carnuntum home for nearly 400 years.[17]
After the fall of the Roman Empire the area was invaded by Bavarians, Slavs and Avars.[18] .The Slavic tribe of the Carantanians migrated into the Alps, and established the realm of Carantania, which covered much of eastern and central Austrian territory.^ It was under Leopold, also, that the Austrian standing army was established in spite of much opposition; the regiments raised in 1672 were never disbanded.

Charlemagne conquered the area in 788 AD, encouraged colonisation and introduced Christianity.[18] .As part of Eastern Francia, the core areas that now encompass Austria were bequeathed to the house of Babenberg.^ Born on 30 Jan 1883 in Jaworke, Novi Torh, Austria (now part of Poland).
  • Stories, Trees & Photos 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.tccweb.org [Source type: General]

The area was known as the marchia Orientalis and was given to Leopold of Babenberg in 976.[19]
Coats of arms of the Habsburg Emperor in 1605
.The first record showing the name Austria is from 996 where it is written as Ostarrîchi, referring to the territory of the Babenberg March.^ The name first appears in the records in the 1840's.
  • Stories, Trees & Photos 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.tccweb.org [Source type: General]

^ The story of the Hungarian wars is a monotonous record of forays, of assistance given at times to the Babenbergs by the forces of the Empire, and ending in the gradual eastward advance of Austria.

[19] In 1156 the Privilegium Minus elevated Austria to the status of a duchy. .In 1192, the Babenbergs also acquired the Duchy of Styria.^ Ottakar IV., duke of Styria , an arrangement which brought Styria and upper Austria to the Babenbergs in 1192, and in 1229 Duke Leopold II .

.With the death of Frederick II in 1246, the line of the Babenbergs went extinct.^ The traditional loyalty to the emperors, which was cemented by several marriages between the imperial house and the Babenbergs, was, however, departed from by the margrave Leopold II., and by Duke Frederick II .

^ Continuing his career of violence and oppression, Duke Frederick was killed in battle by the Hungarians in June 1246, when the family of Babenberg became extinct.

[20]
.As a result Otakar II of Bohemia effectively assumed control of the duchies of Austria, Styria and Carinthia.^ Francis II. assumed the style of Francis I. hereditary End of the 5' y Holy emperor of Austria.

^ War was the result, and in November 1276 Ottakar submitted to Rudolph, and renounced the duchies of Austria, Styria and Carinthia.

^ The duchies of Austria and Styria were now claimed by the emperor Frederick II. as vacant fiefs of the Empire, and their as government was entrusted to Otto II., duke of Bavaria.

[20] .His reign came to an end with his defeat at Dürnkrut at the hands of Rudolf I of Germany in 1278.[21] Thereafter, until World War I, Austria's history was largely that of its ruling dynasty, the Habsburgs.^ Leopold and his descendants ruled Austria until the extinction of the family in 1246, and by their skill and foresight raised the mark to an important place among the German states.

^ In short, Italy was committed to defend Germany and Austria-Hungary only in the event of a 'defensive' war; arguing that their actions were 'offensive' she declared instead a policy of neutrality.
  • How did World war one start? - Q&A 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

^ This is derived from the reality that many of the European monarchies - many of which fell during the war (including those of Russia, Germany and Austria-Hungary) - were inter-related.
  • How did World war one start? - Q&A 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

.In the 14th and 15th centuries, the Habsburgs began to accumulate other provinces in the vicinity of the Duchy of Austria.^ Austria, which had been solemnly created an A ustria archduchy by the emperor Frederick in 1453, was created claimed by the three remaining Habsburg princes, and an arch- lower Austria was secured by Frederick, while Albert duchy.

^ The Three Emperors League & Dual Alliance He began by negotiating, in 1873, the Three Emperors League, which tied Germany, Austria-Hungary and Russia to each other's aid in time of war.
  • How did World war one start? - Q&A 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

^ A series of deaths among the Habsburgs during the first half of the 14th century left Duke Albert II .

.In 1438 Duke Albert V of Austria was chosen as the successor to his father-in-law, Emperor Sigismund.^ Frederick, who succeeded Albert as German king, and was soon crowned emperor as Frederick III ., acted as guardian for Sigismund of Tirol, who was a minor, and also became regent of Austria in consequence of the Regency of the infancy of Ladislaus.

^ The duchies of Austria and Styria were now claimed by the emperor Frederick II. as vacant fiefs of the Empire, and their as government was entrusted to Otto II., duke of Bavaria.

^ Austria, which had been solemnly created an A ustria archduchy by the emperor Frederick in 1453, was created claimed by the three remaining Habsburg princes, and an arch- lower Austria was secured by Frederick, while Albert duchy.

.Although Albert himself only reigned for a year, every emperor of the Holy Roman Empire was a Habsburg, with only one exception.^ The empire of Austria, as the official designation of the territories ruled by the Habsburg monarchy, dates back only to 1804, when Francis II ., the last of the Holy Roman emperors, proclaimed himself emperor of Austria as Francis I .

^ Two years later, when the defeat Roman of Austerlitz had led to the treaty of Pressburg Empire.

^ Bonapartes, in the event of the final collapse of the Holy Roman Empire, or of the possible election of Napoleon as his own successor on the throne of Charlemagne .

The Habsburgs began also to accumulate lands far from the hereditary lands. .In 1477 Archduke Maximilian, only son of Emperor Frederick III, married the heiress Maria of Burgundy, thus acquiring most of the Netherlands for the family.^ It only Internal remains to add that, in carrying out this system, Maria reforms Theresa was too wise to fall into the errors afterwards made by her son and successor.

^ The decline in the fortunes of the family, however, was to be arrested by Frederick's son, Maximilian , afterwards the emperor Maximilian I ., who was the second founder The of the greatness of the house of Habsburg.

^ Maximilian was under succeeded as archduke of Austria as well as emperor by Charles V .

[22][23] His son Philip the Fair married the heiress of Castile and Aragon, and thus acquired Spain and its Italian, African and New World appendages for the Habsburgs.[22][23] .In 1526 following the Battle of Mohács, Bohemia and the part of Hungary not occupied by the Ottomans came under Austrian rule.^ In 1657 Leopold I., who had already ruled the Austrian dominions for two years, succeeded his father Ferdinand and was crowned emperor in the following year.

^ Because Lászlo Kontler argues that the "spectacular" regeneration following the expulsion of the Ottomans led to the relative decline of Magyars in the population of the Kingdom of Hungary.
  • Politics.Hu: Socialists, Jobbik tied in new poll; first dip below 10% for MSZP 1 October 2009 6:48 UTC www.politics.hu [Source type: Original source]

^ Hungary liberated was to become the centre of freedom for all the races under the Austrian crown, and the outcome was to be a new " fraternization of the Austrian peoples."

[24] Ottoman expansion into Hungary led to frequent conflicts between the two empires, particularly evident in the so-called Long War of 1593 to 1606.
Battle of Vienna in 1683 broke the advance of the Ottoman Empire into Europe.
During the long reign of Leopold I (1657–1705) and following the successful defense of Vienna in 1683 (under the command of the King of Poland, John III Sobieski),[25] a series of campaigns resulted in bringing all of Hungary to Austrian control by the Treaty of Carlowitz in 1699.
.Emperor Charles VI relinquished many of the fairly impressive gains the empire made in the previous years, largely due to his apprehensions at the imminent extinction of the House of Habsburg.^ Charles VI. The result of the war was a further aggrandizement of the house of Austria; Succes- but not to the extent that had been hoped.

^ The personal character of the emperor, moreover, gained a special importance owing to the modifications that were made in the administrative system of the empire.

^ The decline in the fortunes of the family, however, was to be arrested by Frederick's son, Maximilian , afterwards the emperor Maximilian I ., who was the second founder The of the greatness of the house of Habsburg.

.Charles was willing to offer concrete advantages in territory and authority in exchange for other powers' worthless recognitions of the Pragmatic Sanction that made his daughter Maria Theresa his heir.^ On the 20th of October 1740, Charles died, leaving his dominions in no condition to resist the attacks of the powers, which, in spite of having adhered to the Pragmatic Sanction, now sought to profit from weakness.

^ Anyways, all these tensions just got everyone really mad, and, of course, Germany being Germany decided to join the fight with the other Great Powers and made them mad too.
  • what started world war one? - Q&A 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

^ Being without a son, he was now anxious to secure the throne for his daughter Maria Theresa, in accordance with the Pragmatic Sanction of the 19th of April 1713, in which he had sanction.

.With the rise of Prussia the Austrian–Prussian dualism began in Germany.^ The Three Emperors League & Dual Alliance He began by negotiating, in 1873, the Three Emperors League, which tied Germany, Austria-Hungary and Russia to each other's aid in time of war.
  • How did World war one start? - Q&A 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

.Austria participated, together with Prussia and Russia, in the first and the third of the three Partitions of Poland (in 1772 and 1795).^ In 1881 Bismark set up a Three Emperors League, a secret agreement among the emperors of Germany, Russia, Austria-Hungry.
  • what started world war one? - Q&A 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

^ The Three Emperors League & Dual Alliance He began by negotiating, in 1873, the Three Emperors League, which tied Germany, Austria-Hungary and Russia to each other's aid in time of war.
  • How did World war one start? - Q&A 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

^ However, should that third power transpire to be France, Russia would not be obliged to provide assistance to Germany (as was the case of Germany if Russia found itself at war with Austria-Hungary).
  • How did World war one start? - Q&A 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

The Congress of Vienna by Jean-Baptiste Isabey, 1819
.Austria later became engaged in a war with Revolutionary France, at the beginning highly unsuccessful, with successive defeats at the hands of Napoleon meaning the end of the old Holy Roman Empire in 1806. Two years earlier,[26] in 1804, the Empire of Austria was founded.^ Two years later, when the defeat Roman of Austerlitz had led to the treaty of Pressburg Empire.

^ Two days later Austria-Hungary responded by declaring war on Japan.
  • How did World war one start? - Q&A 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

^ A plan to take on both Russia and France, a war on two fronts, had long been expected and taken into account.
  • How did World war one start? - Q&A 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

.In 1814 Austria was part of the Allied forces that invaded France and brought to an end the Napoleonic wars.^ A year later, in 1915, Italy did enter the First World War, as an ally of Britain, France and Russia.
  • How did World war one start? - Q&A 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

^ And when they invaded Belgium Britain was forced to declare war on Germany because of their secret alliance with Belgium.
  • what started world war one? - Q&A 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

^ Austria-Hungary.the serbians wanted the nation of their own so they killed the archduke.then russia declared war on the austria-hungry to help her ally serbia.
  • what started world war one? - Q&A 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

.It thus emerged from the Congress of Vienna in 1815 as one of four of the continent's dominant powers and a recognised great power.^ As for great powers your definition is tautological "A great power is one that isn't owned by another great power".
  • Politics.Hu: Socialists, Jobbik tied in new poll; first dip below 10% for MSZP 1 October 2009 6:48 UTC www.politics.hu [Source type: Original source]

^ Nationalism, Militarism, Imperialism, and the system of alliances were the four main factors that pressed the great powers towards this explosive war.
  • what started world war one? - Q&A 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

^ All the great powers of World War One were somewhat responsible for this Great War.
  • How did World war one start? - Q&A 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

.The same year, the German Confederation, (Deutscher Bund) was founded under the presidency of Austria.^ Under the terms of the Austro-German Alliance, Germany was obliged to support Austria in any conflict with Russia.
  • what started world war one? - Q&A 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

^ They play the same part in Austria as does the " pan-Germanic Union " in Germany.

^ In the same year they won the majority in the town council of Laibach , which had hitherto been German.

.Because of unsolved social, political and national conflicts the German lands were shaken by the 1848 revolution aiming to create a unified Germany.^ However, for our purposes it serves to date the origins of the core alliances back to Bismarck's renowned intrigues, as he set about creating a unified Germany from the loose assembly of German confederated states in the 1860s.
  • How did World war one start? - Q&A 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

^ Under the terms of the Austro-German Alliance, Germany was obliged to support Austria in any conflict with Russia.
  • what started world war one? - Q&A 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

^ As soon as these races which had so long been ruled by the Germans received political liberty and the means of education, they naturally used both to reassert their national individuality.

[27] .A unified Germany would have been possible either as a Greater Germany, or a Greater Austria or just the German Confederation without Austria at all.^ If Austria were to be taken, all of Germanys neighbors would be its enemies.
  • what started world war one? - Q&A 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

^ I would just like it explained if possible.
  • Politics.Hu: Socialists, Jobbik tied in new poll; first dip below 10% for MSZP 1 October 2009 6:48 UTC www.politics.hu [Source type: Original source]

^ However, for our purposes it serves to date the origins of the core alliances back to Bismarck's renowned intrigues, as he set about creating a unified Germany from the loose assembly of German confederated states in the 1860s.
  • How did World war one start? - Q&A 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

.As Austria was not willing to relinquish its German-speaking territories to what would become the German Empire of 1848, the crown of the newly-formed empire was offered to the Prussian King Friedrich Wilhelm IV.^ The outcome of the long struggle with Prussia , which in 1866 finally broke the spell, and the proclamation of the German empire in 1871 left the title of emperor of Austria stripped of everything but a purely territorial significance.

^ Appointed Prime Minister and Foreign Minister of Prussia by Kaiser Wilhelm I in 1862, Bismarck was consumed with a desire to achieve the creation of a German Empire out of the collection of smaller German states largely led by Austria's influence (another German-speaking nation).
  • How did World war one start? - Q&A 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

^ A new era dawned after Otto the Great was elected German king in 936, and it is Otto rather than Charlemagne who must be regarded as the real founder of Austria.

.In 1864 Austria and Prussia fought together against Denmark, and successfully freed the independent duchies of Schleswig and Holstein.^ He achieved this by engineering war with Austria in 1866 over disputed territory in the duchy of Holstein (much against the wishes of his own Kaiser).
  • How did World war one start? - Q&A 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

^ So far as Austria was concerned, the Seven Years' War in which France and Austria were ranged against Prussia and Great Britain, was an attempt on the part of Maria Theresa to recover Silesia.

^ Rudolph's chief aim was to make Austria into an independent state, and he forged a series of privileges the purport of which was to free the duchy from all its duties towards the Empire.

.Nevertheless as they could not agree on a solution to the administration of the two duchies, they fought in 1866 the Austro-Prussian War.^ So, Russia joined the war and fought with Serbia and they won.
  • what started world war one? - Q&A 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

^ The war was lead by two groups, they were: Central Powers (bad guys) : Austria-Hungarian Empire, Germany and Turkey.
  • what started world war one? - Q&A 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

^ He achieved this by engineering war with Austria in 1866 over disputed territory in the duchy of Holstein (much against the wishes of his own Kaiser).
  • How did World war one start? - Q&A 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

.Defeated by Prussia in the Battle of Königgrätz,[27] Austria had to leave the German Confederation and subsequently no longer took part in German politics.^ They play the same part in Austria as does the " pan-Germanic Union " in Germany.

^ This " block " no longer exists in practice, as the Italians now tend to co-operate rather with the Sla y s than with the Germans.

^ Still, the German plan took no real account of Britain's entry into the war.
  • How did World war one start? - Q&A 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

[28][29]
Archduke Franz Ferdinand (right) with his family
.The Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867, the Ausgleich, provided for a dual sovereignty, the Austrian Empire and the Kingdom of Hungary, under Franz Joseph I.^ Austro-Hungarian empire.
  • what started world war one? - Q&A 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

^ That conflict would have been the result of the assassination of the heir to the dual throne of Austria-Hungary, Archduke Franz Ferdinand.
  • what started world war one? - Q&A 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

^ On 28 June, in Sarajevo, Gavrilo Princip (a Slav nationalist) assassinated Archduke Franz Ferdinand, heir to the throne of the Austro-Hungarian Empire.
  • what started world war one? - Q&A 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

[30] .The Austrian-Hungarian rule of this diverse empire included various Slavic groups including Croats, Czechs, Poles, Rusyns, Serbs, Slovaks, Slovenes and Ukrainians, as well as large Italian and Romanian communities.^ The war was lead by two groups, they were: Central Powers (bad guys) : Austria-Hungarian Empire, Germany and Turkey.
  • what started world war one? - Q&A 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

^ Slavic people who wanted to shake off Austrian rule and set up their own nation.
  • How did World war one start? - Q&A 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

^ Serbians living under autsro -Hungarian rule, dislikes being under Austrian control.serbs wanted their independence so that they could join serbia , the mother land.therefore they formed the serbian nationalist group called the "black hand" .
  • what started world war one? - Q&A 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

.As a result, ruling Austria–Hungary became increasingly difficult in an age of emerging nationalist movements.^ Daniel Tomkiv, born 14 July 1901 in Circ, Saris, Austria-Hungary; died 01 July 1903 in age 21/2 y, drowning, Circ, Saris, Austria-Hungary.
  • Stories, Trees & Photos 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.tccweb.org [Source type: General]

^ Basil Kovalyak, born 11 February 1831; died 18 December 1874 in age 44, typhus, Circ, Saris, Austria-Hungary.
  • Stories, Trees & Photos 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.tccweb.org [Source type: General]

^ That conflict would have been the result of the assassination of the heir to the dual throne of Austria-Hungary, Archduke Franz Ferdinand.
  • what started world war one? - Q&A 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

.Yet the government of Austria tried its best to be accommodating in some respects: The Reichsgesetzblatt, publishing the laws and ordinances of Cisleithania, was issued in eight languages, all national groups were entitled to schools in their own language and to the use of their mothertongue at state offices, for example.^ It might have been expected that they would then cease to use their own language and become Germanized; but, on the contrary, the movement of population is spreading their language and they claim that special schools should be provided for them, and that men of their own nationality should be appointed to government offices to deal with their business.

^ The question of language becomes a political one, so far as it concerns the use of different languages in the public offices and law courts, and in the schools.

^ It is only later that the people became the nation, this is true all over Europe with the rise of the nation state.
  • Politics.Hu: Socialists, Jobbik tied in new poll; first dip below 10% for MSZP 1 October 2009 6:48 UTC www.politics.hu [Source type: Original source]

.The government of Hungary to the contrary tried to magyarise other ethnic entities.^ The two separate states—Austria and Hungary—are completely independent of each other, and each has its own parliament and its own government.

^ The Freemason rebels that the English tried to ride into Hungary were not Hungarian, most of them didn't even know Magyar and had nothing to do with our independence.
  • Politics.Hu: Socialists, Jobbik tied in new poll; first dip below 10% for MSZP 1 October 2009 6:48 UTC www.politics.hu [Source type: Original source]

.Thus the wishes of ethnic groups dwelling in both parts of the dual monarchy hardly could be solved.^ At the close of the 19th century both states of the Dual Monarchy were visited by political crises of some severity.

.The assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand in Sarajevo in 1914 by Gavrilo Princip (a member of the Serbian nationalist group the Black Hand)[31] was used by leading Austrian and Hungarian politicians and generals to persuade the emperor to declare war on Serbia, thereby risking and prompting the outbreak of World War I which led to the dissolution of the Austro-Hungarian Empire.^ Several members of the Black Hand group in Sarajevo were arrested and interrogated by the Austrian authorities.
  • How did World war one start? - Q&A 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

^ After this incident Austria declared war on Serbia.
  • How did World war one start? - Q&A 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

^ Franz Ferdinand heir to the Austro-Hungarian throne!
  • How did World war one start? - Q&A 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

Over one million Austro-Hungarian soldiers died in World War I.[32]
.On October 21, 1918, the elected German members of the Reichsrat (parliament of Imperial Austria) met in Vienna as the Provisional National Assembly for German Austria (Provisorische Nationalversammlung für Deutschösterreich).^ He met with very slight opposition, declared the duchies to be immediately dependent upon the Empire, made Vienna an imperial city, and imposed other changes upon the constitution of Austria.

^ The result was that Bohemia now sent a large German majority to Vienna, and the few Czechs who were chosen refused to take their seat in the parliament.

^ These arrangements in Hungary received the sanction of the parliament; but this could not be procured in Austria, and they were, therefore, proclaimed by imperial warrant; first of all, on.

.On October 30 the assembly founded the State of German Austria by appointing a government, called Staatsrat.^ His first step was to oust Austria as the prime influence among these German states.
  • How did World war one start? - Q&A 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

^ Having assembled a united assembly in the north Bismarck determined to achieve the same in the south - and so unite all of the German states under the Prussian banner.
  • How did World war one start? - Q&A 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

^ The rise of Napoleon, and his masterful interference in Germany, produced a complete and permanent revolution in the relations of Austria to the German states.

.This new government was invited by the emperor to take part in the decision on the planned armistice with Italy, but refrained from this business; this left the responsibility for the end of the war on November 3, 1918, solely to the emperor and his government.^ A plan to take on both Russia and France, a war on two fronts, had long been expected and taken into account.
  • How did World war one start? - Q&A 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

^ The schlieffen plan was that the Germans would go and defeat France, this would take six weeks meanwhile the Russian army would be preparing to go to war, and at the end of the six weeks the Germans would move up towards Russia to defeat them.
  • How did World war one start? - Q&A 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

^ To this end the French devised a strategy for a vengeful war upon Germany, Plan XVII, whose chief aim was the defeat of Germany and the restoration of Alsace and Lorraine.
  • How did World war one start? - Q&A 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

.On November 11 the emperor, counseled by ministers of the old and the new government, declared he would not take part in state business any more; on November 12 German Austria, by law, declared itself to be a democratic republic and part of the new German republic.^ Serious disorders took place in Vienna and in Graz; the German opposition had the support of the people, and Lueger warned the ministers that as burgomaster he would be unable to maintain order in Vienna; even the Clerical Germans showed signs of deserting the government.

^ Austrian Deputation it was voted only by a majority of 39 to 20, for the Germans were alarmed at the report that it would be used for an occupation of part of the Turkish territory.

^ However, should that third power transpire to be France, Russia would not be obliged to provide assistance to Germany (as was the case of Germany if Russia found itself at war with Austria-Hungary).
  • How did World war one start? - Q&A 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

The constitution, renaming Staatsrat to Bundesregierung (federal government) and Nationalversammlung to Nationalrat (national council) was passed on November 10, 1920.
Ethno-linguistic map of Austria–Hungary, 1910
.The Treaty of Saint-Germain of 1919 (for Hungary the Treaty of Trianon of 1920) confirmed and consolidated the new order of Central Europe which to a great part had been established in November 1918, creating new states and resizing others.^ Europe at that time was divided into two rival alliance systems: Triple Entente that included Great Britain, France, and Russia and the Triple Alliance, which included the Central Powers of Austria-Hungary, Germany, and eventually the Ottoman Turkish Empire.
  • what started world war one? - Q&A 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

^ Austria-Hungary dominated much of Central and Southern Europe including Italy and had great influence in Russia and Spain and just as importantly *no other power dictated to Austria-Hungary* not even the British Empire.
  • Politics.Hu: Socialists, Jobbik tied in new poll; first dip below 10% for MSZP 1 October 2009 6:48 UTC www.politics.hu [Source type: Original source]

^ He acted ultra vires, but by his act saved Hungary from a severe economic crisis and retained for her the right to benefit by economic partnership with Austria until the expiry of the new treaties in 1917.

.Over 3-million German Austrians found themselves living outside of the newborn Austrian Republic in the respective states of Czechoslovakia, Yugoslavia, Hungary and Italy.^ That will explain why Austria-Hungary was formed a year after the Austrian Empire lost the Veneto in 1866 to the Kingdom of Italy and was itself dissolved after the loss of Trentino in 1919.
  • Politics.Hu: Socialists, Jobbik tied in new poll; first dip below 10% for MSZP 1 October 2009 6:48 UTC www.politics.hu [Source type: Original source]

^ Austria also came to see that separation from Hungary would seriously enhance the cost of living in Cisleithania and would deprive Austrian manufacturers of their best market.

^ The German Club, e.g., congratulated Bismarck on his measures against the Poles; the German Austrians refused to take cognizance of events outside Austria with which they had nothing to do.

[33] .Between 1918 and 1919 Austria was officially known as the State of German Austria (Staat Deutschösterreich).^ The rise of Napoleon, and his masterful interference in Germany, produced a complete and permanent revolution in the relations of Austria to the German states.

^ Leopold and his descendants ruled Austria until the extinction of the family in 1246, and by their skill and foresight raised the mark to an important place among the German states.

^ The Hungarian government replied that any new arrangement with Austria must be concluded in the form of a commercial treaty as between two foreign states and not in the form of a " customs and trade alliance."

Not only did the Entente powers forbid German Austria to unite with Germany, they also ignored the name German Austria in the peace treaty to be signed; it was therefore changed to Republic of Austria in late 1919.[34]
After the war inflation began to devaluate the Krone, still Austria's currency. In the autumn of 1922 Austria was granted an international loan supervised by the League of Nations.[35] The purpose of the loan was to avert bankruptcy, stabilise the currency and improve its general economic condition. .With the granting of the loan, Austria passed from an independent state to the control exercised by the League of Nations.^ With the granting of the loan, Austria passed from an independent state to the control exercised by the League of Nations.
  • Austria.mu - Österreich im Netz | Austria.mu - Leisure, Holidays and Museums in Austria - by CISC, LLC. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC austria.mu [Source type: Original source]

^ BOHEMIA AS PART OF AUSTRIA-HUNGARY Bohemia was formerly associated with German-Austria and with Hungary as an independent kingdom; the King was in common for all three States; each possessed its own administration.
  • Masaryk: Independent Bohemia (1915) 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.h-net.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Austria-Hungary should not be confused with the United Stables of Australia-Hungary, which declared independence from Australia and Hungary in 1525 but returned to their respected original states in 1525 v2.0 .
  • Austria-Hungary - Uncyclopedia, the content-free encyclopedia 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC uncyclopedia.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Austria-Hungary - Uncyclopedia, the content-free encyclopedia 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC mirror.uncyc.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

In 1925 the Schilling, replacing the Krone by 10,000:1, was introduced. Later it was called the Alpine dollar due to its stability. From 1925 to 1929 the economy enjoyed a short high before nearly crashing after Black Friday.
.The First Austrian Republic lasted until 1933 when Chancellor Engelbert Dollfuss, gladly using what he called "self-switch-off of Parliament" (Selbstausschaltung des Parlaments), established an autocratic regime tending toward Italian fascism.^ The failure of the Habsburg emperor to perpetuate this despotic regime was due (1) to the Crimean War , (2) to the establishment of Italian unity, and (3) to the successful assertion by Prussia of its claim to the leadership in Germany.

[36][37] .The two big parties at this time, the Social Democrats and the Conservatives, had paramilitary armies;[38] the Social Democrats' Schutzbund was now declared illegal but still operative[38] as civil war broke out.^ Hungary had stayed out of the second war until 1942, by what time all of Europe was aflame.
  • Politics.Hu: Socialists, Jobbik tied in new poll; first dip below 10% for MSZP 1 October 2009 6:48 UTC www.politics.hu [Source type: Original source]

^ For two years the government seemed to waver, looking now to the Left, now to Hohenwart and his friends; for a time Taaffe really had the support of all parties except the Young Czechs.

^ Serious riots broke out in some of the towns of Istria when, for the first time, Illyrian was used for this purpose as well as Italian.

[36][37][39]
Orthodox Jews in Leopoldstadt. About 10% of the total population of Vienna were Jews.
.In February 1934 several members of the Schutzbund were executed,[40] the Social Democratic party was outlawed and many of its members were imprisoned or emigrated.^ February 2004 um 21:40 erster vorschlag klingt gut, nur kollidiert dieser termin mit der party bei christoph….
  • das weblog von tschörda 1 October 2009 6:48 UTC www.backlab.at [Source type: General]

^ A member of the Sykesville Greek Catholic Church, she had resided in Anita for 40 years before moving to Sykesville two years ago.---newspaper obituary, 28 February 1973.
  • Stories, Trees & Photos 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.tccweb.org [Source type: General]

[39] On 1 May 1934, the Austrofascists imposed a new constitution ("Maiverfassung") which cemented Dollfuss's power but on 25 July he was assassinated in a Nazi coup attempt.[41][42]
.His successor, Kurt Schuschnigg, struggled to keep Austria independent as "the better German state", but on 12 March 1938, German troops occupied the country[43] while Austrian Nazis took over government.^ The skilful diplomacy of Metternich, who was now at the head of the Austrian government, enabled Austria to take full advantage of the situation created by the disaster to Napoleon's arms.

^ To the Czechs the most immediate peril now seemed that from the German parliament, and in the interests of their nationality they were willing to join the Austrian government in the struggle against German liberalism.

^ The rise of Napoleon, and his masterful interference in Germany, produced a complete and permanent revolution in the relations of Austria to the German states.

.On 13 March 1938, the Anschluss of Austria was officially declared.^ Maria Tomkiv, born 13 March 1889 in Circ, Saris, Austria-Hungary.
  • Stories, Trees & Photos 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.tccweb.org [Source type: General]

^ She was born 11 April 1833 in Rusk Vol'a, Saris, Hungary, Austrian Empire, and died 13 March 1910 in Rusk Vol'a, Saris, Austria-Hungary.
  • Stories, Trees & Photos 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.tccweb.org [Source type: General]

.Two days later Hitler, a native of Austria, proclaimed the re-unification of his home country with the rest of Germany on Vienna's Heldenplatz.^ Two days later, Germany declared war on France and swept its armies through Belgium, violating its neutrality.
  • what started world war one? - Q&A 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

^ Firstly, one must remember due to an arms race between Germany and Britain,the two countries were growing fearful of one another.
  • what started world war one? - Q&A 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

^ Germanys prime minister, Chancellor Otto von Bismarck, formed a series of alliances to strengthen his countrys security by making Germany an ally of Austria-Hungary and of Italy.
  • what started world war one? - Q&A 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

He established a plebiscite confirming union with Germany in April 1938.
.Austria was incorporated into the Third Reich and ceased to exist as an independent state.^ Some change in this system was essential; the Liberal party demanded that the government should simply state that the concordat had ceased to exist.

^ In Hungary, on the 31st of March, the government was forced to consent to a new constitution which virtually erected Hungary into an independent state.

^ In Bohemia a state of semi-independence existed, while Hungary preferred the Turk to the emperor.

The Aryanisation of the wealth of Jewish Austrians started immediately mid-March with a so called "wild" (i.e. extra-legal) phase but soon was structured legally and bureaucratically to strip Jewish citizens of any asset they may have possessed. .The Nazis called Austria "Ostmark"[43] until 1942 when it was again renamed and called "Alpen-Donau-Reichsgaue". Vienna fell on 13 April 1945, during the Soviet Vienna Offensive just before the total collapse of the Third Reich.^ A deadlock, lasting from January 1905 until April 1906, ensued between the crown and Hungary and, to a great extent, between Hungary and Austria.

^ And it is just a matter of time before either internal factors or external factors will cause that system of government to collapse under its own weight.
  • Politics.Hu: Socialists, Jobbik tied in new poll; first dip below 10% for MSZP 1 October 2009 6:48 UTC www.politics.hu [Source type: Original source]

^ He died in 1439, and just after his death a son was born to him, who was called Ladislaus Minority Posthumus, and succeeded to the duchy of Austria and to the kingdoms of Hungary and Bohemia.

.Karl Renner and Adolf Schärf (Socialist Party of Austria [Social Democrats and Revolutionary Socialists]), Leopold Kunschak (Austria's People's Party [former Christian Social People's Party]) and Johann Koplenig (Communist Party of Austria) declared Austria's secession from the Third Reich by the Declaration of Independence on 27 April 1945, and set up a provisional government in Vienna under state Chancellor Renner the same day, with the approval of the victorious Red Army and backed by Stalin[44].^ The general election which took place amid considerable enthusiasm on the 14th of May resulted in a sweeping victory for the Social Democrats whose number rose from II to 87; in a less complete triumph for the Christian Socialists who increased from 27 to 67; and in the success of the extremer over the conservative elements in all races.

^ Slavic people who wanted to shake off Austrian rule and set up their own nation.
  • How did World war one start? - Q&A 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

^ Some change in this system was essential; the Liberal party demanded that the government should simply state that the concordat had ceased to exist.

(The date is officially named the birthday of the second republic.) .At the end of April, most of Western and Southern Austria still was under Nazi rule.^ Meanwhile Styria and Carinthia were equally unfortunate under the rule of Frederick and Albert; and the death of Ladislaus led to still further complications.

^ Till 1630 the The ThirrY fortunes of Austria brightened under the active rule years' of Ferdinand, who was assisted by Maximilian of War.

^ The most obvious direction in which this could be sought was in Bavaria, ruled by the decadent house of Wittelsbach , the secular rival of the house of Habsburg in southern Germany.

On May 1, 1945, the federal constitution of 1929 was put into validity again, which had been terminated by dictator Dollfuss on May 1, 1934.
Total military deaths from 1939–1945 are estimated at 260,000.[45] Jewish Holocaust victims totaled 65,000.[46] About 140,000 Jewish Austrians had fled the country in 1938–39. Thousands of Austrians had taken part in serious Nazi crimes, a fact officially recognised by Chancellor Franz Vranitzky in 1992.
.Much like Germany, Austria was divided into a British, a French, a Soviet and a U.S. zone and governed by the Allied Commission for Austria.^ For example, France and Russia had agreement to back each other much like Germany and Austria-Hungarian Empire.
  • what started world war one? - Q&A 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

^ Europe at that time was divided into two rival alliance systems: Triple Entente that included Great Britain, France, and Russia and the Triple Alliance, which included the Central Powers of Austria-Hungary, Germany, and eventually the Ottoman Turkish Empire.
  • what started world war one? - Q&A 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

^ Before sending its ultimatum to Serbia, Austria needed to be sure of the support of its ally, Germany.
  • what started world war one? - Q&A 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

[47] .As forecast in the Moscow Declaration in 1943, there was a subtle difference in the treatment of Austria by the Allies.^ I DON'T CARE. But since Franz was assasinated Austria-Hungary declared war and there you have it WORLD WAR ONE! PEACE OUT, DUDE! .
  • what started world war one? - Q&A 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

^ Austria-Hungary.the serbians wanted the nation of their own so they killed the archduke.then russia declared war on the austria-hungry to help her ally serbia.
  • what started world war one? - Q&A 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

^ Germany, allied to Austria-Hungary by treaty, viewed the Russian mobilization as an act of war against Austria-Hungary, and declared war on Russia France, bound by treaty to Russia, found itself at war against Germany.
  • what started world war one? - Q&A 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

[44] .The Austrian Government, consisting of Social Democrats, Conservatives and Communists (until 1947) and residing in Vienna, which was surrounded by the Soviet zone, was recognised by the Western Allies in October 1945 after some doubts that Renner could be Stalin's puppet.^ Rumanians These allotments were slightly modified at the polls by the victory of some Social Democratic candidates not susceptible of strict racial classification.

^ The German-speaking population was very small, consisting chiefly of government officials, railway servants and Jews ; but there was a large minority (some 43%) of Ruthenes.

^ The German democrats appealed for aid to the Hungarian government; but the Magyar passion for constitutional legality led to delay, and before the Hungarian advance could be made effective, it was too late.

.Thereby the creation of a separate Western Austrian government and the division of the country could be avoided.^ The skilful diplomacy of Metternich, who was now at the head of the Austrian government, enabled Austria to take full advantage of the situation created by the disaster to Napoleon's arms.

.Austria, in general, was treated as though it had been originally invaded by Germany and liberated by the Allies.^ Germany, allied to Austria-Hungary by treaty, viewed the Russian mobilization as an act of war against Austria-Hungary, and after scant warning declared war on Russia on 1 August.
  • How did World war one start? - Q&A 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

^ Austria-Hungary needed to call for support from their allie Germany.
  • How did World war one start? - Q&A 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

^ Italy, although allied to both Germany and Austria-Hungary, was able to avoid entering the fray by citing a clause enabling it to evade its obligations to both.
  • How did World war one start? - Q&A 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

[48]
Innsbruck hosted the 1964 and 1976 Winter Olympics
.On 15 May 1955, after talks which lasted for years and were influenced by the Cold War, Austria regained full independence by concluding the Austrian State Treaty with the Four Occupying Powers.^ They were completely defeated in the elections which followed, but for the next four years the two parties among the Czechs were as much occupied in opposing one another as in opposing the Germans.

^ The skilful diplomacy of Metternich, who was now at the head of the Austrian government, enabled Austria to take full advantage of the situation created by the disaster to Napoleon's arms.

^ Moreover, the disturbances were fomented by Russian agents, and any increase of Russian influence (for which the Pan-Slav party was working) was full of danger to Austria.

.On 26 October 1955, after all occupation troops had left, Austria declared its "permanent neutrality" by an act of Parliament, which remains to this day but has been implicitly overlapped by constitutional amendments concerning Austria as member of the European Union from 1995 onward.^ Two days later, Germany declared war on France and swept its armies through Belgium, violating its neutrality.
  • what started world war one? - Q&A 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

^ The European Court of Justice (has nothing to do with the EU, but all member states have ratified to follow it rulings).
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^ She was born 02 January 1870 in Obrucn, Saris, Austria-Hungary, and died 26 October 1961 in Akron, Ohio, USA 10 .
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[49]
.The political system of the Second Republic is based on the constitution of 1920 and 1929, which was reintroduced in 1945. The system came to be characterised by Proporz, meaning that most posts of political importance were split evenly between members of the Social Democrats and the People's Party.^ And I actually do think Jobbik is both nationalist and socialist, but national socialism means to most people Nazi, and calling the Jobbiks nazis is too extreme.
  • Politics.Hu: Socialists, Jobbik tied in new poll; first dip below 10% for MSZP 1 October 2009 6:48 UTC www.politics.hu [Source type: Original source]

^ Second, I have never made any pronouncements about Jobbik or any other political party.
  • Politics.Hu: Socialists, Jobbik tied in new poll; first dip below 10% for MSZP 1 October 2009 6:48 UTC www.politics.hu [Source type: Original source]

^ Instead, he resigned which owing to an alliance between the communists and the Social Democrats, allowed Bela Kun to come to power.
  • Politics.Hu: Socialists, Jobbik tied in new poll; first dip below 10% for MSZP 1 October 2009 6:48 UTC www.politics.hu [Source type: Original source]

[50] Interest group "chambers" with mandatory membership (e.g. for workers, business people, farmers) grew to considerable importance and were usually consulted in the legislative process, so that hardly any legislation was passed that did not reflect widespread consensus.[51] .Since 1945 a single-party government took place only 1966–1970 (Conservatives) and 1970–1983 (Social Democrats).^ The agitation spread over the country, serious riots took place, and with a view to keeping order the government decreed exceptional laws.

^ This affair was not only a scandal for which the Austrian government, through its agents, was responsible; but it placed the authorities at Vienna in a serious dilemma .

^ Unattached Czech Social Democrats Of all races Poles Democrats Conservatives Populists .

.During all other legislative periods, either a grand coalition of Conservatives and Social Democrats or a "small coalition" (one of these two and a smaller party) ruled the country.^ The development of this small mark into the AustroHungarian monarchy was a slow and gradual process, and falls into two main divisions, which almost coincide with the periods during which the dynasties of Babenberg and Habsburg have respectively ruled the land.

^ Magyar Gárda uniforms" It is even more difficult to explain how they paid for these uniforms & all other expenses.
  • Politics.Hu: Socialists, Jobbik tied in new poll; first dip below 10% for MSZP 1 October 2009 6:48 UTC www.politics.hu [Source type: Original source]

^ They were completely defeated in the elections which followed, but for the next four years the two parties among the Czechs were as much occupied in opposing one another as in opposing the Germans.

.Following a referendum in 1994, at which consent reached a majority of two thirds, the country became a member of the European Union on 1 January 1995.[52] According to its economic success, Austria is one of the "net contributors" of the union.^ The European Court of Justice (has nothing to do with the EU, but all member states have ratified to follow it rulings).
  • Politics.Hu: Socialists, Jobbik tied in new poll; first dip below 10% for MSZP 1 October 2009 6:48 UTC www.politics.hu [Source type: Original source]

^ On the one hand, a reluctance to confess that Hungary is no longer in any sense a part of Austria; on the other hand, the refusal of the Czechs to recognize that their country is part of Austria.

^ These " capitulations " obliged the Coalition government to carry on a dualist policy, although the majority of its adherents became, by the general election of May 1906, members of the Kossuth or Independence party, and, as such, pledged to the economic and political separation of Hungary from Austria save as regards the person of the ruler.

.The major parties SPÖ and ÖVP have contrary opinions about the future status of Austria's military non-alignment: While the SPÖ in public supports a neutral role, the ÖVP argues for stronger integration into the EU's security policy; even a future NATO membership is not ruled out by some ÖVP politicians.^ But the Liberals again voted against the government on an important military bill, an offence almost as unpardonable in Austria as in Germany, and a great meeting of the party decided that they would not support the government.

^ So, the anti-EU posters who normally go against any higher level of integration and that the EU meddles in National politics, cries out on this specific case.
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^ In a country like Austria, in which a mistaken foreign policy or a serious quarrel with Hungary might bring about the disruption of the monarchy, parliamentary government was impossible unless the party which the government helped in internal matters were prepared to support it in foreign affairs and in the commercial policy bound up with the settlement with Hungary.

.In reality, Austria is taking part in the EU's Common Foreign and Security Policy, participates in the so-called Petersburg Agenda (including peace keeping and peace creating tasks) and has become member of NATO's "Partnership for Peace"; the constitution has been amended accordingly.^ Though Ferdinand himself did not take a leading part in German religious or foreign politics, the period was one of intense interest to Austria.

^ The history of the common affairs which fall under the management of the common ministries is, then, the history of the foreign policy of the empire and of the army.

^ There were to be three ministers for common purposes - (r) for foreign affairs; (2) for war; (3) for finance; these ministers were responsible to the Delegations, but the Delegations were really given no legislative power.

The term "neutrality" is only used to tranquilise voters afraid of change. .Since 2008, due to the Schengen Agreement, the only neighbouring country performing border controls towards Austria is Liechtenstein.^ Controlling all the jurisdiction of the land, the duke's only duties towards the Empire were to appear at any diet held in Bavaria, and to send a contingent to the imperial army for any campaigns in the countries bordering upon Austria.

Politics

Political system

Austrian Parliament in Vienna
The Parliament of Austria is located in Vienna, the country's largest city and capital. .Austria became a federal, parliamentarian, democratic republic through the Federal Constitution of 1920. It was reintroduced in 1945 to the nine states of the Federal Republic.^ The next logical step would be to trace these children through the 1905 State census and 1910 Federal census when I had more time.
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[53] .The head of state is the Federal President (Bundespräsident), who is directly elected by popular vote.^ The heads of all these departments had the rank of secretaries of state and met in council under the royal presidency.

.The chairman of the Federal Government is the Federal Chancellor, who is appointed by the president.^ After a short interval the emperor appointed as ministerpresident Count Badeni, who had earned a great reputation as governer of Galicia.

.The government can be removed from office by either a presidential decree or by vote of no confidence in the lower chamber of parliament, the Nationalrat.^ Czech into the government offices throughout the whole of the kingdom; (2) after 1903 no one was to be appointed to a post under the government in Bohemia until he had passed an examination in Czech.

Voting for the federal president and for the Parliament used to be compulsory in Austria, but this was abolished in steps from 1982 to 2004.[54]
.The Parliament of Austria consists of two chambers.^ The Parliament of Austria consists of two chambers.
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^ Austria is a parliament ary representative democracy consisting of nine federal states and is one of six European countries that have declared permanent neutrality .
  • Austria - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The political structure of Austria-Hungary consisted of two parliaments, one in Vienna for Austria and the other in Budapest for Hungary, which were united under an imperial government headed by the Habsburg monarch and common ministries for foreign affairs, finance and defense.
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.The composition of the Nationalrat (183 seats) is determined every five years (or whenever the Nationalrat has been dissolved by the federal president on a motion by the federal chancellor, or by Nationalrat itself) by a general election in which every citizen over 16 years (since 2007) has voting rights.^ The reform bill proper proposed to enfranchise every male citizen above 24 years of age with one year's residential qualification.

.While there is a general threshold of 4 percent for all parties at federal elections (Nationalratswahlen), there remains the possibility to gain a direct seat, or Direktmandat, in one of the 43 regional election districts.^ They were completely defeated in the elections which followed, but for the next four years the two parties among the Czechs were as much occupied in opposing one another as in opposing the Germans.

^ In Eric Remarque's novel "All Quite on the Western Front" one can clearly see what war had done to the people, especially to the young generation who fought it.
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^ There remained a commonwealth and a communality between us and the Italians despite all the pseudo nationalist/ crypto-Freemason violence.
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.The Nationalrat is the dominant chamber in the formation of legislation in Austria.^ The Nationalrat is the dominant chamber in the formation of legislation in Austria.
  • Austria - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

.However, the upper house of parliament, the Bundesrat, has a limited right of veto (the Nationalrat can—in almost all cases—ultimately pass the respective bill by voting a second time.^ When the Reichsrath met, the government had a large majority; and in the House, in which all the races except the Czechs were represented, the Ausgleich was ratified The con- almost unanimously.

^ Hungary had stayed out of the second war until 1942, by what time all of Europe was aflame.
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^ The decline in the fortunes of the family, however, was to be arrested by Frederick's son, Maximilian , afterwards the emperor Maximilian I ., who was the second founder The of the greatness of the house of Habsburg.

This is referred to as 'Beharrungsbeschluss, lit. "vote of persistence"). .A convention, called the Österreich -Konvent[55] was convened in June 30, 2003 to decide upon suggestions to reform the constitution, but failed to produce a proposal that would receive the two-thirds of votes in the Nationalrat necessary for constitutional amendments and/or reform.^ June 2003 um 19:55 ¡cratulazion!
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.With legislative and executive, the courts are the third column of Austrian state powers.^ This document stated that both powers would remain neutral if either were involved in a war with a third (be it offensive or defensive).
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.Notably the Constitutional Court (Verfassungsgerichtshof) may exert considerable influence on the political system by ruling out laws and ordinances not in compliance with the constitution.^ He continued to rule according to the constitution; his watchword was " unpolitical politics," and he brought in little contentious legislation.

.Since 1995, the European Court of Justice may overrule Austrian decisions in all matters defined in laws of the European Union.^ The European Court of Justice (has nothing to do with the EU, but all member states have ratified to follow it rulings).
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^ The jurisdiction of the heads of departments, moreover, was strictly defined, and all that lay outside this was reserved for the imperial decision.

.Concerning human rights, Austria also is implementing the decisions of the European Court of Human Rights, since the European Convention on Human Rights is part of the Austrian constitution.^ So far as Austria was concerned, the Seven Years' War in which France and Austria were ranged against Prussia and Great Britain, was an attempt on the part of Maria Theresa to recover Silesia.

^ The Constitutional Landed Proprietors who had played so large a part in Austrian politics since the 'sixties, and had for a generation held the leadership of the German element in parliament and in the country, saw themselves doomed and the leadership of the Germans given to the Christian Socialists.

Recent developments

.After general elections held in October 2006, the Social Democrats emerged as the largest party, whereas the People's Party lost about 8% in votes.^ Hungarians not to generalize about peoples yet say we are one thing, and your peoples are another" But now we are all Europeans, so be happy.
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^ I love it how you people tell Hungarians not to generalize about peoples yet say we are one thing, and your peoples are another.
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^ If national elections were held on Sunday, 46% would turn out to cast their vote.
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[56][57] .Political realities prohibited any of the two major parties from forming a coalition with smaller parties.^ In 1983 the Socialist government fell, and the Socialists were forced to form a coalition with the far-right Freedom party.
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^ But its sizeable bureaucracy, tightly integrated into the two main political parties, especially the SP, has not led a serious mass struggle against a government for generations.
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^ From 1945 until 1986, two major political parties, the Social Democratic Party of Austria (SPO) and the Austrian People's Party (OVP) worked together in democratic governance of Austria.
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In January 2007 the People's Party and Social Democrats formed a grand coalition with the social democrat Alfred Gusenbauer as Chancellor. .This coalition broke up in June 2008. Elections in September 2008 further weakened both major parties (Social Democrats and People's Party) but together they still held more than 50% of the votes with the Social Democrats holding the majority.^ Irish are still Irish and they have lost their language, it is more than annoying.
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^ In this sense, they were more Hungarian than the people.
  • Politics.Hu: Socialists, Jobbik tied in new poll; first dip below 10% for MSZP 1 October 2009 6:48 UTC www.politics.hu [Source type: Original source]

^ On the other hand, according to British ideas of taxable capacity, Hungary paid, and still pays, more than her share.

.They formed a coalition with Werner Faymann from the Social Democrats as Chancellor.^ Taught by experience and adversity, they did not scruple to enter into an ministry, alliance with their old enemies, and a coalition ministry 1893' was formed from the Left, the Clericals and the Poles.

.The positions of the Freedom Party and the deceased Jörg Haider's new party Alliance for the Future of Austria, both right-wing parties, were strengthened during the election.^ He acted ultra vires, but by his act saved Hungary from a severe economic crisis and retained for her the right to benefit by economic partnership with Austria until the expiry of the new treaties in 1917.

^ The Hungarian government replied that any new arrangement with Austria must be concluded in the form of a commercial treaty as between two foreign states and not in the form of a " customs and trade alliance."

^ By Article III., in the event of war between Russia and Austria the alliance both offensive and defensive was to be made effective (Hertslet, No.

Foreign policy

Foreign ministry
.The 1955 Austrian State Treaty ended the occupation of Austria following World War II and recognised Austria as an independent and sovereign state.^ The Holy Empire, in spite of the protests of the Holy See, was not restored, Austria preferring the loose confederation of sovereign states ( Staatenbund ) actually constituted under her presidency .

^ Rudolph's chief aim was to make Austria into an independent state, and he forged a series of privileges the purport of which was to free the duchy from all its duties towards the Empire.

^ Francis II. assumed the style of Francis I. hereditary End of the 5' y Holy emperor of Austria.

.On 26 October 1955, the Federal Assembly passed a constitutional article in which "Austria declares of her own free will her perpetual neutrality". The second section of this law stated that "in all future times Austria will not join any military alliances and will not permit the establishment of any foreign military bases on her territory". Since then, Austria has shaped its foreign policy on the basis of neutrality, but rather different from the neutrality of Switzerland.^ The following is the oath that John signed to become a citizen: "I hereby declare, on oath, that I absolutely and entirely renounce and abjure all allegiance and fidelity to any foreign prince, potentate, state, or sovereignty, and particularly to the present Government of Austria Hungary of whom I have heretofore been a subject; that I will support and defend the Constitution and laws of the United States of America against all enemies, foreign and domestic; and that I will bear true faith and allegiance to the same."
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^ Hungary to facilitate the establishment of direct railway communication between Vienna and Dalmatia, the communication to be established by the end of 1911, each state building the sections of line that passed through its own territory.

^ Article 19 runs: "All races of the empire have equal rights, and every race has an inviolable right to the preservation and use of its own nationality and language.

.Austria began to reassess its definition of neutrality following the fall of the Soviet Union, granting overflight rights for the UN-sanctioned action against Iraq in 1991, and, since 1995, it has developed participation in the EU's Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP).^ Austria used the power against Serbia in July the, which made Russia mobilise which forced Germany to mobilise and put the Schlieffen plan into action.
  • what started world war one? - Q&A 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

^ The history of the common affairs which fall under the management of the common ministries is, then, the history of the foreign policy of the empire and of the army.

.Also in 1995, it joined the Partnership for Peace and subsequently participated in peacekeeping missions in Bosnia.^ Austria was quickly ostracized by other EU nations because of the Freedom party's participation in the government, and Haider-who had not joined the government-subsequently resigned as party leader.
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^ Austria was quickly ostracized by other EU nations because of the Freedom party's participation in the government, and Haider—who had not joined the government—subsequently resigned as party leader.
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.Meanwhile, the only part of the Constitutional Law on Neutrality of 1955 still valid fully is not to allow foreign military bases in Austria.^ Clause II of the law runs: - " In pursuance of the constitutional military prerogatives of His Majesty, everything relating to the unitary direction, leadership and inner organization of the whole army, and thus also of the Hungarian army as a complementary part of the whole army, is recognized as subject to His Majesty's disposal."

^ Though Ferdinand himself did not take a leading part in German religious or foreign politics, the period was one of intense interest to Austria.

[citation needed]
.Austria attaches great importance to participation in the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and other international economic organisations, and it has played an active role in the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE).^ At least as great an effort as turning the (other) nationalities of Austria-Hungary against us and us against them.
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^ It was a recognition of the decisive part played by Austria in these great events that Vienna was chosen as the scene of the great international congress summoned (September 1814) for the purpose of re-establishing the balance Congress 4) P P g of Vieana.

^ "Austria-Hungary dominated much of Central and Southern Europe including Italy great influence in Russia and Spain" .
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Energy politics

In 1972, the country began construction of a nuclear-powered electricity-generation station at Zwentendorf on the River Danube, following a unanimous vote in parliament. .However, in 1978, a referendum voted approximately 50.5% against nuclear power, 49.5% for,[58] and parliament subsequently unanimously passed a law forbidding the use of nuclear power to generate electricity.^ As soon, however, as power was transferred to a parliament, the Germans must inevitably be in a minority, unless the method of election was deliberately arranged so as to give them a majority.

^ This power was at first freely used, but it was closely restricted by a further law of 1893.

^ The minister of finance had to lay before them the common budget, but they could not raise money or vote taxes; after they had passed the budget the money required had to be provided by the separate parliaments.

.Austria currently produces more than half of its electricity by hydropower.^ Hungary from Austria; they were in sympathy, if not in alliance, with the German radicals in Vienna and Frankfort; they were less than half-hearted in their support of the imperial arms in Italy.

^ The economic dispute between Hungary and Austria was thus settled for ten years after negotiations lasting more than twelve years.

^ Russian control of the Danube was a far more serious menace to Austria than the neighbourhood of the decadent Empire.

[59] .Together with other renewable energy sources such as wind, solar and biomass powerplants, the electricity supply from renewable energy amounts to 62.89%[60] of total use in Austria, with the rest being produced by gas and oil powerplants.^ The total war started when Germans used their first gas attack: Gassing was the start of total war, because it broke all limits, the social taboos, the gentleman's etiquette of other wars.
  • what started world war one? - Q&A 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

Military

Austrian Guard Company on parade, July 14, 2007, Champs Elysées, Paris.
The manpower of the Austrian Armed Forces (German: Bundesheer) mainly relies on conscription. .All males who have reached the age of eighteen and are found fit have to serve a six months military service, followed by an eight year reserve obligation.^ This district had hitherto been exempted from military service; by the law of 1869, which introduced universal military service, those who had hitherto been exempted were required to serve, not in the regular army but in the militia.

^ The reform bill proper proposed to enfranchise every male citizen above 24 years of age with one year's residential qualification.

^ In 1657 Leopold I., who had already ruled the Austrian dominions for two years, succeeded his father Ferdinand and was crowned emperor in the following year.

Both males and females at the age of sixteen are eligible for voluntary service.[6] .Conscientious objection is legally acceptable and those who claim this right are obliged to serve an institutionalised nine months civilian service instead.^ This district had hitherto been exempted from military service; by the law of 1869, which introduced universal military service, those who had hitherto been exempted were required to serve, not in the regular army but in the militia.

Since 1998, women volunteers have been allowed to become professional soldiers.
The main sectors of the Bundesheer are Joint Forces (Streitkräfteführungskommando, SKFüKdo) which consist of Land Forces (Landstreitkräfte), Air Forces (Luftstreitkräfte), International Missions (Internationale Einsätze) and Special Forces (Spezialeinsatzkräfte), next to Mission Support (Kommando Einsatzunterstützung; KdoEU) and Command Support (Kommando Führungsunterstützung; KdoFüU). .Being a landlocked country, Austria has no navy.^ On the one hand, a reluctance to confess that Hungary is no longer in any sense a part of Austria; on the other hand, the refusal of the Czechs to recognize that their country is part of Austria.

In 2004, Austria's defence expenditures corresponded to approximately 0.9% of its GDP. The Army currently has about 45,000 soldiers, of whom about half are conscripts. .As head of state, Austrian President (currently Heinz Fischer) is nominally the Commander-in-Chief of the Bundesheer.^ The heads of all these departments had the rank of secretaries of state and met in council under the royal presidency.

.In practical reality, however, command of the Austrian Armed Forces is almost exclusively exercised by the Minister of Defense, currently Norbert Darabos.^ The U.S. armed forces had almost 5 million men and women by the end of the war.

^ For these, however, no common institutions were created; they must be arranged by agreement; the ministers must confer and then introduce identical acts in the Hungarian and the Austrian parliaments.

^ In the early 1990s the Austrian armed forces included about 52,000 persons; 46,000 were members of the army, and 6000 were members of the air force.
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.Since the end of the Cold War, and more importantly the removal of the former heavily guarded "Iron Curtain" separating Austria and Hungary, the Austrian military has been assisting Austrian border guards in trying to prevent border crossings by illegal immigrants.^ Austria has an autobahn tax called the Vignette which can be purchased at petrol stations or border crossings.

^ Austria gave Hungary a share in the management of the bank, while the arrangement for paying the bonus on exported sugar was favourable to Austria; on the other hand, since the increased duty on coffee and petroleum would fall more heavily on Austria, the Austrians wished to persuade the Hungarians to pay a larger quota of the common expenses, and there was also a dispute whether Hungary was partly responsible for a debt of 80 M. .

^ In contrast, however, with the military history of other continental powers, that of Austria-Hungary shows a small increase in the army establishment.

.This assistance came to an end when Hungary joined the EU Schengen area in 2008, for all intents and purposes abolishing "internal" border controls between treaty states.^ By the end of August the breach between the Austrian and Hungarian governments was open and complete; on the 4th of September Jellachich was reinstated in all his honours, and on the 11th he crossed the Drave to the invasion of Hungary.

^ The Hungarian government replied that any new arrangement with Austria must be concluded in the form of a commercial treaty as between two foreign states and not in the form of a " customs and trade alliance."

^ Hungary to facilitate the establishment of direct railway communication between Vienna and Dalmatia, the communication to be established by the end of 1911, each state building the sections of line that passed through its own territory.

Some politicians have called for a prolongation of this mission, but the legality of this is heavily disputed. .In accordance with the Austrian constitution, armed forces may only be deployed in a limited number of cases, mainly to defend the country and aid in cases of national emergency, such as in the wake of natural disasters.^ In May a National Guard had been established; and the soldiers of the line were invited to join this, with the promise of higher pay; on the 1st of June the garrison of Pest took the oath to the Constitution.

^ It's only natural that by the 1930's we were again on the same side fighting the forces of evil :) "Russian Military power that prevented Hungarian independence in 1849."
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^ Its military force is composed of the common army ( K. und K.); the special armies, namely the Austrian ( K.K. ) Landwehr, and the Hungarian Honveds, which are separate national institutions, and the Landsturm or levy-in-mass.

.They may generally not be used as auxiliary police forces.^ Police and the law are respected, but since the 1980s some security personnel have been accused of improper conduct and excessive use of force.
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^ The alternative was to use the whole force of the government to keep things as they were.

^ A considerable force was sent under General Baron Stephan von Jovanovich (1828-1885); they were supported from sea by the navy, and eventually the rebellion was crushed.

.Within its self-declared status of permanent neutrality, Austria has a long and proud tradition of engaging in UN-led peacekeeping and other humanitarian missions.^ Before Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia, the only opposing voice within the war cabinet was that of Hungarian Prime Minister Tisza Istvan.
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^ The ecclesiastical organization of Austria was imperfect, so long as there was no archbishopric within its borders, and its clergy owed allegiance to foreign prelates.

The Austrian Forces Disaster Relief Unit (AFDRU), in particular, an all-volunteer unit with close ties to civilian specialists (e.g. rescue dog handlers) enjoys a reputation as a quick (standard deployment time is 10 hours) and efficient SAR unit. Currently, larger contingents of Austrian forces are deployed in Bosnia, Kosovo and, since 1974, in the Golan Heights.

States

.As a federal republic, Austria is divided into nine states (German: Bundesländer).^ Leopold and his descendants ruled Austria until the extinction of the family in 1246, and by their skill and foresight raised the mark to an important place among the German states.

^ Korber proposed that Bohemia be divided into 10 districts, of which 5 would be Czech, 3 German and 2 mixed.

^ The rise of Napoleon, and his masterful interference in Germany, produced a complete and permanent revolution in the relations of Austria to the German states.

[6] .These states are then divided into districts (Bezirke) and statutory cities (Statutarstädte).^ Korber proposed that Bohemia be divided into 10 districts, of which 5 would be Czech, 3 German and 2 mixed.

^ For the military and administrative service of the army the Dual Monarchy is divided into 16 military territorial districts (15 of which correspond to the 15 army corps) and 108 supplementary districts (105 for the army, and 3 for the navy).

Districts are subdivided into municipalities (Gemeinden). Statutory Cities have the competencies otherwise granted to both districts and municipalities. .The states are not mere administrative divisions but have some legislative authority distinct from the federal government, e.g.^ In the administration of his dominions, too, Leopold succeeded in strengthening the authority of the central government.

^ The state had even resigned to the Church all authority over some departments of civil life, and restored the authority of the canon law .

in matters of culture, social care, youth and nature protection, hunting, building, and zoning ordinances. .In recent years, it has been discussed whether today it is appropriate for a small country to maintain ten parliaments.^ It was to be fixed once every ten years by separate committees chosen for that purpose from the Austrian Reichsrath and the Hungarian parliament, the so-called Quota-Deputations.

State (Bundesland) Capital Area Population [61] Rank
The States of Austria
1 Burgenland Eisenstadt 3,966 km² 280,350 9
2 Carinthia (Kärnten) Klagenfurt 9,536 km² 560,753 6
3 Lower Austria (Niederösterreich) St. Pölten 19,174 km² 1,588,545 2
4 Upper Austria (Oberösterreich) Linz 11,980 km² 1,405,986 3
5 Salzburg Salzburg 7,154 km² 529,085 7
6 Styria (Steiermark) Graz 16,392 km² 1,203,986 4
7 Tyrol (Tirol) Innsbruck 12,648 km² 698,472 5
8 Vorarlberg Bregenz 2,601 km² 364,611 8
9 Vienna (Wien) Vienna (Wien) 414.90 km² 1,660,534 1

Geography and climate

Topography of Austria
Countryside of Schröcken
Austria is a largely mountainous country due to its location in the Alps.[62] The Central Eastern Alps, Northern Limestone Alps and Southern Limestone Alps are all partly in Austria. .Of the total area of Austria (84,000 km2 or 32,433 sq mi), only about a quarter can be considered low lying, and only 32% of the country is below 500 metres (1,640 ft).^ Total selling area Sq Mtrs .
  • lifeisfun - LIFE IS FUN!!! ...in še marsikaj drugega.. 1 October 2009 6:48 UTC www.ednevnik.si [Source type: General]
  • 1TASTAR » VAGINE SPAROVE! 1 October 2009 6:48 UTC 1tastar.blog.siol.net [Source type: General]

^ If it were not for the aforementioned causes of World War One, total war would have been avoided and there would have only been a relatively small conflict between Serbia and Austria-Hungary.
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^ I am not talking about making one religion the ultimate religion or the only true religion in any country in Europe.
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.The Alps of western Austria give way somewhat into low lands and plains in the eastern part of the country.^ On the one hand, a reluctance to confess that Hungary is no longer in any sense a part of Austria; on the other hand, the refusal of the Czechs to recognize that their country is part of Austria.

^ In these ways Maximilian proved himself a capable and energetic ruler, although his plans for making Austria into a kingdom, or an electorate, were abortive.

.Austria can be divided into five areas, the biggest being the Eastern Alps, which constitute 62% of nation's total area.^ He refused to be crowned or to take the oath of the local constitutions, and divided the whole monarchy into thirteen departments, to be governed under a uniform system.

^ The unit in the new issue was to be the krone, divided into loo Keller; the krone being almost of the:same value (24-25th) as the franc .

.The Austrian foothills at the base of the Alps and the Carpathians account for around 12% and the foothills in the east and areas surrounding the periphery of the Pannoni low country amount to about 12% of the total landmass.^ Low talks about how the ultimatums of the allies for Hungarian troops to leave the outer provinces, combined with low numbers of allied soldiers in the area to act as ‘peace-keepers’ weakened the Karolyi government’s ability to hold the country together.
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^ It occupies about the sixteenth part of the total area of Europe, with an area (1905) of 239,977 sq.

.The second greater mountain area (much lower than the Alps) is situated in the north.^ Britain had a navy that was 1.5x (check this number) greater than the second and third largest navies.
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^ Areas of major settlement are in the Danube valley and in the lowlands or hills north, east, and south of the Alps.
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.Known as the Austrian granite plateau, it is located in the central area of the Bohemian Mass, and accounts for 10% of Austria.^ Adam Kolcun, born 10 February 1860 in Rusk Vol'a, Saris, Hungary, Austrian Empire; died 10 April 1869 in Rusk Vol'a, Saris, Austria-Hungary.
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The Austrian portion of the Vienna basin comprises the remaining 4%.
The six highest mountains in Austria are:
Name Height (m) Height (ft) Range
Großglockner &0000000000003797.0000003,797 &0000000000012457.00000012,457 Hohe Tauern
Wildspitze &0000000000003768.0000003,768 &0000000000012362.00000012,362 Ötztal Alps
Weißkugel &0000000000003739.0000003,739 &0000000000012267.00000012,267 Ötztal Alps
Großvenediger &0000000000003674.0000003,674 &0000000000012054.00000012,054 Hohe Tauern
Similaun &0000000000003606.0000003,606 &0000000000011831.00000011,831 Ötztal Alps
Großes Wiesbachhorn &0000000000003571.0000003,571 &0000000000011715.00000011,715 Hohe Tauern
.Phytogeographically, Austria belongs to the Central European province of the Circumboreal Region within the Boreal Kingdom.^ Within the kingdom of Hungary, as well as within Austria-Hungary, language was always the means of deciding who was what.
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^ The Jews were indeed the most emancipated here previously, and not only in Austria-Hungary, but even within the kingdom of Hungary.
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According to the WWF, the territory of Austria can be subdivided into four ecoregions: the Central European mixed forests, Pannonian mixed forests, Alps conifer and mixed forests and Western European broadleaf forests.

Climate

The greater part of Austria lies in the cool/temperate climate zone in which humid westerly winds predominate. With over half of the country dominated by the Alps, the alpine climate is the predominant one. In the east—in the Pannonian Plain and along the Danube valley—the climate shows continental features with less rain than the alpine areas. Although Austria is cold in the winter, summer temperatures can be relatively warm—reaching temperatures of around 20 – 40 °C.[63]

Economy

.Austria is one of the 12 richest countries in the world in terms of GDP (Gross domestic product) per capita,[4] has a well-developed social market economy, and a high standard of living.^ And it was your country, assuming you really have one, that helped to destroy Iraq, her, and the world's genebank and her national museum (just like Dresden).
  • Politics.Hu: Socialists, Jobbik tied in new poll; first dip below 10% for MSZP 1 October 2009 6:48 UTC www.politics.hu [Source type: Original source]

^ On the one hand, a reluctance to confess that Hungary is no longer in any sense a part of Austria; on the other hand, the refusal of the Czechs to recognize that their country is part of Austria.

.Until the 1980s, many of Austria's largest industry firms were nationalised; in recent years, however, privatisation has reduced state holdings to a level comparable to other European economies.^ This however only lasted until Russia's withdrawal five years later in 1878, leaving Bismarck with a new Dual Alliance with Austria-Hungary in 1879.
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^ Leopold and his descendants ruled Austria until the extinction of the family in 1246, and by their skill and foresight raised the mark to an important place among the German states.

^ This is derived from the reality that many of the European monarchies - many of which fell during the war (including those of Russia, Germany and Austria-Hungary) - were inter-related.
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.Labour movements are particularly strong in Austria and have large influence on labour politics.^ They were little influenced by the pan-Slav agitation; it was desirable for them that Austria, which gave them freedom and power, should continue strong and united.

^ It was impossible to maintain a strong party of moderate constitutionalists, on whom the government could depend, unless there was a large nucleus from Lower Austria.

Next to a highly developed industry, international tourism is the most important part of the national economy.
.Germany has historically been the main trading partner of Austria, making it vulnerable to rapid changes in the German economy.^ Austria, therefore, during these years completely gave up the principle of free trade, and adopted a nationalist policy similar to that which prevailed in Germany.

.However, since Austria became a member state of the European Union it has gained closer ties to other European Union economies, reducing its economic dependence on Germany.^ Furthermore, Austria-Hungary would not have been able to declare war on Serbia because Germany would not be a unified state.
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^ In contrast, however, with the military history of other continental powers, that of Austria-Hungary shows a small increase in the army establishment.

^ The war that was supposed to be over by Christmas seemed endless; however, in 1918, after great Franco-American Offensive Germany gave up, and became a liberal Republic.
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In addition, membership in the EU has drawn an influx of foreign investors attracted by Austria's access to the single European market and proximity to the aspiring economies of the European Union. Growth in GDP accelerated in recent years and reached 3.3% in 2006.[64]

Currency

In 1999, Austria introduced the single European currency, the euro. With 15 other EU member states it forms the Eurozone.
.In Austria, the euro was introduced as an accounting currency on 1 January 1999, and euro coins and banknotes entered circulation on 1 January 2002. As a preparation for this date, the minting of the new euro coins started as early as 1999, however all Austrian euro coins introduced in 2002 have this year on it; unlike other countries of the Eurozone where mint year is minted in the coin.^ European countries started to fear each other.
  • what started world war one? - Q&A 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

^ Franz Ferdinand got assassinated therefor country's started fighting each other.
  • what started world war one? - Q&A 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

^ Hitherto the currency had been partly in silver (gulden), the "Austrian currency " which had been introduced in 1857, currency partly in paper money, which took the form of notes issued by the Austro-Hungarian Bank.

.Eight different designs, one per face value, were selected for the Austrian coins.^ A first step, however, had been taken in this direction by the issue of gold coins of the value of eight and four gulden.

In 2007, to adopt the new common map like the rest of the Eurozone countries, Austria changed the common side of its coins.
Before adopting the Euro in 2002 Austria had maintained use of the Austrian schilling which was first established in December 1924. The Schilling was abolished in the wake of the Anschluss in 1938 and has been reintroduced after the end of the World War II in November 1945.
Austria has one of the richest collection of collectors' coins in the Eurozone, with face value ranging from 10 to 100 euro (although a 100,000 euro coin was exceptionally minted in 2004). .These coins are a legacy of an old national practice of minting of silver and gold coins.^ No attempt was made, however, to regulate the relations of these coins to the " Austrian " silver coinage; the two issues were not brought into connexion, and every payment was made in silver, unless it was definitely agreed that it should be paid in gold.

Unlike normal issues, these coins are not legal tender in all the eurozone. For instance, a €5 Austrian commemorative coin cannot be used in any other country.

Education

.Responsibility for educational oversight in Austria is entrusted partly to the Austrian states (Bundesländer), and partly to the federal government.^ The skilful diplomacy of Metternich, who was now at the head of the Austrian government, enabled Austria to take full advantage of the situation created by the disaster to Napoleon's arms.

^ The duchies of Austria and Styria were now claimed by the emperor Frederick II. as vacant fiefs of the Empire, and their as government was entrusted to Otto II., duke of Bavaria.

^ A court of arbitration to be established for the settlement of differences between the two states, Hungary selecting four Austrian and Austria four Hungarian judges, the presidency of the court being decided by lot, and each government being represented before the court by its own delegates.

School attendance is compulsory for nine years, i.e. usually to the age of fifteen.
.Kindergarten education, free in most states, is provided for all children between the ages of three and six years and, whilst optional, is considered a normal part of a child's education, due to its high takeup rate.^ The only identifying information I had other than his parents’ names, was that Michael stated he was 20 years of age on his marriage application.
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^ All other deaths (103,429) were due to typhus and most of the victims, over 70%, were Poles.
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^ Not to mention the Rusyns, Slovaks and Croats, all of Croatia in fact was Hungary for most of our 1,000 year history.
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Maximum class size is around 30, each class normally being cared for by one qualified teacher and one assistant. Standard attendance times are 8am to 12am, with extra afternoon care also frequently provided for a fee.
.Primary education, or Volksschule, lasts for four years, starting at age six.^ Nick Kovalak died in his home in Anita Wednesday at the age of 77 years after an illness of four days.
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.Maximum class size is 30, but may be as low as 15. It is generally expected that a class will be taught by one teacher for the entire four years and the stable bond between teacher and pupil is considered important for a child's well-being.^ Not four years had gone by, and the new constitution seemed to have failed like the old one.

^ They were completely defeated in the elections which followed, but for the next four years the two parties among the Czechs were as much occupied in opposing one another as in opposing the Germans.

^ The difference between the two parties was to a great extent, though not entirely, one of race.

.The "3Rs" dominate lesson time, with less time allotted to project work than in the UK. Children work individually and all members of a class follow the same plan of work.^ The European Court of Justice (has nothing to do with the EU, but all member states have ratified to follow it rulings).
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^ At the same time the surrender of Venetia completed the work of 1859, and the last remnant of the old-established Habsburg domination in Italy ceased.

^ At the same time the number of members was increased to 353, but the proportion of representatives from the different territories was maintained and the system of election was not altered.

There is no streaming. Lessons begin at 8am and last until noon or 1pm with hourly five- or ten-minute breaks. Children are given homework daily from the first year. .Historically there has been no lunch hour, children returning home to eat.^ The British and Turks agreed they would stop fighting for a few hours to bury there dead and collect their wounded from no mans land.
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However, due to a rise in the number of mothers in work, primary schools are increasingly offering pre-lesson and afternoon care.
As in Germany, secondary education consists of two main types of schools, attendance at which is based on a pupil's ability as determined by grades from the primary school. The Gymnasium caters for the more able children, in the final year of which the Matura examination is taken, which is a requirement for access to university. The Hauptschule prepares pupils for vocational education but also for various types of further education (HTL = institution of higher technical education; HAK = commercial academy; HBLA = institution of higher education for economic business; etc.). Attendance at one of these further education institutes also leads to the Matura. Some schools aim to combine the education available at the Gymnasium and the Hauptschule, and are known as Gesamtschulen. .In addition, a recognition of the importance of learning English has led some Gymnasiums to offer a bilingual stream, in which pupils deemed able in languages follow a modified curriculum, a portion of the lesson time being conducted in English.^ Get a life and next time offer your intelligent comments to some jewish broadcast you asshole!
  • Politics.Hu: Socialists, Jobbik tied in new poll; first dip below 10% for MSZP 1 October 2009 6:48 UTC www.politics.hu [Source type: Original source]

Theresianum public gymnasium dates back to 1746, when it was founded by Empress Maria Theresia
As at primary school, lessons at Gymnasium begin at 8am, and continue with short intervals until lunchtime or early afternoon, with children returning home to a late lunch. Older pupils often attend further lessons after a break for lunch, generally eaten at school. As at primary level, all pupils follow the same plan of work. Great emphasis is placed on homework and frequent testing. .Satisfactory marks in the end-of-the-year report ("Zeugnis") are a prerequisite for moving up ("aufsteigen") to the next class.^ After two years he gave up his cautious policy and took a bold move.

.Pupils who do not meet the required standard re-sit their tests at the end of the summer holidays; those whose marks are still not satisfactory are required to re-sit the year ("sitzenbleiben").^ This district had hitherto been exempted from military service; by the law of 1869, which introduced universal military service, those who had hitherto been exempted were required to serve, not in the regular army but in the militia.

.It is not uncommon for a pupil to re-sit more than one year of school.^ The economic dispute between Hungary and Austria was thus settled for ten years after negotiations lasting more than twelve years.

.After completing the first two years, pupils choose between one of two strands, known as "Gymnasium" (slightly more emphasis on arts) or "Realgymnasium" (slightly more emphasis on science).^ They were completely defeated in the elections which followed, but for the next four years the two parties among the Czechs were as much occupied in opposing one another as in opposing the Germans.

^ The difference between the two parties was to a great extent, though not entirely, one of race.

^ John had least two known brothers, Martin and Stephen, and one sister.
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.Whilst many schools offer both strands, some do not, and as a result, some children move schools for a second time at age 12. At age 14, pupils may choose to remain in one of these two strands, or to change to a vocational course, possibly with a further change of school.^ This was to bring about a reaction against the economic doctrines which had held the field for nearly twenty years; but the full effect of the change was not seen for some time.

^ For the second time in four years the policy of the government had completely changed within a few months.

^ It may give me some sense of justification, but it doesn't change the situation that we live in at present one bit.
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University of Vienna
.The Austrian university system had been open to any student who passed the Matura examination until recently.^ Czech into the government offices throughout the whole of the kingdom; (2) after 1903 no one was to be appointed to a post under the government in Bohemia until he had passed an examination in Czech.

A 2006 bill allowed the introduction of entrance exams for studies such as Medicine. .In 2001, an obligatory tuition fee ("Studienbeitrag") of €363.36 per term was introduced for all public universities.^ Universal military service has been introduced, and all this has been done in the presence of difficulties greater than existed in any other civilized country.

.Since 2008, for all EU students the studies are free of charge, as long as a certain time-limit is not exceeded (the expected duration of the study plus usually two terms tolerance).^ November 2008 um 12:35 http://www.veltop.eu/index.php?all *ROFL* .
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[65] When the time-limit is exceeded, the fee of around €363.36 per term is charged. Some further exceptions to the fee apply, e.g. for students with a year's salary of more than about €5000. In all cases, an obligatory fee of €15.50 for the student union and insurance is charged.

Demographics

A painting by Canaletto of Vienna during the first half of the eighteenth century
City of Salzburg, a UNESCO World Heritage
.Austria's population estimate in January 2009 was 8,356,707.[3] The population of the capital, Vienna, exceeds 1.6 million[11] (2.2 million including the suburbs), representing about a quarter of the country's population.^ January 2009 um 11:39 zwishen sachlich kritisieren und blöd drumrumreden ist halt doch ein unterschied..
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^ January 2009 um 12:11 alter schwede?
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^ January 2009 um 11:32 “unerfindliche gründe”???
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It is known for its vast cultural offerings and high standard of living.
Vienna is by far the country's largest city. Graz is second in size, with 250,099 inhabitants, followed by Linz (188,968), Salzburg (150,000), and Innsbruck (117,346). .All other cities have fewer than 100,000 inhabitants.^ Not only did it fail to divert the Germans in any degree from their attack on Verdun, but also the Russians lost more than 100,000 men.
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^ Graz has a long tradition as a student city: its six universities have more than 44,000 students.

^ Of barely 200,000 Austrian Jews more than half were forced to emigrate; the others mostly died later in concentration camps.
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Language

.German, Austria's official language, is spoken natively by 88.6% of the population—followed by Turkish (2.3%), Serbian (2.2%), Croatian (1.6%), Hungarian (0.5%), and Bosnian (0.4%).^ The Hungarians and the German party in Austria have expressed their desire that the word Austria should be used, but it has not been gratified.

^ Latin would have been replaced by German as the public service language in Hungary, but for Szécsényi, because no-one ‘who mattered’ spoke Hungarian.
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^ The Czechs demanded on the contrary that both their language and German should be placed on an equal footing throughout Bohemia, and be used for all official purposes in the same way.

[7] .The Austrian federal states of Carinthia and Styria are home to a significant indigenous Slovene-speaking minority with around 14,000 members (Austrian census; unofficial numbers of Slovene groups speak of up to 50,000).^ This town in Carinthia had a population of 16,491 Germanspeaking Austrians; the Slovenian-speaking population numbered 568, of whom 180 were inhabitants of the gaol or the hospital .

^ Several members of the Black Hand group in Sarajevo were arrested and interrogated by the Austrian authorities.
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^ This request caused great excitement in Styria and the neighbouring districts; the Styrian diet (from which the Slovene minority had seceded) protested.

.In the eastermost state, Burgenland (formerly part of the Hungarian portion of Austria–Hungary), about 20,000 Austrian citizens speak Hungarian and 30,000 speak Croatian.^ Vándorló you don't know shit about Hungary, and that is pathetic for almost 20 years here.
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^ Austria-Hungary was a last gasp by the house of Habsburg, if they thought they could contine controlling the Hungarians with the stick rather than the carrot they would have done so.
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^ Until 1897 Austria contributed 70%, and Hungary 30% of the joint expenditure, remaining after deduction of the common revenue.

.Of the remaining number of Austria's people that are of non-Austrian descent, many come from surrounding countries, especially from the former East Bloc nations.^ Of late years attempts have been made to turn the Slovenian national movement into this direction, and to attract the Slovenes also towards the Orthodox non-Austrian Slays.

^ I hope that the Hungarian people come to their senses before it is too late for their country.
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^ The many vicissitudes which have attended this development have not, however, altered the European position of Austria, which has remained the same for over a thousand years.

.So-called guest workers (Gastarbeiter) and their descendants, as well as refugees from the Yugoslav wars and other conflicts, also form an important minority group in Austria.^ Some dudes assassinated the archduke of austria Franz Ferdinand so austria formed an alliance and attacked some other dudes .
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^ The war was lead by two groups, they were: Central Powers (bad guys) : Austria-Hungarian Empire, Germany and Turkey.
  • what started world war one? - Q&A 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

^ Leopold and his descendants ruled Austria until the extinction of the family in 1246, and by their skill and foresight raised the mark to an important place among the German states.

Since 1994 the RomaSinti (gypsies) are an officially recognised ethnic minority in Austria.
.According to census information published by Statistik Austria for 2001[66] there were a total of 710,926 foreign nationals living in Austria.^ The information provided in these records varies according to census.
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^ The ecclesiastical organization of Austria was imperfect, so long as there was no archbishopric within its borders, and its clergy owed allegiance to foreign prelates.

^ In 1868 there had been introduced compulsory military service in both Austria and Hungary; the total of the army available in war had been fixed at 800,000 men.

.Of these, 124,392 speak German as their mother tongue (mainly immigrants from Germany, some from Switzerland and South Tyrol, Italy) The next largest populations of linguistic and ethnic groups are 240,863 foreign nationals from the former Yugoslavia (Serbs being the largest number of these at 135,376, followed by Croatian at 105,487); 123,417 Turkish nationals; 25,155 whose native tongue is English; 24,446 Albanian; 17,899 Polish; 14,699 Hungarian; 12,216 Romanian; 7,982 Arabs; 6,902 Slovenes (not including the autochthonous minority); 6,891 Slovaks; 6,707 Czech; 5,916 Persian; 5,677 Italian; 5,466 Russian; 5,213 French; 4,938 Chinese; 4,264 Spanish; 3,503 Bulgarian.^ I know it will come as a surprise you, Hungarians were far, far more generous to them than the Czechs, the Slovaks, the ethnic Germans and the Romanians, not to mention the various slavs south of the border).
  • Politics.Hu: Socialists, Jobbik tied in new poll; first dip below 10% for MSZP 1 October 2009 6:48 UTC www.politics.hu [Source type: Original source]

^ With Great Britain, France and Germany, there was now only a " most favoured nation " agreement; fresh commercial treaties were made with Italy (1879), Switzerland and Servia (1881).

^ Magyar, he is counting "cultural" Magyars, not some racial or ethnic group.
  • Politics.Hu: Socialists, Jobbik tied in new poll; first dip below 10% for MSZP 1 October 2009 6:48 UTC www.politics.hu [Source type: Original source]

.The populations of the rest fall off sharply below 3,000. Between 200,000 and 300,000 ethnic Turks (including minority of Turkish Kurds) currently live in Austria.^ Between 200,000 and 300,000 Austrian troops were massed in Bohemia; and Austria took up the role of mediator, prepared to throw the weight of her support into the scale of whichever side should prove most amenable to her claims.

They are the largest single immigrant group in Austria,[67] closely followed by the Serbs.[68]
.Austria's mountainous terrain led to the development of many distinct German dialects.^ I noted a distinct difference between the dialect spoken by the older generation in the Lower Tatras Mountains and the Slovak heard from the younger generations elsewhere.
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^ The issue was forced by the developments of the tangled Schleswig-Holstein Question , which led to the definitive breach between the two great German powers, to the campaign of 1866, and the collapse of Austria on the field of Kiiniggratz (July 3.

^ The many vicissitudes which have attended this development have not, however, altered the European position of Austria, which has remained the same for over a thousand years.

.All of the dialects in the country, however, belong to Austro-Bavarian groups of German dialects, with the exception of the dialect spoken in its western-most Bundesland, Vorarlberg, which belongs to the group of Alemannic dialects.^ The most important place of derivation and of destination for the Austro-Hungarian trade is the German empire with about 40% of the imports, and about 60% of the exports.

^ The chief feature of the allotment was, however, the formal overthrow of the fiction that Austria is preponderatingly a German country and not a country preponderatingly Slav with a German dynasty and a German façade.

^ The most important of all the symptoms of the approaching cataclysm was, however, the growing unrest among the peasants.

.There is also a distinct grammatical standard for Austrian German with a few differences to the German spoken in Germany.^ I noted a distinct difference between the dialect spoken by the older generation in the Lower Tatras Mountains and the Slovak heard from the younger generations elsewhere.
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^ Very different was it in the other territories where the majority of the population was not German - and where there was a lively recollection of the time when they were not Austrian.

^ The new doctrine of the fraternization of the Austrian races would inevitably soon come into conflict with the traditional German ascendancy strengthened by the new sentiment of a united Germany.

.As of 2006, some of the Austrian states introduced standardised tests for new citizens, to assure their language ability, cultural knowledge and accordingly their ability to integrate into the Austrian society.^ I also have no time for people who want to view every person who has an interest and knowledge of Hungarian history, culture and language as some sort of anti-semitic knuckle dragger.
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^ It was a cardinal principle of Austrian policy that she could not allow the erection of new Slav states on her southern frontier.

^ I specifically stated that language and culture were the measures used, not ethnicity or religion.
  • Politics.Hu: Socialists, Jobbik tied in new poll; first dip below 10% for MSZP 1 October 2009 6:48 UTC www.politics.hu [Source type: Original source]

[69] For the national rules, see Austrian nationality law – Naturalisation.

Ethnic groups (Volksgruppen)

Dual-language sign of Oberwart (in Hungarian Felsőőr) in Burgenland
.An estimated 13,000 to 40,000 Slovenes in the Austrian state of Carinthia (the Carinthian Slovenes) as well as Croats (around 30,000)[70] and Hungarians in Burgenland were recognised as a minority and have enjoyed special rights following the Austrian State Treaty (Staatsvertrag) of 1955.[49] The Slovenes in the Austrian state of Styria (estimated at a number between 1,600 and 5,000) are not recognised as a minority and do not enjoy special rights, although the State Treaty of July 27, 1955 states otherwise.^ Besides 10,000 men are annually allotted to the Austrian Landwehr, and 12,500 to the Hungarian Honveds.

^ This town in Carinthia had a population of 16,491 Germanspeaking Austrians; the Slovenian-speaking population numbered 568, of whom 180 were inhabitants of the gaol or the hospital .

^ Its military force is composed of the common army ( K. und K.); the special armies, namely the Austrian ( K.K. ) Landwehr, and the Hungarian Honveds, which are separate national institutions, and the Landsturm or levy-in-mass.

[citation needed]
.The right for bilingual topographic signs for the regions where Slovene- and Croat-Austrians live alongside the German speaking population (as required by the 1955 State Treaty) is still to be fully implemented.^ Very different was it in the other territories where the majority of the population was not German - and where there was a lively recollection of the time when they were not Austrian.

^ This town in Carinthia had a population of 16,491 Germanspeaking Austrians; the Slovenian-speaking population numbered 568, of whom 180 were inhabitants of the gaol or the hospital .

^ The German-speaking population was very small, consisting chiefly of government officials, railway servants and Jews ; but there was a large minority (some 43%) of Ruthenes.

.Many Carinthians are afraid of Slovenian territorial claims,[citation needed] pointing to the fact that Yugoslav troops entered the state after each of the two World Wars and considering that some official Slovenian atlases show parts of Carinthia as Slovene cultural territory.^ A year later, in 1915, Italy did enter the First World War, as an ally of Britain, France and Russia.
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^ Each of the territories was a separate political unit with a separate history, and some of them had a historic claim to a large amount of selfgovernment; in many the old feudal estates had survived till 1848.

^ I would like to know How did these complex alliance systems play a part in the origins of World war one?
  • How did World war one start? - Q&A 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

The recently deceased governor, Jörg Haider, has made this fact a matter of public argument in autumn 2005 by refusing to increase the number of bilingual topographic signs in Carinthia. .A poll by the Kärntner Humaninstitut conducted in January 2006 states that 65% of Carinthians are not in favour of an increase of bilingual topographic signs, since the original requirements set by the State Treaty of 1955 have already been fulfilled according to their point of view.^ On May 15, 1955, a formal treaty between Great Britain, France, the United States, the USSR, and Austria restored full sovereignty to the country.
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^ But commercial treaties, and such state treaties as impose burdens on the state, or parts of the state, or involve a change of territory, require the parliamentary assent of both states.

^ See, e.g., State Treaty for the Re-establishment of an Independent and Democratic Austria, May 15, 1955, art.
  • No. 03-13: Republic of Austria v. Altmann - Amicus (Merits) 20 September 2009 11:58 UTC www.usdoj.gov [Source type: Original source]

.Another interesting phenomenon is the so called "Windischen-Theorie"[71] stating that the Slovenes can be split in two groups: actual Slovenes and Windische (a traditional German name for Slavs), based on differences in language between Austrian Slovenes, who were taught Slovene standard language in school and those Slovenes who spoke their local Slovene dialect but went to German schools.^ The question of language becomes a political one, so far as it concerns the use of different languages in the public offices and law courts, and in the schools.

^ It was mostly one thing leading to another, Austria's prince Franz and his wife were assassinated in Serbia by a radical group called the Black Hand.
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^ The premier, Dr von Korber, who had undertaken to overcome obstruc and January 1903 to promote a compromise between Czechs and Germans proved equally futile.

The term Windische was applied to the latter group as a means of distinction. .This politically influenced theory, dividing Slovene Austrians into the "loyal Windische" and the "national Slovenes", was never generally accepted and fell out of use some decades ago.^ Serious riots broke out in some of the towns of Istria when, for the first time, Illyrian was used for this purpose as well as Italian.

^ Of late years attempts have been made to turn the Slovenian national movement into this direction, and to attract the Slovenes also towards the Orthodox non-Austrian Slays.

^ This was useful for the purposes of speedy mobilization, though there was some danger that the local and national spirit might penetrate into the army.

Religion

Main Denominations in Austria[72][73]
year population Catholics percentage Lutherans[74] percentage
1951 6,933,905 6,170,084 89.0 %
1961 7,073,807 6,295,075 89.0 %
1971 7,491,526 6,548,316 87.4 %
1981 7,555,338 6,372,645 84.3 %
1991 7,795,786 6,081,454 78.0 %
2001 8,032,926 5,915,421 73.6 % 376,150 4.7%
2005 8,250,000 5,662,782 68.5 %
2008 8,350,000 5,579,493 66.8 % 328,346 3.9%
2009 8,376,761[75] 5,530,000[76] 66.0 % 325,314[77] 3.9%
The Basilica of Mariazell is Austria's most popular pilgrimage site
The Stadttempel in Vienna is the oldest surviving synagogue
At the end of the twentieth century, about 74% of Austria's population were registered as Roman Catholic,[78] while about 5% considered themselves Protestants.[78] Austrian Christians are obliged to pay a mandatory membership fee (calculated by income—about 1%) to their church; this payment is called "Kirchenbeitrag" ("Ecclesiastical/Church contribution").
Since the second half of the 20th century, the number of adherents and churchgoers has dropped. .Data for the end of 2005 from the Austrian Roman Catholic church lists 5,662,782 members or 68.5% of the total Austrian population, and a Sunday church attendance of 753,701 or 9% of the total Austrian population.^ There were difficulties also between the Roman Catholics and the members of the Greek Church.

^ It had been agreed that the whole education of the Roman Catholic youth, in all schools, private as well as public, should be in accordance with the teaching of the Roman Catholic Church.

^ There is no doubt, however, that the tendency among Germans has been to exalt the principle of nationality above religion, and to give it an absolute authority in which the Roman Catholic Church cannot acquiesce.

[79] .Data for the end of 2008 published by the Austrian Roman Catholic church shows a further reduction to 5,579,493 members or 66.8% of the total Austrian population, and a Sunday church attendance of 698,527 or 8% of the total Austrian population.^ There were difficulties also between the Roman Catholics and the members of the Greek Church.

^ It had been agreed that the whole education of the Roman Catholic youth, in all schools, private as well as public, should be in accordance with the teaching of the Roman Catholic Church.

^ Kovalyak was a member of SS. Peter and Paul Byzantine Catholic church in Punxsutawney."--- .
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[80] The Lutheran church also recorded a large drop in adherents between 2001 and 2008.
.About 12% of the population declared that they have no religion.^ The German Nationalists and Radicals declared that no business should be done till they were repealed and Badeni dismissed.

^ Actually not only Romanians were over 50% , but they were backed by Saxons too, which brings at about 70-75% the population who wanted to secede.
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[78] in .2001. Of the remaining people, around 340,000 are registered as members of various Muslim communities, mainly due to the influx from Turkey, Bosnia-Herzegovina and Albania.^ Some of the messages Hungarian priests comes up with are as hateful, mainly against Jews, as some of the Muslim Clerics that are poisoning their people in the message of Revenge.
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[78] .About 180,000 are members of Eastern Orthodox Churches, more than 20,000 are active Jehovah's Witnesses[81] and about 8,100 are Jewish.^ I didn't think you were either, certainly not magy, and Judas seems smarter than you are also seems to know more about Hungary.
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^ 'Jobbik, a uniformed blackshirt-brigade which consists of about 2.000 active members, which tend to go out to different villages with a high proportion of Roma and demonstrate.
  • Politics.Hu: Socialists, Jobbik tied in new poll; first dip below 10% for MSZP 1 October 2009 6:48 UTC www.politics.hu [Source type: Original source]

^ I know that can be frustrating for those who know more about a subject than I do, but as I said, it's a learning process.
  • Politics.Hu: Socialists, Jobbik tied in new poll; first dip below 10% for MSZP 1 October 2009 6:48 UTC www.politics.hu [Source type: Original source]

[78]
.The Austrian Jewish Community of 1938—Vienna alone counted more than 200,000—was reduced to around 4,500 during the Second World War, with approximately 65,000 Jewish Austrians killed in the Holocaust and 130,000 emigrating.^ Besides 10,000 men are annually allotted to the Austrian Landwehr, and 12,500 to the Hungarian Honveds.

^ The quota of Austrian and Hungarian contribution to joint expenditure to be 63.6 and 36.4 respectively - an increase of 2% in the Hungarian quota, equal to some £200,000 a year.

^ War is an inherently viscious buisness, but German and Soviet troops certainly were far and away responsible for much more looting and pillaging than US troops were.
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[82] .The large majority of the current Jewish population are post-war immigrants, particularly from eastern Europe and central Asia (including Bukharan Jews).^ "Austria-Hungary dominated much of Central and Southern Europe including Italy great influence in Russia and Spain" .
  • Politics.Hu: Socialists, Jobbik tied in new poll; first dip below 10% for MSZP 1 October 2009 6:48 UTC www.politics.hu [Source type: Original source]

^ If you check my posts that are related "with the Jewish question" they normally argues against posts that are clearly inspired by the "Blame the Jews"-logic.
  • Politics.Hu: Socialists, Jobbik tied in new poll; first dip below 10% for MSZP 1 October 2009 6:48 UTC www.politics.hu [Source type: Original source]

^ What I stated is that to create an 'Hungarian majority in the Pre-Trianon Kingdom' the Jews, who were counted as 5% of the population was also counted as 'Hungarians', not as 'Romanians', 'Slovaks' etc.
  • Politics.Hu: Socialists, Jobbik tied in new poll; first dip below 10% for MSZP 1 October 2009 6:48 UTC www.politics.hu [Source type: Original source]

[83] Buddhism was legally recognised as a religion in Austria in 1983.[84]
According to the most recent Eurobarometer Poll 2005,[85]
  • 54% of Austrian citizens responded that "they believe there is a God".
  • 34% answered that "they believe there is some sort of spirit or life force".
  • 8% answered that "they do not believe there is any sort of spirit, God, or life force".
.While northern and central Germany was the origin of the Reformation, Austria and Bavaria were the heart of the Counter-Reformation in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, when the absolute monarchy of Habsburg imposed a strict regime to restore Catholicism's power and influence among Austrians.^ The central powers were Germany, Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, and Ottoman empire.
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^ Such a body, Metternich held, " powerful for defence, powerless for offence," would form a guarantee of the peace of central Europe - and of the preponderance of Austria; and in its councils Austrian diplomacy, backed by the weight of the Habsburg power beyond the borders of Germany, would exercise a greater influence than any possible prestige derived from a venerable title that had become a by-word for the union of unlimited pretensions with practical impotence .

^ The question of the annexation of Bavaria by conquest or exchange had occupied the minds of Austrian statesmen throughout the century: it would not only have removed a perpetual menace to the peace of Austria, but would have given to the Habsburg monarchy an overwhelming strength in South Germany.

[86][87] .The Habsburgs for a long time viewed themselves as the vanguard of Catholicism and all other confessions and religions were repressed.^ Over a long period of time Countries had developed friendships with other countries ,such as Britain and Belgium, who promised to look after each over if they got into trouble.
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.In 1781, in the era of Austrian enlightenment, Emperor Joseph II issued a Patent of Tolerance for Austria that allowed other confessions a limited freedom of worship.^ On the one hand, a reluctance to confess that Hungary is no longer in any sense a part of Austria; on the other hand, the refusal of the Czechs to recognize that their country is part of Austria.

^ The duchies of Austria and Styria were now claimed by the emperor Frederick II. as vacant fiefs of the Empire, and their as government was entrusted to Otto II., duke of Bavaria.

^ The Emperor Joseph II decreed in 1784 that a census be taken in 1785-1786.
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.Religious freedom was declared a constitutional right in Cisleithania after the Austro-Hungarian Ausgleich in 1867 thus paying tribute to the fact that the monarchy was home of numerous religions beside Roman Catholicism such as Greek, Serbian, Romanian, Russian, and Bulgarian Orthodox Christians (Austria neighboured the Ottoman Empire for centuries), Calvinist, Lutheran Protestants and Jews.^ The defeat of the old Austria by Prussia at Sadowa A in 1866, the establishment of the Dual Monarchy Hungarian in 1867 and the foundation of the new German empire crisis, in 1871, formed the starting-point of Austro-Hungarian /9°3history properly so called; but the Austro-Hungarian 1907.

^ He met with very slight opposition, declared the duchies to be immediately dependent upon the Empire, made Vienna an imperial city, and imposed other changes upon the constitution of Austria.

^ The Austro-Hungarian monarchy is very often called unofficially the Dual Monarchy.

.In 1912, after the annexation of Bosnia Hercegovina in 1908, Islam was officially recognised in Austria.^ In 1908 Austria took over Bosnia and Herzegovina.
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^ Turkey as suzerain, were placed under the administration of Austria-Hungary, and their annexation in 1908 was recognized by the Powers in 1909, so that they became part of the dominions of the monarchy.

^ In 1908 Austria attacked Bosnia which exasperated the Serbians.
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Austria remained largely influenced by Catholicism. .After 1918, First Republic Catholic leaders such as Theodor Innitzer and Ignaz Seipel took leading positions within or close to Austria's government and increased their influence during the time of the Austrofascism; Catholicism was treated much like a state religion by Engelbert Dollfuss and Kurt Schuschnigg.^ It was by their influence that a law was introduced limiting the rate of interest, and they co-operated with the government in legislation for improving the material condition of the people, which had been neglected during the period of Liberal government, and which was partly similar to the laws introduced at the same time in Germany.

^ At the close of the middle ages the area of Austria had increased to nearly 50,000 sq.

^ For the second time in four years the policy of the government had completely changed within a few months.

.November 2007" style="white-space:nowrap;">[citation needed] Although Catholic (and Protestant) leaders initially welcomed the Germans in 1938 during the Anschluss of Austria into Germany, Austrian Catholicism stopped its support[citation needed]of Nazism later on and many[citation needed] former religious public figures became involved with the resistance during the Third Reich.^ During the negotiations for the customs and commercial treaty, the Austrian government attempted to conclude for a longer period than ten years, but was unable to overcome Hungarian resistance.

^ The new doctrine of the fraternization of the Austrian races would inevitably soon come into conflict with the traditional German ascendancy strengthened by the new sentiment of a united Germany.

^ They play the same part in Austria as does the " pan-Germanic Union " in Germany.

.After the end of World War II in 1945, a stricter secularism was imposed in Austria, and religious influence on politics declined.^ How did world war 1 end?
  • what started world war one? - Q&A 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

^ Related FAQ: [soc.history.war.world-war-ii] Frequently Asked Questions .
  • what started world war one? - Q&A 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

^ Blaming Germans for World War II is a product of the Hollywood depiction of always making Germans the bad guys.
  • what started world war one? - Q&A 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

[citation needed]

Culture

Music

.Austria's past as a European power and its cultural environment have generated a broad contribution to various forms of art, most notably among them music.^ The most popular form of this idea was a Triple Monarchy of Austria, Hungary and a Slavic Kingdom.
  • Caught in the Vice: Austria-Hungary in WWI - Paradox Interactive Forums 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC forum.paradoxplaza.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Vienna's Jews made a major contribution to the arts, the sciences and the commerce in Austria, with special emphasis in Vienna.

^ The result was a phenomenon that in itself greatly increased the chances for generalized war: the grouping of the great European powers into two hostile military alliances, the TRIPLE ALLIANCE, (q.v.
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Austria has been the birthplace of many famous composers such as Joseph Haydn, Franz Schubert, Anton Bruckner, Johann Strauss, Sr., Johann Strauss, Jr. and Gustav Mahler as well as members of the Second Viennese School such as Arnold Schoenberg, Anton Webern and Alban Berg. .Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart was born in Salzburg, then an independent Church Principality, though one that was culturally closely connected to Austria, and much of Mozart's career was spent in Vienna.^ I DON'T CARE. But since Franz was assasinated Austria-Hungary declared war and there you have it WORLD WAR ONE! PEACE OUT, DUDE! .
  • what started world war one? - Q&A 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

^ They laid much stress on the historic task of Austria in bringing German culture to the half-civilized races of the east.

^ Though Ferdinand himself did not take a leading part in German religious or foreign politics, the period was one of intense interest to Austria.

Vienna has long been especially an important centre of musical innovation. Eighteenth and nineteenth century composers were drawn to the city due to the patronage of the Habsburgs, and made Vienna the European capital of classical music. .During the Baroque period, Slavic and Hungarian folk forms influenced Austrian music.^ Hitherto the currency had been partly in silver (gulden), the "Austrian currency " which had been introduced in 1857, currency partly in paper money, which took the form of notes issued by the Austro-Hungarian Bank.

^ During the 9th century the Frankish supremacy vanished, and the mark was overrun by the Moravians, and then by the Magyars, or Hungarians, who destroyed the few remaining traces of Frankish influence.

^ During the same period the dual constitution was sanctioned, by which the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy as it now exists, was formed "of two distinct co-ordinate States having the same constitutional, legal, and administrative rights ".
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Austro-Hungarian Monarchy 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

Vienna's status began its rise as a cultural center in the early 1500s, and was focused around instruments including the lute. Ludwig van Beethoven spent the better part of his life in Vienna. .Austria's current national anthem, attributed to Mozart, was chosen after World War II to replace the traditional Austrian anthem by Joseph Haydn.^ This institution had, in 1867, belonged entirely to Austria; it had branches in Hungary, and its notes were current throughout the monarchy, but the direction was entirely Austrian.

^ He was veteran of World War II and the Korean Conflict.
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^ He was a veteran of World War II."--- Obituary, Punxsutawney newspaper.
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Austria has also produced one notable jazz musician, keyboardist Josef Zawinul, who helped pioneer electronic influences in jazz as well as being a notable composer in his own right. The pop and rock musician Falco was internationally acclaimed during the 1980s, especially for his song "Rock Me Amadeus" dedicated to Mozart.[88] The drummer Thomas Lang was born in Vienna in 1967 and is now world renowned for his technical ability, having played with artists such as Geri Halliwell and Robbie Williams.
The Belvedere Palace, an example of Baroque architecture

Art and architecture

.Among Austrian Artists and architects one can find the painters Ferdinand Georg Waldmüller, Rudolf von Alt, Hans Makart, Gustav Klimt, Oskar Kokoschka, Egon Schiele, Carl Moll, and Friedensreich Hundertwasser, the photographers Inge Morath and Ernst Haas, and architects like Johann Bernhard Fischer von Erlach, Otto Wagner, Adolf Loos, and Hans Hollein.^ Careers which suit Spatial Thinkers include Mechanic, Photographer, Artist, Architect, Engineer, Builder, Set designer .
  • das weblog von tschörda 1 October 2009 6:48 UTC www.backlab.at [Source type: General]

Film and theater

Austrian contributions to the worlds of film and theater have traditionally been strong. Sascha Kolowrat was an Austrian pioneer of filmmaking. .Billy Wilder, Fritz Lang, Josef von Sternberg, and Fred Zinnemann originally came from Austria before establishing themselves as internationally relevant movie makers.^ There was suspicion of plots to invade between Austria and Russia which meant they were both waiting for a opportunity to get in there first and invade the other before they were invaded themselves.
  • what started world war one? - Q&A 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

.Willi Forst, Ernst Marischka, or Franz Antel enriched the popular cinema in German language speaking countries.^ The bureaucracy and the law courts had therefore become a network of German-speaking officialism extending over the whole country; no one had any share in the government.

Michael Haneke became internationally known for his disturbing cinematic studies, before receiving a Golden Globe for his critically acclaimed film The White Ribbon in 2010.
The first Austrian film director receiving an Academy Award was Stefan Ruzowitzky. Many Austrian actors were able to pursue a career, the impact of which was sensed beyond national borders. Among them were Peter Lorre, Curd Jürgens, Senta Berger, Oskar Werner, and Klaus Maria Brandauer. Hedy Lamarr and Arnold Schwarzenegger became American as well as international movie stars. Christoph Waltz rose to international fame with his performance in Inglourious Basterds, earning an Golden Globe Award in 2010. Max Reinhardt was a master of spectacular and astute theater productions. Otto Schenk not only excelled as a stage actor, but also as an opera director.

Science, philosophy and economics

Sigmund Freud was the founder of Psychoanalysis
Austria was the cradle of numerous scientists with international reputation. Among them are Ludwig Boltzmann, Ernst Mach, Victor Franz Hess and Christian Doppler, prominent scientists in the nineteenth century. In the twentieth century, contributions by Lise Meitner, Erwin Schrödinger and Wolfgang Pauli to nuclear research and quantum mechanics were key to these areas' development during the 1920s and 1930s. .A present-day quantum physicist is Anton Zeilinger, noted as the first scientist to demonstrate quantum teleportation.^ After the first five children were born the family moved to Polanovce in Spis County, which remained the family home up to the present day.
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In addition to physicists, Austria was the birthplace of two of the most noteworthy philosophers of the twentieth century, Ludwig Wittgenstein and Karl Popper. In addition to them biologists Gregor Mendel and Konrad Lorenz as well as mathematician Kurt Gödel and engineers such as Ferdinand Porsche and Siegfried Marcus were Austrians.

Austria coat of arms simple.svg

These are articles of the
List of Austrians series
Artists and architects
Monarchs
Mountaineers
Music
Politicians
Scientists
Sports
Writers
A focus of Austrian science has always been medicine and psychology, starting in medieval times with Paracelsus. Eminent physicians like Theodore Billroth, Clemens von Pirquet, and Anton von Eiselsberg have built upon the achievements of the 19th century Vienna School of Medicine. Austria was home to psychologists Sigmund Freud, Alfred Adler, Paul Watzlawick and Hans Asperger and psychiatrist Viktor Frankl.
The Austrian School of Economics, which is prominent as one of the main competitive directions for economic theory, is related to Austrian economists Joseph Schumpeter, Eugen von Böhm-Bawerk, Ludwig von Mises, and Friedrich Hayek. .Other noteworthy Austrian-born émigrés include the management thinker Peter Drucker, scientist Sir Gustav Nossal, and the 38th Governor of California, Arnold Schwarzenegger.^ He also invented a new style of map making Other Spatial Thinkers include Pablo Picasso, Michelangelo, Isambard Kingdom Brunel .
  • das weblog von tschörda 1 October 2009 6:48 UTC www.backlab.at [Source type: General]

^ Like many musical thinkers, Leonardo loved to sing, and had a fine voice Other Musical Thinkers include Mozart, John Lennon, Jimi Hendrix .
  • das weblog von tschörda 1 October 2009 6:48 UTC www.backlab.at [Source type: General]

Literature

Complementing its status as a land of artists and scientists, Austria has always been a country of poets, writers, and novelists. It was the home of novelists Arthur Schnitzler, Stefan Zweig, Thomas Bernhard, Franz Kafka, and Robert Musil, of poets Georg Trakl, Franz Werfel, Franz Grillparzer, Rainer Maria Rilke, Adalbert Stifter, Karl Kraus and children's author Eva Ibbotson.
Famous contemporary playwrights and novelists are Nobel prize winner Elfriede Jelinek, Peter Handke and Daniel Kehlmann.

Cuisine

The Viennoise
.Austria's cuisine is derived from that of the Austro-Hungarian Empire.^ Austro-Hungarian empire.
  • what started world war one? - Q&A 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

^ For example, France and Russia had agreement to back each other much like Germany and Austria-Hungarian Empire.
  • what started world war one? - Q&A 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

^ The war was lead by two groups, they were: Central Powers (bad guys) : Austria-Hungarian Empire, Germany and Turkey.
  • what started world war one? - Q&A 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

Austrian cuisine is mainly the tradition of Royal-Cuisine ("Hofküche") delivered over centuries. It is famous for its well-balanced variations of beef and pork and countless variations of vegetables. There is also the "Mehlspeisen" Bakery, which created particular delicacies such as Sachertorte, "Krapfen" which are doughnuts usually filled with apricot marmalade or custard, and "Strudel" such as "Apfelstrudel" filled with apple and "Topfenstrudel" filled with sweetened sour cream.
.In addition to native regional traditions, the cuisine has been influenced by Hungarian, Bohemia Czech, Jewish, Italian, Balkan and French cuisine, from which both dishes and methods of food preparation have often been borrowed.^ Maybe they did like Hungarian food better than French food (although in the 1930s Hungarian food was also much influenced by French cuisine in polgári families).
  • Politics.Hu: Socialists, Jobbik tied in new poll; first dip below 10% for MSZP 1 October 2009 6:48 UTC www.politics.hu [Source type: Original source]

^ The Czechs demanded on the contrary that both their language and German should be placed on an equal footing throughout Bohemia, and be used for all official purposes in the same way.

.The Austrian cuisine is therefore one of the most multicultural and transcultural in Europe.^ It had in 1901 a population of 45,405,267 inhabitants, comprising therefore within its borders, about one-eighth of the total population of Europe.

^ The line forms one of the most interesting railway routes in Europe.

Typical Austrian dishes include Wiener Schnitzel, Schweinsbraten, Kaiserschmarren, Knödel, Sachertorte and Tafelspitz. There are also Kärntner Kasnudeln, a cooked filled dough-bag with a type of cottage cheese and spearmint, and Eierschwammerl dishes. The "Eierschwammerl", also known as "Pfifferling", are native yellow, tan mushrooms. The candy Pez was invented in Austria, as well as Mannerschnitten. Austria is also famous for its Mozartkugeln, and its coffee tradition.

Sports

Salzburg Stadium, Home of the FC RB Salzburg
Due to the mountainous terrain, alpine skiing is a prominent sport in Austria. Similar sports such as snowboarding or ski-jumping are also widely popular. .A popular team sport in Austria is football, which is governed by the Austrian Football Association.^ The skilful diplomacy of Metternich, who was now at the head of the Austrian government, enabled Austria to take full advantage of the situation created by the disaster to Napoleon's arms.

[89] .However, Austria rarely has international success in this discipline, going out in the first round of the 2008 UEFA European Football Championship which was co-hosted by Austria and Switzerland.^ In 1907, however, the Imperial Commission for the Modern History of Austria issued the first volume of an new series, Osterreichische Staatsvertrdge, which promises to be of the utmost value.

^ The many vicissitudes which have attended this development have not, however, altered the European position of Austria, which has remained the same for over a thousand years.

.Besides football, Austria also has professional national leagues for most major team sports including the Austrian Hockey League for ice hockey, and the Österreichische Basketball Bundesliga for basketball.^ To the Czechs the most immediate peril now seemed that from the German parliament, and in the interests of their nationality they were willing to join the Austrian government in the struggle against German liberalism.

Bobsleigh, luge, and skeleton are also popular events with a permanent track located in Igls, which hosted bobsleigh and luge competitions for the 1964 and 1976 Winter Olympics held in Innsbruck. The first Winter Youth Olympics in 2012 will be held in Innsbruck as well.[90]

International rankings

Organization Survey Ranking
Institute for Economics and Peace Global Peace Index[91] 5 out of 144
United Nations Development Program Human Development Index 14 out of 182
Transparency International Corruption Perceptions Index 16 out of 180
World Economic Forum Global Competitiveness Index 17 out of 133

See also

References

Footnotes

  1. ^ a b "Austria". Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. 2009-05-31. http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/44183/Austria. Retrieved 2009-05-31. 
  2. ^ According to the [1] the percentage of ethnic Austrians in Austria is 82.5% meaning there are 6,794,714 ethnic Austrians in Austria.
  3. ^ a b c "Total population – At 1 January". Eurostat. 2009-01-01. http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/tgm/table.do?tab=table&language=en&pcode=tps00001&tableSelection=1&footnotes=yes&labeling=labels&plugin=1. Retrieved 2009-05-27. 
  4. ^ a b c d e "Austria". International Monetary Fund. http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/weo/2009/02/weodata/weorept.aspx?sy=2006&ey=2009&scsm=1&ssd=1&sort=country&ds=.&br=1&c=122&s=NGDPD%2CNGDPDPC%2CPPPGDP%2CPPPPC%2CLP&grp=0&a=&pr.x=44&pr.y=14. Retrieved 2009-10-01. 
  5. ^ Human Development Report 2009. The United Nations. Retrieved 5 October 2009.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g "The World Factbook — Austria". Central Intelligence Agency. 2009-05-14. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/au.html. Retrieved 2009-05-31. 
  7. ^ a b Statistik Austria, Die Bevölkerung nach Umgangssprache, Staatsangehörigkei und Geburtsland, page 75. PDF (German)
  8. ^ a b "Noricum, römische Provinz". AEIOU. http://www.aeiou.at/aeiou.encyclop.n/n840136.htm;internal&action=_setlanguage.action?LANGUAGE=en. Retrieved 2009-05-20. 
  9. ^ "Anschluss". Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. 2009-09-24. http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/26730/. Retrieved 2009-05-31. 
  10. ^ a b Lonnie Johnson 17
  11. ^ a b "Probezählung 2006 – Bevölkerungszahl 31.10.2006" (in German) (PDF). Statistik Austria. 2006-10-31. http://www.statistik.at/blickgem/pz1/g90001.pdf. Retrieved 2009-05-27. 
  12. ^ Jelavich 267
  13. ^ "Austria About". OECD. http://www.oecd.org/about/0,3347,en_33873108_33873245_1_1_1_1_1,00.html. Retrieved 2009-05-20. 
  14. ^ "Austria Joins Schengen". Migration News. May 1995. http://migration.ucdavis.edu/mn/more.php?id=643_0_4_0. Retrieved 2009-05-30. 
  15. ^ "AEIOU". http://austria-forum.org/wbtmaster/threads/aeiou/glossary/o622377_htm.htm. Retrieved 2009-10-02. 
  16. ^ "University of Klagenfurt". http://wwwg.uni-klu.ac.at/spw/oenf/name2.htm. 
  17. ^ "Rome’s metropolis on the Danube awakens to new life". Archäologischer Park Carnuntum. Archäologische Kulturpark Niederösterreich Betriebsgesellschaft m.b.H.. http://www.carnuntum.co.at/content-en/tales-from-carnuntum. Retrieved 20 February 2010. 
  18. ^ a b Johnson 19
  19. ^ a b Johnson 20–21
  20. ^ a b Johnson 21
  21. ^ Lonnie Johnson 23
  22. ^ a b Lonnie Johnson 25
  23. ^ a b Brook-Shepherd 11
  24. ^ Lonnie Johnson 26
  25. ^ Lonnie Johnson 26–28
  26. ^ Lonnie Johnson 34
  27. ^ a b Johnson 36
  28. ^ Lonnie Johnson 55
  29. ^ Schulze 233
  30. ^ Lonnie Johnson 59
  31. ^ Johnson 52–54
  32. ^ Grebler, Leo and Winkler, Wilhelm The Cost of the World War to Germany and Austria-Hungary, Yale University Press, 1940.
  33. ^ Brook-Shepherd 246
  34. ^ Brook-Shepherd 245
  35. ^ Brook-Shepherd 257–8
  36. ^ a b Lonnie Johnson 104
  37. ^ a b Brook-Shepherd 269–70
  38. ^ a b Brook-Shepherd 261
  39. ^ a b Johnson 107
  40. ^ Brook-Shepherd 283
  41. ^ Lonnie Johnson 109
  42. ^ Brook-Shepherd 292
  43. ^ a b Lonnie Johnson 112–3
  44. ^ a b Lonnie Johnson 135–6
  45. ^ Rűdiger Overmans. Deutsche militärische Verluste im Zweiten Weltkrieg. Oldenbourg 2000.
  46. ^ Anschluss and World War II. Britannica Online Encyclopedia.
  47. ^ Lonnie Johnson 137
  48. ^ Manfried Rauchensteiner: Der Sonderfall. Die Besatzungszeit in Österreich 1945 bis 1955 (The Special Case. The Time of Occupation in Austria 1945 to 1955), edited by Heeresgeschichtliches Museum / Militärwissenschaftliches Institut (Museum of Army History / Institute for Military Science), Vienna 1985
  49. ^ a b Lonnie Johnson 153
  50. ^ Lonnie Johnson 139
  51. ^ Lonnie Johnson 165
  52. ^ Brook-Shepherd 447,449
  53. ^ Lonnie Johnson 17, 142
  54. ^ "Bundesministerium für Inneres – Elections Compulsory voting". Bmi.gv.at. Archived from the original on 2007-11-03. http://web.archive.org/web/20071103221527/http://www.bmi.gv.at/wahlen/elections_compulsorey_voting.asp. Retrieved 2009-01-03. 
  55. ^ "Willkommen beim Österreich Konvent". Konvent.gv.at. http://www.konvent.gv.at/. Retrieved 2008-11-21. 
  56. ^ "November 24, 2002 General Election Results – Austria Totals". Election Resources on the Internet. 2006. http://electionresources.org/at/nationalrat.php?election=2002. Retrieved 2009-06-12. 
  57. ^ "October 1st, 2006 General Election Results – Austria Totals". Election Resources on the Internet. 2006. http://electionresources.org/at/nationalrat.php?election=2006. Retrieved 2009-06-12. 
  58. ^ Lonnie Johnson 168–9
  59. ^ "Austria Renewable Energy Fact Sheet" (PDF). Europe's Energy Portal. 2008-01-23. http://www.energy.eu/renewables/factsheets/2008_res_sheet_austria_en.pdf. Retrieved 2009-05-20. 
  60. ^ "Renewable energy in Europe". Eurobserv'er. Europe's Energy Portal. 2006. http://www.energy.eu/renewables/eu-charts/chart4.html. Retrieved 2009-05-20. 
  61. ^ "Population statistics". www.statistik.at. http://www.statistik.at/englisch/results/population/population_tab1.shtml. Retrieved 2007-02-24. 
  62. ^ "Alps". Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. 2009-06-11. http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/17356/Alps. Retrieved 2009-06-12. 
  63. ^ "Average Conditions, Vienna, Austria". BBC Weather Centre. British Broadcasting Corporation. 2006. http://www.bbc.co.uk/weather/world/city_guides/results.shtml?tt=TT003350. Retrieved 2009-05-24. 
  64. ^ Real GDP Growth – Expenditure Side, provided by the Austrian National Bank (German)
  65. ^ "Studying in Austria: Tuition Fee". Help.gv.at. 2009-01-01. http://www.help.gv.at/Content.Node/148/Seite.1480000.html#tuition. Retrieved 2009-06-18. 
  66. ^ {{Statistik Austria, Die Bevölkerung nach Umgangssprache, Staatsangehörigkei und Geburtsland|41.3 KB}}
  67. ^ "World Directory of Minorities and Indigenous Peoples – Austria: Turks". Minority Rights Group International, World Directory of Minorities and Indigenous Peoples – Austria: Turks, 2008. Online. UNHCR Refworld
  68. ^ Beč: Božić na gastarbajterski način | Evropa | Deutsche Welle | 07.01.2010
  69. ^ Requirements to become an Austrian citizen, provided by the Viennese state government (German)
  70. ^ "HKDC Geschichte – Frame". Croates.at. http://www.croates.at/haupt/gesch_fr.htm. Retrieved 2008-11-21. 
  71. ^ de:Windischen-Theorie
  72. ^ Statistik Austria: [2] ()
  73. ^ Statistics Catholic Church in Austria 2003 – 2008
  74. ^ Statistical Data 2001 – 2008 in German
  75. ^ Austrian Population 4. Quarter 2009. Retrieved 14 January 2010.
  76. ^ [3] In german – 5.53 Millions Menschen sind katholisch retrieved 14 January 2010 provisional data
  77. ^ Bischof Bünker: "Jeder Austritt ist einer zu viel."
  78. ^ a b c d e "Census 2001: Population 2001 according to religious affiliation and nationality" (in German) (PDF). Statistik Austria. http://www.statistik.at/web_de/static/bevoelkerung_2001_nach_religionsbekenntnis_und_staatsangehoerigkeit_022894.pdf. Retrieved December 17, 2007. 
  79. ^ "Kirchliche Statistik der Diozösen Österreichs (Katholiken, Pastoraldaten) für das Jahr 2005". http://www.katholisch.at/site/article_blank.siteswift?so=all&do=all&c=download&d=article%3A107%3A5. Retrieved April 21, 2007. 
  80. ^ "Kirchliche Statistik der Diozösen Österreichs (Katholiken, Pastoraldaten) für das Jahr 2008". http://www.katholisch.at/site/article_blank.siteswift?so=all&do=all&c=download&d=article%3A107%3A9. Retrieved November 1, 2009. 
  81. ^ Statistics: 2008 Report of Jehovah's Witnesses Worldwide.
  82. ^ Expulsion, Deportation and Murder – History of the Jews in Vienna Vienna Webservice
  83. ^ Bukharian Jews find homes on Long Island, Bukharian Reviews, September 16, 2004
  84. ^ "Religionsbekenntnis". AEIOU. http://www.aeiou.at/aeiou.encyclop.r/r480968.htm;internal&action=_setlanguage.action?LANGUAGE=en. Retrieved 2009-05-22. 
  85. ^ "Eurobarometer on Social Values, Science and technology 2005 – page 11" (PDF). http://ec.europa.eu/public_opinion/archives/ebs/ebs_225_report_en.pdf. Retrieved 2007-05-05. 
  86. ^ Lonnie Johnson 28
  87. ^ Brook-Shepherd 16
  88. ^ "Falco". VH1. 2007. http://www.vh1.com/artists/az/falco/bio.jhtml. Retrieved 2009-06-17. 
  89. ^ "Österreichischer Fußballbund" (in German). ÖFB. 2009. http://www.oefb.at/. Retrieved 2009-06-17. 
  90. ^ "YOG Innsbruck 2012: Relive the announcement". International Olympic Committee. 12 December 2008. http://www.olympic.org/uk/news/olympic_news/full_story_uk.asp?id=2890. Retrieved 24 December 2008. 
  91. ^ "Vision of Humanity". Vision of Humanity. http://www.visionofhumanity.org/gpi/home.php. Retrieved 2010-02-04. 

Bibliography

  • Brook-Shepherd, Gordon (1998). The Austrians: a thousand-year odyssey. New York: Carroll & Graf Publishers, Inc. ISBN 0786705205. 
  • Johnson, Lonnie (1989). Introducing Austria: a short history. Riverside, Calif.: Ariadne Press. ISBN 0929497031. 
  • Jelavich, Barbara (1987). Modern Austria: empire and republic, 1815–1986. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-31625-1. 
  • Schulze, Hagen (1996). States, nations, and nationalism: from the Middle Ages to the present. Cambridge, Mass.: Blackwell. ISBN 0631209336. 

External links

Government

Travel

Miscellanea

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Photos


Travel guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikitravel

noframe
Location
Image:LocationAustria.png
Flag
Image:au-flag.png
Quick Facts
Capital Vienna
Government federal republic
Currency Euro (EUR)
Area 83,858 sq km
Population 8,199,783 (July 2007 est.)
Language German, regional Slovenian, Serbo-Croatian, Hungarian
Religion Roman Catholic 78%, Protestant 5%, Agnostics and Atheists 12%, Muslim and other 5%
Electricity 230V/50Hz (European plug)
Calling Code +43
Internet TLD .at
Time Zone UTC +1
.Austria[1] (German: Österreich, literally "the Eastern Realm" or "Eastern Empire") is a land-locked alpine country in Central Europe bordering Switzerland and Liechtenstein to the west, Germany and Czech Republic to the north, Slovakia and Hungary to the east and Slovenia and Italy to the south.^ February 2004 um 1:57 germany, netherlands, belgium durchreise, luxemburg eine nacht, france, portugal, spain, italy, croatia, czech republic, slovakia eine nacht im häfn, hungary, poland .
  • das weblog von tschörda 1 October 2009 6:48 UTC www.backlab.at [Source type: General]

^ The Triple Alliance Two years after Germany and Austria-Hungary concluded their agreement; Italy was brought into the fold with the signing of the Triple Alliance in 1881.
  • How did World war one start? - Q&A 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

^ Germans invaded Belgium then they helped and encouraged Austria-Hungary in Murdering Ferdinand and her wife.
  • How did World war one start? - Q&A 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

Austria, along with neighboring Switzerland, is the winter sports capital of Europe. However, it is just as popular for summer tourists who visit its historic cities and villages and hike in the magnificent scenery of the alps.

Understand

History

.Today's Austria is what was once the German speaking core and center of power for the large multi-ethnic Austro-Hungarian Empire.^ Appointed Prime Minister and Foreign Minister of Prussia by Kaiser Wilhelm I in 1862, Bismarck was consumed with a desire to achieve the creation of a German Empire out of the collection of smaller German states largely led by Austria's influence (another German-speaking nation).
  • How did World war one start? - Q&A 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

^ The Russians backed the serbs and the germans backed the austro-hungarians and so on untill all the powers in europe had taken sides and war was underway/ WW2 Was when germany invaded Poland and britain said "OI Hitler NOOOO!".
  • How did World war one start? - Q&A 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

^ My maternal grandparents both came from the Austro-Hungarian Empire, from what is now Slovakia, at the turn of the century.
  • Stories, Trees & Photos 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.tccweb.org [Source type: General]

.This empire stretched eastwards from present-day Austria through much of east-central and south-central Europe.^ The central powers were Germany, Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, and Ottoman empire.
  • How did World war one start? - Q&A 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

^ The central powers were Germany, Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, and Ottoman Empire.
  • How did World war one start? - Q&A 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

.It included the entire territories of modern day Hungary, the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia, and portions of Serbia, Romania, Ukraine, Poland and Italy.^ February 2004 um 1:57 germany, netherlands, belgium durchreise, luxemburg eine nacht, france, portugal, spain, italy, croatia, czech republic, slovakia eine nacht im häfn, hungary, poland .
  • das weblog von tschörda 1 October 2009 6:48 UTC www.backlab.at [Source type: General]

^ One of the chief aims of the Triple Alliance was to prevent Italy from declaring war against Austria-Hungary, towards whom the Italians were in dispute over territorial matters.
  • How did World war one start? - Q&A 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

^ February 2004 um 14:05 Costa Rica, Denmark, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Slovak Rep., Sweden, United States, Austria, Netherlands, Slovenia, Spain, Switzerland, Belgium, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Czech Rep., France, Italy, Monaco, Portugal, San Marino, United Kingdom, Yugoslavia… .
  • das weblog von tschörda 1 October 2009 6:48 UTC www.backlab.at [Source type: General]

.While Prussia united the German states to the north into one "Germany" in the latter part of the 19th Century, Austria remained oriented eastwards towards its diverse empire.^ Appointed Prime Minister and Foreign Minister of Prussia by Kaiser Wilhelm I in 1862, Bismarck was consumed with a desire to achieve the creation of a German Empire out of the collection of smaller German states largely led by Austria's influence (another German-speaking nation).
  • How did World war one start? - Q&A 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

^ His first step was to oust Austria as the prime influence among these German states.
  • How did World war one start? - Q&A 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

^ Copies of this document went to Germany, Poland, Australia, The Netherlands and various locations across the United States.
  • Stories, Trees & Photos 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.tccweb.org [Source type: General]

.However, from the start of the 20th century, the political history of Austria has been closely linked to the misfortunes and disasters of modern German history, mainly the First and Second World Wars and their terrible aftermath.^ Who started world war 1?
  • How did World war one start? - Q&A 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

^ To begin with, Austria started a Balkan war, which unintentionally lead to the World war.
  • How did World war one start? - Q&A 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

^ World war 1 started because the germans sunk our ships.
  • How did World war one start? - Q&A 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

.The modern republic of Austria came into being in 1918 as a result of its defeat in World War I. In its wake, the empire was split into many components.^ Consequently the Germans were turning the Balkan war into a world war.
  • How did World war one start? - Q&A 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

^ As a result of Russia joining the war Germany had to put into practice the schlieffen plan which got Britain and France involved.
  • How did World war one start? - Q&A 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

^ World War 1 started in 1914 and ended in 1918.
  • How did World war one start? - Q&A 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

.They included Austria's current borders, independent Hungary, lands given to Italy (South Tyrol and Trentino), lands given to southern Poland (which also came about from lands taken from the Russian and German empires), and independent Czechoslovakia and the northern and western half of Yugoslavia.^ Without a doubt the Russians gave the Serbians the support they were looking for as they refused to be once again humiliated by Austria.
  • How did World war one start? - Q&A 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

^ The war was lead by two groups, they were: Central Powers (bad guys) : Austria-Hungarian Empire, Germany and Turkey.
  • what started world war one? - Q&A 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

^ In short, Italy was committed to defend Germany and Austria-Hungary only in the event of a 'defensive' war; arguing that their actions were 'offensive' she declared instead a policy of neutrality.
  • How did World war one start? - Q&A 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

.Following an unresistant invasion and annexation by Nazi Germany in 1938, Austria more or less functioned as a part of Nazi Germany during the Second World War.^ However, should that third power transpire to be France, Russia would not be obliged to provide assistance to Germany (as was the case of Germany if Russia found itself at war with Austria-Hungary).
  • How did World war one start? - Q&A 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

^ Britain, allied to France by a more loosely worded treaty which placed a "moral obligation" upon her to defend France, declared war against Germany on 4 August.
  • How did World war one start? - Q&A 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

^ I would like to know How did these complex alliance systems play a part in the origins of World war one?
  • How did World war one start? - Q&A 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

.Thus a large proportion of the population supported Hitler and Austria's incorporation into Germany.^ It was this clause that Austria-Hungary invoked in calling Germany to her aid against Russian support for Serbia (who in turn was protected by treaty with Russia).
  • How did World war one start? - Q&A 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

^ Austria-Hungary needed to call for support from their allie Germany.
  • How did World war one start? - Q&A 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

^ The Triple Alliance Two years after Germany and Austria-Hungary concluded their agreement; Italy was brought into the fold with the signing of the Triple Alliance in 1881.
  • How did World war one start? - Q&A 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

Austrian soldiers also fought in the Wehrmacht, cities were bombed heavily by the Allies and concentration camps also existed on Austrian soil (e.g. Mauthausen near Linz). .It was not until the end of the war that the mood changed and Austria tried to distance itself from Germany.^ To this end the French devised a strategy for a vengeful war upon Germany, Plan XVII, whose chief aim was the defeat of Germany and the restoration of Alsace and Lorraine.
  • How did World war one start? - Q&A 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

^ Her teacher ended up changing her name to Adams, and she kept that until she got married.
  • Stories, Trees & Photos 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.tccweb.org [Source type: General]

^ However, should that third power transpire to be France, Russia would not be obliged to provide assistance to Germany (as was the case of Germany if Russia found itself at war with Austria-Hungary).
  • How did World war one start? - Q&A 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

.In 1945, Austria was divided into zones of occupation like Germany.^ The Triple Alliance Two years after Germany and Austria-Hungary concluded their agreement; Italy was brought into the fold with the signing of the Triple Alliance in 1881.
  • How did World war one start? - Q&A 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

^ The Triple Alliance Two years after Germany and Austria-Hungary concluded their agreement, Italy was brought into the fold with the signing of the Triple Alliance in 1881.
  • How did World war one start? - Q&A 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

.However unlike Germany, Austria was not subject to any further territorial losses.^ However, should that third power transpire to be France, Russia would not be obliged to provide assistance to Germany (as was the case of Germany if Russia found itself at war with Austria-Hungary).
  • How did World war one start? - Q&A 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

.A State Treaty signed in 1955 ended the Allied and Soviet occupation, recognized Austria's independence, and again forbade future unification with Germany.^ At the end of world war one, canda ratified the treaty of versailles and joined the league of nations as an independant nation.
  • How did World war one start? - Q&A 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

^ Austria-Hungary signed an alliance with Romania in 1883, negotiated by Germany, although in the event Romania - after starting World War One as a neutral - eventually joined in with the Allies; as such Austria-Hungary's treaty with Romania was of no actual significance.
  • How did World war one start? - Q&A 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

.A constitutional law of that same year declared the country's "perpetual neutrality", which was a condition for Soviet military withdrawal, and thus saved Austria from Germany's fate of a divided nation with a divided capital.^ The Triple Alliance Two years after Germany and Austria-Hungary concluded their agreement; Italy was brought into the fold with the signing of the Triple Alliance in 1881.
  • How did World war one start? - Q&A 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

^ The Triple Alliance Two years after Germany and Austria-Hungary concluded their agreement, Italy was brought into the fold with the signing of the Triple Alliance in 1881.
  • How did World war one start? - Q&A 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

^ Japan, honouring a military agreement with Britain, declared war on Germany *Two days later Austria-Hungary responded by declaring war on Japan.
  • How did World war one start? - Q&A 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

.However, the South Tyrol Question took Austria and Italy to the UN in the post-war era and international brokered mitigation found a suitable solution for both countries by the late 1970's.^ Italy, although allied to both Germany and Austria-Hungary was committed to defend Germany and Austria-Hungary only in the event of a 'defensive' war she finally joined the conflict by siding with the Allies against her two former allies.
  • How did World war one start? - Q&A 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

^ In short, Italy was committed to defend Germany and Austria-Hungary only in the event of a 'defensive' war; arguing that their actions were 'offensive' she declared instead a policy of neutrality.
  • How did World war one start? - Q&A 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

^ Italy, although allied to both Germany and Austria-Hungary, was able to avoid entering the fray by citing a clause enabling it to evade its obligations to both.
  • How did World war one start? - Q&A 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

.This official neutrality, once ingrained as part of the Austrian cultural identity, has been called into question since the Soviet Union's collapse of 1991 and Austria's entry into the European Union in 1995. Reexamining its Nazi past is something that has become large scale and accepted as commonplace in the media only relatively recently.^ If it were not for the aforementioned causes of World War One, total war would have been avoided and there would have only been a relatively small conflict between Serbia and Austria-Hungary.
  • what started world war one? - Q&A 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

.Before Austria had sought to portray itself as "Hitler's first victim". A prosperous country, Austria entered the European Monetary Union in 1999, and the Euro currency replaced the Schilling in 2002. Austria is also part of "border-less Europe", resulting in many students from all over the European Union studying in Austrian universities and vice verse.^ This scared many of the other European countries.
  • what started world war one? - Q&A 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

^ Austria was the first country to declare war.
  • what started world war one? - Q&A 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

^ World War I was the result of leaders' aggression towards other countries which was supported by the rising nationalism of the European nations.
  • what started world war one? - Q&A 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

Austria is one of the most popular summer and winter holiday destinations in Europe and has the tourist industry to match it!
Map of Austria
Map of Austria
Austria is a federation. Each of its nine federal states has a unique and distinct culture.
Austrians aren't easy to categorize. In fact, the only reason Austrians stand out from their European neighbors is that they don't stand out from the rest for anything in particular. Austrians are moderate in their outlook and behaviour. Being at Europe's crossroads, their culture is influenced from several sides. The stereotype of the yodeling, thigh slapping, beer-swilling xenophobe may apply to a few individuals but it certainly doesn't apply to the majority of Austrians.
The average Austrian on the street is likely to be friendly yet somewhat reserved and formal, softly spoken and well mannered, law abiding, socially conservative, rooted, family oriented, conformist and somewhat nepotistic, a Catholic at heart, not particularly religious but a follower of tradition, well educated if not as cosmopolitan as his/her European cousins, cynical, and equipped with a dry, sarcastic sense of humor.
Many Austrians derive their identity from their Bundesland, or province. For instance, the typical inhabitant of Carinthia would say he/she is Carinthian first and Austrian second. Hence, patriotism concerning the nation as a whole is seldom shown and foreigners are often disturbed by the lack of enthusiasm that can be observed e.g. on national holiday. .The fact, that Austrians dislike demonstrations of national identity, can however also be explained partly by the historical experiences Austria has made during the Third Reich, since due to the horrors of that time some bad taste will always adhere to any manifestation of national pride.^ You don’t always have to fuck her hard, In fact sometimes that’s not right to do, Sometimes you got to make some love, And fuckin’ give her some smoochies too.
  • das weblog von tschörda 1 October 2009 6:48 UTC www.backlab.at [Source type: General]

^ However, should that third power transpire to be France, Russia would not be obliged to provide assistance to Germany (as was the case of Germany if Russia found itself at war with Austria-Hungary).
  • How did World war one start? - Q&A 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

Most Austrians like to enjoy the good life. .They spend a lot of time eating, drinking and having a good time with friends in a cozy environment, and are therefore very hospitable.^ They were very kind and hospitable.
  • Stories, Trees & Photos 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.tccweb.org [Source type: General]

Members of the older generation can be conservative in the sense that they frown upon extremes of any shape and form and, in general, are averse to change. .They enjoy one of the highest living standards in the world and want to keep it that way.^ World war one was started by militerisum, imparilisum and most of i believe the blank check started it because the Russians started mobilizing after this because they thought they were going to go to war with Siberia .
  • How did World war one start? - Q&A 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

^ Two sets of brothers by the same names, at one point they lived on the same street!
  • Stories, Trees & Photos 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.tccweb.org [Source type: General]

Austria doesn't have a well defined class system. However, cultural differences between the urban and rural populations can be huge. Culture also varies from region to region, but to a lesser extent. As a very general rule, the further to the West the location and the more rural the environment, the more socially conservative people become.
Due to the lack of overall patriotism and the commonness of regional identity, Austrians as a big entity like to define themselves merely by what they are not. It's important to stress that Austrians are not Germans, even though German is the official and universal language. .Arguably, Southern Germany and Bavaria in particular is a close cultural relative of Austria in many ways.^ This is derived from the reality that many of the European monarchies - many of which fell during the war (including those of Russia, Germany and Austria-Hungary) - were inter-related.
  • How did World war one start? - Q&A 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

.You may not even notice harsh changes at all in people's accent and appearance when crossing the border between the two countries.^ Really I think all of you people who have stated answers or what you think are answers should grow up and be more mature.
  • How did World war one start? - Q&A 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

^ We’re all sensitive people with so much to give Understand me sugar Since we got to be here , let’s live I love you .
  • das weblog von tschörda 1 October 2009 6:48 UTC www.backlab.at [Source type: General]

^ We are all sensitive people with so much to give understanding sugar mhh since we’ve got to be let’s live..i love you .
  • das weblog von tschörda 1 October 2009 6:48 UTC www.backlab.at [Source type: General]

Likewise, South Tyrol in northern Italy, with its Austrian history is culturally very similar. .But Northern and Eastern Germany (north of the Main River) are a different world altogether and in some aspects no more similar to Austria than, say, its southerly neighbor Italy!^ However, Serbia had long had Slavic ties with Russia, an altogether different proposition for Austria-Hungary.
  • How did World war one start? - Q&A 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

^ But the schlieffen plan was the main issue of why Germany is partly responsible for turning the Balkan war into a World War, because the schlieffen plan got Britain and France involved as well.
  • How did World war one start? - Q&A 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

^ Austria-Hungary signed an alliance with Romania in 1883, negotiated by Germany, although in the event Romania - after starting World War One as a neutral - eventually joined in with the Allies; as such Austria-Hungary's treaty with Romania was of no actual significance.
  • How did World war one start? - Q&A 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

.While the common language may appear the same on paper, in spoken word its not and the cultural divide between the northern German speaking world and the alpine region is large.^ In the ninetieth and twentieth centuries, especially after the French Revolution nationalism was becoming a powerful force in Europe so people that had the same culture, language wanted their own country.
  • what started world war one? - Q&A 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

.It is perhaps this that makes Austrians think in a collective sense that they are very proud to hold on to regional tradtions and boast of what they are not, mainly German!^ Many peeps think its all the germans fault but they have almost nothing to do with what happened, they only like 1 eighth of the reason.
  • what started world war one? - Q&A 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

^ His death led to the Austrian government making very strong demands on Serbia.
  • what started world war one? - Q&A 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

^ The German government then declared war on Russia, and to make sure they had both fronts covered, they declared war on France too.
  • what started world war one? - Q&A 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

.Whatever the similarities and differences between Austria and Germany may be, comparisons will not be appreciated by Austrians, neither will the use of terms like "German", "Teutonic" or "Germanic" for things that are Austrian.^ Rusk Vol'a, Saris, Hungary, Austrian Empire; died 04 May 1873 in Rusk Vol'a, Saris, Austria-Hungary.
  • Stories, Trees & Photos 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.tccweb.org [Source type: General]

^ Susanna Plavcsan, born 01 March 1859 in Circ, Saris, Hungary, Austrian Empire; died 26 May 1914 in age 56, Circ, Saris, Austria-Hungary.
  • Stories, Trees & Photos 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.tccweb.org [Source type: General]

^ Take it and copy it Appreciation is a wonderful thing: It makes what is excellent in others belong to us as well Don't walk behind me, I may not lead.
  • How did World war one start? - Q&A 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

.Certainly, Austria and Germany are sister nations and enjoy warm relations but case in point, Mozart was Austrian, or a Salzburger for the record, not German!^ However, should that third power transpire to be France, Russia would not be obliged to provide assistance to Germany (as was the case of Germany if Russia found itself at war with Austria-Hungary).
  • How did World war one start? - Q&A 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

^ This is derived from the reality that many of the European monarchies - many of which fell during the war (including those of Russia, Germany and Austria-Hungary) - were inter-related.
  • How did World war one start? - Q&A 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

Politics

Austria is a parliamentarian, federal republic consisting of nine federal states (see list above). .The official head of the state is the federal president (Bundespräsident), who is elected directly by the people for a term of six years.^ Really I think all of you people who have stated answers or what you think are answers should grow up and be more mature.
  • How did World war one start? - Q&A 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

^ A six month old query for a twenty-year state wide search for Jakub's death was answered.
  • Stories, Trees & Photos 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.tccweb.org [Source type: General]

His/her function is mainly representative, however, and the federal chancellor (Bundeskanzler), appointed by the president, runs most of the day-to-day politics.
The Austrian parliament consists of two chambers, the Nationalrat (National Council) with 183 members as the main chamber and the Bundesrat (Federal Council). .Whereas the members of the National Council are elected every four years by popular vote, the 62 members of the Federal Council are elected by each of the legislatures of the states of Austria for 4- to 6-year terms.^ It all built up by the short and long-term causes in previous years such as the rise to nationalism, and the fight for colonies.
  • what started world war one? - Q&A 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

^ "JOHN DUMINSKE DIES IN ANITA--- Native of Austria Succumbs to Heart Condition After Illness of Four Years-- .
  • Stories, Trees & Photos 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.tccweb.org [Source type: General]

The composition of the Bundesrat changes after every election to a state's Landtag (State Parliament). The Austrian constitution provides the Bundesrat with the right to veto legislation passed by the National Council; in most cases this is only a suspensive veto, meaning the National Council can override it by passing the law again.
.There are five major parties in Austria: The social democrats (SPÖ), the (conservative) Austrian people's party (ÖVP), the (right-wing) freedom party (FPÖ) which recently split into two parties (FPÖ and the alliance for the future of Austria BZÖ) and the (leftist) Green Party.^ The Triple Alliance Two years after Germany and Austria-Hungary concluded their agreement; Italy was brought into the fold with the signing of the Triple Alliance in 1881.
  • How did World war one start? - Q&A 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

^ The Triple Alliance Two years after Germany and Austria-Hungary concluded their agreement, Italy was brought into the fold with the signing of the Triple Alliance in 1881.
  • How did World war one start? - Q&A 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

^ This however only lasted until Russia's withdrawal five years later in 1878, leaving Bismarck with a new Dual Alliance with Austria-Hungary in 1879.
  • How did World war one start? - Q&A 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

The current government consists of a coalition of SPÖ and ÖVP.
Dürnstein/Wachau
Dürnstein/Wachau
Contrary to popular perceptions, Austria is not all about mountains. While the Alps do cover 3/4 of the country dominating the provinces of Vorarlberg, Tyrol, Salzburg, Styria, Upper Austria and Carinthia, the eastern provinces of Lower Austria, the Burgenland and the federal capital of Vienna are more similar to the geography of the neighboring Czech Republic and Hungary. This diverse mix of landscapes is packed into a relatively small area of size. Glaciers, meadows, alpine valleys, wooded foothills, gently rolling farmland, vineyards, river gorges, plains and even semi-arid steppes can be found in Austria.
.One quarter of Austria's population lives in Greater Vienna, a European metropolis, located where the Danube meets the easternmost fringe of the Alps, not far from the border with Slovakia and its capital Bratislava.^ World war one started because the arch duke of austria-hungary was shot for revenge by the black hands because austria-hungary owened the land that the black hands lived in and the black hands wanted to be free.
  • what started world war one? - Q&A 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

^ This is because the Serbians in Serbia thought that all the Serbs in the Mediterranean should live in Serbia - and Austria-Hungary had a lot of Serbs in one particular area, called Bosnia-Herzegovina.
  • what started world war one? - Q&A 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

Virtually all government, financial and cultural institutions, as well as national media and large corporations are based in Vienna, due largely to history and geography. Thus, the capital dominates Austria's cultural and political life and is clearly a world unto its own. .It has little to do with the rest of mainly rural Austria and outside of Graz and Linz there really are no other large scale cities in the country.^ I found out that there had been no real contact (other than letters years before) between the family members in America and those in Europe, since 1919.
  • Stories, Trees & Photos 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.tccweb.org [Source type: General]

^ Although I did get some insights on our relatives who lived in the United States, I was disappointed there was no detail to link us to the old country.
  • Stories, Trees & Photos 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.tccweb.org [Source type: General]

^ Austria-Hungary could not declare war on Serbia because there was no evidence that the serbian government was involved.
  • How did World war one start? - Q&A 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

There is a playful joke told in Vorarlberg province regarding the dominance of Vienna regarding national affairs that reads, "the people of western Austria make the money and Vienna spends it."

Climate

Austria has a temperate continental climate. .Summers last from early June to mid-September and can be hot in some years and rainy in others.^ Some of the boys and girls spelled their last name Kovalak and others Kovalyak.
  • Stories, Trees & Photos 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.tccweb.org [Source type: General]

Day-time temperatures in July and August are around 25° C (77° F), but can often reach 35° C (95° F). Winters are cold in the lowlands and very harsh in the Alpine region with temperatures often dropping below -10° C (14° F). Winters last from December to March (longer at higher altitudes). In the Alpine region large temperature fluctuations occur all year round and nights are chilly even in high summer. The northern Alps are generally a lot wetter than the rest of the country. The South East (Styria and Carinthia) is dry and sunny. The area around Vienna often experiences strong easterly winds.

Electricity

Electricity is supplied at 220 to 230V 50Hz. Outlets are the European standard CEE-7/7 "Schukostecker" or "Schuko" or the compatible, but non-grounded, CEE-7/16 "Europlug" types. Generally speaking, U.S. and Canadian travelers should pack an adapter and a converter for these outlets if they plan to use North American electrical equipment in Austria.

Regions

Austria is a federal republic comprised of nine states:
Regions of Austria
Regions of Austria
Burgenland
Carinthia (Kärnten)
Lower Austria (Niederösterreich)
Salzburg
Styria (Steiermark)
Tyrol (Tirol)
Upper Austria (Oberösterreich)
Vienna (Wien)
Vorarlberg
  • Zell am See - one of the most important alpine tourist towns in Austria (Europa Sport Region)
  • Kaprun - part of the Europa Sport Region
  • Wörthersee - one of Austria's warmest lakes
  • Bodensee - a big lake situated in Vorarlberg and shared with Switzerland and Germany
  • St. Anton - a popular ski resort in Austria on the Vorarlberg-Tyrolian border
  • Pinswang - one of the most ancient settlements of the North Tirolean Ausserfern, on the border with Bavaria and a short walk or drive to King Ludwig's castles Pinswang

Get in

Austria is a member of the Schengen Agreement. For EU, EEA (Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway) or Swiss citizens, an officially approved ID card (or a passport) is sufficient for entry. .In no case will they need a visa for a stay of any length.^ In 1914, although Russia had no need to support Serbia, they were determined not to back down again.
  • How did World war one start? - Q&A 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

Others will generally need a passport for entry.
.There are no border controls between countries that have signed and implemented the treaty - the European Union (except Bulgaria, Cyprus, Ireland, Romania and the United Kingdom), Iceland, Norway and Switzerland.^ Although I did get some insights on our relatives who lived in the United States, I was disappointed there was no detail to link us to the old country.
  • Stories, Trees & Photos 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.tccweb.org [Source type: General]

^ Austria-Hungary signed an alliance with Romania in 1883, negotiated by Germany, although in the event Romania - after starting World War One as a neutral - eventually joined in with the Allies; as such Austria-Hungary's treaty with Romania was of no actual significance.
  • How did World war one start? - Q&A 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

^ Between May and July 1913 Bulgaria's former allies beat back the new aggressor, Bulgaria, and Romania captured the Bulgarian capital Sofia in August.
  • How did World war one start? - Q&A 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

Likewise, a visa granted for any Schengen member is valid in all other countries that have signed and implemented the treaty. But be careful: Not all EU members have signed the Schengen treaty, and not all Schengen members are part of the European Union.
Airports in Europe are thus divided into "Schengen" and "non-Schengen" sections, which effectively act like "domestic" and "international" sections elsewhere. .If you are flying from outside Europe into one Schengen country and continuing to another, you will clear Immigration and Customs at the first country and then continue to your destination with no further checks.^ One by one the countries were brought into the war.
  • what started world war one? - Q&A 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

^ Observe your enemies, for they first find out your faults Forgive your enemies, but never forget their names If you think you can win, you can win.
  • How did World war one start? - Q&A 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

^ This divided Europe into two and if two countries went to war, all six of them were dragged in.
  • what started world war one? - Q&A 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

Travel between a Schengen member and a non-Schengen country will result in the normal border checks. .Note that regardless of whether you travelling within the Schengen area or not, some airlines will still insist on seeing your ID card or passport.^ A positive card, it promises you your day in the sun.
  • das weblog von tschörda 1 October 2009 6:48 UTC www.backlab.at [Source type: General]

Keep in mind that the counter begins once you enter any country in the Schengen Area and is not reset by leaving a specific Schengen country for another Schengen country, or vice-versa.
.As of January 2010 only the citizens of the following non-EU/EEA/Swiss countries do not need a visa for entry into the Schengen Area; note that they must not stay longer than three months in half a year and must not work while in the EU: Andorra, Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Australia, Bahamas, Barbados, Bermuda, Brazil, Brunei, Canada, Chile, Costa Rica, Croatia, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Israel, Japan, Macedonia*, Malaysia, Mauritius, Mexico, Monaco, Montenegro*, New Zealand, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Saint Kitts and Nevis, San Marino, Serbia*/**, Seychelles, Singapore, South Korea, United States, Uruguay, Vatican City, Venezuela, additionally persons holding British National (Overseas), Hong Kong SAR or Macau SAR passports.^ With Britain's entry into the war, her colonies and dominions abroad variously offered military and financial assistance, and included Australia, Canada, India, New Zealand and the Union of South Africa.
  • How did World war one start? - Q&A 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

^ They evacuated the area with only two casualties.
  • How did World war one start? - Q&A 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

^ Copies of this document went to Germany, Poland, Australia, The Netherlands and various locations across the United States.
  • Stories, Trees & Photos 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.tccweb.org [Source type: General]

Note that
  • while British subjects with the right of abode in the United Kingdom and British Overseas Territories citizens connected to Gibraltar are considered "United Kingdom nationals for European Union purposes" and therefore eligible for unlimited access to the Schengen Area,
  • British Overseas Territories citizens without the right of abode in the United Kingdom and British subjects without the right of abode in the United Kingdom as well as British Overseas citizens and British protected persons in general do require visas.
.However, all British Overseas Territories citizens except those solely connected to the Cyprus Sovereign Base Areas are eligible for British citizenship and thereafter unlimited access to the Schengen Area.^ Germany and all those others(except USA)?
  • what started world war one? - Q&A 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

Further note that
(*) Macedonian, Montenegrin and Serbian citizens need a biometric passport to enjoy visa-free travel and
(**) Serbian citizens with passports issued by the Serbian Coordination Directorate (Serbs residing in Kosovo) still do need a visa.

By plane

There are 5 [2] airports in Austria with scheduled flights.
The most important international airport is Vienna which has connection to all major airports of the world. .Other international airports include Graz, Innsbruck, Klagenfurt, Linz, and Salzburg which provide domestic flights as well as connections to some European countries.^ Ok, there were 4 MAIN reasons: Militarism Alliances Imperialism Nationalism Each European country wanted power, more power than the other.
  • How did World war one start? - Q&A 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

^ MAIN reasons: Militarism Alliances Imperialsim Nationalism Each european country wanted power, more power than the other.
  • How did World war one start? - Q&A 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

Those airports are particularly popular with cheap airlines such as Ryanair. For traveling to the western states it is recommended to use the very close Munich airport.
The most common airports to visit Vorarlberg are Altenrhein (Austrian), Friedrichshafen (Ryanair, Intersky) and Zurich (Swiss).

With children

Austrian Airlines: Baby strollers weighting over 10kg should be checked in as a luggage; strollers below 10kg are allowed up until the aircraft board, and taken by personnel right at the entrance to the aircraft. See also a dedicated page on flying by Austrian with children: [3].

By bus

EUROLINES [4] has bus schedules from Austria to all major European countries and back. .If you make use of special offers and/or book in advance, traveling by plane or train is normally cheaper than by bus, however, the bus may be the cheapest option if you want to travel at short notice or if you have large amounts of luggage.^ E-mail me at scndeabter@earthlink.net if you want to talk further It may make it all the easier to understand how World War One actually happened.
  • How did World war one start? - Q&A 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

^ May 2003 um 13:25 definitely not something you want to overlook there ~gr8 image!
  • das weblog von tschörda 1 October 2009 6:48 UTC www.backlab.at [Source type: General]

By car

.Austria and all its neighbouring countries, except Liechtenstein are Schengen members so in theory there are no border controls.^ Although I did get some insights on our relatives who lived in the United States, I was disappointed there was no detail to link us to the old country.
  • Stories, Trees & Photos 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.tccweb.org [Source type: General]

^ Austria-Hungary could not declare war on Serbia because there was no evidence that the serbian government was involved.
  • How did World war one start? - Q&A 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

^ Then the countries that were friends with Austria/Hungary started fighting serbia and all the countries started defending one another.
  • what started world war one? - Q&A 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

For using the Autobahnen or Schnellstrassen, a vignette, or tax sticker, must be purchased. .Costs are approx €70 for one year, €20 for 8 weeks, or about €7 for 10 days.^ Death certificate list age as 51 years, 10 months and 8 days.
  • Stories, Trees & Photos 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.tccweb.org [Source type: General]

^ I AM DOING AN ESSAY ON WW1 AND HOW IT STARTED DOS ANY ONE NO ABOUT HOW EMPIRE EFFECTED THE WAR PLEASEPLEASE HELP ME IVE GOT 2 DAYS TO DO THIS HELP MEX .
  • How did World war one start? - Q&A 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

.On some Saturdays in July and August expect traffic jams on the motorways between Germany, Austria and Italy when millions of German tourists head south at the beginning of school vacations.^ Italy, although allied to both Germany and Austria-Hungary, was able to avoid entering the fray by citing a clause enabling it to evade its obligations to both.
  • How did World war one start? - Q&A 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

^ Between May and July 1913 Bulgaria's former allies beat back the new aggressor, Bulgaria, and Romania captured the Bulgarian capital Sofia in August.
  • How did World war one start? - Q&A 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

^ In short, Italy was committed to defend Germany and Austria-Hungary only in the event of a 'defensive' war; arguing that their actions were 'offensive' she declared instead a policy of neutrality.
  • How did World war one start? - Q&A 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

A delay of about 2 hours is not unusual. The motorway A10 between Salzburg and Villach is especially notorious. It's best to avoid those Saturdays.

From Germany

From Italy

From Slovenia

By train

.Austria's connections with neighboring Germany are excellent, and all other neighbors are connected by at least two trains per day.^ The Triple Alliance Two years after Germany and Austria-Hungary concluded their agreement; Italy was brought into the fold with the signing of the Triple Alliance in 1881.
  • How did World war one start? - Q&A 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

^ Two days later Austria-Hungary responded by declaring war on Japan.
  • How did World war one start? - Q&A 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

^ The Triple Alliance Two years after Germany and Austria-Hungary concluded their agreement, Italy was brought into the fold with the signing of the Triple Alliance in 1881.
  • How did World war one start? - Q&A 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

.Check out the so-called Eurocity trains, which are the fastest trains available as well as the trains connecting the bigger Austrian cities called Intercity.^ Woodrow William, president at that time called out the Americans people to remain neutral in fact as well as in name impartial.
  • How did World war one start? - Q&A 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

Information for trainspotters

In Austria many railways run electrically. There are many interesting mountain railways of all types.
In Austria most electric trains get their power from a single-phase AC network. .This network uses its own power lines run with 110 kV. In contrast to normal power lines, these employ a number of conductors that is not divisible by 3 - most power lines for the single phase AC grid of the traction power grid have four conductors.^ By 1914, the major European powers had these huge militaries that were still growing in fear that their rival would have a slight advantage over their own military.
  • what started world war one? - Q&A 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

Get around

By train and bus

Trains[5] are the best way to get around if you're visiting cities. Comfortable and moderately priced trains connect major cities and many towns; buses other towns and lakes. The two forms of transport are integrated and designed to complement each other, and intercity coaches (long distance buses) are hard to find in most of Austria.
.Since August 2007, if you are traveling in a group of 2 to 5 persons and you don't mind taking local regional trains, you can buy an Einfach-Raus-Ticket (ERT) [6], good for unlimited travel within a day, viz., after 9AM on weekdays and all day weekends/holidays, on all regional trains of ÖBB within Austria.^ O since the day I saw you I have been waiting for you!
  • das weblog von tschörda 1 October 2009 6:48 UTC www.backlab.at [Source type: General]

^ I don’t know All that I know is that I need to show What I want to do for you Before you go…!
  • das weblog von tschörda 1 October 2009 6:48 UTC www.backlab.at [Source type: General]

^ Now if you don't mind, I've gotta finish my homework.
  • what started world war one? - Q&A 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

The cost is only 29 EUR for 2 to 5 persons. The ERT is patterned after the popular group Bavaria Ticket (Bayern-Ticket). Unlike the Bavaria Ticket, there is no ERT for a single. .Note: If your German is not very good, you could remember ERT as the Easy Roam Ticket.^ For all those that provided information about the start of the war..thank you...your information was very useful...!
  • what started world war one? - Q&A 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

^ Thank you "bookworm", I had very little intake on how WW1 began and the little I knew seemed to match your reasoning.
  • what started world war one? - Q&A 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

VorteilsCard [7]. .If you are under 26 and plan to spend more than €40 on rail travel get a VorteilsCard (photo needed) for €19,90 and have 45% discount on all trains in Austria (50% if you purchase online or at a ticket kiosk) and 25% on cross-border trains in Europe (through RailPlus).^ The First World War had many causes; the historians probably have not yet discovered and discussed all of them so there might be more causes than what we know now.
  • what started world war one? - Q&A 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

^ Germany only wanted to defend their alliance with Austria, Britain didnt have to say if you are going to attack serbia than we declare war.
  • what started world war one? - Q&A 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

^ Russia declaring war on Austria-Hungary and Germany under alliance comes to Austria's aid and declares war on Russia and while at it uses the recent developed military plans and Blitzkrieg to attack France and Poland while crossing through neutral territory which pulls Britain in...
  • what started world war one? - Q&A 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

If you have a Vorteilscard you can get a further 5% discount if you buy the tickets at the ticket machines, which sell national as well as regional tickets. The Vorteilscard is also available for those over 26 but costs €99,90.
Be aware that buying a train ticket at an Austrian Railways ticket machine does not tie you to a specific schedule. If you buy a ticket from Salzburg to Vienna, that ticket is valid for any train that takes you to Vienna.
.Ticketing machines at train stations (unlike the ones in Germany) do not print itineraries and many train stations only display basic timetables.^ Great Britain declaired war on germany and unlike today many australians beleived they were more britain then aus....
  • what started world war one? - Q&A 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

^ Germany did play a major role by attacking France in August of 1914 but only did so in hopes of avoiding what world war one became.
  • what started world war one? - Q&A 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

It is best to find an itinerary on the Austrian Railways website by setting up a ticket reservation (without actually reserving the ticket, just print the itinerary). .Stations also provide pamphlets with detailed timetables, but this assumes you know which line to board to get to your destination.^ Dont leave a comment unless you know your stuff!!!
  • what started world war one? - Q&A 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

By car

Rural or sparsely populated regions in Austria are easier to explore by car as bus services can be infrequent. Many popular spots in the mountains are only accessible by car or on foot/ski. Renting a car for a couple of days is a good way to go off the beaten track. .Driving in Austria is normally quite pleasant as the country is small and the roads are in good condition, not congested and offer fantastic scenery.^ Austria n Russia both wanted a small country called Serbia i think so den Russia n France signed a France Russian Alliance.
  • what started world war one? - Q&A 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

.Beware of dangerous drivers, however: Austrians are generally a very law-abiding bunch, but when behind a wheel they seem to make an exception to their considerate attitude.^ Austria wanted pay-back, so they were making Serbia submit to many laws.
  • what started world war one? - Q&A 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

^ His death led to the Austrian government making very strong demands on Serbia.
  • what started world war one? - Q&A 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

^ Historian Taylor claims: They were supposed to make Powers secure, they dragged them into danger."
  • what started world war one? - Q&A 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

Comprehensive maps of Austria, specific regions within Austria (including city maps), as well as maps from neighbouring countries can be bought at any petrol station. (expect to pay around €7 for one map)
As in many European cities, parking in cities is subject to fee on work days. Usually those parking zones are marked by blue lines on the street. Some cities (e.g. Vienna) have area-wide zones which are not denotated by blue lines). Fees vary from town to town as do the fines, which are charged if you have no valid ticket. (generally between €20 and €30) Tickets can be usually bought from kiosks, some cities (e.g. Graz) have ticket machines on the street. A cheap alternative is to park your car a bit outside of the town in parking garages called Park and Ride which can be found in any bigger city.
Travelling on Austrian motorways (Autobahnen) or Schnellstraßen means you are liable to pay tolls. If your vehicle is under 3500 kg in weight, you have to buy a Vignette toll pass, in advance, which can be purchased at any petrol station or at the border. .Vignetten can be bought for 10 days (€7,70/€4,40 for motorcycles), 2 months (€22,20/€11,10 for motorcycles) or one year (€73,80/€29,50 for motorcycles; technically valid until January of the following year, so a 2008 vignette expires on 31 January 2009).^ January 2009 um 13:40 10 also nur .
  • das weblog von tschörda 1 October 2009 6:48 UTC www.backlab.at [Source type: General]

^ January 2008 um 11:31 aha .
  • das weblog von tschörda 1 October 2009 6:48 UTC www.backlab.at [Source type: General]

^ January 2009 um 19:10 ich bin meine eigene aussentemperaturanzeige, aber ich bin nicht so fein getuned!
  • das weblog von tschörda 1 October 2009 6:48 UTC www.backlab.at [Source type: General]

If you intend to transit Austria via the A14 from the German border to the Swiss Border at Hohenems/Diepoldsau, you can instead purchase a Korridor-Vignette. This is valid for a single trip along this road and can be purchased for €2,00 (or €4,00 for a round-trip) at the border.
Vehicles heavier than 3500 kg must instead purchase a GO-Box, a transponder which deducts tolls as the vehicles travel along the Autobahn or Schnellstraße. The cost the GO-Box is €5 and tolls can either be prepaid (€75 initially, followed by increments of €50 to recharge) or paid through an invoice at a later date. Rates vary from €0,16 to €0,33 per kilometer based on number of axles, with extra charges paid based on time of day and for certain Autobahnen.
.Driving a car on a motorway without a vignette is punished with either payment of a substitute toll of €120 (€65 for motorcycles) (that allows one to travel on the motorways for that day and the day immediately following) or a fine of upwards of €300, and if the fine is not paid on the spot, valuables may be seized from your vehicle and person to ensure that the fine is paid.^ Picking one of the numerous ten free hour America On Line disks I had, I slipped it in, followed the instructions and used all ten free hours in one day.
  • Stories, Trees & Photos 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.tccweb.org [Source type: General]

^ As I followed the paper trail left by my ancestors, I often paid little attention to people and events to which I could not make an immediate connection.
  • Stories, Trees & Photos 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.tccweb.org [Source type: General]

.You must affix the vignette to the top-center or on one of the driver's side corners of the windscreen of your car, otherwise it is not valid, which is a common mistake made by foreigners in Austria.^ September 2009 um 10:35 “… For that reason I must advise we are unfortunately unable to reunite you with your Swiss Army knife.
  • das weblog von tschörda 1 October 2009 6:48 UTC www.backlab.at [Source type: General]

The motorway police regularly check for vignetten. Driving without a valid GO-Box, if required, costs €220, and setting an incorrect toll class carries a €110 substitute toll.
Insurance
Some insurance will not cover you in Austria despite covering you in the rest of Europe. Do not assume: ensure that your insurance does cover you before entry. Do not, under any circumstances, share a vignette with another vehicle, as doing so renders the vignette invalid. The penalty for doing so doubles the subsitute toll fee or incurs a fine of up to €3000, and payment may be guaranteed with the seizure of valuables from your car.
Additional tolls are payable on certain roads, especially mountain passes, which you need to pay in bank notes (not coins!), as they get mad if you give them a hand of coins. An example is at Brenner Pass, right before the A13 enters Italy, where a toll of at least €7,95 is collected each way.
The speed limits are 130 km/h on Autobahnen and 100 km/h on Schnellstraßen and Bundesstraßen. Expect limits otherwise of 50-80 km/h.
Rules on Autobahnen are very similar to the rules in Germany. For example, you may not pass on the right, and the minimum speed limit is 60 km/h (vehicles unable to travel 60 km/h are not admitted onto the Autobahn).
Take special care when driving in winter, especially in the mountains (and keep in mind that winter lasts from September to may in the higher parts of the alps and snowfall is in general possible at any time of the year). Icy roads kill dozens of inexperienced drivers every year. Avoid speeding and driving at night and make sure the car is in a good condition. Motorway bridges are particularly prone to ice. Slow down to 80 km/h when going over them.
Winter tires are strongly recommended by Austrian motoring clubs. When there is snowfall, winter tires or snow chains are required by law on some mountain passes, and occasionally also on motorways. This is indicated by a round traffic sign depicting a white tire or chain on a blue background. It is always a good idea to take a pair of snow chains and a warm blanket in the boot. Drivers often get stuck in their car for several hours and sometimes suffer from hypothermia.
Contrary to popular belief there is no need to rent an off-road vehicle in winter (though a 4x4 is helpful). In fact, small, lightweight cars are better at tackling narrow mountain roads than sluggish off-road vehicles. Virtually all roads in Austria open to the public are either covered in tarmac or at the least even surfaced. The problems normally encountered are ice and steepness, not unevenness. When driving downhill the only remedy against sliding are snow chains no matter what vehicle you are in.
Petrol is cheaper in Austria than in some neighboring countries, but still expensive compared to American standards.

By plane

Although you'll miss out most of the stunning Austrian Landscape, it is possible to travel by plane within Austria. Domestic flights normally cost in the region of €300-500 return, and since the country is small, the total journey time is unlikely to be shorter than by rail or car. In other words, don't bother flying unless you are on a business trip.
Following domestic Airports are serviced by airlines like Austrian Arrows, Intersky, Sky Europe, Welcome Air:
Non-domestic airport servicing western Austria:

Talk

The national language of Austria is German which, in its standard variety, is virtually identical to the German used in Germany, with a few vocabulary differences (many of which are informal) and, in particular, a strong regional accent. A few other languages have some official status in different localities (e.g., Slovenian in Carinthia, Serbo-Croatian and Hungarian in Burgenland).
In everyday life, most Austrians do not speak standard high German (Hochdeutsch), but the local dialect. Most Austrian dialects are related to Bavarian, but are quite distinct from the German of the rest of Germany. In the Bundesland of Vorarlberg the dialect is related to the Alemannic dialect of Switzerland.
English is widely spoken, and the only area most tourists have linguistic problems with is translating menus. .Even competent German speakers may find that they are replied to in English, and it is not uncommon to hear Austrians addressing each other in English.^ World War I started because the Germans wanted to invade more countries and the English noticed that the Germans were going to invade more so if they invade the English will attack.
  • what started world war one? - Q&A 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

^ But the Germans attacked Poland and because they attacked Poland the English attacked the Germans.
  • what started world war one? - Q&A 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

^ Once the Russians ordered general mobilization (and they 'had to' because they needed more time to move their forces to the frontiers then their enemies) Austrian, French, and German mobilization orders followed in quick successsion, each triggered by the other.
  • what started world war one? - Q&A 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

In parts of Vienna, with many foreign visitors, such languages as Italian and French will often be understood as well. .Italian is also widespread in the parts of Austria bordering Italy.^ Oh, and Italy was not in a triple alliance with Austria- Hungary and Germany because they didn't want to be part of a war.
  • what started world war one? - Q&A 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

^ One of the chief aims of the Triple Alliance was to prevent Italy from declaring war against Austria-Hungary, towards whom the Italians were in dispute over territorial matters.
  • How did World war one start? - Q&A 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

.In rural places many people don't speak English well, especially those older than 40, so it can help to learn a few basic German phrases.^ SSSSSSSS, that you don't care about a war that important, where so many people died, it's really sad.
  • what started world war one? - Q&A 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

^ The English people found out that the Germans were going to attack Poland so they said they would attack them if they did so.
  • what started world war one? - Q&A 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

^ The English people found out that the Germans were going to attack Poland and said "If you attack Poland we will attack you,"!
  • what started world war one? - Q&A 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

Local accents can be very strong in many Alpine valleys, where even native German-speaking tourists have trouble understanding the locals.
.In Austria saying "Good day" is not "Guten Tag" as in most of Germany, but rather, as in Bavaria, "Grüß Gott". Pronunciation note: ü is a sound somewhere in between u and e; ß is a 'sharp' s, or double s, with the whole phrase sounding similar to 'goose goat' .^ Germany only wanted to defend their alliance with Austria, Britain didnt have to say if you are going to attack serbia than we declare war.
  • what started world war one? - Q&A 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

^ Austria-Hungary then declared war on Serbia saying it was all their fault and that lead to Germany helping Austria-Hungary, which lead to Russia helping the Serbians and so on.
  • what started world war one? - Q&A 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

.In General, Austrians tend to pronounce the vowels longer and have a more melodic accent than the German spoken in Germany (i.e Berlin or Hamburg).^ Once the Russians ordered general mobilization (and they 'had to' because they needed more time to move their forces to the frontiers then their enemies) Austrian, French, and German mobilization orders followed in quick successsion, each triggered by the other.
  • what started world war one? - Q&A 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

Also, the "ch" and "h" and not as harshly pronounced.

Do

Skiing and Snowboarding

Cycle Touring

Austria is well known for its scenic cycle routes along its largest rivers. .Though Austria is a mountainous country, cycle routes along rivers are flat or gently downhill, and therefore suitable even for casual cyclists.^ They are a Slavic ethic group that lives along the Carpathian Mountain Range, and although they never had a country to call their own, they have a distinct culture and language.
  • Stories, Trees & Photos 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.tccweb.org [Source type: General]

The most famous route is the Danube cycle path from Passau to Vienna, one of the most popular cycle paths in Europe, drawing large crowds of cyclists from all over the world each summer. Other rivers with well-developed cycle routes are the Inn, Drau, Moell and Mur. Most routes follow a combination of dedicated cycle paths, country lanes, and traffic calmed roads, and are well suited for children.

Music

Many visitors come to experience Austria's musical heritage. Salzburg and Vienna offer world renowned opera, classical music and jazz at moderate prices, but performances of high standards are also widely available throughout the rest of the country. .There are dozens of Summer festivals for all tastes, the most famous being the avant-garde Salzburg festival (Salzburger Festspiele) but because they're aimed at tourists prices can be high.^ Sure, there were dozens of towns starting with PRZY, but only a few were in Poznan or all of Provinz Posen for that matter.
  • Stories, Trees & Photos 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.tccweb.org [Source type: General]

Austria's strong musical tradition is not confined to classical music alone. Austrian folk music (Volksmusik) is an integral part of rural Austria, and is said to have influenced many of the nation's big composers. .In the Alps almost every village has its own choir or brass band (Blasmusik), and you'll often see groups of friends sitting down to sing Lieder in rural pubs.^ You’ll see developers’ names painted on the road as you go.
  • das weblog von tschörda 1 October 2009 6:48 UTC www.backlab.at [Source type: General]

^ For every kiss you give me- I’ll give you three.
  • das weblog von tschörda 1 October 2009 6:48 UTC www.backlab.at [Source type: General]

^ You’ll see an Excel worksheet in the middle of the IE page.
  • das weblog von tschörda 1 October 2009 6:48 UTC www.backlab.at [Source type: General]

Traditional Alpine instruments are the accordion and zither. In Vienna a type of melancholic violin music known as Schrammelmusik is often performed in Restaurants and Heurigen.

Movies

Austria has quite a special kind of cinematic culture, that is worth taking notice of as tourist. Many films star celebrities from cabaret, a kind of staged comedy popular in Austria. Most of these movies are characterized by their rather cynical and sometimes bizarre black humour, usually portraying members of Vienna's lower or middle class. Josef Hader, Roland Düringer, Reinhard Nowak or Alfred Dorfer are among the most outstanding actors here. Recommendations include Indien (1993), Muttertag (1993), Hinterholz 8 (1998), Komm, süßer Tod (2000) and Silentium (2004). Popular directors are Harald Sicheritz, Michael Haneke and Ulrich Seidl. Haneke received positive international praise for his films Die Klavierspielerin (2001), based on the novel by nobel-prize winning author Elfriede Jelinek and Caché (2005). Seidl received various awards for his drama Hundstage (2001). Also, the 1949 classic The Third Man was shot in Vienna, and is regularly shown in Vienna's Burg Kino.

Hiking

It is normally safe to hike without a guide in the Austrian Alps, as there is a dense network of marked trails and mountain shelters. However, a few lethal incidents do happen every year as a result of carelessness. Walkers are strongly advised not to stray off the trails and not to hike in bad weather or without suitable equipment. Before setting off, always check with the local tourist office whether the trail corresponds to your abilities. Also check the weather forecast. Sudden thunderstorms are frequent and are more likely to happen in the afternoon. .A rule of thumb is that if you haven't reached the summit by noon it's time to give up and return to shelter.^ So let’s get it on In the morning noon and night time Get it on, love somebody good yeah yeah You know you got to come on out and get it on Keep gettin it on Let’s get it on Keep gettin it on Keep gettin it on Let’s get it on Keep gettin it on Keep gettin it on Let’s get it on .
  • das weblog von tschörda 1 October 2009 6:48 UTC www.backlab.at [Source type: General]

Though the scenery is by all accounts majestic, don't expect an empty wilderness. The Alps can be very crowded with mountaineers, especially in high season (there are even traffic jams of climbers on some popular mountains). .Littering is a no-no in all of Austria, but especially in the mountains, and you will enrage fellow walkers if you're seen doing it.^ Now I’ve had the time of my life No I never felt like this before Yes I swear it’s the truth and I owe it all to you .
  • das weblog von tschörda 1 October 2009 6:48 UTC www.backlab.at [Source type: General]

^ CHORUS: I’ve had the time of my life No I never felt this way before Yes I swear it’s the truth And I owe it all to you .
  • das weblog von tschörda 1 October 2009 6:48 UTC www.backlab.at [Source type: General]

^ We’re all sensitive people with so much to give Understand me sugar Since we got to be here , let’s live I love you .
  • das weblog von tschörda 1 October 2009 6:48 UTC www.backlab.at [Source type: General]

.If you really want to show respect pick up any litter you happen to see in your path and dispose of it at the end of your hike (it's a bit of an unwritten rule).^ I don’t know All that I know is that I need to show What I want to do for you Before you go…!
  • das weblog von tschörda 1 October 2009 6:48 UTC www.backlab.at [Source type: General]

^ Sad it seems that you need to leave It’s now that I see what you mean to me I… I love you Build up your personality Find out the way how you want to be But how, I don’t know All that I know is that I need to show What I want to do for you before you go I wanna sing around the world I wanna sing for my little girl For you, my little girl .
  • das weblog von tschörda 1 October 2009 6:48 UTC www.backlab.at [Source type: General]

Long distance trails are marked with the Austrian flag (red-white-red horizontal stripes) painted onto rocks and tree trunks.
Most trails and mountain huts are maintained by the Austrian Alpine Club. .Some are run by other equivalent organizations, such as the German, Dutch and Italian Alpine Clubs.^ Hungarians to declare war on Serbian with the Germans and the Italians and others on the side of the Hungarian.
  • what started world war one? - Q&A 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

Mountain huts are meant to be shelters, not hotels. .Though they are normally clean and well-equipped, standards of food and accommodation are basic.^ Germany wanted more land but they couldn't get it...well thats what my teacher told my class and more information but thats the basic!!
  • what started world war one? - Q&A 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

Don't expect a high level of customer service either. Blankets are provided, but bringing a thin sleeping bag is mandatory for hygienic reasons. During the high season (August) it's a good idea to book in advance. .Mountain huts will not turn anyone down for the night, but if they're full you'll have to sleep on the floor.^ You’re the one thing I can’t get enough of So I’ll tell you something This could be love because .
  • das weblog von tschörda 1 October 2009 6:48 UTC www.backlab.at [Source type: General]

^ Now, you’re dropped into a full-screen game similar to Spy Hunter, called Dev Hunter.
  • das weblog von tschörda 1 October 2009 6:48 UTC www.backlab.at [Source type: General]

Prices for the night are usually around 10-20€ (half for Alpine Club members), but meals and drinks are quite expensive, as everything has to be carried up from the valley, often by helicopters or on foot. For the same reason, there are no trash cans in or near huts. Electricity and gas are hard to bring there, too, so warm showers (if available at all) have to be paid for. Some huts don't even have running water, this means pit latrines. As mentioned above, mountain huts are very useful for hikers, they mostly have a heated common room and they are very romantic, but there is nothing more than necessary.
Detailed hiking maps showing the location of marked trails and shelters can be purchased online from the Austrian Alpine Society [8].

Buy

Currency

Austria is a member of the European Union and the Eurozone. Consequently, the national currency is the Euro. The best rates for changing money are offered by banks.
The legacy currency, the Schilling, can still be exchanged for Euro indefinitely, but not all banks may offer this service.

Prices

The prices are comparable with Western European countries, and a bit higher than the USA because of 20 % sales tax (which is included in the prices). A can of Coke will cost you about 40 cents, a good meal €15. Prices in tourist areas (Tyrol, Vienna, Salzburg, Zell am See) are a lot higher than the averages. B&B accommodation and restaurants in towns and rural areas are quite cheap.

Shops

Shops are generally open from 8AM to 7PM on weekdays and Saturday from 8AM to 6PM and closed on Sundays except for gas station shops (expensive), shops at railway stations and restaurants. Be aware that paying by credit card is not as common as in the rest of Europe or as in the United States but all major credit cards (Visa, Mastercard, American Express, Diners Club) are accepted at almost every gas station and at bigger shops, especially in shopping malls. .In smaller towns and villages you normally find one or two small shops or bakeries, which carry nearly everything, called "Greißler", although they are under threat from bigger shopping centers.^ Observe your enemies, for they first find out your faults Forgive your enemies, but never forget their names If you think you can win, you can win.
  • How did World war one start? - Q&A 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

^ Again, although the two Entente agreements were not militarily binding in any way, they did place a "moral obligation" upon the signatories to aid each other in time of war.
  • How did World war one start? - Q&A 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

^ Two sets of brothers by the same names, at one point they lived on the same street!
  • Stories, Trees & Photos 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.tccweb.org [Source type: General]

ATMs

ATMs in Austria are called Bankomat. They are wide-spread and you will find them even in smaller, rural villages. Many shops (and some restaurants too) offer the service to pay directly with an ATM card. The majority of ATMs accept cards from abroad. All Bankomats in Austria can easily identified by a sign showing a green stripe above a blue stripe. It doesn't matter which Bankomat you use; the transaction fee is always zero (excluding any fees charged by your own bank).

Bargaining

Bargaining is not common throughout Austria except at flea markets. It may be okay to ask for a discount, but accept a No as answer.

Eat

Austrian food is distinctive and delicious, and is traditionally of the stodgy, hearty "meat and dumplings" variety. Wiener Schnitzel (a bread-crumbed and fried veal escalope) is something of a national dish, and Knödel are a kind of dumpling which can be made either sweet or savory according to taste. In Vienna the Tafelspitz (boiled beef with potatoes and horseradish) is traditionally served on Sundays, and is normally accompanied by clear broth with dumplings and herbs. Apart from these, Austria is renowned for its pastries and desserts, the most well-known of which is probably the Apfelstrudel.
Bread is taken seriously in Austria. Almost every village has its own bakery, offering a large choice of freshly baked sweet and savoury rolls daily from 6AM. Rye bread (Vollkornbrot, Bauernbrot) is the traditional staple food among peasants. If this is too heavy for you, try the common white bread roll (Semmel). Somewhat surprisingly, it is easier to find good bread outside of Vienna, where the baking industry hasn't yet come to be dominated by industrial scale chain shops.
Some Austrians have a habit of eating sweet flour-based dishes (Mehlspeise) for a main course once a week. Varieties include Kaiserschmarren, Marillenknoedel, and Germknoedel.
The best advice is to dive into the menu and give it a go - there are no nasty surprises!

Restaurants

.If you want to try out traditional Austrian food go for a Gasthaus or Gasthof, which serve traditional food for reasonable prices.^ I don’t know All that I know is that I need to show What I want to do for you Before you go…!
  • das weblog von tschörda 1 October 2009 6:48 UTC www.backlab.at [Source type: General]

^ HELP ME IM TRYING TO FIND OUT HOW THAT WAR STARTED AND please immature people go 2 another site .
  • How did World war one start? - Q&A 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

Usually they offer menus (at lunch time) including a soup and a main dish and in some cases a dessert too. Prices are typically around €5 to €7 for this menu (except for very touristy areas). .Menus are written in German, though some of the restaurants have english menus as well.^ The war started because the Germans wanted some of Poland's land and the English heard this so they said "If you attack Poland we will attack you but the Germans decided to attack anyway and then the English attacked the Germans.
  • How did World war one start? - Q&A 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

Keep in mind that tipping is expected throughout all restaurants in Austria. Rounding up the price given on the bill is usually enough tip.

Paying

In Austrian restaurants you must ask to pay. Get the attention of your server and say: "zahlen, bitte" (to pay, please). They will then bring you the check, or tell you the amount of the bill verbally. .Then, the proper way to pay in Austria is to give your cash and say the amount you wish to pay, including tip.^ Germany only wanted to defend their alliance with Austria, Britain didnt have to say if you are going to attack serbia than we declare war.
  • what started world war one? - Q&A 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

^ I wish you are gonna say I feel great and happy to have an detention.
  • How did World war one start? - Q&A 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

To tip it is appropriate to round up, or to round up +50 cents or 1 euro of the cost for each person (should equal about 5-10% for a full meal). Servers are not dependent on tips, and it is not appropriate to tip a large amount. Saying "danke" (thank you) when paying means keep the change! .Alternatively, you can say the amount of the bill plus your tip and will only get change above that amount (for instance, if you pay with a €20 bill, the amount is €16.50 and you say "Siebzehn Euro" (seventeen euro), the server will give you €3 change and keep the €0.50 as tip).^ So won’t you please (be my) Be my little baby (my one and only) Say you’ll be my darling Be my baby now- O-O-O-O .
  • das weblog von tschörda 1 October 2009 6:48 UTC www.backlab.at [Source type: General]

^ So won’t you please (be my) Be my little baby (my one and only) Say you’ll be my darling Be my baby now.
  • das weblog von tschörda 1 October 2009 6:48 UTC www.backlab.at [Source type: General]

  • If you have the chance to try Kletzennudeln you should definitely do it. They are an exceptional Carinthian specialty you can very rarely get anywhere: sweet noodles filled with dried pears and soft cheese. The best Kletzennudeln are hand made with minced dried pears, rather than the lower quality versions which use pear powder.
  • Some salads are made with Kernöl (green pumpkin seed oil), a Styrian specialty. Even though it looks frightening (dark green or dark red, depending on lighting conditions) it has an interesting nutty taste. A bottle of good, pure Styrian Kernöl is very expensive (around €10-20), but maybe one of the most Austrian things to take home. (Beware of cheap Kernöl, sometimes sold as "Salatöl". Be sure to seal the bottle appropriately, the oil expands when slightly heated and leaves non removable stains. Just in case, sun light occasionally removes them, though.) Kernöl or pumpkin seed oil is also available in some online shops.
  • Manner Schnitten are a very Viennese sweet specialty, but just the square form factor and pink packaging are really unique. You can buy them everywhere. .(Maybe you've already seen these as a product placement in some Hollywood movies or for example in "Friends" and wondered what they are.^ August 2009 um 15:25 Have you seen some of my 360 degree photos at .
    • das weblog von tschörda 1 October 2009 6:48 UTC www.backlab.at [Source type: General]

    )
  • Powidl is a type of savoury prune jam with alcohol, another speciality from Vienna. It makes a good present as it tastes exotic and is hard to find anywhere else in the world.
  • Sachertorte is chocolate torte with chocolate icing and filled with apricot jam. It should be be served fresh with freshly beaten, lightly sweetened cream, which the Austrians call "Schlagobers". The original is available in Vienna in the Cafe Sacher [9], but similar cakes are very common in many other Viennese Cafes.

Vegetarians

Vegetarianism is slowly improving, especially in bigger cities. .Most restaurants don't cater for vegetarians specifically, but you're likely to find at least 3 meals on the menu containing no meat.^ Time went by and it seems to me, like no-one in the world could ever understand me Where to go I don’t know This burning flame that burns inside of me Everytime I see you Why?
  • das weblog von tschörda 1 October 2009 6:48 UTC www.backlab.at [Source type: General]

^ It seems to me like you’re to me Just a competitive girl Why?
  • das weblog von tschörda 1 October 2009 6:48 UTC www.backlab.at [Source type: General]

^ Now I’ve had the time of my life No I never felt like this before Yes I swear it’s the truth and I owe it all to you .
  • das weblog von tschörda 1 October 2009 6:48 UTC www.backlab.at [Source type: General]

Also ask the waiter to get a menu on the card without meat, in most cases they respect you and bring you a meat-free menu. As an alternative, there is normally at least one vegetarian restaurant in every bigger city. You get vegetarian and vegan products (e.g. tofu, soya, healthy-food or lactose-free products) in nearly all supermarkets across the country (in rual areas as well) and in many health-food shops.
In more traditional or rural restaurants, you will be viewed as highly eccentric if you say you are vegetarian, and it's likely that not a single meal on the menu is meat free. This is especially true for traditional Austrian cuisine which relies heavily on meat -- even apparent vegetable dishes such as potato salad or vegetable soup often contain meat products. .Sometimes, also food clearly labeled as "vegetarian" contains fish or pork, as some people consider the word "vegetarian" to only exclude a few types of meat.^ Although some people consider genealogy to be mostly a study of our dead ancestors, a very important aspect for me was the renewed association with living family members.
  • Stories, Trees & Photos 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.tccweb.org [Source type: General]

Some traditional meals that are guaranteed to be vegetarian are Kaiserschmarren (sweet pieces of fluffy pancake with fruit compote), Germknoedel (Dumpling with sour prune jam), and Kasnudel (similar to ravioli).

Drink

Vienna is famous for its café culture, and there are coffee houses all over the city, many of which have outdoor terraces that are popular in the summer. Visit them for coffee (of course), hot chocolate and pastries. Most famous is Sacher-Torte. .Most likely you will find the "top" coffee houses at the Ring, the Kärnter Strasse, Graben, and some other (maybe difficult to find) places in the first district (Innere Stadt).^ Most of us take for granted knowing our grandparents, but when I attempted to find names, places, and other information on my mother's grandparents, I found that even the names of these ancestors were unknown.
  • Stories, Trees & Photos 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.tccweb.org [Source type: General]

^ My forefathers come to live in Novi Sad in 1840, just like and most other Rusyns from the area from today's Eastern Slovakia.
  • Stories, Trees & Photos 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.tccweb.org [Source type: General]

There are also very nice old coffee houses a little outside of the Ring at the districts within the Gürtel. .Please never just order "coffee" as you find dozens of different sorts from Kleiner Schwarzer (small black coffee) and Großer Brauner (big coffee with cream), Melange (coffee with milk) to specialties like Kapuziner (small black coffee and a drip of cream) and Kaisermelange (coffee, milk, egg yolk and cognac) on the menu and the Viennese Ober (the "senior" waiter) takes pride in this variety.^ It seems to me like you’re to me Just a competitive girl Why?
  • das weblog von tschörda 1 October 2009 6:48 UTC www.backlab.at [Source type: General]

^ Observe your enemies, for they first find out your faults Forgive your enemies, but never forget their names If you think you can win, you can win.
  • How did World war one start? - Q&A 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

^ I would just like to ask why the f*** some of you people are even on this site?!?!?!?
  • How did World war one start? - Q&A 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

Austria has also some first class wines, mostly whites, slightly on the acid side. Wine can be drunk pure or mixed with mineral water, called "G'spritzter" or "Spritzer". The best place to do so is at the "Heurigen" in the suburban areas of Vienna. .Originally the "Heurigen" was open only in summer, but more recently you can have your "Spritzer" throughout the year with a little self-served snack.^ Until a few years ago, I knew little else about them or their origins.
  • Stories, Trees & Photos 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.tccweb.org [Source type: General]

Austria has also a national soft drink called Almdudler. It is lemonade with herbs. Other typical Austrian soft drinks are Holler or Hollundersaft. It's a soft drink made of elderberry blossoms.
Like in most of central Europe, a large number of high quality lager beers are brewed in Austria. Every region and bigger city has its own brand of beer. Stiegl is easy to find and is usually considered to be excellent, especially on American palates. .Other popular brands are Gösser and Ottakringer, and there are many regional brews the locals will take pride in.^ Hitler and all of Germany tried to take over europe....world war one started when Archduke Frances Ferdinand was assassinated, but there were many other reasons and it's very complicated, alot more so that world war two.
  • what started world war one? - Q&A 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

^ There were many alliances between countries so even when a tiny event happened countries would back each other up a fights would start.
  • what started world war one? - Q&A 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

Schnaps is a type of fruit brandy served in many parts of Austria, usually after a meal. The most popular flavours are pear, apricot, and raspberry, though dozens of other flavours are available. There are three quality tiers of Schnaps: distilled, infused, and flavoured. The distilled variety is the highest quality; several brands of Austrian fruit Schnaps rank among the best in the world, but are accordingly expensive: a half-Liter bottle can cost up to €100. "Real" Schnaps is made from real fruit (either distilled or infused). Beware of the cheap stuff sold in large bottles in supermarkets; this is often of the "flavoured" type - nothing more than pure ethanol mixed with artificial flavouring. .If you want the real thing, go to a deli or upscale bar (if you're in a bigger city) or a Buschenschank (Farmhouse) (if you're in the countryside).^ I don’t know All that I know is that I need to show What I want to do for you Before you go…!
  • das weblog von tschörda 1 October 2009 6:48 UTC www.backlab.at [Source type: General]

^ You’re the one thing I can’t get enough of So I’ll tell you something This could be love because .
  • das weblog von tschörda 1 October 2009 6:48 UTC www.backlab.at [Source type: General]

However, be careful with Schnaps especially if you are not used to alcoholic drinks!

Sleep

.Although hotels can usually even be found in smaller cities they are quite expensive (even more so in bigger cities) cheaper possibilities in big cities are youth hostels and in smaller towns you can often find families renting flats in bed and breakfast style (look for Pension or Zimmer Frei signs) for €15-25. In the countryside many farmers will rent out rooms for a couple of nights, both officially and unofficially.^ Researching these people I found that family memories varied...although many of the miscommunications came from the immigrants themselves who were uneducated, scared of retribution if they expressed their true nationality, and just plain secretive.
  • Stories, Trees & Photos 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.tccweb.org [Source type: General]

^ We are trying to find them once again so they can tell us what has happened in their lives since the family left Ujak.
  • Stories, Trees & Photos 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.tccweb.org [Source type: General]

^ Observe your enemies, for they first find out your faults Forgive your enemies, but never forget their names If you think you can win, you can win.
  • How did World war one start? - Q&A 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

.To find a place to stay, simply knock on the door of a farmhouse and ask - if they don't have a room they'll probably know someone nearby who does.^ The past cannot be changed, the future is still in your power Don't let today's disappointments cast a shadow on tomorrow's dreams Somewhere there's someone who dreams of your smile, and finds in your presence that life is worth while.
  • How did World war one start? - Q&A 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

^ With my body and soul I want you more than you’ll ever know So we’ll just let it go Don’t be afraid to lose control Yes I know what’s on your mind When you say “Stay with me tonight.” Just remember .
  • das weblog von tschörda 1 October 2009 6:48 UTC www.backlab.at [Source type: General]

^ We don't know how he met his wife Anna Triscs or when they married.
  • Stories, Trees & Photos 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.tccweb.org [Source type: General]

.You can also find a lot of camping grounds (some of them are open the whole year round) but while they are exceptionally clean and often provide additional services, they are also a bit more expensive than in other countries in Central Europe.^ I found out that there had been no real contact (other than letters years before) between the family members in America and those in Europe, since 1919.
  • Stories, Trees & Photos 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.tccweb.org [Source type: General]

^ The only identifying information I had other than his parents’ names, was that Michael stated he was 20 years of age on his marriage application.
  • Stories, Trees & Photos 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.tccweb.org [Source type: General]

Austrian law requires anyone to register at their resident address, even if it's only for one night and even if it's a campsite. .Hotels will therefore ask you to hand over your passport or driving license and may refuse to give you accommodation if you don't have any ID on you.^ You don’t always have to fuck her hard, In fact sometimes that’s not right to do, Sometimes you got to make some love, And fuckin’ give her some smoochies too.
  • das weblog von tschörda 1 October 2009 6:48 UTC www.backlab.at [Source type: General]

Don't worry too much about handing over your passport. .In many countries such a practice would raise concern but in Austria it's a standard procedure.^ There were many alliances between countries so even when a tiny event happened countries would back each other up a fights would start.
  • what started world war one? - Q&A 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

^ And there are many countries that we can easily blame and say that they started it but that would be wrong.
  • what started world war one? - Q&A 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

^ Austria would have never attacked Serbia (especially if Archduke Ferdinand wasn't so stupid as to go into a country where he was hated) Russia would have never attacked Austria.
  • what started world war one? - Q&A 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

Your passport will be returned. .If you stay in private accommodation for longer than about two weeks, you should obtain a document of registration (Meldezettel) from the local registration authority (Bezirksamt or Meldeamt), usually located in the town hall.^ People on this site should respect other members, if you want to learn stay, if you don't, don't post!
  • How did World war one start? - Q&A 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

^ We were invited to stay for a month or more, but with limited vacation, and four little ones at home, the longest we thought was prudent was two weeks.
  • Stories, Trees & Photos 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.tccweb.org [Source type: General]

^ Suffice it to say that my only regrets about Slovakia were that we could only stay two weeks and that my mother and the other oldsters did not feel well enough to share in the experience.
  • Stories, Trees & Photos 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.tccweb.org [Source type: General]

This document needs to be signed by the owner or tenant of your accommodation. .Failure to present this document upon departure could cause difficulties if you have stayed in the country for more than two or three months.^ With my body and soul I want you more than you’ll ever know So we’ll just let it go Don’t be afraid to lose control Yes I know what’s on your mind When you say “Stay with me tonight.” Just remember .
  • das weblog von tschörda 1 October 2009 6:48 UTC www.backlab.at [Source type: General]

^ We were invited to stay for a month or more, but with limited vacation, and four little ones at home, the longest we thought was prudent was two weeks.
  • Stories, Trees & Photos 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.tccweb.org [Source type: General]

^ Ok, there were 4 MAIN reasons: Militarism Alliances Imperialism Nationalism Each European country wanted power, more power than the other.
  • How did World war one start? - Q&A 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

Learn

Austria has a diverse school and university system which can be quite confusing especially when you come from abroad. There is a four-year compulsory elementary school for everyone. In general, compulsory school attendance is 9 years. After elementary school you can decide between attending secondary school for four years or grammar school for eight years. However, after four years in secondary school or four years in grammar school, you can switch to a vocational school which typically focuses on technical or economic professions. .Vocational schools are usually attended for five years (giving you a general qualification for university entrance diploma) or three years (providing you with a master craftsman's diploma for a certain profession).^ For every kiss you give me- I’ll give you three.
  • das weblog von tschörda 1 October 2009 6:48 UTC www.backlab.at [Source type: General]

A university entrance diploma grants access to all subjects which are offered at university. There are no further restrictions (e.g. like a grade point average in certain subjects at school), however, some studies have a test at the beginning (for instance Medicine).
.As in many European countries, Austria's traditional system of academic degrees is two-tiered, with a Diplom/Magister stage (after 4--6 years of study) followed by the doctorate.^ The following year, in May 1915, she finally joined the conflict by siding with the Allies against her two former allies.
  • How did World war one start? - Q&A 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

^ This is derived from the reality that many of the European monarchies - many of which fell during the war (including those of Russia, Germany and Austria-Hungary) - were inter-related.
  • How did World war one start? - Q&A 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

.However, most of Austria's universities have been moving to a three-tiered degree system in the past few years, with a bachelor's degree (3 years) followed by a master's degree (an additional 2 years) and finally the doctorate.^ The following year, in May 1915, she finally joined the conflict by siding with the Allies against her two former allies.
  • How did World war one start? - Q&A 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

^ This however only lasted until Russia's withdrawal five years later in 1878, leaving Bismarck with a new Dual Alliance with Austria-Hungary in 1879.
  • How did World war one start? - Q&A 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

.Studying in Austria is subject to fees (about €726 per year or €363 per semester for EU nationals, twice as much for others, although citizens of some developing countries are exempt).^ Although I did get some insights on our relatives who lived in the United States, I was disappointed there was no detail to link us to the old country.
  • Stories, Trees & Photos 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.tccweb.org [Source type: General]

^ He was born in Austria and had lived in Adrian for about 43 years.
  • Stories, Trees & Photos 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.tccweb.org [Source type: General]

^ Although some people consider genealogy to be mostly a study of our dead ancestors, a very important aspect for me was the renewed association with living family members.
  • Stories, Trees & Photos 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.tccweb.org [Source type: General]

Due to recent changes in laws (mid 2008) this fees are expected to be abolished for citizens of the European Union, and halved for other foreigners.
Austria has many great universities, the majority of which are located in Vienna, Graz, and Innsbruck. A relatively recent development in tertiary education are the Fachhochschulen (Universities of Applied Sciences), vocational colleges that typically focus on engineering and business education with less emphasis on research than traditional universities, but a stronger view toward practice.
.If you plan to study in Austria go here: [10] to see the requirements.^ You’ll see developers’ names painted on the road as you go.
  • das weblog von tschörda 1 October 2009 6:48 UTC www.backlab.at [Source type: General]

^ October 2006 um 10:13 i see what you mean.
  • das weblog von tschörda 1 October 2009 6:48 UTC www.backlab.at [Source type: General]

If you need advice, you can contact the national students union at [11].

Work

Good work is difficult to find for non-fluent German speakers. .If you speak no German at all the best option is probably looking for jobs advertised outside Austria.^ Now I’ve had the time of my life No I never felt like this before Yes I swear it’s the truth and I owe it all to you .
  • das weblog von tschörda 1 October 2009 6:48 UTC www.backlab.at [Source type: General]

^ CHORUS: I’ve had the time of my life No I never felt this way before Yes I swear it’s the truth And I owe it all to you .
  • das weblog von tschörda 1 October 2009 6:48 UTC www.backlab.at [Source type: General]

.Another possibility is giving private tuition in foreign languages, though you are unlikely to earn a full time income this way and it takes several months to build up a base of clients.^ This group of genealogists, who numbered over 5000 at that time, would ask questions of one another and give advice to those who requested it.
  • Stories, Trees & Photos 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.tccweb.org [Source type: General]

^ THANK YOU ERNEST. Amen to you answer, even though you just posted what was on another site...
  • How did World war one start? - Q&A 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

^ CHORUS: I’ve had the time of my life No I never felt this way before Yes I swear it’s the truth And I owe it all to you .
  • das weblog von tschörda 1 October 2009 6:48 UTC www.backlab.at [Source type: General]

There is plenty of unskilled work available in the tourism industry. As long as you have a work permit [12], finding a job can often be as easy as simply turning up at a hotel and asking. Seasonal work in large ski resorts is the most promising option.

Stay safe

Austria is one of the safest countries in the world. According to the OECD Factbook of 2006, levels of robbery, assault, and car crime are among the lowest in the developed world, and a study by Mercer ranks Vienna as the 6th safest city in the world out of 215 cities. Violent crimes are extremely rare and should not concern the average tourist. Small towns and uninhabited areas such as forests are very safe at any time of the day.
Beware of pickpockets in crowded places. Like everywhere in Europe they are becoming increasingly professional. Bicycle theft is rampant in bigger cities, but virtually absent in smaller towns. Always lock your bike to an immobile object.
Racism can also be a problem and make your stay an unpleasant experience. .Just like anywhere else in Central Europe, there might be instances of glaring, hostile looks, even questioning by the police in big cities like Graz or Vienna is not uncommon.^ It was like looking right at some of my relatives I had always known, just now a million miles away.
  • Stories, Trees & Photos 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.tccweb.org [Source type: General]

This might make the non-Caucasian audience unwelcome. However, Racism is almost never seen in a violent form. In more remote parts of Austria people of non-white origin are a rare sight. .If you see senior locals giving you strange looks here don't feel threatened.^ You don’t always have to fuck her hard, In fact sometimes that’s not right to do, Sometimes you got to make some love, And fuckin’ give her some smoochies too.
  • das weblog von tschörda 1 October 2009 6:48 UTC www.backlab.at [Source type: General]

^ We’re all sensitive people with so much to give Understand me sugar Since we got to be here , let’s live I love you .
  • das weblog von tschörda 1 October 2009 6:48 UTC www.backlab.at [Source type: General]

They are probably just showing curiosity or a distrust of foreigners and have no intention of doing any physical harm. A short conversation can often be enough to break the ice.
Do not walk on the bike lanes (especially in Vienna) and cross them like you would cross any other road. Some bike lanes are hard to recognize (e.g. on the "Ring" in Vienna) and some cyclists drive rather fast. Walking on bike lines is not only considered to be impolite, but it may also happen that you are hit by a cyclist.

Cope

Toilets

Public toilets must normally be paid for. Prices range between €0.20 and €1, which must either be handed to a toilet assistant or inserted into a slot. Public toilets can always be found in city centers (normally on the main square), in train stations, and near major tourist attractions. In Vienna it's probably a good idea to simply walk into the next McDonald's and use the washrooms there for free.

Laundry

Households without washing machines are almost unheard of in Austria. As a result, laundrettes are few and far between, and may be completely absent from smaller cities. However, most hotels, youth hostels, campsites and even B&Bs normally offer laundry facilities for a small charge.

Stay healthy

Austria has an excellent healthcare system by Western standards. Hospitals are modern, clean, and well-equipped. Healthcare in Austria is funded by the Krankenkassen (Sickness-funds), compulsory public insurance schemes that cover 99% of the population. Most hospitals are owned and operated by government bodies or the Krankenkassen. Private hospitals exist, but mainly for non-life-threatening conditions. Doctor's surgeries on the other hand are mostly private, but most accept patients from the Krankenkassen. Many Austrians choose to buy supplemental private health insurance. This allows them to see doctors that don't accept Krankenkassen and to stay in special hospital wards with fewer beds (which often receive preferential treatment).
If you are a traveller from the EU, you can get any form of urgent treatment for free (or a small token fee) that is covered by the Krankenkassen. Non-urgent treatment is not covered. Simply show your European Health Insurance Card and passport to the doctor or hospital. .When going to a GP, watch out if the street sign says "Alle Kassen" (all Krankenkassen accepted), or "Keine Kassen" (no Krankenkassen accepted), in which case your EHIC is not valid.^ March 2003 um 22:56 And it’s all your fault I screen my phonecalls, no matter matter matter who calls.
  • das weblog von tschörda 1 October 2009 6:48 UTC www.backlab.at [Source type: General]

.Supplemental travel insurance is recommended if you want to be able to see any doctor or go to the special ward.^ You’ll see developers’ names painted on the road as you go.
  • das weblog von tschörda 1 October 2009 6:48 UTC www.backlab.at [Source type: General]

^ I don’t know All that I know is that I need to show What I want to do for you Before you go…!
  • das weblog von tschörda 1 October 2009 6:48 UTC www.backlab.at [Source type: General]

.If you are a traveller from outside the EU, and have no travel insurance, you will need to pay the full cost of treatment up-front (with the exception of the emergency room).^ A.S.A.P. help on this huge project i have comming up, and i'mwhat you would call one of those dumb jocks, so please i need help!
  • what started world war one? - Q&A 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

Medical bills can be very expensive, though still reasonable when compared to the USA.
Austria has a dense network of helicopter ambulances that can reach any point in the country within 15 minutes. Beware: Mountain rescue by helicopter is not covered by your EHIC, or indeed most travel insurances. If you have a medical emergency while you are in the mountains (eg. break a leg while skiing), the helicopter will be called on you regardless of whether you ask for it or not, and you will be billed upwards of €1,000. Mountain sports insurace is therefore highly recommended; you can obtain this from your health insurer or by becoming a member of the Austrian Alpine Club. (€ 48,50 for one year of membership, automatic insurance for mountain search-and-rescue costs up to € 22.000)
Certain regions in Austria (Carinthia, Styria, Lower Austria) are affected by tick borne encephalitis. For those who plan doing outdoor activities in spring or summer a vaccine is strongly recommended. Also be aware that there is a small, endangered population of sand vipers in the south.
Tap water is of exceptional quality and safe to drink in Austria (except in some parts of lower Austria, where it is recommended to ask about the water quality first!). The quality of water in Vienna is supposedly comparable to that of Evian.
Nazi References
Mein Kampf and other symbols of Nazism, including material questioning the extent of National Socialist crimes or praising its actions, are forbidden in Austria, under section 3g of the NS-Prohibition Law. The penalty for any kind of neo-Nazism is a prison sentence of up to ten years, or a fine (the maximum is €21,600). Foreigners are not exempted from this law. This law also covers shouting Nazi paroles like "Sieg heil" and the performance of the Hitler salute.
Austrians (especially those over 40) take formalities and etiquette seriously. Even if you are the most uncharismatic person in the world, old-fashioned good manners (Gutes Benehmen) can take you a long way in a social situation. On the flip side, there are endless possibilities to put your foot in it and attract frowns for breaking an obscure rule.
In public many people can be impolite and pushy however. Many tourists perceive Austrians as unfriendly on the street and in shops, but in many cases this is directness and formality mistaken for unfriendliness. You may find for example that a shop assistant tells you off only to be extremely helpful a minute later. In Vienna a cafe isn't considered a real cafe without bad-tempered and arrogant waiters.
Perhaps surprisingly for a rather conservative nation, Austria's attitude towards nudity is one of the most relaxed in Europe. The display of full nudity in the mainstream media and advertising can be a shock for many visitors, especially those from outside Europe. It is not uncommon for women to bathe topless in beaches and recreational areas in summer. Though swimming costumes must normally be worn in public pools and beaches, when bathing "wild" in rivers and lakes is normally OK to take one's clothes off. Nudity is compulsory in Austria's many nude beaches (FKK Strand), health spas and hotel saunas.
Some basic etiquette (Of course most of this doesn't really matter when you are in a younger crowd)
  • When entering and leaving public places Austrians always say hello (Guten Tag or Grüß Gott) and goodbye (Auf Wiedersehen). .When entering a small shop, one should say "Grüß Gott" to the shop keeper when entering and "Wiedersehen" when leaving (the "Auf" is normally left off).^ Every one who put in dumb answers should get off the website now.
    • How did World war one start? - Q&A 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

    Phone calls are usually answered by telling your name, and finished with Auf Wiederhören.
  • Don't raise your voice or shout in public, especially on public transportation. It might be interpreted as aggression. .If you are speaking a language other than German, it becomes all the more important to speak quietly in order to not be a "loud foreigner".
  • When being introduced to someone, always shake them by the hand, keep the other hand out of your pocket, say your name and make eye contact.^ The only identifying information I had other than his parents’ names, was that Michael stated he was 20 years of age on his marriage application.
    • Stories, Trees & Photos 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.tccweb.org [Source type: General]

    ^ So let’s get it on In the morning noon and night time Get it on, love somebody good yeah yeah You know you got to come on out and get it on Keep gettin it on Let’s get it on Keep gettin it on Keep gettin it on Let’s get it on Keep gettin it on Keep gettin it on Let’s get it on .
    • das weblog von tschörda 1 October 2009 6:48 UTC www.backlab.at [Source type: General]

    ^ With my body and soul I want you more than you’ll ever know So we’ll just let it go Don’t be afraid to lose control Yes I know what’s on your mind When you say “Stay with me tonight.” Just remember .
    • das weblog von tschörda 1 October 2009 6:48 UTC www.backlab.at [Source type: General]

    .Failure to make eye contact, even if out of shyness, is considered condescending.
  • When drinking alcohol you don't drink until you have toasted ("anstoßen").^ You don’t always have to fuck her hard, In fact sometimes that’s not right to do, Sometimes you got to make some love, And fuckin’ give her some smoochies too.
    • das weblog von tschörda 1 October 2009 6:48 UTC www.backlab.at [Source type: General]

    ^ According to the “Which Big Lebowski character are you?” quiz: Why don’t you check it out?
    • das weblog von tschörda 1 October 2009 6:48 UTC www.backlab.at [Source type: General]

    ^ June 2005 um 13:12 According to the “Which Big Lebowski character are you?” quiz: Why don’t you check it out?
    • das weblog von tschörda 1 October 2009 6:48 UTC www.backlab.at [Source type: General]

    Say "prost" or "cheers" and most importantly make eye contact when toasting.
  • In restaurants, it is considered rude to start smoking while someone on the table is still eating. .Wait until everybody has finished, or ask if it is okay with everyone.
  • If you have drunk all your wine and want more it's okay to pour some more into your glass, but only after you've kindly asked everyone around you at the table if they need any more.
  • If you really want to show your manners while eating, let your unused hand rest on the table next to your plate and use it occasionally to hold your plate while eating, if necessary.^ I don’t know All that I know is that I need to show What I want to do for you Before you go…!
    • das weblog von tschörda 1 October 2009 6:48 UTC www.backlab.at [Source type: General]

    ^ I wish I would’ve met you now it’s a little late what you could’ve taught me I could’ve saved some face they think that your early ending was all wrong for the most part they’re right but look how they all got strong that’s why I say hey man, nice shot what a good shot man .
    • das weblog von tschörda 1 October 2009 6:48 UTC www.backlab.at [Source type: General]

    ^ CHORUS: I’ve had the time of my life No I never felt this way before Yes I swear it’s the truth And I owe it all to you .
    • das weblog von tschörda 1 October 2009 6:48 UTC www.backlab.at [Source type: General]

    .Austrians use generally European table manners, that is, they hold the knife in the right hand and the fork in the left hand, eating with both utensils.^ They failed to think their decisions through, and as a result of this failure an entire generation of Europeans ceased to exist within four years.
    • what started world war one? - Q&A 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

    .It is polite to let your wrists or hands rest on the table, but not your elbows.
  • In most Austrian households it is customary to take off one's shoes.^ The ones that have posted disgusting answers, its obvious that you need to grow up, and get a serious education; otherwise youre going to stay losers for the rest of your life.
    • How did World war one start? - Q&A 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

    ^ The ones that have posted disgusting answers, its obvious that you need to grow up, and get a serious edjucation, otherwise your going to stay loosers for the rest of your life.
    • How did World war one start? - Q&A 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

    .This is a habit prevailing in most of Central Europe, maybe because of general cleanliness, but also because grit and slush from the pavements can cause havoc to a flat in winter.
  • Austrians (like other Central European nations) love their titles.^ My forefathers come to live in Novi Sad in 1840, just like and most other Rusyns from the area from today's Eastern Slovakia.
    • Stories, Trees & Photos 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.tccweb.org [Source type: General]

    ^ It caused a lot of conflict because the Germans didn't like the outcome, cos they were going to lose land and money.
    • How did World war one start? - Q&A 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

    ^ The first duty of love is to listen I tend to live in the past because most of my life is there Memory feeds imagination.
    • How did World war one start? - Q&A 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

    People who think of themselves as being respectable always expect to be addressed by their proper title, be it Prof., Dr., Mag. (Master's), Dipl.Ing. (Master's in Engineering), Ing. (Graduate Engineer) or even B.A. What sets Austrians aside is that if one holds more than one title, they are all listed! This is especially true for older people.

Contact

Calling Austria

International code is +43.
When calling Austria from abroad, if the number starts with the city code 0222, it's in Vienna. Drop all four of those digits and replace it with a 1, then dial the remaining digits of the phone number. 0222 was the former dialing prefix for Vienna. It should be replaced by 1 also for domestic calls to Vienna.
If the number doesn't start with 0222, simply drop the initial zero from the city code and dial the remaining digits.

Phones

Public phones are available in postal offices. Phone boxes are getting rare (and exchanged by boxes with internet access) since the use of cell phones got very popular over the last years. Phone boxes usually operate with prepaid cards which can be obtained from postal offices and kiosks (German:Trafik).
Phone numbers have an area code followed by the phone number itself. .Mobile phone numbers use the prefix 0650, 0660, 0664, 0676, 0699, 0680, 0681 or 0688. Toll-free numbers are denoted by 0800, service lines priced like local calls are setting off with 0810 whereas numbers starting with 0900, 0901, 0930 or 0931 are expensive service lines charging up to 3,63€ per minute.^ That set everyone off really really bad and everyone decided to call World War One.
  • what started world war one? - Q&A 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

^ In summary, the First World War ocurred for a number of reasons (listed above), but the trigger that set it all off was the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand.
  • what started world war one? - Q&A 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

To enjoy cheap international calls from Austria you can use low-cost dial-around services such as pennyphone [13], austriaphone [14] or fuchstarife [15]. Dial-around services are directly available from any landline in Austria. No contract, no registration is required. .Most dial-around services offer USA, Canada, Western Europe and many other countries at the price of a local call so you can save on your phone expenses easily.^ This scared many of the other European countries.
  • what started world war one? - Q&A 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

^ And there are many countries that we can easily blame and say that they started it but that would be wrong.
  • what started world war one? - Q&A 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

^ Remak The point of view that is most persuasive is Remak'sbecause the blame cannot be blamed on one country because there are many causes of the war that have been brought up by many different countries.
  • what started world war one? - Q&A 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

They also work from public payphones.

Cell phones

Austria has a perfect GSM and 3G (UMTS) network coverage of nearly 100%. If you bring your own cell phone with you assure yourself that it operates on 900MHz / 1800MHz (GSM) or 2100Mhz (3G WCDMA). There are cell phones that operate at 1900MHz (e.g. networks in the .United States) which are not supported in Austria.^ Blank cheque from Germany to Austria-Hungary stating that germany supported Austria-hungary.
  • what started world war one? - Q&A 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

.If you plan a longer visit in Austria it might be useful to buy a new mobile with a prepaid card from a local cell phone network provider.^ Austria used the power against Serbia in July the, which made Russia mobilise which forced Germany to mobilise and put the Schlieffen plan into action.
  • what started world war one? - Q&A 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

Be aware that some remote areas (especially mountainous areas) do not have network coverage yet, though this rather the exception than the rule. Even the Vienna underground lines do have perfect coverage.
.Despite being a rather small country, Austria has a large number of cell network providers including A1, T-Mobile, Orange (former called One) , Drei (3G), Telering, Tele2, Bob and Yesss.^ It was mostly one thing leading to another, Austria's prince Franz and his wife were assassinated in Serbia by a radical group called the Black Hand.
  • what started world war one? - Q&A 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

^ Austria n Russia both wanted a small country called Serbia i think so den Russia n France signed a France Russian Alliance.
  • what started world war one? - Q&A 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

^ Then the countries that were friends with Austria/Hungary started fighting serbia and all the countries started defending one another.
  • what started world war one? - Q&A 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

The probably cheapest prepaid mobile providers right now are Bob [16] and Yesss [17]. A prepaid card costs €13 including 60 minutes talking time. .Then you pay 6.8 cent per minute to all Austrian networks (as of June 2008) and 70 cents to the most important other countries.^ June 2008 um 15:53 isst alles – sollte gesagt werden .
  • das weblog von tschörda 1 October 2009 6:48 UTC www.backlab.at [Source type: General]

^ Germany assasinated dat austrian guy so the austrians went 2 war and all da uver countries joined dem.
  • what started world war one? - Q&A 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

The Yesss SIM card is only available at the discounter Hofer [18]. Yesss also sells cheap UMTS data cards (that are different from the normal SIM cards). The starter kit includes 1GB traffic and is available for 20 Euro. In order to prevent the SIM card from expiring, you need to recharge it once per year.
If you have an Austrian bank account, you can purchase a registered (non-prepaid) Bob SIM card. Calls then only cost 4 cent per minute to all other Austrian networks. There is no basic fee and no minimum charge.
The new provider eety [19] has a prepaid SIM card with very cheap international rates (13 cents to Germany, 9 Cent for Short Messages (SMS) worldwide). Online available at www.eety.eu and also sold in a few stores in major towns.
.You may often purchase a prepaid SIM card for Austria before you depart from an online vendor [20] which can be convenient as you get instructions in English and your cell phone number before you depart.^ A positive card, it promises you your day in the sun.
  • das weblog von tschörda 1 October 2009 6:48 UTC www.backlab.at [Source type: General]

Internet

Internet cafes are common in bigger cities. .Hotels in cities do normally have internet terminals, more expensive hotels provide internet access in the rooms itself.^ Additionally, should any signatory find itself at war with two powers (or more), the other two were to provide military assistance.
  • How did World war one start? - Q&A 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

There are many free WLAN/WiFi Hotspots, every MC Donald's has free Wlan (unlimited Time and Traffic) and for example on the Mariahilferstrasse in Vienna you can (legal) use almost every Network with the Password "Freibier".
Mobile broadband providers in Austria are some of the cheapest and fastest in Europe. .If you have a laptop and plan to hang around for longer it might be worth buying a pay-as-you-go mobile internet USB modem.^ So Nicholas had to go back and rethink his plan which was a general mobilization, nonetheless this caused an even bigger crisis.
  • How did World war one start? - Q&A 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

^ GO LOOK ON INTERNET OF HOW WORLD WAR 1 STARTED OR LOOK IN A BOOK OR ASK URE TEACHER TO TELL U HOW WORLD WAR 1 STARTED OR EVEN BUY A BOOK OF WORLD WAR 1.......
  • what started world war one? - Q&A 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

For example, Bob [21] offers a USB modem for €55 which includes 1GB of data transfer and can be topped up if required. .These USB modems are sold freely in Austria and no contract, registration or proof of residency is required for the pay-as-you-go product.^ Germany only wanted to defend their alliance with Austria, Britain didnt have to say if you are going to attack serbia than we declare war.
  • what started world war one? - Q&A 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

This article is an outline and needs more content. It has a template, but there is not enough information present. Please plunge forward and help it grow!

1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

AUSTRIA. (Ger. .Osterreich), a country of central Europe, bounded E. by Russia and Rumania, S. by Hungary, the Adriatic Sea and Italy, W. by Switzerland, Liechtenstein and the German empire (Bavaria), and N. by the German empire (Saxony and Prussia) and Russia.^ The central powers were Germany, Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, and Ottoman Empire.
  • How did World war one start? - Q&A 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

^ The central powers were Germany, Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, and Ottoman empire.
  • How did World war one start? - Q&A 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

^ France, bound by treaty to Russia, responded by announcing war against Germany and, by extension, on Austria-Hungary on 3 August.
  • How did World war one start? - Q&A 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

It has an area of 115,533 sq. m., or about twice the size of England and Wales together. .Austria is one of the states which constitute the Austro-Hungarian (Habsburg) monarchy (see Austria-Hungary: History), and is also called Cisleithania, from the fact that it contains the portion of that monarchy which lies to the west of the river Leitha.^ This caused Austria-Hungary to call on Germany as an ally and discuss how far Germany would support them.
  • what started world war one? - Q&A 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

^ Blank cheque from Germany to Austria-Hungary stating that germany supported Austria-hungary.
  • what started world war one? - Q&A 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

^ WW1 was the assasination of archduke franz ferdinad by a rouge group in ugoslavia called the black hand they want freedom for ugoslavia from austria/Hungary.
  • what started world war one? - Q&A 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

Austria does not form a geographical unity, and the constituent parts of this empire belong to different geographical regions. Thus, Tirol, Styria and Carinthia belong, like Switzerland, to the system of the Alps, but these provinces together with those lying in the basin of the Danube form, nevertheless, a compact stretch of country. On the other hand Galicia, extending on the eastern side of the Carpathians, belongs to the great plain of Russia; Bohemia stretches far into the body of Germany; while Dalmatia, which is quite separated from the other provinces, belongs to the Balkan Peninsula.
Table of contents

Coasts

.Austria has amongst all the great European countries the most continental character, in so far as its frontiers are mostly land-frontiers, only about one-tenth of them being coast-land.^ Since finding the first cousin in Pennsylvania I have now found cousins from all brothers and sisters of my grandfather, with the exception of one great-aunt.
  • Stories, Trees & Photos 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.tccweb.org [Source type: General]

The Adriatic coast, which stretches for a distance of about moo m., is greatly indented. The Gulf of Trieste on the west, and the Gulf of Fiume or Quarnero on the east, include between them the peninsula of Istria, which has many sheltered bays. In the Gulf of Quarnero are the Quarnero islands, of which the most important are Cherso, Veglia and Lussin. The coast west of the mouth of the Isonzo is fringed by lagoons, and has the same character as the Venetian coast, while the Gulf of Trieste and the Istrian peninsula have a steep coast with many bays and safe harbours. The principal ports are Trieste, Capodistria, Pirano, Parenzo, Rovigno and Pola, the great naval harbour and arsenal of Austria. .The coast of Dalmatia also possesses many safe bays, the principal being those of Zara, Cattaro and Ragusa, but in some places it is very steep and inaccessible.^ Gavrilo Princip of Germany.after that war started all over the world in Italy, Germany, U.S.A, Britan,and Japan and in many other places.
  • How did World war one start? - Q&A 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

On the other hand a string of islands extends along this coast, which offer many safe and easily accessible places of anchorage to ships during the fierce winter gales which rage in the Adriatic. The principal are Pago, Pasman, Isola Lunga and Isola Incoronata, Brazza, Lesina, Curzola and Meleda.
.The political divisions of Austria correspond, for the most part, so closely to natural physical divisions that the detailed account of the physical features, natural resources and the movement of the population has been given under those separate headings.^ Not the most detailed account i know but anyway.
  • How did World war one start? - Q&A 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

In this general article the geography of Austria - physical, economical and political - has been treated in its broad aspects, and those points insisted upon which give an adequate idea of the country as a whole.

Mountains

Austria is the most mountainous country of Europe after Switzerland, and about four-fifths of its entire area is more than 600 ft. above the level of the sea. The mountains of Austria belong to three different mountain systems, namely, the Alps, the Carpathians, and the Bohemian-Moravian Mountains. .The Danube, which is the principal river of Austria, divides the Alpine region, which occupies the whole country lying at its south, from the Bohemian-Moravian Mountains and their offshoots lying at its north; while the valleys of the March and the Oder separate the last-named mountains from the Carpathians.^ They are a Slavic ethic group that lives along the Carpathian Mountain Range, and although they never had a